WorldWideScience

Sample records for 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel

  1. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  2. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  3. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Cuzens; Necitas Sumait

    2012-09-13

    BlueFire Ethanol, Inc., a U.S. based corporation with offices in Irvine, California developed a cellulosic biorefinery to convert approximately 700 dry metric tons per day in to 18.9 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol. The Project is proposed to be located in the city of Fulton, County of Itawamba, Mississippi.

  5. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  6. Assessment of synfuel transportation to year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamiya, W.; Sebelien, K.B.; Parkhurst, M.A.

    1979-03-01

    This report identifies and discusses potential problems in the transportation of synthetic fuels (synfuels) which if allowed to persist unresolved will hamper the development of these energy materials between now and the year 2000. The emergence of transportation-related problems in shale oil and coal synfuel development will be highly dependent upon their chemical similitude with analagous fossil fuels. Hence, definitive resolution of the question of whether new transportation problems exist is dependent upon clear characterization of the synfuels chemical composition. Hydrogen and methanol represent unique cases since these materials are already in commercial production. The major transportation problem identified with fuel economics based on these materials is related to bulk use. To date, shipment volumes have been relatively small and, in the case of hydrogen, can be accommodated with costly, more specialized packaging. Scale-up for major energy use may introduce a new set of transportation problems.

  7. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Proceedings of Brookhaven National Laboratory's fusion/synfuel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion synfuels workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on August 27-29, 1979 examined the current status of candidate synfuel processes and the R and D required to develop the capability for fusion synfuel production. Participants divided into five working groups, covering the following areas: (1) economics and applications; (2) high-temperature electrolysis; (3) thermochemical processes (including hybrid thermo-electrochemical); (4) blanket and materials; and (5) high-efficiency power cycles. Each working group presented a summary of their conclusions and recommendations to all participants during the third day of the Workshop. These summaries are given

  10. Utilisation of coal and natural gas for the production of synfuels and chemicals in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.H.; Marriott, J.N.; Stones, J.D.A. (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs, Lynwood Ridge (South Africa). Energy Branch)

    1992-01-01

    Initially, the paper discusses coal, natural gas, condensate and crude-oil resources in South Africa. Aspects of the utilisation of coal for synfuels and chemicals manufacture discussed include: background; strategic and economic considerations; and technological developments. Aspects of the utilisation of natural gas and condensate for synfuels manufacture discussed include: continuation of synfuels programme in the eighties; financing principles and economic viability. Other aspects of synfuels manufacture in general covered are: macro-economics of the synfuels programme; chemicals production from coal; environmental considerations and future prospects. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  12. Proceedings of Brookhaven National Laboratory's fusion/synfuel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The fusion synfuels workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on August 27-29, 1979 examined the current status of candidate synfuel processes and the R and D required to develop the capability for fusion synfuel production. Participants divided into five working groups, covering the following areas: (1) economics and applications; (2) high-temperature electrolysis; (3) thermochemical processes (including hybrid thermo-electrochemical); (4) blanket and materials; and (5) high-efficiency power cycles. Each working group presented a summary of their conclusions and recommendations to all participants during the third day of the Workshop. These summaries are given.

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen

  15. Proceedings of the opportunities in the synfuels industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World interest in coal-based synthetic fuels technology is like a roller coaster ride. Interest soars when energy prices are high or world oil supplies are threatened. When energy is inexpensive and oil is plentiful, interest plummets. However, some people remain undaunted by the ups and downs of the synfuels industry. They cling tenaciously to the idea that coal-based synthetic fuels are the world's energy future. They are the select group attending the SynOps '92 symposium in Bismarck, North Dakota. SynOps '92 participants represent an extraordinary combination of visionaries and practical thinkers. They believe the ''coal refinery'' concept will eventually provide the most efficient and productive use of our coal resources. They know that coal is a valuable resource which can be used to produce a huge variety of valuable nonfuel products. They also recognize that until technology can make alternative fuels economically feasible, the world will continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels--especially coal, the world's most abundant energy resource. Individual papers have been entered

  16. Proceedings of the opportunities in the synfuels industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    World interest in coal-based synthetic fuels technology is like a roller coaster ride. Interest soars when energy prices are high or world oil supplies are threatened. When energy is inexpensive and oil is plentiful, interest plummets. However, some people remain undaunted by the ups and downs of the synfuels industry. They cling tenaciously to the idea that coal-based synthetic fuels are the world`s energy future. They are the select group attending the SynOps `92 symposium in Bismarck, North Dakota. SynOps `92 participants represent an extraordinary combination of visionaries and practical thinkers. They believe the ``coal refinery`` concept will eventually provide the most efficient and productive use of our coal resources. They know that coal is a valuable resource which can be used to produce a huge variety of valuable nonfuel products. They also recognize that until technology can make alternative fuels economically feasible, the world will continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels--especially coal, the world`s most abundant energy resource. Individual papers have been entered.

  17. Synfuel program analysis. Volume I. Procedures-capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muddiman, J. B.; Whelan, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    This is the first of the two volumes describing the analytic procedures and resulting capabilities developed by Resource Applications (RA) for examining the economic viability, public costs, and national benefits of alternative synfuel projects and integrated programs. This volume is intended for Department of Energy (DOE) and Synthetic Fuel Corporation (SFC) program management personnel and includes a general description of the costing, venture, and portfolio models with enough detail for the reader to be able to specifiy cases and interpret outputs. It also contains an explicit description (with examples) of the types of results which can be obtained when applied to: the analysis of individual projects; the analysis of input uncertainty, i.e., risk; and the analysis of portfolios of such projects, including varying technology mixes and buildup schedules. In all cases, the objective is to obtain, on the one hand, comparative measures of private investment requirements and expected returns (under differing public policies) as they affect the private decision to proceed, and, on the other, public costs and national benefits as they affect public decisions to participate (in what form, in what areas, and to what extent).

  18. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H2SO4-H2O system

  19. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W. (ed.)

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  20. The gas-cooled Li2O moderator/breeder canister blanket for fusion-synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new integrated power and breeding blanket is described. The blanket incorporates features that make it suitable for synthetic fuel production. It is matched to the thermal and electrical requirements of the General Atomic water-splitting process for producing hydrogen. The fusion reaction is the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) using Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) physics. The canister blanket is a high temperature, pressure balanced, crossflow heat exchanger contained within a low activity, independently cooled, moderate temperature, first wall structural envelope. The canister uses Li2O as the moderator/breeder and helium as the coolant. ''In situ'' tritium control, combined with slip stream processing and self-healing permeation barriers, assures a hydrogen product essentially free of tritium. The blanket is particularly adapted to synfuels production but is equally useful for electricity production or co-generation

  1. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of hydraulically disposed fine coal ash from SASOL Synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabulani S. Mahlaba; Elsabe P. Kearsley; Richard A. Kruger [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Civil Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Coal serves as the primary energy source in most parts of the world. It is a fact that coal combustion yields enormous quantities of fly ash some of which are either hydraulically placed or dry dumped. The current study attempts to provide a comprehensive characterisation of a disused alkaline fine coal ash dam (FCAD) towards assessing environmental impact, rehabilitation and utilisation potential. Fine coal ash refers to a combination of approximately 83% power station fly ash and 17% gasification and bottom ash fines (particles {lt}250 {mu}m) at SASOL Synfuels. The hydration products found in Weathered Fine Coal Ash (WFCA) using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are analcime, calcite, C-S-H gel, ettringite, hydrated gehlenite (Strtlingite), magnetite, periclase, pyrrhotite and sillimanite. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results provide additional proof that hydration products are present in WFCA. No indication of appreciable leaching was given by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) results except calcium and silicon. Thus evidence exists that pollutants from saline brines are immobilised in WFCA and an insight of reaction kinetics was obtained. High content of amorphous phase and lack of alteration in some geotechnical properties suggest that WFCA can be reutilised with lime addition to increase alkalinity and activate pozzolanic reactions. 48 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  3. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  4. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  6. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  7. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  8. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Ethanol and neuronal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, P; Ledig, M; M'Paria, J R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on membrane enzymes (Na+, K+ and Mg2+ ATPases, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase) alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were studied in nerve cells (established cell lines, primary cultures of chick and rat brain) cultured in the presence of 100 mM ethanol, and in total rat brain, following various ethanol treatments of the rats (20% ethanol as the sole liquid source, intraperitoneal injection). The results show a difference between neuronal and glial cells. Most of the observed changes in enzymatic activities returned rapidly to control values when ethanol was withdrawn from the culture medium or from the diet. Alcohol dehydrogenase was more stimulated by ethanol than aldehyde dehydrogenase; therefore acetaldehyde may be accumulated. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity may allow an accumulation of cytotoxic O2- radicals in nervous tissue and may explain the polymorphism of lesions brought about by alcohol intoxication. PMID:6264495

  10. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  11. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  12. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  13. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  14. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  15. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  16. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  17. Operant Ethanol Self-Administration in Ethanol Dependent Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Howard C Becker

    2014-01-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependenc...

  18. Ethanol: economic gain or drain?

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua A. Byrge; Kevin L. Kliesen

    2008-01-01

    Corn-based ethanol can make a dent in demand for oil, but at what price? Food costs go up. Environmental damage worsens. If oil prices fall, ethanol production will probably collapse-as it did 20 years ago.

  19. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J. M.; Lee, C. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. From 175 K to 200 K, ethanol is converted into ethoxy groups, which und

  20. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  1. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  2. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called “dedicated bioenergy crops” including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy

  3. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuelei Yang; Dan Zhang; Kevin Boots

    2012-01-01

    The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One uniqu...

  4. Ethanol production by engineered thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel G; Sparling, Richard; Lynd, Lee R

    2015-06-01

    We compare a number of different strategies that have been pursued to engineer thermophilic microorganisms for increased ethanol production. Ethanol production from pyruvate can proceed via one of four pathways, which are named by the key pyruvate dissimilating enzyme: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). For each of these pathways except PFL, we see examples where ethanol production has been engineered with a yield of >90% of the theoretical maximum. In each of these cases, this engineering was achieved mainly by modulating expression of native genes. We have not found an example where a thermophilic ethanol production pathway has been transferred to a non-ethanol-producing organism to produce ethanol at high yield. A key reason for the lack of transferability of ethanol production pathways is the current lack of understanding of the enzymes involved. PMID:25745810

  5. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    -20% for transportation. At that time, the electric car/fuel cell car has probably had time enough to mature, and it has a much higher energy efficiency. Therefore, bio-ethanol is not the right intermediate (short term) technology, and it is not the right long term technology either......Throughout the world, nations are seeking ways to decrease CO2 emissions and to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, especially oil and gas deriving from so-called politically unstable regions. The efforts comprise the energy sector (heat and electricity) as well as the transport sector......, that biomass substitutes gas in the heat & power sector and gas substitute oil in the transport sector. By taking this path, we overall achieve almost twice as high a CO2 reduction and save almost twice as much oil, as if we want to substitute the oil via car engines through conversion to ethanol. We must...

  6. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  7. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One unique characteristic of this system is that it utilizes the waste heat rejected from a power plant to vaporize the ethanol, thus it saves a significant amount of energy and at the same time reduces the pollution to the environment.

  8. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  9. Simulated Ethanol Transportation Patterns and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Wyatt; Seth D. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production booms in the Midwest in 2007. Regulations require ethanol be included as a fuel additive in many areas as of 2006, though consumer willingness to adopt ethanol blends voluntarily is uncertain and benchmark ethanol and oil prices fluctuate. In this context, we jointly simulate consumer demand for ethanol and ethanol transportation costs. Results demonstrate a non-linear relationship between benchmark prices and transportation costs that depends critically on (1) the prevalen...

  10. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  11. THE FEASIBILITY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Steven L.; Anderson, David P.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Herbst, Brian K.; Richardson, James W.

    2003-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in ethanol production has also prompted interest in Texas. Projected net present values for ethanol plant investment are well below zero for corn based ethanol plants, but are positive for sorghum. Sensitivity analysis indicates relatively small increases in ethanol price are needed to make production viable.

  12. Ethanol production from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was designed for ethanol production using corn andother organic waste material containing starch contents andcellulosic material while barely used for diastase and acidicdigestion methods. The effect of temperature, yeast, barely diastaseand various dilutions of acid (sulfuric acids were investigated onethanol production. The result showed that corn yielded highamount of ethanol (445ml as compared to cellulosic material whichproduced 132ml of ethanol from one kg of weight. It was also notedthat with the increase of barely and yeast amount in a proper mannercan increase ethanol production from different starch sources. It wasalso noted that acid dilutions affected cellulose digestion where highyield of reducing sugar was noted at 0.75% of sulfuric acid dilution.It was concluded from the present experiment that economicalsources of starch and various dilutions of acids should be tried oncellulose digestion for bio-fuel production to withstand in thisenergy crisis time.

  13. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  14. Ethanol Production, Food and Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade de Sa, Saraly; Palmer, Charles; Engel, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and indirect impacts of ethanol production on land use, deforestation and food production. A partial equilibrium model of a national economy with two sectors and two regions, one of which includes a residual forest, is developed. It analyses how an exogenous increase in the ethanol price affects input allocation (land and labor) between sectors (energy crop and food). Three potential effects are identified. First, the standard and well-documented effect of d...

  15. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 2200C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw

  17. Deletion of N-type calcium channels alters ethanol reward and reduces ethanol consumption in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, P. M.; Orr, C J; Wallace, M J; Kim, C.; Shin, H. S.; Messing, R O

    2004-01-01

    N-type calcium channels are modulated by acute and chronic ethanol exposure in vitro at concentrations known to affect humans, but it is not known whether N-type channels are important for behavioral responses to ethanol in vivo. Here, we show that in mice lacking functional N-type calcium channels, voluntary ethanol consumption is reduced and place preference is developed only at a low dose of ethanol. The hypnotic effects of ethanol are also substantially diminished, whereas ethanol-induced...

  18. New microbe can make ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Researchers have created a bacterium that converts all of the sugars from inedible vegetable waste and other woody material into ethanol by inserting the genes of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis into Escherichia coli. The resulting bacterium converts 90% -95% of the main forms of sugar in biomass into 4% - 6% concentrations of ethanol. The goal is to reach a 7% to 8% concentration. Current ethanol production from corn in a yeast-fermentation process yields a 10% - 12% ethanol concentration, but the conversion rate is less efficient than with the new bacterium. Zymomonas, found in cactus plants and used by the Aztecs to make alcohol, was selected for its known conversion efficiency. Providing the engineering challenges can be overcome, there could be several pilot plants running in 3-5 years. Even though it is not currently profitable to make ethanol from vegetable waste, if the fact that this new process reduces the total material by 90% were taken into account, perhaps a landfill reduction credit based on current tipping fees would make the actual costs both more realistic and more attractive.

  19. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Norman E. Spear

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion...

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  1. Ethanol Metabolism and Osmolarity Modify Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Joseph T.; Davis, Scott J.; Song, Sam S.; Burnette, Christopher R.; Grotewiel, Mike; Shelton, Keith L.; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by a two-step process in which alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Although variation in ethanol metabolism in humans strongly influences the propensity to chronically abuse alcohol, few data exist on the behavioral effects of altered ethanol metabolism. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to directly examine how changes in ethanol metabolism alter behavioral responses to alcohol during an acute exposure. Additionally, we investigated ethanol solution osmolarity as a potential explanation for contrasting published data on C. elegans ethanol sensitivity. Methods We developed a gas chromatography assay and validated a spectrophotometric method to measure internal ethanol in ethanol-exposed worms. Further, we tested the effects of mutations in ADH and ALDH genes on ethanol tissue accumulation and behavioral sensitivity to the drug. Finally, we tested the effects of ethanol solution osmolarity on behavioral responses and tissue ethanol accumulation. Results Only a small amount of exogenously applied ethanol accumulated in the tissues of C. elegans and consequently their tissue concentrations were similar to those that intoxicate humans. Independent inactivation of an ADH-encoding gene (sodh-1) or an ALDH-encoding gene (alh-6 or alh-13) increased the ethanol concentration in worms and caused hypersensitivity to the acute sedative effects of ethanol on locomotion. We also found that the sensitivity to the depressive effects of ethanol on locomotion is strongly influenced by the osmolarity of the exogenous ethanol solution. Conclusions Our results indicate that ethanol metabolism via ADH and ALDH has a statistically discernable but surprisingly minor influence on ethanol sedation and internal ethanol accumulation in worms. In contrast, the osmolarity of the medium in which ethanol is delivered to the animals has a more substantial effect on

  2. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  4. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  5. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo;

    2015-01-01

    widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...... materials. Though the falling price of enzymes is improving economic production of ethanol, advancements in heterogeneous catalytic hydrolysis will considerably favour economic production of ethanol in Africa due to the potential of recycling and reusing solid acid catalysts....

  6. Neural Adaptation Leads to Cognitive Ethanol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Brooks G; Khurana, Sukant; Kuperman, Anna; Nigel S Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Physiological alcohol dependence is a key adaptation to chronic ethanol consumption that underlies withdrawal symptoms, is thought to directly contribute to alcohol addiction behaviors, and is associated with cognitive problems such as deficits in learning and memory [1–3]. Based on the idea that an ethanol-adapted (dependent) animal will perform better in a learning assay than an animal experiencing ethanol withdrawal will, we have used a learning paradigm to detect physiological ethanol dep...

  7. Characterization of Endogenous Ethanol in the Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I R; Contag, A O; Olson, R E

    1960-01-01

    Ethanol has been isolated from the tissues of several animal species in amounts ranging from 23 to 145 micromole/100 gm of tissue. Intestinal bacterial flora appear to be excluded as a source of this ethanol. Radioactivity from pyruvate-2-C(14) appeared in ethanol after incubation with liver slices; this finding indicates an endogenous synthesis.

  8. Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.

  9. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Pautassi; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  10. Ethanol Marketing and Input Procurement Practices of U.S. Ethanol Producers: 2008 Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidgall, Timothy J.; Tudor, Kerry W.; Spaulding, Aslihan D.; Winter, J. Randy

    2010-01-01

    A mail survey was used to collect information about input procurement and ethanol and co-product marketing practices from 60 U.S. ethanol production facilities. Data were used to answer questions about the conduct or behavior of ethanol producers. It was anticipated that firm conduct or behavior would be fairly homogeneous because the ethanol industry was in Stage II of the industry life-cycle, and societal support for ethanol production resulted in large volumes of publicly available informa...

  11. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ethanol....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ethanol....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/ethanol....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  12. The global atmospheric budget of ethanol revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. V. Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is an important biogenic volatile organic compound, which is increasingly used as a fuel for motor vehicles; therefore, an improved understanding of its atmospheric cycle is important. In this paper we use three sets of observational data, measured emissions of ethanol from living plants, measured concentrations of ethanol in the atmosphere and measured hydroxyl concentrations in the atmosphere (by methyl chloroform titration, to make two independent estimates related to the rate of cycling of ethanol through the atmosphere. In the first estimate, simple calculations give the emission rate of ethanol from living plants as 26 (range, 10–38 Tg yr−1. This contributes significantly to the total global ethanol source of 42 (range, 25–56 Tg yr−1. In the second estimate, the total losses of ethanol from the global atmosphere are 70 (range, 50–90 Tg yr−1, with about three-quarters of the ethanol removed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the gaseous and aqueous phases of the atmosphere, and the remainder lost through wet and dry deposition to land. These values of both the source of ethanol from living plants and the removal of atmospheric ethanol via oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (derived entirely from observations are significantly larger than those in recent literature. We suggest that a revision of the estimate of global ethanol emissions from plants to the atmosphere to a value comparable with this analysis is warranted.

  13. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5......% v/v, which is the concentration required in practice for economically efficient product recovery. For all ethanol concentrations tested, relatively high and stable ethanol yields (0.40 - 0.42 g/g) were seen. The strain demonstrated a remarkable, ethanol tolerance, which is the second highest...

  14. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  15. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  17. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF YEAST FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh Ghassem; Delbari Azam Sadat; Kulkarni D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The production of pure ethanol apparently begins in the 12-14th century. Improvements in the distillation process with the condensation of vapors of lower boiling liquids. Ethanol is produced commercially by chemical synthesis or biosynthesis. High ethanol producing yeast exhibits rapid metabolic activity and a high fermentation rate with high product output in less time.Yeasts were isolated from Corn, Curd, Grapes, Water 1, Water 2, and Paneer. Isolation was done on MGYP (Malt Extract Glucos...

  19. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  20. Catching a conserved mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lovely, Charles Ben; Eberhart, Johann Karl

    2014-01-01

    Due to its profound impact on human development, ethanol teratogenicity is a field of intense study. The complexity of variables that influence the outcomes of embryonic or prenatal ethanol exposure compels the use of animal models in which these variables can be isolated. Numerous model systems have been used in these studies. The zebrafish is a powerful model system, which has seen a recent increase in usage for ethanol studies. Those using zebrafish for alcohol studies often face two quest...

  1. Construction Cost Sensitivity of a Lignocellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, David P.; Philips, Andrew L.; Herndon, Cary W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The technology has been developed to convert feedstock with cellulose content into ethanol. However, ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstock is the same as ethanol distilled from grain. The objective of research is to determine the price per gallon of ethanol needed so that producing lignocellulosic based ethanol become economically feasible.

  2. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an exp...

  3. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  4. Changes in Chinese Standard for Ethanol Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Zhang Yongguang

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the tests on application of ethanol gasoline in 2001, Chinese government promulgated a national standard, GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles". The standard specifies three kinds of ethanol gasoline, namely E10 (90 RON), E 10 (93 RON) and E10(95RON). There were ethanol gasoline grades (90 RON and 93 RON) and conventional unleaded gasoline(97 RON) available in the areas where tests were carried out. Vehicle owners were worried about the harmful action of ethanol to their vehicles because of lack of knowledge regarding ethanol fuel,and they only refueled their cars with conventional 97 RON unleaded gasoline. This idea might cause unnecessary costs to customers and could bring about difficulty to the tests as well. Besides, some other technical questions emerged during the experimental application of ethanol gasoline, such as water content, ethanol content in gasoline, etc. Based on the experiences accumulated during the application tests, the national standard GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles" was revised. The revised edition is designated as GB 18351-2004.

  5. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  6. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  7. Preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on rat ethanol-induced gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Jian-Wen; Lin, Guan-Bin; Ji, Feng; Xu, Jia; Sharify, Najeeb

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish a rat ethanol gastritis model, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on gastric mucosa and studied the preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on ethanol-induced chronic gastritis.

  8. Chronic ethanol treatment potientials ethanol-induced increases in interstitial nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid levels in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Stouffer, David G.; Parsons, Loren H

    2009-01-01

    We employed in vivo microdialysis to characterize the effect of an ethanol challenge injection on endocannabinoid levels in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-naïve and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol (0.75 and 2 g/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased dialysate 2-arachidonoylglycerol (to a maximum 157 ± 20% of baseline) and decreased anandamide (to a minimum 52 ± 9% of baseline) in ethanol-naïve rats. The endocannabinoid clearance inhibitor N-(4-hydrophenyl) arachidonoylamide (AM404; 3 mg...

  9. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  10. Autophagy is a protective response to ethanol neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Ke, Zunji; Xu, Mei; Liao, Mingjun; Wang, Xin; Qi, Yuanlin; Zhang,Tao; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Bower, Kimberly A.; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. The mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neurodegeneration are complex. Ethanol exposure produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause oxidative stress in the brain. We hypothesized that ethanol would activate autophagy to alleviate oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Our results indicated that ethanol increased the level of the autophagic marker Map1lc3-II (LC3-II...

  11. Ethanol processing coproducts - economics, impacts, sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing; as is the quantity of coproducts generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and signif...

  12. Ethanol as an economic competitor to gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol is one of the technology success stories of the 21st century. In less then one third of a century it has gone from being a material produced rather inefficiently in small quantities to a major commercial product. This success can be attributed not only to the fact that ethanol is a rene...

  13. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  14. Ethanol precipitation analysis of thymus histone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvoet, P.

    1957-01-01

    An analytical ethanol precipitation technique, similar to 's salting-out procedure, was used for the characterisation of whole thymus histone and the products obtained by preparative ethanol fractionation. The analysis was carried out at —5° C and pH 6.5. Whole histone prepared according to et al.,

  15. Maternal ethanol consumption by pregnant guinea pigs causes neurobehavioral deficits and increases ethanol preference in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kayla M; Hewitt, Amy J; Olmstead, Mary C; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to ethanol, through maternal consumption of an aqueous ethanol solution, induces neurobehavioral deficits and increases ethanol preference in offspring. Pregnant Dunkin-Hartley-strain guinea pigs were given 24-h access to an aqueous ethanol solution (5%, v/v) sweetened with sucralose (1 g/l), or water sweetened with sucralose (1 g/l), throughout gestation. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured in the offspring on postnatal day (PD) 10. The offspring underwent either ethanol preference testing using a two-bottle-choice paradigm beginning on PD 40 or Morris water maze testing using a hidden moving platform design beginning on PD 60. Maternal consumption of a 5% (v/v) ethanol solution (average daily dose of 2.3±0.1 g of ethanol/kg maternal body weight; range: 1.8-2.8 g/kg) decreased offspring birth weight, increased spontaneous locomotor activity, and increased preference for an aqueous ethanol solution. In the Morris water maze test, sucralose-exposed offspring decreased escape latency on the second day of testing, whereas the ethanol-exposed offspring showed no improvement. These data demonstrate that moderate maternal consumption of ethanol produces hyperactivity, enhances ethanol preference, and impairs learning and memory in guinea pig offspring. PMID:22157142

  16. [Ethanol pharmacokinetics in narcotic action and endogenous ethanol in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronova, L M; Ushakova, M M; Kudriavtsev, R V; Barkov, N K

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were made on female rats to demonstrate a positive correlation between the time of ethanol anesthesia in estrus and diestrus and (1) subsequent preference of ethanol to water (r = 0.68) and (2) ethanol consumption dosage (r = 0.72). In the same rats (during estrus and diestrus), the endogenous level and blood concentrations of ethanol were measured 30 minutes after administering the anesthetic dose (4.5 g/kg) and during the animal's "egress" from anesthesia. The low level of endogenous ethanol and rapid decrease of the blood ethanol concentration upon administering the anesthetic dose during estrus were characteristic of those female rats which, under the conditions of free choice, preferred ethanol to water and consumed it in large doses.

  17. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  18. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  1. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-in...

  2. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  3. Direct ethanol process. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, G.F.

    Several points were made. First, Gulf Oil Company has not to date solicited government funds for this program. Gulf Oil Chemicals Company has expended more than 6 million dollars developing the technology and hopes to continue to commercialization. Second, feedstocks which are now a part of the food chain, i.e., corn, wheat, sugar cane, etc., are not being used; only waste biomass in cases where the value of the material can be upgraded. Thirdly, the technology which is being intensely pursued is for production of ethyl alcohol from annually renewable resources. This ethyl alcohol can be utilized as a solvent in laboratory and industry in the manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals, such as rubbing compounds, lotions, tonics and colognes, in perfumery and in organic synthesis of other materials. It can also be utilized as fuel in selected local situations. Fourth, the needs include feedstock availability in commercial quantities and a market for ethanol.

  4. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  5. Ethanol tolerance of immobilized brewers' yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S; Watson, K; D'Amore, T

    1995-04-01

    A method based on the survival of yeast cells subjected to an ethanol or heat shock was utilized to compare the stress resistance of free and carrageenan-immobilized yeast cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase of yeast survival against ethanol for immobilized cells as compared to free cells, while no marked difference in heat resistance was observed. When entrapped cells were released by mechanical disruption of the gel beads and submitted to the same ethanol stress, they exhibited a lower survival rate than entrapped cells, but a similar or slightly higher survival rate than free cells. The incidence of ethanol- or heat-induced respiratory-deficient mutants of entrapped cells was equivalent to that of control or non-stressed cells (1.3 +/- 0.5%) whereas ethanol- and heat-shocked free and released cells exhibited between 4.4% and 10.9% average incidence of respiration-deficient mutants. It was concluded that the carrageenan gel matrix provided a protection against ethanol, and that entrapped cells returned to normal physiological behaviour as soon as they were released. The cell growth rate was a significant factor in the resistance of yeast to high ethanol concentrations. The optimum conditions to obtain reliable and reproducible results involved the use of slow-growing cells after exhaustion of the sugar substrate.

  6. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  7. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  8. GSK3β in Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and may result in a wide range of adverse outcomes for the child. The developing central nervous system (CNS) is particularly susceptible to ethanol toxicity. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments. FASD currently represents the leading cause of mental retardation in North America ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. Ethanol exposure during development causes multiple abnormalities in the brain such as permanent loss of neurons, ectopic neurons, and alterations in synaptogenesis and myelinogenesis. These alcohol-induced structural alterations in the developing brain underlie many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, remain unclear. Ethanol elicits cellular stresses, including oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multifunctional serine/ threonine kinase, responds to various cellular stresses. GSK3β is particularly abundant in the developing CNS, and regulates diverse developmental events in the immature brain, such as neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival. Available evidence indicates that the activity of GSK3β in the CNS is affected by ethanol. GSK3β inhibition provides protection against ethanol neurotoxicity, whereas high GSK3β activity/expression sensitizes neuronal cells to ethanol-induced damages. It appears that GSK3β is a converging signaling point that mediates some of ethanol’s neurotoxic effects. PMID:19507062

  9. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  11. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  12. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayanru, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 X 10/sup 8/ cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hr at 25/sup 0/C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques.

  13. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayarnu, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 x 10 to the power of 8 cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hours at 25 degrees C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques. (Refs. 18).

  14. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol - Issues of Forensic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W

    2011-07-01

    A reliable method for the quantitative analysis of ethanol in microvolumes (50-100 μL) of blood became available in 1922, making it possible to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ethanol in healthy volunteers. The basic principles of ethanol pharmacokinetics were established in the 1930s, including the notion of zero-order elimination kinetics from blood and distribution of the absorbed dose into the total body water. The hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is primarily responsible for the oxidative metabolism of ethanol. This enzyme was purified and characterized in the early 1950s and shown to have a low Michaelis constant (km), being about ~0.1 g/L. Liver ADH is therefore saturated with substrate after the first couple of drinks and for all practical purposes the concentration-time (C-T) profiles of ethanol are a good approximation to zero-order kinetics. However, because of dose-dependent saturation kinetics, the entire postabsorptive declining part of the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) curve looks more like a hockey stick rather than a straight line. A faster rate of ethanol elimination from blood in habituated individuals (alcoholics) is explained by participation of a high km microsomal enzyme (CYP2E1), which is inducible after a period of chronic heavy drinking. Owing to the combined influences of genetic and environmental factors, one expects a roughly threefold difference in elimination rates of ethanol from blood (0.1-0.3 g/L/h) between individuals. The volume of distribution (Vd) of ethanol, which depends on a person's age, gender, and proportion of fat to lean body mass, shows a twofold variation between individuals (0.4-0.8 L/kg). This forensic science review traces the development of forensic pharmacokinetics of ethanol from a historical perspective, followed by a discussion of important issues related to the disposition and fate of ethanol in the body, including (a) quantitative evaluation of

  16. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  17. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  18. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  19. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  20. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  1. Synfuels from coal - an environmentally sound approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N. (Sasol Technology Ltd (South Africa))

    1991-01-01

    The Sasol oil from coal process is a two stage process in which indirect liquefaction is used to convert coal to synthesis gas which is then reacted in a second stage to produce hydrocarbon liquids. The process has been used for over 35 years, and has been advanced and modernized to provide almost the same degree of environmental friendliness as some of the new clean coal technologies. A further advantage of the production of transport fuels from coal is that all sulphur is removed prior to processing and the product petrol and diesel fuels are fully sulphur free. Sasol has now diversified into added value products, and today's coal refineries co-produce power, steam, fuel and chemicals from coal. 2 tabs.

  2. Health effects of synfuels technology: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanathanan, L.P.; Reilly, C.A.; Marshall, S.A.; Wilzbach, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    This document contains annotated synopses of available information pertinent to health impacts of synthetic fuel technologies under development, and identifies needs for further information. The report focuses on carcinogenesis, which appears to be a special problem with coal conversion technologies. This review is intended to serve as a reference for the NEPA Affairs Division of DOE in its evaluation of the overall synthetic fuel program and specific projects in the program. Updated versions of this document are expected to be prepared annually or semiannually as new information becomes available.

  3. Enhancement of apparent resistance to ethanol in Lactobacillus hilgardii

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, José António; Pina, Cristina; Hogg, Tim

    1997-01-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus hilgardii, a highly ethanol-tolerant organism, after an ethanol challenge at 25% (v/v) for 10 min, increased by several log cycles when cells, grown in the absence of ethanol, were pre-treated with 10% (v/v) ethanol, 15% (v/v) methanol or 2% (v/v) butanol for 4 h. A temperature upshift (25 to 40°C) before ethanol challenge demonstrated a similar enhancement of apparent resistance to ethanol. Ethanol shock enhanced apparent resistance to methanol, butanol and heat...

  4. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism. PMID:21300561

  5. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  7. Ethanol consumption as inductor of pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; A; Tapia; Ginés; M; Salido; Antonio; González

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major cause of pancreatitis, a condition that can manifest as both acute necroinflammation and chronic damage (acinar atrophy and f ibrosis). Pancreatic acinar cells can metabolize ethanol via the oxidative pathway, which generates acetaldehyde and involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and possibly cytochrome P4502E1. Additionally, ethanol can be metabolized via a nonoxidative pathway involving fatty acid ethyl ester synthases. Metabolism of ethanol by acinar and other pancreatic cells and the consequent generation of toxic metabolites, are postulated to play an important role in the development of alcohol-related acute and chronic pancreatic injury. This current work will review some recent advances in the knowledge about ethanol actions on the exocrine pancreas and its relationship to inflammatory disease and cancer.

  8. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  9. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  10. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  11. Investment Decisions in Small Ethanol Plant under Risk and Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wamisho, Kassu; Ripplinger, David

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates optimal investment decision rules for an energy beet ethanol firms to simultaneously exercise the option to invest, mothball, reactivate and exit the ethanol market, considering uncertainty and volatility in the market price of ethanol and irreversible investment. A real options framework is employed to compute the prices of ethanol that trigger entry into and exit from the ethanol market. Results show that hysteresis is found to be significant even with modest volatility...

  12. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  13. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.

    1991-01-01

    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  14. Ligno-ethanol in competition with food-based ethanol in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-generation biofuels are often challenged over their potentially adverse impact on food prices. Biofuels that use nonfood biomass such as lignocellulose are being promoted to ease the conflict between fuels and food. However, their complex processes mean that the total costs of lignocellulosic ethanol may be high in comparison. This might undermine the economic soundness of plans for its use. Another potential advantage of lignocellulosic ethanol is seen in an enhanced contribution to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet the increasing attractiveness of lignocellulosic biofuels may also lead to changes in land use that induce additional carbon emissions. For this reason, the environmental impacts of such plans are not straightforward and depend on the affected category of land. The objective of this paper is to compare the economic perspectives and environmental impact of lignocellulosic ethanol with food-based ethanol taking into account market constraints and policy measures. The analysis of the environmental impact focuses on carbon dioxide emissions. In the medium run, i.e., by 2020, lignocellulosic ethanol could enter the gasoline market, crowding out inter alia food-based ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, lignocellulosic ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable in each of the analyzed cases. The findings depend crucially on the market conditions, which are influenced inter alia by crude oil, the exchange rate, and technology conditions. -- Highlights: ► Competition of ligno-ethanol with competing energy carriers is analyzed. ► In medium-term ligno-ethanol could crowd out food-based ethanol. ► In terms of CO2 ligno-ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable. ► The environmental impacts include by land use change induced CO2 emissions. ► The findings depend crucially on market conditions.

  15. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-support...

  16. Neurosteroid effects on sensitivity to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa M Helms

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Harrison and Simmonds (1984 provided the first clear evidence that neuroactive steroids act at specific neurotransmitter receptors, investigating the potentiation of muscimol-induced GABAA responses by alphaxalone (3α-hydroxy 5α -pregnane l l,20-dione in cortical slices. Within 2 years, a progesterone metabolite (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone and a deoxycorticosterone metabolite (3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THDOC, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, THDOC were shown to be positive modulators of GABAA receptors (Majewska et al., 1986. That same year, publications showed that ethanol has direct action at GABAA receptors (Allan and Harris, 1986, Suzdak et al., 1986. Thus, the GABAA receptor complex was identified as a membrane-bound target providing a pharmacological basis for shared sensitivity between neurosteroids and ethanol. The common behavioral effects of ethanol and neuroactive steroids were compared directly using drug discrimination procedures (Ator et al., 1993. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor complex, a membrane-bound ionophore important for excitatory glutamate neurotransmission, was shown to be antagonized by low concentrations of ethanol (Lovinger et al., 1989. Since data were emerging for neurosteroid activity at NMDA receptors (Wu et al., 1991, the stage was set for the suggestion that neurosteroids, and physiological states that alter circulating neuroactive steroids, could affect sensitivity to alcohol (Grant et al., 1997. The unique interface of ethanol and neurosteroids encompasses molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral processes. This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including metabolic pathways, physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to

  17. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  18. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  19. Evaluation of acute effects of melatonin on ethanol drinking in ethanol naïve rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad Rather

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the acute effect of melatonin on ethanol drinking in ethanol naïve rats and to determine the specificity of the effect of melatonin on ethanol intake as compared to an intake of plain tap water or sugar water. Materials and Methods: A total of three experiments (2 weeks duration each using different drinking solutions (ethanol, plain tap water, sugar water was conducted in individually housed male wistar rats of 5 weeks age. Each animal had access to bottles containing drinking solutions for 2 h a day. In each experiment, on day 1, day 2, day 4, day 5, day 8, day 9, day 11, day 12 rats received drinking solutions. Each individual rat received single doses of saline, melatonin (50 mg and 100 mg/kg, and naltrexone on day 2, 5, 9, and 12, 1-h before receiving drinking solution. The order of drug administration is permuted such a way that each animal received the drugs in a different order in different experiments. Results: Melatonin has significantly decreased ethanol consumption by the rats and effect is dose-dependent. Naltrexone also has caused a significant reduction in the ethanol consumption. The maximum reduction in ethanol consumption was seen with melatonin 100 mg/kg dose compared to melatonin 50 mg/kg and naltrexone. There was no statistically significant effect of melatonin on plain water and sugar solution intake. Conclusions : Melatonin decreases ethanol consumption in ethanol naïve rats. The effect of melatonin is similar to naltrexone affecting selectively ethanol consumption, but not plain water and sugar water consumption.

  20. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  1. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  2. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  3. Autophagy and ethanol-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terrence M Donohue Jr

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ethanol metabolism occurs in the liver. Consequently, this organ sustains the greatest damage from ethanol abuse. Ethanol consumption disturbs the delicate balance of protein homeostasis in the liver, causing intracellular protein accumulation due to a disruption of hepatic protein catabolism.Evidence indicates that ethanol or its metabolism impairs trafficking events in the liver, including the process of macroautophagy, which is the engulfment and degradation of cytoplasmic constituents by the lysosomal system. Autophagy is an essential, ongoing cellular process that is highly regulated by nutrients,endocrine factors and signaling pathways. A great number of the genes and gene products that govern the autophagic response have been characterized and the major metabolic and signaling pathways that activate or suppress autophagy have been identified. This review describes the process of autophagy, its regulation and the possible mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts the process of autophagic degradation. The implications of autophagic suppression are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury.

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  6. Epigenetic effects of ethanol on liver and gastrointestinal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivendra D Shukla; Annayya R Aroor

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes cellular injury. Recent developments indicate that ethanol induces epigenetic alterations, particularly acetylation, methylation of histones, and hypo- and hypermethylation of DNA. This has opened up a new area of interest in ethanol research and is providing novel insight into actions of ethanol at the nucleosomal level in relation to gene expression and patho-physiological consequences. The epigenetic effects are mainly attributable to ethanol metabolic stress (Emess), generated by the oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol, and dysregulation of methionine metabolism. Epigenetic changes are important in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, carcinoma and gastrointestinal injury. This editorial highlights these new advances and its future potential.

  7. How Much Ethanol Can Be Consumed in E85?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Pouliot; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    EPA's justification for proposing to reduce ethanol mandates in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is that consumer demand for ethanol is not high enough to meet the original targets. About 13.7 billion gallons of ethanol can be consumed in E10, which contains 10% ethanol. The original mandate for conventional biofuel (widely assumed to be corn ethanol) was supposed to increase to 15 billion gallons in 2016. This would require that 1.3 billion gallons of ethanol would need to be consumed in ga...

  8. [Effect of female sex steroids on levels of endogenous ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, M R; Kovalenko, A E

    1988-01-01

    The authors presented the results of a study of the effect of female sex steroids on the level of endogenous ethanol. The time course of endogenous ethanol during the menstrual cycle was investigated. The concentration of endogenous ethanol was compared in the groups of women receiving and not receiving hormonal contraceptives. An increase in sex steroids during the menstrual cycle was accompanied by a decrease in the level of endogenous ethanol. The use of hormonal contraceptives caused an increase in the background concentration of endogenous ethanol. A possible effect of endogenous and exogenous female sex steroids on different levels of regulation of ethanol metabolism was assumed.

  9. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  10. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  11. Permeability of cork for water and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Luisa; Brazinha, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Crespo, Joao G; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2013-10-01

    Transport properties of natural (noncompressed) cork were evaluated for water and ethanol in both vapor and liquid phases. The permeability for these permeants has been measured, as well as the sorption and diffusion coefficients. This paper focuses on the differences between the transport of gases' relevant vapors and their liquids (water and ethanol) through cork. A transport mechanism of vapors and liquids is proposed. Experimental evidence shows that both vapors and liquids permeate not only through the small channels across the cells (plasmodesmata), as in the permeation of gases, but also through the walls of cork cells by sorption and diffusion as in dense membranes. The present study also shows that cork permeability for gases was irreversibly and drastically decreased after cork samples were exposed to ethanol or water in liquid phase.

  12. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R. [SWAN Biomass Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  14. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol.

  15. Formation mechanism of ethanol-water excimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Hua Shao; Xiaowu Ni; Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent spectrum and the excitation spectrum were used to present the cluster molecular structure feature in ethanol-water solutions.Through analyzing the fluorescent characteristics of an excimer,it is proposed that the excimers are formed between the ethanol-water cluster molecules in the excited state and in the ground state.The fluorescent lifetime and the fluorescent intensity decay process give information about the photo-physical and photo-chemical processes of the formation and the dissociation of an excimer.The theoretical calculation and physical analysis coincide with the experimental results.The preliminary conclusion about the structure feature of ethanol-water cluster molecule is that it has a planar one like a sandwich.

  16. New evidence of ethanol's anxiolytic properties in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Waters, Dustin H; Spear, Norman E

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol induces appetitive, aversive, and anxiolytic effects that are involved in the development of ethanol use and dependence. Because early ethanol exposure produces later increased responsiveness to ethanol, considerable effort has been devoted to analysis of ethanol's appetitive and aversive properties during early ontogeny. Yet, there is a relative scarcity of research related to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol during early infancy, perhaps explained by a lack of age-appropriate tests. The main aim of this study was to validate a model for the assessment of ethanol's anxiolytic effects in the infant rat (postnatal days 13-16). The potentially anxiolytic effects of ethanol tested included: i) amelioration of conditioned place aversion, ii) ethanol intake in the presence of an aversive conditioned stimulus, iii) the inhibitory behavioral effect in an anxiogenic environment, and iv) innate aversion to a brightly illuminated area in a modified light/dark paradigm. Ethanol doses employed across experiments were 0.0, 0.5, and 2.0 g/kg. Results indicated that a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) was effective in attenuating expression of a conditioned aversion. Ethanol intake, however, was unaffected by simultaneous exposure to an aversive stimulus. An anxiogenic environment diminished ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation. Finally, animals given 0.5 g/kg ethanol and evaluated in a light/dark box showed increased time spent in the illuminated area and increased latency to escape from the brightly lit compartment than rats treated with a higher dose of ethanol or vehicle. These new results suggest that ethanol doses as low as 0.5 g/kg are effective in ameliorating an aversive and/or anxiogenic state in preweanling rats. These behavioral preparations can be used to assess ethanol's anxiolytic properties during early development. PMID:24776303

  17. Solvation of benzophenone anion radical in ethanol and ethanol/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin-echo modulations and the absoprtion spectra of benzophenone anion radicals generated by γ-irradiation in the glassy matrices of ethanol and ethanol2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixtures have been measured for elucidating the mechanism of spectral shift observed during the solvation of the anion radicals in alcohols. The anion radical generated at 4.2 K in the ethanol matrix maintains the same solvation structure as that of neutral benzophenone. At 77 K ethanol molecules solvate the anion radical by orienting the O-H dipoles toward the anion radical. The anion radical is hydrogen-bonded by two ethanol molecules through the p/sub z/ orbital on the benzophenone oxygen which composes the π orbitals of anion radical. Three kinds of anion radicals are observed in the mixed matrix at 77 K. Two of them are essentially the same as those observed in the ethanol matrix at 4.2 and 77 K. The third has the absorption maximum at 700 nm and is attributed to the anion radical hydrogen-bonded by one ethanol molecule through the p/sub z/ orbital. It is concluded that the spectral shift observed in alcohols is caused by the stabilization of a SOMO π* orbital induced by the hydrogen bonding with the (RO)H--O--H(OR) angle perpendicular to the molecular plane of the anion radical

  18. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  19. Energy Integration by Fuel Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosterud, Daniel [Christian Berner AB, Partille (Sweden); Geest, Jan de [GEA Wiegand GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The presentation gives an overview of 3 different concepts for energy integration by fuel ethanol production; for a typical wheat and rye based bio ethanol plant, for the ethanol plants with corn as basic material, and for products on cellulose or sugar basis, such as sugar cane. For the latter, the Ecostill concept is presented, consisting of a combination of a mash evaporator heated by the rectification column.The differences between the rye and the corn based plants is in the temperature tolerance of the stillage, giving different options for energy integration. For the wheat, rye and corn based processes the stillage evaporation is explained, using an MVR driven pre-evaporator and a finisher on drier vapours. The ecostill concept for sugar and celloluse based feedstock is a combination of beer or molasses concentration in combination with ethanol rectification, without any drying of the vinasses. The rectifier supplies the energy for the evaporator. With the 3 vessel ethanol de-hydration system there is always a constant energy stream available which is re-used.Further more operational cost, investment and energy cost figures of a typical up to date 400,000 l/d Bio Ethanol plant on corn are given in the form of pies.These show how important it is the have a low energy consumption and how important it is to generate as much alcohol from the feed material as possible, since 1/2 of the operational cost of a corn based plant is the costs for the feedstock. (Full text of contribution)

  20. Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to

  1. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  2. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  3. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  4. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Angela [BBI International, Cotopaxi, CO (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  5. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  6. Exposure - dependent effects of ethanol on the innate immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Goral, Joanna; Karavitis, John; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that ethanol (alcohol) has immunomodulatory properties. Many of its effects on innate immune response are dose-dependent, with acute or moderate use associated with attenuated inflammatory responses, and heavy ethanol consumption linked with augmentation of inflammation. Ethanol may modify innate immunity via functional alterations of the cells of the innate immune system. Mounting evidence indicates that ethanol can diversely affect antigen recognition and intrac...

  7. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy; Talal Yusaf

    2015-01-01

    Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD). Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10%) and ethanol (10%) have been mixed and added to (80%) diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel...

  8. ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL DRY MILLING: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rhys T. Dale; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol, the common name for ethyl alcohol, is fuel grade alcohol that is predominately produced through the fermentation of simple carbohydrates by yeasts. In the United States, the carbohydrate feedstock most commonly used in the commercial production of ethanol is yellow dent corn (YDC). The use of ethanol in combustion engines emits less greenhouse gasses than its petroleum equivalent, and it is widely hoped that the increased substitution of petroleum by ethanol will reduce US dependence...

  9. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amore, T; C.J. Panchal; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

  10. Modeling tools to Account for Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread usage of ethanol in gasoline leads to impacts at leak sites which differ from those of non-ethanol gasolines. The presentation reviews current research results on the distribution of gasoline and ethanol, biodegradation, phase separation and cosolvancy. Model results f...

  11. Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

  12. Endogenous ethanol affects biopolyester molecular weight in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroe, Ayaka; Hyakutake, Manami; Thomson, Nicholas M; Sivaniah, Easan; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2013-11-15

    In biopolyester synthesis, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaC) catalyzes the polymerization of PHA in bacterial cells, followed by a chain transfer (CT) reaction in which the PHA polymer chain is transferred from PhaC to a CT agent. Accordingly, the frequency of CT reaction determines PHA molecular weight. Previous studies have shown that exogenous alcohols are effective CT agents. This study aimed to clarify the effect of endogenous ethanol as a CT agent for poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli, by comparing with that of exogenous ethanol. Ethanol supplementation to the culture medium reduced P(3HB) molecular weights by up to 56% due to ethanol-induced CT reaction. NMR analysis of P(3HB) polymers purified from the culture supplemented with (13)C-labeled ethanol showed the formation of a covalent bond between ethanol and P(3HB) chain at the carboxyl end. Cultivation without ethanol supplementation resulted in the reduction of P(3HB) molecular weight with increasing host-produced ethanol depending on culture aeration. On the other hand, production in recombinant BW25113(ΔadhE), an alcohol dehydrogenase deletion strain, resulted in a 77% increase in molecular weight. Analysis of five E. coli strains revealed that the estimated number of CT reactions was correlated with ethanol production. These results demonstrate that host-produced ethanol acts as an equally effective CT agent as exogenous ethanol, and the control of ethanol production is important to regulate the PHA molecular weight.

  13. Effect of Propanoic Acid on Ethanol Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an Ethanol-Methane Coupled Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成明; 杜风光; 王欣; 毛忠贵; 孙沛勇; 唐蕾; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Propanoic acid accumulated in an ethanol-methane coupled fermentation process affects the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of propanoic acid on ethanol production were examined in cassava mash under different pH conditions. Final ethanol concentrations increased when undissociated propanoic acid was 〈30.0 mmol·L-1 . Propanoic acid, however, stimulated ethanol production, as much as 7.6% under proper conditions, but ethanol fermentation was completely inhibited when undissociated acid was 〉53.2 mmol·L-1 . Therefore, the potential inhibitory effect of propanoic acid on ethanol fermentation may be avoided by controlling the undissociated acid concentrations through elevated medium pH. Biomass and glycerol production decreased with propanoic acid in the medium, partly contributing to increased ethanol concentration.

  14. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition tempera...

  15. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  16. Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying; Jin, Zhaosheng; Shen, Wei [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-07-01

    The different routes of ethylene production were briefly introduced and the advantage of ethanol to ethylene (ETE) route was explained. Followed by that, the upgraded catalyst applied in this route developed by SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) was introduced together with the development of the ethanol to ethylene process. The core technologies involved in this process development were discussed, such as isothermal fixed-bed reactor, water scrubber and alkaline wash column, two columns of low-temperature separation as well as process heat integration. Furthermore, the performance of one of ethanol industrial plants licensed by SRIPT was reviewed. It is as follows, conversion of ethanol reaches 99% while selectivity of ethylene is over 96% at the reaction temperature of 350{approx}450 C, the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV)of 0.5{approx}1.0 h{sup -1} and atmosphere pressure. Meanwhile, the catalyst shows its life time of one year. This route is considered not only as an economical and practical process but also as an environmentfriendly path to ethylene production. (orig.)

  17. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Ethanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Thomas D.; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer. PMID:23134050

  18. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  19. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  20. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50 = 19.8 mM being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50 = 42.1 mM. This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  2. Effect of Chronic Administration of Melatonin on Ethanol Drinking in Rat Models of Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad Rather

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is planned to examine the possible beneficial effect of chronic administration of melatonin on ethanol drinking in rat models chronic voluntary ethanol consumption. Methods: Intermittent access 10% ethanol two-bottle-choice drinking paradigm was employed in 4 groups of rats where the rats had access to ethanol on alternate days in a week and a free access to water on all day. The ethanol and water intake was recorded on each ethanol day. All rats received drug treatment (Distilled water, naltrexone, melatonin 50 mg/kg and melatonin 100 mg/kg for 6 days continuously once they attain stable ethanol drinking pattern. The ethanol consumption on the last drinking session before the drug administration was noted as pretreatment baseline ethanol drinking value. The ethanol consumption on the first drinking session after the last dose of drug administration was noted as the post treatment value. Results: There was no change in the amount of ethanol consumption by rats in groups receiving distilled water and melatonin 50 mg/kg body weight. There was significant reduction in the ethanol consumption in rats receiving melatonin 100 mg/kg body weight and naltrexone. Comparison among different groups showed statistically significant difference between melatonin 100 mg/kg and distilled water as well as between naltrexone and distilled water.

  3. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  4. Ethanol cellular defense induce unfolded protein response in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eNavarro-Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CECT10094 and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus

  5. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Nana, Rebeca K; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there

  6. What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

    2001-05-11

    Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

  7. Potential Uses of Bagasse for Ethanol Production Versus Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumalacárregui-De Cárdenas Lourdes Margarita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The procedure to carry out the energy balance for ethanol production by bagasse’s hydrolysis is presented. The loss of potentialities for electric power generation when bagasse is used to produce ethanol instead of electricity directly is calculated. Potential losses are 45-64% according to the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production. The relationship that exists between the volume of ethanol and the efficiency of Otto and Rankine cycles is analyzed. Those cycles are used to produce electricity from ethanol and bagasse, respectively.

  8. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  9. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast’s exceptional ethanol...... tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes...... and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance....

  10. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  11. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  12. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-08-01

    The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast's exceptional ethanol tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance. PMID:26758993

  13. Stabilization of Homeostasis in Rats during Cold Exposure with Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, O N; Kershengolts, B M

    2016-01-01

    The role of ethanol metabolism system in adaptation of laboratory animals to cold temperatures was shown. Cold stress (1-2°C) modeled in male Wistar rats over 7 weeks significantly modulated endogenous ethanol metabolism and led to reorganization of many physiological systems, which resulted in activation of metabolic processes. Under these conditions, endogenous ethanol was utilized as the most easily and fast metabolized energy substrate, due to which its blood concentration decreased and was replenished at the expense of exogenous ethanol. Normalization of blood ethanol concentration led to better adaptation to cold.

  14. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance.

  15. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  16. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  17. Metabolic engineering to improve ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii can produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass at high temperatures, but its biotechnological exploitation will require metabolic engineering to increase its ethanol yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii, it may become crucial...... to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol yield beyond that obtained with glucose and xylose. The ldh gene coding for lactate dehydrogenase was previously deleted from T. mathranii to eliminate...... an NADH oxidation pathway. To further facilitate NADH regeneration used for ethanol formation, a heterologous gene gldA encoding an NAD+-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase was expressed in T. mathranii. One of the resulting recombinant strains, T. mathranii BG1G1 (Δldh, P xyl GldA), showed increased ethanol...

  18. Ethanol exposure during late gestation and nursing in the rat: Effects upon maternal care, ethanol metabolism and infantile milk intake

    OpenAIRE

    Pueta, Mariana; Abate, Paula; Haymal, Olga B.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol experiences, during late gestation as well as during nursing, modify the behavioral dynamics of the dam/pup dyad, and leads to heightened ethanol intake in the offspring. This study focuses on: a) behavioral and metabolic changes in intoxicated dams with previous exposure to ethanol during pregnancy and b) infantile consumption of milk when the dam is either under the effects of ethanol or sober. Pregnant rats received water, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and were administered with water o...

  19. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute : position on ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI), an industry association which represents Canadian Petroleum Refiners and Marketers is provided. It is not against nor for the use of ethanol as a fuel. Ethanol blends are marketed by some CPPI members. It is mentioned that consumers accept ethanol fuels when the price is competitive with the price of non-ethanol fuel. Mandating the use of ethanol in fuels is not an issue supported by the CPPI. A subsidy is required in order for ethanol to be an economically attractive option, and the consumers would be forced to bear subsidy costs if the use of ethanol in fuels were to be mandated. The technology is still some years away for ethanol from cellulose to be an attractive option. It is difficult to finance new plants, and 50 million of the 240 million litres of ethanol blended has to be imported. The advantages of ethanol as a fuel are marginal and not cost effective. Some changes to the gasoline distribution system would be required, as ethanol must be added near the consumer, and it may not be appropriate for some older vehicles and some off-road equipment. The gasoline industry's flexibility would be reduced by provincial mandates. Several questions have not yet been answered, such as what is the real purpose of mandating ethanol in motor fuels? when will new technology be available? The CPPI makes four recommendations: (1) the development of a clear understanding of and the articulation of the objectives of a new ethanol policy, (2) support the development of new cellulose based technology, (3) take a prudent and gradual approach to development of a new policy, and (4) CPPI does not believe that an ethanol mandate is in the best interests of all Canadians

  20. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  1. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  2. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  3. Cellulosic ethanol. Potential, technology and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarbach, M. [Sued-Chemie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In times of rising oil prices and a growing energy demand, sustainable alternative energy sources are needed. Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable biofuel, made from lignocellulosic feedstock such as agricultural residues (corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse) or dedicated energy crops. Its production is almost carbon neutral, doesn't compete with food or feed production and induces no land use changes. It constitutes a new energy source using an already existing renewable feedstock without needing any further production capacity and can thus play a major role on the way to more sustainability in transport and the chemical industry and reducing the dependence on the import of fossil resources. The potential for cellulosic ethanol is huge: In the US, the annual production of agricultural residues (cereal straw and corn stover) reached almost 384 million tons in 2009 and Brazil alone produced more than 670 million tons of sugar cane in 2009 yielding more than 100 million tons of bagasse (dry basis). And alone in the European Union, almost 300 million tons of crop straw are produced annually. The last years have seen success in the development and deployment in the field of cellulosic ethanol production. The main challenge thereby remains to demonstrate that the technology is economically feasible for the up-scaling to industrial scale. Clariant has developed the sunliquid {sup registered} process, a proprietary cellulosic ethanol technology that reaches highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings while cutting production costs to a minimum. The sunliquid {sup registered} process for cellulosic ethanol matches the ambitious targets for economically and ecologically sustainable production and greenhouse gas reduction. It was developed using an integrated design concept. Highly optimized, feedstock and process specific biocatalysts and microorganisms ensure a highly efficient process with improved yields and feedstock-driven production costs. Integrated, on

  4. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  5. Copper oxide thin films for ethanol sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri Zeggar, M.; Bourfaa, F.; Adjimi, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    The present is a study of a new active layer for ethanol (C2H5OH) vapour sensing devices based on copper oxide (CuO). CuO films were prepared by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. Films microstructure was examined by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Vapour-sensing testing was conducted using static vapour-sensing system, at different operating temperatures in the range of 100°C to 175°C for the vapour concentration of 300 ppm. The results show a high response of 45% at relatively low operating temperatures of 150°C towards ethanol vapour.

  6. Biofuel Food Disasters and Cellulosic Ethanol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, David

    2009-01-01

    As shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, become evident, the United States has moved to convert corn grain into ethanol with the goal to make the nation oil independent. Using more than 20% of all U.S. corn on 15 million acres in 2007 was providing the nation with less than 1% of U.S. oil consumption. Because the corn ethanol…

  7. BioEthanol : fuel of the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Hilma Eiðsdóttir Bakken

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, 68 samples were used for the isolation of ethanol and hydrogen producing bacteria from various carbon substrates from geothermal springs in Iceland. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that most of low temperature (50°C) enrichments indicated the presence of bacteria belonging to Thermoanaerobacterium, Caloramator and Clostridium. At higher temperatures (60°C) Thermoanaerobacterium and...

  8. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand w...

  9. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  10. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  11. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  12. Modeling of Ethanol Metabolism and Transdermal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Gregory Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 14,500 people were killed in traffic crashes where the driver was legally intoxicated in 2005, constituting 33% of all traffic fatalities that year. While social efforts to reduce the number of traffic fatalities have shown to be moderately successful, alcohol has remained a factor in 40% of all traffic deaths over the past decade. Transdermal ethanol detection is a promising method that could prevent drunk driving if integrated into an ignition interlock system; potentially ...

  13. The discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol and acute ethanol withdrawal states in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, D V; Harland, R D; Criado, J R; Michaelis, R C; Holloway, F A

    1989-10-01

    Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a standard two-choice Drug 1-Drug 2 discrimination task utilizing 3.0 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide (CDP, an anxiolytic drug) and 20 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, an anxiogenic drug) as discriminative stimuli under a VR 5-15 schedule of food reinforcement. Saline tests conducted at specific time points after acute high doses of ethanol (3.0 and 4.0 g/kg) indicated a delayed rebound effect, evidenced by a shift to PTZ-appropriate responding. Insofar as such a shift in lever selection indexes a delayed anxiety-like state, this acute 'withdrawal' reaction can be said to induce an affective state similar to that seen with chronic ethanol withdrawal states. Ethanol generalization tests: (1) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent biphasic generalization to CDP, (2) failed to block the PTZ stimulus and (3) failed to block the time- and dose-dependent elicitation of an ethanol-rebound effect. These data suggest that ethanol's anxiolytic effects are tenuous. PMID:2791886

  14. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced rein...

  15. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur

  16. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S.C.; Stenzel, R.A.; Weekes, M.C.; Yu, J.

    1979-10-01

    The production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beet, and wheat using geothermal resources at the Raft River area of idaho is being evaluated. The south central section of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beet and 24 million cwt potatoes annually. Based on these production figures, a 20 million gallon/yr ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The plant will operate on all three feedstocks nominally processing potatoes for five months, sugar beet for four months and wheat for three months of the year. The process facility will use conventional alcohol technology utilizing geothermal fluid at a maximum of 280 F as an energy source. The process flow diagrams for all three feedstocks are currently being prepared. There will be basically three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat will involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation and by-product handling sections will be common to all three feedstocks. Three geothermal energy extraction systems were considered to accommodate the energy requirements of the ethanol facility (flashed steam, pressurized fluid and secondary heat transfer). Pressured geothermal fluid with direct heat transfer has been selected as the usage mode to minimize scale deposition. Tentatively, the geothermal supply wells will be laid out in square grids with 1/4 mile spacing. The number of wells required will be determined after the process heat load is calculated.

  17. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  18. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, U. E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B

    2004-12-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur.

  19. Fact sheet: Ethanol co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    During the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and by fermentation of these sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the non-fermentable portion of the grain contains most of the non-starch nutritive elements of the kernel, which is the source of a variety of co-products. The wet milling process is used exclusively for corn, whereas the dry milling process is the one usually employed for wheat , corn and other grains. The carbon dioxide produced in both these processes is used as a refrigerant, in carbonated beverages and for flushing oil wells. Co-products produced from wet milling include (1) corn oil, used in producing food products for human consumption, and (2) amino acids, corn gluten meal and corn gluten feed used as animal feed additives. Dry milling gives rise to dry distiller`s grains which are also used as high protein and high energy animal feed. Fibrotein{sup T}M , is also a co-product of ethanol from wheat and is used as a high fibre and protein food additive. Ethanol, carbon dioxide and co-products each represent about one third of the products of the fermentation process.

  20. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  1. Intrinsic properties of larval zebrafish neurons in ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of ethanol have been studied in multiple animal models including zebrafish. Locomotion of zebrafish larvae is resistant to high concentrations of ethanol in bath solution. This resistance has been attributed to a lower systemic concentration of ethanol in zebrafish when compared with bath solution, although the mechanism to maintain such a steep gradient is unclear. Here we examined whether the intrinsic properties of neurons play roles in this resistance. In order to minimize the contribution of metabolism and diffusional barriers, larvae were hemisected and the anterior half immersed in a range of ethanol concentrations thereby ensuring the free access of bath ethanol to the brain. The response to vibrational stimuli of three types of reticulospinal neurons: Mauthner neurons, vestibulospinal neurons, and MiD3 neurons were examined using an intracellular calcium indicator. The intracellular [Ca(2+] response in MiD3 neurons decreased in 100 mM ethanol, while Mauthner neurons and vestibulospinal neurons required >300 mM ethanol to elicit similar effects. The ethanol effect in Mauthner neurons was reversible following removal of ethanol. Interestingly, activities of MiD3 neurons displayed spontaneous recovery in 300 mM ethanol, suggestive of acute tolerance. Finally, we examined with mechanical vibration the startle response of free-swimming larvae in 300 mM ethanol. Ethanol treatment abolished long latency startle responses, suggesting a functional change in neural processing. These data support the hypothesis that individual neurons in larval zebrafish brains have distinct patterns of response to ethanol dictated by specific molecular targets.

  2. Ethanol as a Prodrug: Brain Metabolism of Ethanol Mediates its Reinforcing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Bustamante, Diego; Gonzalez-Lira, Víctor; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2011-01-01

    Backround While the molecular entity responsible for the rewarding effects of virtually all drugs of abuse is known; that for ethanol remains uncertain. Some lines of evidence suggest that the rewarding effects of alcohol are mediated not by ethanol per se but by acetaldehyde generated by catalase in the brain. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of catalase has not allowed strong conclusions to be drawn about its role on the rewarding properties of ethanol. The present studies determined the effect on voluntary alcohol consumption of two gene vectors; one designed to inhibit catalase synthesis and one designed to synthesize alcohol dehydrogenase, to respectively inhibit or increase brain acetaldehyde synthesis. Methods The lentiviral vectors, which incorporate the genes they carry into the cell genome, were: (i) one encoding a shRNA anticatalase synthesis and (ii) one encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (rADH1). These were stereotaxically microinjected into the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Wistar-derived rats bred for generations for their high alcohol preference (UChB), which were allowed access to an ethanol solution and water. Results Microinjection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector encoding the anticatalase shRNA virtually abolished (-94% p<0.001) the voluntary consumption of alcohol by the rats. Conversely, injection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector coding for alcohol dehydrogenase greatly stimulated (2-3 fold p<0.001) their voluntary ethanol consumption. Conclusions The study strongly suggests that to generate reward and reinforcement, ethanol must be metabolized into acetaldehyde in the brain. Data suggest novel targets for interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol intake. PMID:21332529

  3. Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol in a 5-Week-Old Infant and a Literature Review of Infant Ethanol Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ethanol metabolism occurs through alcohol dehydrogenase, but minor metabolic pathways such as the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 and the enzyme catalase exist. These enzymes have distinct developmental stages. Elimination kinetics of ethanol in the infant is limited. We report the elimination kinetics of ethanol in a 5-week-old African-American male who had a serum ethanol level of 270 mg/dL on admission. A previously healthy 5-week-old African-American male was brought to the ED with a decreased level of consciousness. His initial blood ethanol level was 270 mg/dL. Serial blood ethanol levels were obtained. The elimination rate of ethanol was calculated to be in a range from 17.1 to 21.2 mg/dL/hr and appeared to follow zero-order elimination kinetics with a R2=0.9787. Elimination kinetics for ethanol in the young infant has been reported in only four previously published reports. After reviewing these reports, there appears to be variability in the elimination rates of ethanol in infants. Very young infants may not eliminate ethanol as quickly as previously described. Given that there are different stages of enzyme development in children, caution should be used when generalizing the elimination kinetics in young infants and children.

  4. Postmortem degradation of administered ethanol-d6 and production of endogenous ethanol: experimental studies using rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Tanaka, N; Maeda, H; Kondo, T; Nishigami, J; Nagano, T

    1995-12-18

    Deuterium-labeled ethanol-d6 was employed to study the metabolism and postmortem change of ethanol in putrefied organ tissues. First, 4 ml/kg body weight of 25% (w/v) solution of ethanol-d6 was administered orally to each of 15 rats. The heart blood and organs were collected 15-90 min after the administration and the ethanol-d6 was analyzed by head space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ethanol-d6 concentration in the organ tissues reached its maximum at 15 min after the administration and then gradually declined, showing the same pattern as human ethanol metabolism. Ethanol-d6 (3 ml of the same solution/kg body weight) was injected into the vein of a rabbit's ear (total of 12 rabbits). The rabbit was killed with carbon monoxide 30 min after the administration and the carcass was allowed to stand for 1-4 days at 30 degrees C in a moist chamber. The concentration of ethanol-d6 decreased moderately. Postmortem ethanol and 1-propanol concentrations, in contrast, showed marked increases 2.5 days and more after sacrifice in line with the degree of putrefaction of each organ tissue including skeletal muscle. This suggests the postmortem activation of micro-organism activity. These results indicate that ethanol concentrations in cadaver tissues must be carefully assessed with due consideration of postmortem degradation and production.

  5. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane.

  6. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  7. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover; L'ethanol a la gueule de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2007-11-15

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  8. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  9. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong

    2000-01-01

    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  10. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  11. Structure and Dynamics of Ethanol Adsorbed on a Mica Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 王春雷; 修鹏; 方海平

    2012-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of nanoscale ethanol film on a mica surface are investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. We observe a dense, almost fiat ethanol bilayer formed in the vicinity of the mica surface, with the hydrophobic alkyl groups pointing outward from the surface. Remarkably, such ethanol bilayer is laterally well-ordered with patterned adsorption sites. Each ethanol molecule in the first layer donates one hydrogen bond to the surface basal oxygen atoms and accepts one hydrogen bond from that in the second layer. The ethanol molecules within the bilayer exhibit constrained lateral mobility and delayed dynamics as compared with bulk ethanol, whereas those on top of the bilayer have bulk-like characteristics.

  12. Ethanol Policy in the Clean Air-Free Trade Era

    OpenAIRE

    Rask, Norman; Rask, Kevin; Tiefenthaler, Jill

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. corn ethanol industry is a subsidized, high cost, trade protected, limited scale industry; unable to compete in free markets orto efficiently supply new fuel demands of clean air legislation. Lower cost, sugarcane ethanol from Latin America (Brazil) should be asupplementary source, especially for U.S. coastal markets. Counter trade-corn for ethanolwould be more beneficial to U.S. corn producers than domestic ethanol corn markets and would result in more efficient land use, less soil ...

  13. Impact of Increased Ethanol Mandates on Prices at the Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Pouliot; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed in November to reduce 2014 biofuel mandates. One concern expressed by EPA is that it will be difficult, if not impossible, to consume the 2014 target levels of ethanol in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) because of infrastructure issues. Difficulty in meeting ethanol mandates is reflected into increased compliance costs and a measure of compliance cost is the price of the tradable ethanol credit known as a RIN (Renewable Identification Numbe...

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol using zeolite modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abrishamkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research application of synthesized ZSM-5 zeolite to prepare the modified carbon paste electrodes was studied. To prepare of modified electrode, the nickel ions as mediator for electrochemical oxidation of ethanol were doped to ZSM-5 zeolite framework through ion exchange mechanism and oxidation of ethanol on the surface of proposed electrode in the alkaline solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. Also, the catalytic rate constant for oxidation of ethanol (k was reported.

  15. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANOL AFFECTS POSTNATAL NEUROGENESIS IN THALAMUS

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The number of neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus (VB) in the adolescent rat is unaffected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. This is in sharp contrast to other parts of the trigeminal-somatosensory system which exhibit 30–35% fewer neurons after prenatal ethanol exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal ethanol exposure affects dynamic changes in the numbers of VB neurons; such changes reflect the sum of cell proliferation and death. Neuronal number in the VB was determin...

  16. Personal Review:Research on ethanol synthesis from syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HE; Wen-nan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    It is a very fine substitutable energy technology to synthesize ethanol from biomass-derived syngas. This paper summarized the development of preparing ethanol from syngas, and especially elaborated on the research status of catalysts for the process. Based on the relative researches on the reaction mechanism, structure and performance of the catalysts, the optimum design of catalysts with high activity was presented in this review, which set the theoretical and application foundation for the industrial production of ethanol from syngas.

  17. Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Shapouri, Hosein; Duffield, James A.; Graboski, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970's have estimated the net energy value of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the net energy value of corn ethanol has become positive in recent years due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We ...

  18. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Shapouri, Hosein; Duffield, James A.; Wang, Michael Q.

    2002-01-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn eth...

  19. Ethanol inhibition of baroreflex bradycardia: role of brainstem GABA receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, K.; Kunos, G.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol administered i.v. or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats anaesthetized with urethane inhibits baroreflex bradycardia elicited by phenylephrine. This effect is prevented or reduced by pretreatment of rats with 3-mercaptopropionic acid, bicuculline, or RO 15-4513. Intra-NTS injection of muscimol also inhibits baroreflex bradycardia and causes a pressor response which is potentiated by intra-NTS ethanol. It is proposed that ethanol inhibits baroreflex bradycardia, at least i...

  20. Taurine and ethanol interactions: behavioral effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that shares pharmacological effects and similar potency with ethanol. Recently, taurine-containing beverages have been reported to enhance the euphoric effects of ethanol, though the extent of this effect and the role of taurine remain speculative. The present study was designed to explore interactions between taurine and ethanol on several behaviors including locomotion, ataxia, and loss of righting. Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice...

  1. Synergistic effects of ethanol and cocaine on brain stimulation reward.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. J.; June, H L

    1994-01-01

    The effects of two widely abused drugs, ethanol and cocaine, were examined alone and in combination on intracranial reward processes. In agreement with previous research, higher doses of both cocaine and ethanol alone produced facilitation of behavior maintained by brain stimulation reward. Low intraperitoneal doses of ethanol and cocaine, which alone did not affect performance, were found to reduce stimulation reward threshold and modestly increase response rate. The enhancement of brain sti...

  2. A Mechanistic Approach to Elucidate Ethanol Electro-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    TAPAN, Niyazi Alper

    2007-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of ethanol oxidation, a simple cylindrical diffusion-surface reaction was developed on a platinum disk electrode. An ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism was proposed, in which electrochemical reactions proceed without adsorption of any electro-oxidation products (C2 type) on the surface. After the simulation of the proposed mechanism, it was seen that the model can explain ethanol electro-oxidation behavior without any surface CO formation. The si...

  3. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  4. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    OpenAIRE

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contai...

  5. Anomalous volume change of gramicidin A in ethanol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derechin, M.; Hayashi, D. M.; Jordan, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of studies aimed at clarifying the failure of gramicidin A (GA) to sediment in early experiments are analyzed. In the present work, no sedimentation was observed in pure pentanol or ethanol, while normal sedimentation was observed in ethanol-water mixtures. It is concluded that GA exists in two conformations that differ in volume. Since the apparent specific volume in absolute ethanol sinks to its lowest values on increasing concentration, the GA molecule probably unfolds completely in conditions favorable for dimerization.

  6. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  7. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-02

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  8. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  9. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  10. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  11. Recent updates on lignocellulosic biomass derived ethanol - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic (or cellulosic biomass derived ethanol is the most promising near/long term fuel candidate. In addition, cellulosic biomass derived ethanol may serve a precursor to other fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from unsustainable sources and/or are proposed to be derived from cellulosic biomass. However, the processing cost for second generation ethanol is still high to make the process commercially profitable and replicable. In this review, recent trends in cellulosic biomass ethanol derived via biochemical route are reviewed with main focus on current research efforts that are being undertaken to realize high product yields/titers and bring the overall cost down.

  12. Hepatotoxic potential of combined toluene-chronic ethanol exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, S.R.; Christian, J.E.; Isom, G.E.

    1986-05-01

    The hepatoxic properties of concurrent chronic oral ethanol ingestion and acute toluene inhalation were evaluated. Male rats were maintained on ethanol-containing or control liquid diets for 29 days. Animals of each group were subjected to five 20-min exposures to 10 000 ppm toluene with 30 min of room air inhalation between exposures on days 22, 24, 26, and 28 of liquid diet feeding. Some of the ethanol-fed animals were withdrawn from ethanol 14 h before exposure. Ethanol-withdrawn animals displayed an increased sensitivity to the narcotic action of toluene. Animals were sacrificed and assays performed on day 29. Stress markers (plasma corticosterone, free fatty acid, and glucose) were not affected by treatments. A modest elevation in plasma aspartate amino-transferase occurred in non-withdrawn animals receiving both ethanol and toluene. Ethanol-toluene exposure increased both relative liver weight and liver triglycerides. Toluene antagonized the hypertriglyceridemia associated with chronic ethanol ingestion. This study indicates that combined ethanol and toluene exposure has minor potential to induce acute liver injury, but results in altered deposition of hepatic triglycerides.

  13. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles

  14. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  15. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, Elio; Carotenuto, Giuseppina; Tesser, Riccardo; Di Serio, Martino [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-06-15

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as a by-product of the ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operating conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as a promoter, which gave the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 grams hour/mol of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as a by-product, which can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is free of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed under different operating conditions have been reported with the scope to select the best conditions. A carrier of H2 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, which generally occur during the dehydrogenation over other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 g{sub H2} (Kgcat){sup -1} (h){sup -1} were obtained for the explored temperature range of 200-260 C. Finally the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  16. Regulation of Ethanol-Related Behavior and Ethanol Metabolism by the Corazonin Neurons and Corazonin Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Sha; Seung-Hoon Choi; Jeongdae Im; Gyunghee G Lee; Frank Loeffler; Park, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR) as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD) fli...

  17. Silica Colloidal Crystals with Ethanol Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-Lin; NI Pei-Gen; CHENG Bing-Ying; JIN Chong-Jun; ZHANG Dao-Zhong; DONG Peng; GUO Xing-Cai

    2000-01-01

    We have prepared a silica colloidal crystal with ethanol, which has a face-centered cubic structure and a corresponding photonic band gap located in the visible region, determined by Kossel ring analysis and the transmission spectra. A special feature is an apparent variation of its lattice constant, as well as the gap frequency, with sample height. The Raman scattering induced by a picosecond laser at different heights of the colloidal crystal has been measured. It is found that the intensity of the Raman scattering is not related sensitively to the photonic gap, even though the Raman-Stokes wavelength is inside the gap.

  18. Synthesis Gas generation from Bio-Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-voltage discharge (called GlidArc) is used to assist the partial oxidation of 50 to 90 Ethanol/water solutions using air. The feed conversion is total and the produced synthesis gas does not contain soot, coke or tars. The output reformate gas reaches presently 22 kW power at only 1% of electric power necessary to assist such reforming process. Up to 46 vol.% of H2+CO SynGas mixture is produced (the balance being mostly the N2) in long runs. A 75% thermal efficiency of the process is obtained but a large part of remaining heat can be further reused. (authors)

  19. Observation of Trans-Ethanol and Gauche-Ethanol Complexes with Benzene Using Matrix Isolation Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicangelo, Jay; Silbaugh, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    Ethanol can exist in two conformers, one in which the OH group is trans to the methyl group (trans-ethanol) and the other in which the OH group is gauche to the methyl group (gauche-ethanol). Matrix isolation infrared spectra of ethanol deposited in 20 K argon matrices display distinct infrared peaks that can be assigned to the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol conformers, particularly with the O-H stretching vibrations. Given this, matrix isolation experiments were performed in which ethanol (C_2H_5OH) and benzene (C_6H_6) were co-deposited in argon matrices at 20 K in order to determine if conformer specific ethanol complexes with benzene could be observed in the infrared spectra. New infrared peaks that can be attributed to the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol complexes with benzene have been observed near the O-H stretching vibrations of ethanol. The initial identification of the new infrared peaks as being due to the ethanol-benzene complexes was established by performing a concentration study (1:200 to 1:1600 S/M ratios), by comparing the co-deposition spectra with the spectra of the individual monomers, by matrix annealing experiments (35 K), and by performing experiments using isotopically labeled ethanol (C_2D_5OD) and benzene (C_6D_6). Quantum chemical calculations were also performed for the C_2H_5OH-C_6H_6 complexes using density functional theory (B3LYP) and ab initio (MP2) methods. Stable minima were found for the both the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol complexes with benzene at both levels of theory and were predicted to have similar interaction energies. Both complexes can be characterized as H-π complexes, in which the ethanol is above the benzene ring with the hydroxyl hydrogen interacting with the π cloud of the ring. The theoretical O-H stretching frequencies for the complexes were predicted to be shifted from the monomer frequencies and from each other and these results were used to make the conformer specific infrared peak assignments

  20. SILIBININ INHIBITS ETHANOL METABOLISM AND ETHANOL-DEPENDENT CELL PROLIFERATION IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Sugg, James A.; Schrum, Laura W.; McKillop, Iain H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a known risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of plant-derived antioxidants is gaining increasing clinical prominence as a potential therapy to ameliorate the effects of ethanol on hepatic disease development and progression. This study demonstrates silibinin, a biologically active flavanoid derived from milk thistle, inhibits cytochrome p4502E1 induction, ethanol metabolism and reactive oxygen species generation in HCC cells in vitro. These silibinin-mediated effects also inhibit ethanol-dependent increases in HCC cell proliferation in culture. PMID:19900758

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  2. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  3. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  4. Ethanol production from Eucalyptus plantation thinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Spain, M

    2012-04-01

    Conditions for optimal pretreatment of eucalypt (Eucalyptus dunnii) and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) forestry thinning residues for bioethanol production were empirically determined using a 3(3) factorial design. Up to 161mg/g xylose (93% theoretical) was achieved at moderate combined severity factors (CSF) of 1.0-1.6. At CSF>2.0, xylose levels declined, owing to degradation. Moreover at high CSF, depolymerisation of cellulose was evident and corresponded to glucose (155mg/g, ∼33% cellulose) recovery in prehydrolysate. Likewise, efficient saccharification with Cellic® CTec 2 cellulase correlated well with increasing process severity. The best condition yielded 74% of the theoretical conversion and was attained at the height of severity (CSF of 2.48). Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude E. dunnii hydrolysate within 30h, yielding 18g/L ethanol, representing a glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 0.475g/g (92%). Based on our findings, eucalyptus forest thinnings represent a potential feedstock option for the emerging Australian biofuel industry. PMID:22342086

  5. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  6. Animal models of craving for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F

    2000-08-01

    Craving has various meanings but can be defined generally in terms of a desire for the previously experienced effects of ethanol. Animal models provide a means by which to study the underlying mechanisms associated with craving and are most useful when they fulfill the requirements for predictive validity and reliability. Craving is a key part of the process of addiction that can lead to relapse and is conceptualized as having at least three components: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication and withdrawal/negative affect. Animal models of craving are hypothesized at this time to involve three domains of motivation to take drugs: excessive drinking, negative affective states and conditioned reinforcement. Excessive drinking includes the alcohol deprivation effect, drinking during withdrawal and drinking after a history of dependence. Models of the negative affective state include increases in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned reinforcement models include cue-induced resistance to extinction or cue-induced reinstatement. Experimental psychology is a rich resource of sensitive behavioral techniques by which to measure hypothetical constructs associated with the motivation to drink ethanol. Rigorous tests of predictive validity and reliability will be necessary to make them useful for understanding the neurobiology of craving and for the development of new medications for treating craving. PMID:11002904

  7. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Acevedo, Ma. Belén; Norman E. Spear

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effec...

  8. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, T; DeMaster, E G; Furne, J K; Springfield, J; Levitt, M D

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was empti...

  9. Chronic ethanol exposure produces tolerance to elevations in neuroactive steroids: Mechanisms and reversal by exogenous ACTH

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Kevin N.; Kumar, Sandeep; O'Buckley, Todd K.; Morrow, A. Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Acute ethanol administration increases potent GABAergic neuroactive steroids, specifically (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one. In addition, neuroactive steroids contribute to ethanol actions. Chronic ethanol exposure results in tolerance to many effects of ethanol, including ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroid levels. To determine the mechanisms of tolerance to ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroids, we investigated cri...

  10. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Megan L.T. Hilbert; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a con...

  11. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh; Almodares Abbas; Ahi Mohsen; Gorji Mohammad Ali; Jahanshah Qazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v...

  12. Motor impairment: a new ethanol withdrawal phenotype in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Philibin, Scott D.; Cameron, Andy J.; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental risk factors. The presence of withdrawal symptoms is one criterion for alcohol dependence. Genetic animal models have followed a reductionist approach by quantifying various effects of ethanol withdrawal separately. Different ethanol withdrawal symptoms may have distinct genetic etiologies, and therefore differentiating distinct neurobiological mechanisms related to separate signs of withdrawal would increase our understanding of...

  13. Processing method for drainage-containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol amine is decomposed by aerobically acting Pseudomonas sp. When drainage contains hydrazine, copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide are added to the drainage under exposed condition to remove hydrazine as a pretreatment of the decomposing step. With such procedures, ethanol amine in the drainage can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  14. Multi-enzyme catalyzed rapid ethanol lowering in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, D R; Chambers, R P; Dillon, A R

    1991-10-01

    Ethanol was oxidized to acetate by an enzyme system using yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (YALDH), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) recycling NAD in two model duodenal fluids and in canine duodenal aspirate in vitro. Sufficient enzyme activities were maintained to convert as much as 34% of the original ethanol to acetate with negligible acetaldehyde accumulation.

  15. Roles for the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder represents a significant human health problem that leads to substantial loss of human life and financial cost to society. Currently available treatment options do not adequately address this human health problem, and thus, additional therapies are desperately needed. The endocannabinoid system has been shown, using animal models, to modulate ethanol-motivated behavior, and it has also been demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure can have potentially long-lasting effects on the endocannabinoid system. For example, chronic exposure to ethanol, in either cell culture or preclinical rodent models, causes an increase in endocannabinoid levels that results in down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and uncoupling of this receptor from downstream G protein signaling pathways. Using positron emission tomography (PET), similar down-regulation of CB1 has been noted in multiple regions of the brain in human alcoholic patients. In rodents, treatment with the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (Rimonabant), or genetic deletion of CB1 leads to a reduction in voluntary ethanol drinking, ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, operant self-administration of ethanol, sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol, and reinstatement/relapse of ethanol-motivated behavior. Although the clinical utility of Rimonabant or other antagonists/inverse agonists for CB1 is limited due to negative neuropsychiatric side effects, negative allosteric modulators of CB1 and inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism represent therapeutic targets worthy of additional examination.

  16. Preparation of PMMA Foam by Supercritical CO2 with Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 with ethanol as blowing agent foamed poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) fiber at 308.15K and in the pressure range from 12-15MPa. The foam structure was detected using scanning electron microscope. It was found that the concentration of ethanol in the fluid is a major parameter to affect the foam structure.

  17. Estimating the net energy value of corn-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States); Graboski, M.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Potential air quality benefits and a desire to improve domestic energy security has prompted researchers to investigate the net energy value (NEV) of corn-ethanol. Studies have been conducted in recent years in an attempt to quantify the energy used in growing and converting corn to ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions among the studies have resulted in a wide range of NEV estimates. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors causing this wide variation and to develop a more consistent NEV estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn-ethanol is positive when fertilizers are produced by modern processing plants, corn is converted in modern ethanol facilities, farmers achieve normal corn yields and energy credits are allocated to basic coproducts. Our estimate of 16,193 BTU/gal can be considered conservative, since it does not include energy credits for those plants that sell carbon dioxide. Corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy ratio of 1.24, i.e., for every BTU dedicated to producing ethanol there is a 24 percent energy gain. Moreover, producing ethanol from domestic corn stocks achieves a net gain in a more desirable form of energy. Ethanol production utilizes abundant domestic feedstocks of coal and natural gas to convert corn into a premium liquid fuel that can replace petroleum imports by a factor of 7 to 1.

  18. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, for fermentation by the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 selected as the best producer among five ethanologenic microorganims. When the hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract, 12.79 g/L of ethanol, corresponding to 0.28 g of ethanol per grams of glucose consumed (55% efficiency, was obtained within 24 h, while in the non-supplemented hydrolysate, a similar concentration was reached within 48 h. The volumetric productivity increased from 0.25 g/L·h in the un-supplemented hydrolysate to 0.53 g/L h in the yeast extract supplemented hydrolysate. In conclusion, the strain S. cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 was shown able to produce ethanol from BSG. Although an equal amount of ethanol was reached in both BSG hydrolysate media, the nitrogen source supplementation reduced the ethanol fermentation time and promoted glucose uptake and cell growth.

  19. Site Characterization of Ethanol-Blended Fuel Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  20. Effects of Inhaled Ethanol on Developmental Outcomes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of biofuels is increasing in the US automotive fleet. The primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the health risk associated with more than 10% ethanol in gasoline is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to i...

  1. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL ETHANOL INHALATION ON SENSORY FUNCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol-blended gasoline entered the market in response to demand for domestic renewable energy sources, which may result in exposure to ethanol vapors in combination with other volatile gasoline constituents. To begin an assessment ofthe risks of exposure to this mixture, we eva...

  2. Effects of ethanol feeding on hepatic lipid synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijburg, L.B.M.; MaQuedano, A.; Bijleveld, C.; Guzman, M.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Rats were fed a high-fat, liquid diet containing either 36% of total calories as ethanol or an isocaloric amount of sucrose, for a period up to 35 days. At different time intervals we measured the effects of ethanol administration on the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in hepatic lipi

  3. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  4. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  5. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  6. Bacteriophage application restores ethanol fermentation characteristics disrupted by Lactobacillus fermentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Contamination of corn mash by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) reduces ethanol yields and the overall efficiency of the ethanol fermentation process, and the industry relies heavily on antibiotics for contamination control. There is a need to develop alternative methods for the control of cont...

  7. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  8. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  9. Molecular ordering of ethanol at the calcite surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarín, I. S.; Yang, M.; Bovet, Nicolas Emile;

    2012-01-01

    dynamics (MD) simulations, the structuring on calcite of a layer of the simplest carbon chain molecule that contains an OH group, ethanol (CH 3-CH2-OH). We found evidence that EtOH forms a highly ordered structure at the calcite surface, where the first layer molecules bond with calcite. The ethanol...

  10. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.;

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  11. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    The potential of wheat straw for ethanol production after pretreatment with O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature followed by fermentation was investigated. We found that cellulose and hemicellulose remained unaltered after ozonisation and a subsequent washing step...... (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... and unwashed wheat straw for ethanol production (maximum ethanol yield, 52%). O3 cost estimations were made for the production of ethanol at standard conditions....

  12. Thermophilic, lignocellulolytic bacteria for ethanol production: current state and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Yao, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    for efficient biomass hydrolysis. Secondly, thermophilic bacteria ferment a broad range of carbohydrates into ethanol, and some of them display potential for ethanologenic fermentation at high yield. Thirdly, the establishment of the genetic tools for thermophilic bacteria has allowed metabolic engineering...... of cellulolytic and saccharolytic thermophilic bacteria for lignocellulosic ethanol production because of their unique properties. First of all, thermophilic bacteria possess unique cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems and are considered as potential sources of highly active and thermostable enzymes......, in particular with emphasis on improving ethanol yield, and this facilitates their employment for ethanol production. Finally, different processes for second-generation ethanol production based on thermophilic bacteria have been proposed with the aim to achieve cost-competitive processes. However, thermophilic...

  13. Engineering Escherichia coli for improved ethanol production from gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Schlacta, Theresa; Warmack, Rebeccah; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2013-10-10

    We report on engineering Escherichia coli to produce ethanol at high yield from gluconic acid (gluconate). Knocking out genes encoding for the competing pathways (l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase A) in E. coli KO11 eliminated lactate production, lowered the carbon flow toward acetate production, and improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 97.5% of the theoretical maximum, while the growth rate of the mutant strain was about 70% of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modifications led to a small improvement of ethanol yield from 101.5% to 106.0% on glucose. Deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene (pdh) alone improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 90.4% when gluconate was a substrate. The growth rate of the mutant strain was identical to that of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modification led to no improvements on ethanol yield on glucose.

  14. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of agricultural residues to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Hogan, C.M.; Saddler, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process was used to convert steam-treated wheat and barley straw to ethanol. Maximum conversion efficiencies were obtained when the substrates were steamed for 90 s. These substrates could yield over 0.4 g ethanol/g cellulose following a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process procedure using culture filtrates derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58. When culture filtrates from Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. reesei QM9414 were used, the ethanol yields obtained were 0.32 and 0.12 g ethanol/g cellulose utilized, respectively. The lower ethanol yields obtained with these strains were attributed to the lower amounts of ..beta..-glucosidase detected in the T. reesei culture filtrates.

  16. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose. PMID:26618154

  17. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  18. Production of Ethanol Fuel from Organic and Food Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak George AKPAN, Adamu Ali ALHAKIM, and Udeme Joshua Josiah IJAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food waste has been carried out with the singular aim of converting the waste to useful material. To achieve this, the conversion of organic waste (Old newspapers and food waste (maize were respectively carried out via acid and microbial hydrolysis, which yielded 42% and 63% fermentable sugar wort. This was then converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Sacchromyces ceverisiae. 95% ethanol was obtained by fractional distillation of the fermentable wort and the total volume of ethanol produced from 2,500 grams of the organic and food wastes was 0.86 liters.Fermentation Kinetic parameters were evaluated. Considering the percentage fermentable sugar yield from the biomasses in study, it is more economical to produce ethanol from food waste (maize than old organic waste (old newspaper.

  19. Endogenous ethanol--its metabolic, behavioral and biomedical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky YuM

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is constantly formed endogenously from acetaldehyde, and level of the former can be measured in both human beings and animals. Acetaldehyde can be generated in situ from the metabolism of pyruvate, threonine, deoxyribose-5-phosphate, phosphoethanolamine, alanine and presumably from other substrates. The levels of blood and tissue endogenous ethanol change as a function of various physiologic and experimental conditions such as starvation, aging, stress, cooling, adrenalectomy, etc. and are regulated by many exogenous compounds such as antimetabolites, derivatives of amino acids, lithium salts, disulfiram, cyanamide, etc. Under free choice alcohol selection situations, the levels of endogenous ethanol in rat blood and alcohol preference by the animals are negatively correlated. Similar negative correlations have been found between the levels of blood endogenous ethanol and the frequency of delirium in alcoholic patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal. Endogenous ethanol and acetaldehyde can therefore be regarded as compounds which fulfil substrate, regulatory and modulator functions.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance of Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANAEE Iman; JAFARIAN Majid; GOBAL Fereydoon; SHARAFI Mahboobeh; MAHJANI Mohammad-ghasem

    2012-01-01

    Nickel modified NiOOH electrodes were used for the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in alkaline solutions.The electro-oxidation of ethanol in a 1 mol/L NaOH solution at different concentrations of ethanol was studied by ac impedance spectroscopy.Electrooxidation of ethanol on Ni shows negative resistance on impedance plots.The impedance shows different patterns at different applied anodic potential.The influence of the electrode potential on impedance was studied and a quantitative explanation for the impedance of ethanol oxidation was given by means of a proposed mathematical model.At potentials higher than 0.52 V(vs.Ag/AgCl),a pseudoinductive behavior was observed,but at those higher than 0.57 V,impedance patterns were reversed to the second and third quadrants.The conditions required for the reversing of impedance pattern were delineated with the impedance model.

  1. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  2. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy K. Dess; Chardonnay D. Madkins; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D

    2013-01-01

    Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehi...

  3. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2016-02-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol.

  4. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  5. Effect of Ethanol and Ethanol Biodegradation Products on Prospects for Natural Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene at Gasoline Spill Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  6. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjita Biswas

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA Δldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA Δldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  7. Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of m

  8. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  9. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Michael Delos; Graves, Ronald Lee; Storey, John Morse Elliot; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott; Thomas, John Foster

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  10. Endogenous ethanol production in trauma victims associated with medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    1996-08-01

    Four cases of trauma, where endogenous ethanol production was suspected to have been occurred in association with medical treatment, are reported. To discriminate endogenous ethanol produced de novo by bacteria from exogenous ethanol by drinking, various tissues and body fluids, such as brain and cerebrospinal fluid, together with blood obtained from various locations, were subjected to analysis for both ethanol and n-propanol. The first individual was a 40-year-old man who had been stabbed in the abdomen with a knife and had died of bleeding about 12 h after peritoneotomy, and autopsied 12 h later. In the heart blood, 0.44 mg/g ethanol and 0.005 mg/g n-propanol were detected. Ethanol levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humor and brain, reflecting exogenous ethanol levels, were 0.08-0.16 mg/g, and no n-propanol was detected in any of the specimens. The second individual was a 45-year-old man who had been punched hard in the head and face and had died of traumatic shock about 12 h after hospitalization, and autopsied 12 h later. The heart blood concentrations of ethanol and n-propanol were 0.15 and 0.008 mg/g respectively, and a subdural hematoma contained only 0.05 mg/g ethanol and non n-propanol. The third individual was a 34-year-old man who suffered incised wounds of the left arm and head with a sickle and had died of hemorrhagic shock. In the heart blood, 0.30 mg/g ethanol and 0.026 mg/g n-propanol were detected; there was 0.04 mg/g ethanol and no n-propanol in the brain. The fourth individual was a 76-year-old woman who had been hit by a motorcycle and had died of liver rupture about 1 h after admission to a hospital. The heart blood contained 0.22 mg/g ethanol and 0.002 mg/g n-propanol. Only a trace of ethanol and no n-propanol were detected in the pericardial sac fluid and cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  12. Synthesis Gas generation from Bio-Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-voltage discharge (called GlidArc) is used to assist the partial oxidation of 50 C to 90 C Ethanol/water solutions using air. The feed conversion is total and the produced synthesis gas does not contain soot, coke or tars. The output re-formate gas reaches presently 22 kW power at only 1% of electric power necessary to assist such reforming process. Up to 46 vol.% of H2+CO SynGas mixture is produced (the balance being mostly the N2) in long runs. A 75% thermal efficiency of the process is obtained but a large part of remaining heat can be further reused. (author)

  13. Production of ethanol from pineapple wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, K.L.; Kouadio, K.G.; Kouadio, N' d.; Kamenan, A.

    1988-12-01

    Ethanol of pharmaceutical quality, is obtained by fermentation of juice extract produced from pineapple wastes and fruits left after sorting since they contain an important amount of glucides. The optimization of fermentation parameters proved the feasibility of such a process. The pH of fresh pineapple juice varies from 3.4 to 3.6. The fermentation can be achieved without sterilization by using saccharomyces cerevisiae from 8 g/l of juice over a period of 8 hours. The fermented juice has a density of 1.053 and an acidity level of 6 g of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//l. The analysis of the produced alcohol using a gas chromatograph reveals a high content of this product.

  14. Effects of ethanol on vehicle energy efficiency and implications on ethanol life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Inderwildi, Oliver R; King, David A; Boies, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Bioethanol is the world's largest-produced alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its compatibility within existing spark-ignition engines and its relatively mature production technology. Despite its success, questions remain over the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of fuel ethanol use with many studies showing significant impacts of differences in land use, feedstock, and refinery operation. While most efforts to quantify life-cycle GHG impacts have focused on the production stage, a few recent studies have acknowledged the effect of ethanol on engine performance and incorporated these effects into the fuel life cycle. These studies have broadly asserted that vehicle efficiency increases with ethanol use to justify reducing the GHG impact of ethanol. These results seem to conflict with the general notion that ethanol decreases the fuel efficiency (or increases the fuel consumption) of vehicles due to the lower volumetric energy content of ethanol when compared to gasoline. Here we argue that due to the increased emphasis on alternative fuels with drastically differing energy densities, vehicle efficiency should be evaluated based on energy rather than volume. When done so, we show that efficiency of existing vehicles can be affected by ethanol content, but these impacts can serve to have both positive and negative effects and are highly uncertain (ranging from -15% to +24%). As a result, uncertainties in the net GHG effect of ethanol, particularly when used in a low-level blend with gasoline, are considerably larger than previously estimated (standard deviations increase by >10% and >200% when used in high and low blends, respectively). Technical options exist to improve vehicle efficiency through smarter use of ethanol though changes to the vehicle fleets and fuel infrastructure would be required. Future biofuel policies should promote synergies between the vehicle and fuel industries in order to maximize the society-wise benefits or

  15. Hydrogen generation from steam reforming of ethanol in dielectric barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowei Wang; Yijun Lü; Xu Zhang; Shuanghui Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge(DBD)was used for the generation of hydrogen from ethanol reforming.Effects of reaction conditions,such as vaporization temperature,ethanol flow rate,water/ethanol ratio,and addition of oxygen,on the ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield,were studied.The results showed that the increase of ethanol flow rate decreased ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield,and high water/ethanol ratio and addition of oxygen were advantageous.Ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield increased with the vaporization room temperature up to the maximum at first,and then decreased slightly.The maximum hydrogen yield of 31.8% was obtained at an ethanol conversion of 88.4% under the optimum operation conditions of vaporization room temperature of 120℃,ethanol flux of 0.18 mL/min,water/ethanol ratio of 7.7 and oxygen volume concentration of 13.3%.

  16. Effect of the ethanol concentration in the anode on the direct ethanol fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchor, Pablo Martins; Loeser, Neiva; Forte, Maria Madalena de Camargo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carpenter, Deyse [Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)], Email: rafarstv@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the climate, sources and development of renewable energy are issues that have gain greater importance, and fuel cells have been investigated as an alternative source to produce energy through electrochemical reactions. Among the fuel cells types the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEMFC), fed with pure hydrogen at the anode and oxygen at the cathode, seen be the more promising ones as an electrolyte for portable, mobile and stationary applications due to its low emissions, low operating temperature, high power density and quick configuration. To avoid inconvenience of storage and transportation of pure hydrogen a PEMFC fed with alcohols has been developed, named Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells (DAFC). One way to increase the performance of DAFC is added water in the alcohol inserted into the anode, because the water keeps the membrane hydrated. In this work, the performance of a DAFC was evaluated by following the loss in the polarization curve and cell power by varying the ethanol/water ratio. The aim of this study was determine the optimal water/ethanol ratio to be feed in a DEFC prototype mounted in the lab. By the results it was possible to point that the best concentration of ethanol aqueous solution for the DEFC tested was around 1 mol.L-1. (author)

  17. In vivo ethanol elimination in man, monkey and rat: A lack of relationship between the ethanol metabolism and the hepatic activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzano, A. (Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)); Herrera, E. (Universidad de Madrid (Spain))

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo ethanol elimination in human subjects, monkeys and rats was investigated after an oral ethanol dosage. After 0.4 g. ethanol/kg of body weight, ethanol elimination was much slower in human subjects than in monkeys. In order to detect a rise in monkey plasma ethanol concentrations as early as observed in human subjects, ethanol had to be administered at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight. Ethanol metabolism in rats was also much faster than in human subjects. However, human liver showed higher alcohol dehydrogenase activity and higher low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than rat liver. Thus, our data suggest a lack of relationship between hepatic ethanol-metabolizing activities and the in vivo ethanol elimination rate.

  18. Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Division of Energy Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden); Starfelt, F.; Dotzauer, E. [School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Maelardalen University, SE-72123 Vaesteraas (Sweden); Kindermann, G.; McCallum, I.; Obersteiner, M. [International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Lundgren, J. [Division of Energy Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations. (author)

  19. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  20. Which is a better transportation fuel – butanol or ethanol ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines butanol and ethanol as transportation fuels for gasoline-powered engines. This paper examines two aspects. First, the fuel properties of butanol and ethanol are examined and compared to each other. Consequently, butanol overcomes three deficiencies of ethanol. Butanol has a higher energy content, butanol-gasoline blends do not separate in the presence of water, and butanol can be blended with gasoline in any percentage, all the way up to 100%. Second, a review of the fermentation technology is examined for both butanol and ethanol production. Both butanol and ethanol can be fermented from the same feedstocks, which include the sugar and starch crops and lignocellulosic fermentation from wood and crop residues, and fast-growing energy crops like hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and willow. Furthermore, the capital and facilities used to produce ethanol can be switched to butanol fermentation with minimal costs. Thus, society is able to transition away from ethanol and begin to produce butanol with minimal capital and infrastructure costs. Unfortunately, the main drawback to butanol fermentation is its low chemical yield. Until researchers discover or engineer new microorganisms that handle higher butanol concentrations, butanol may not be adapted as an alternative fuel.

  1. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)

  2. Ethanol: The fuel of the future and its environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several major environmental benefits associated with using biomass-derived ethanol as a transportation fuel. First, because ethanol is produced from plant material (primarily corn) that uses atmospheric CO2 for the process of photosynthesis, the combustion of biomass-derived ethanol can be viewed as recycling of CO2 back into the atmosphere, thereby closing the carbon cycle. Further, emission tests on vehicles using E-85 (a blend of 85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) show significant reductions in hydrocarbon and CO emission levels when compared to their gasoline counterparts. Finally, a recent study comparing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles using E-10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline, commonly called gasohol) and E-85 fuel to those using gasoline and diesel fuel has been completed by Argonne National Laboratory. Using the most recent energy input data available, the study concluded that corn-derived ethanol reduces greenhouse gases by 2--3% for E-10, and by over 30% for vehicles using E-85 fuel. Additionally, the state of Illinois, with several other corporate and privates partners, is testing the use of a new fuel formulation called OxyDiesel, a blend of 15% ethanol, diesel fuel, and a special blending additive, that holds considerable promise in reducing harmful tailpipe and greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines in trucks, buses, and other diesel engine applications

  3. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  4. Reversal of morphine analgesic tolerance by ethanol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Gabra, B H; Bailey, C P; Henderson, G; Dewey, W L

    2013-06-01

    The chronic use of opioids in humans, accompanied by the development of tolerance, is a dangerous phenomenon in its own right. However, chronic opioid use is often made more dangerous by the coconsumption of other substances. It has been observed that the blood level of opioids in postmortem analyses of addicts, who consumed ethanol along with the opioid, was much less than that observed in individuals who died from opioids alone. This relationship between ethanol and opioids led us to investigate the hypothesis that ethanol alters tolerance to opioids. In the present study, we report that ethanol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the antinociceptive tolerance produced by morphine and the cross-tolerance between [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine in the mouse tail-flick test. The reversal of morphine tolerance was partially blocked by both the gamma receptor blocker bicuculline and by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptor blocker phaclofen and the administration of both inhibitors completely reversed the effects of ethanol on morphine tolerance. Diazepam, like ethanol, decreased morphine tolerance. However, this inhibition was reversed by the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline but not by the GABA(B) antagonist phaclofen. These findings have important implications for individuals who abuse opioids and ethanol as well as suggest a mechanism to reduce the amount of opioid needed in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23528610

  5. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  6. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  7. Fuel ethanol production using nuclear-plant steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the production of fuel ethanol from corn for cars and light trucks has increased from about 6 billion liters per year in 2000 to 19 billion liters per year in 2006. A third of the world's liquid fuel demands could ultimately be obtained from biomass. The production of fuel ethanol from biomass requires large quantities of steam. For a large ethanol plant producing 380 million liters of fuel ethanol from corn per year, about 80 MW(t) of 1-MPa (∼180 deg. C) steam is required. Within several decades, the steam demand for ethanol plants in the United States is projected to be tens of gigawatts, with the worldwide demand being several times larger. This market may become the largest market for cogeneration of steam from nuclear electric power plants. There are strong incentives to use steam from nuclear power plants to meet this requirement. The cost of low-pressure steam from nuclear power plants is less than that of natural gas, which is now used to make steam in corn-to-ethanol plants. Steam from nuclear power plants reduces greenhouse gases compared with steam produced from fossil fuels. While ethanol is now produced from sugarcane and corn, the next-generation ethanol plants will use more abundant cellulose feedstocks. It is planned that these plants will burn the lignin in the cellulosic feedstocks to provide the required steam. Lignin is the primary non-sugar-based component in cellulosic biomass that can not be converted to ethanol. Low-cost steam from nuclear plants creates the option of converting the lignin to other liquid fuels and thus increase the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass. Because liquid fuel production from biomass is ultimately limited by the availability of biomass, steam from nuclear plants can ultimately increase the total liquid fuels produced from biomass. (author)

  8. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes. PMID:26331212

  9. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  11. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes.

  12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  13. Ethanol induces rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.B.

    1987-03-09

    Mice with unilateal striatal lesions created by 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA) injection were screened for rotational (circling) behavior in response to injection of amphetamine and apomorphine. Those that rotated ipsilaterally in response to amphetamine and contralaterally in response to apomorphine were subsequently challenged with 1 to 3 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol. Surprisingly, ethanol induced dose related contralateral (apomorphine-like) rotation which, despite gross intoxication, was quite marked in most animals. No significant correlation was found between the number of turns made following ethanol and made after apomorphine or amphetamine. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST GROWING TREES SPECIES FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. ANBU*, K. T. PARTHIBAN1, I. SEKAR U. SIVAKUMAR3,S.UMESHKANNA1 ,V. SARAVANA P. DURAIRASU1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing trees were had the acceptable growth, chemical composition and morphological properties that make it suitable for ethanol recovery. The growth attained average level from 1.57m to 3.73m at the end of ninth month. The chemical composition such as higher proportion of holocellulose and lower content of lignin of the fast growing trees expected the more ethanol recovery with minimum recalcitrant. Due to long fiber length, wider fiber width, and wide lumen diameter with thin cell wall thickness of the fast growing trees were preferable for ethanol conversion.

  15. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  16. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  17. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  18. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  19. The ethanol response gene Cab45 can modulate the impairment elicited by ethanol and ultraviolet in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Zhu; Quanli Wang; Wangru Xu; Sha Li

    2008-01-01

    High consumption of ethanolic beverages facilitates neurodegeneration,but the mechanism of this process still remained elusive.Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a technique for detection of rare transcripts.With SSH approach,we identified one ethanol response gene Cab45,which was down-regulated by ethanol with time-dependent manner in B104 cells.The full-length sequence of Cab45 gene was obtained by 5'-RACE (5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) for the first time in rat.Based on the sequence of deduced amino acid of rat Cab45,the alignment was conducted with its counterparts in different species and displayed a high conservation.Using different tissues in rat and cell lines,Cab45 was characterized by a ubiquitous expression and differentiation dependent down-regulation.Given that ethanol facilitates some cell differentiation,we hypothesize that Cab45 is involved in ethanol-mediated differentiation.With transient transfection,the function of Cab45 was investigated by up-regulation and down-regulation in PC12 cells.Ethanol treatment and UV exposure were conducted subsequently and cell proliferations were detected by MTT (Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium) approach.It revealed that the up-regulation of Cab45 modulated the impairment elicited by ethanol and UV in transfected cells.As a member of new calcium binding protein family,the exact role of Cab45 still remains unclear.

  20. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  1. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  2. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  3. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  4. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  5. Psychophysical assessments of sourness in citric acid-ethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao, Miguelina; Greco Driano, Ezequiel J; Evin, Diego; Calviño, Amalia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5, 15, and 45 mM citric acid alone and mixed with the same two ethanol levels were assessed by the Time Intensity Method (TI). Results were consistent with both methods. Sourness changed with citric acid concentration and ethanol levels. From TI measurements, a similar interactive pattern was obtained for parameters as duration, area under the curve, peak and average intensity.

  6. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  7. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Xu; Xinping Li; Meiyun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stages and the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp had been investigated, and the reason for higher kappa number of the ethanol pulp was discussed. The results preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignin could re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiber classification technology and explained the questions found during the study. Some measures were taken to reduce the kappa number, the results had shown that there was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolved and the pulp with lower kappa number could be obtained at a higher temperature; the kappa number could reduce by increasing washing time; it could enable dissolved lignin to separate out from the ethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption by blowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  8. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber...... wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3.......5 times that of the untreated material, while the ethanol yield was nearly 2 times higher. Moreover, the sugar released by the elephant grass (30.8 g/100 g TS) was only slightly lower than by the wheat straw (33.1 g/100 g TS), while the ethanol yield (16.1 g/100 g TS) was higher than that of the straw (15...

  9. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  10. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, S. [Peterson Group, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Report identifies and documents plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017 as a guide for setting government policy and targeting government investment to areas with greatest potential impact.

  11. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  12. Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

  13. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanchuk, John [Cardno ENTRIX, New Castle, DE (United States)

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  14. Carbon membranes for efficient water-ethanol separation

    CERN Document Server

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate, on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, the possibility of an efficient water-ethanol separation using nanoporous carbon membranes, namely carbon nanotube membranes, nanoporous graphene sheets, and multilayer graphene membranes. While these carbon membranes are in general permeable to both pure liquids, they exhibit a counter-intuitive "self-semi-permeability" to water in the presence of water-ethanol mixtures. This originates in a preferred ethanol adsorption in nanoconfinement that prevents water molecules from entering the carbon nanopores. An osmotic pressure is accordingly expressed across the carbon membranes for the water-ethanol mixture, which agrees with the classic van't Hoff type expression. This suggests a robust and versatile membrane-based separation, built on a pressure-driven reverse-osmosis process across these carbon-based membranes. In particular, the recent development of large-scale 'graphene-oxide' like membranes then opens an avenue for a versatile and efficient ...

  15. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V R; Pimenta, F J G S; Aguiar, M C F; do Carmo, M A V; Naves, M D; Mesquita, R A

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian commercial ethanol propolis extract, also formulated to ensure physical and chemical stability, was found to inhibit oral candidiasis in 12 denture-bearing patients with prosthesis stomatitis candidiasis association.

  16. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  17. Observational Constraints on the Global Budget of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, V.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Singh, H. B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A. B.; de Gouw, J.; Millet, D.; Levy, H.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol, an oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC), is used extensively as a motor fuel and fuel additive to promote clean combustion. Ethanol can affect the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. Limited available atmospheric observations suggest a global background atmospheric ethanol mixing ratio of about 20 pptv, with values up to 3 ppbv near source regions; however, the atmospheric distribution and budget of ethanol remain poorly understood. Here, we use the global three-dimensional chemical transport model MOZART-4 to investigate the global ethanol distribution and budget, and place constraints on the budget by evaluating the model with atmospheric observations. We implement a global ethanol source of 14.7 Tg yr-1 in the model consisting of biogenic emissions (9.2 Tg yr-1), industrial/anthropogenic emissions (3.2 Tg yr-1), emissions from biofuels (1.8 Tg yr-1), biomass burning emissions (0.5 Tg yr-1), and a secondary source from atmospheric production (0.056 Tg yr-1). Gas-phase oxidation by the hydroxyl radical accounts for 66% of the global sink of ethanol in the model, dry deposition 9%, and wet scavenging 25%. The simulation yields a global mean ethanol burden of 0.11 Tg and an atmospheric lifetime of 3 days. The simulated boundary layer mean ethanol concentrations underestimate observations from field campaigns over the United States by 50%, downwind of Asia by 76% and over the remote Pacific Ocean by 86%. Because of the short lifetime of ethanol, the model discrepancy over remote tropical regions cannot be attributed to an underestimate of surface emissions over continents. In these regions, the dominant model source is secondary atmospheric production, from the reaction of the ethyl peroxy radical (C2H5O2) either with itself or with the methyl peroxy radical (CH3O2). A ~500-fold increase in this diffuse source (to ~30 Tg yr-1) distributed uniformly throughout the troposphere would largely correct the observation

  18. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm2) are only as much as 78.6 x 104 hm2; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 104-294.6 x 104 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 104 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  19. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Barbe; Martin Kind; Christian Pfeiffer; Andreas Terfort

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only ...

  20. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer...

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, U.S.; A. Mishra; Kumari, R.; P. N. Murthy; Naik, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were compared with control and zone of inhibition values were compared with standard ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacte...

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Sibel; Yanardag, Refiye

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae) is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and ...

  3. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  4. Dispersion characteristics of fine particles in water, ethanol and kerosene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion behavior of hydrophilic calcium carbonate particles and hydrophobic talcum particles in water, ethanol and kerosene media has been studied by sedimentation analysis. It is found that the dispersion of fine particles complies with the principle of polarity compatibility. That is to say, the dispersion effect will be improved when surface polarity of particles is similar to that of liquid media. The adsorption models of oleic acid on the surface of particles in water and ethanol are proposed.

  5. Study on Supercritical Water Oxidation of Oily Wastewater with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Wenbing; Li Hongpeng; Ma Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    The conventional treatments are unable to effectively remove the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of oily wastewater, which has seriously threatened the environment and the normal production of oil field. In this paper, an advanced method was proposed for oily wastewater treatment, Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). The co-oxidative effect of ethanol on oily wastewater is characterized for the initial COD of oily wastewater (4000 mg/L) and ethanol concentration (20 mg/L) for a range of tempera...

  6. Effects of ethanol on the proteasome interacting proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawzia; Bardag-Gorce

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome dysfunction has been repeatedly reported in alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol metabolism endproducts affect the structure of the proteasome, and, therefore, change the proteasome interaction with its regulatory complexes 19S and PA28, as well as its interacting proteins. Chronic ethanol feeding alters the ubiquitin-proteasome activity by altering the interaction between the 19S and the 20S proteasome interaction. The degradation of oxidized and damaged proteins is thus decreased and leads to accum...

  7. Ethanol production from soybean molasses by Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the utilization of soybean molasses (a low cost byproduct) to produce ethanol, an important biofuel, using the microorganism Zymomonas mobilis NRRL 806, a gram negative bacterium. At the first part of the work, laboratorial scale tests, using 125 mL flasks were performed to evaluate the effect of three variables on ethanol production: soybean molasses concentration (the sole carbon and nitrogen source), pH and period of previous aerobial phase. The optimal soybean concentration was around 200 g L-1 of soluble solids, pH between 6.0 and 7.0, and the period of previous aerobial phase did not provide significant effect. At the second part, kinetic tests were performed to compare the fermentation yields of Zymomonas mobilis NRRL 806 in flasks and in a bench scale batch reactor (it was obtained respectively 78.3% and 96.0% of the maximum theoretical yields, with productions of 24.2 and 29.3 g L-1 of ethanol). The process with a reactor fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae LPB1 was also tested (it was reached 89.3% of the theoretical maximum value). A detailed kinetic behavior of the molasses sugars metabolism for Z. mobilis was also shown, either in reactor or in flasks. This work is a valuable tool for further works in the subject of ethanol production from agro-industrial by-products. -- Highlights: ► Zymomonas mobilis was able to grow and produce ethanol on diluted soybean molasses. ► Best conditions for ethanol production:200g L-1 of soluble solids; pH around 6,5. ► Z. mobilis had better ethanol production and yield when compared to S. cerevisiae. ► In reactor, Z. mobilis produced 29.3 g L-1of ethanol, 96.0% of the maximum yield.

  8. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara; Kostadinović Ljiljana M.; Bojat Nenad C.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south), creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in...

  9. Factors governing the adsorption of ethanol on spherical activated carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Anaya, Aroldo José; Lillo Ródenas, María Ángeles; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol adsorption on different activated carbons (mostly spherical ones) was investigated covering the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 1. Oxygen surface contents of the ACs were modified by oxidation (in HNO3 solution or air) and/or by thermal treatment in N2. To differentiate the concomitant effects of porosity and oxygen surface chemistry on ethanol adsorption, different sets of samples were used to analyze different relative pressure ranges (below 1000 ppmv concentration and close t...

  10. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  11. Ethanolomics: The Think-About's of the Mexican Ethanol Project

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Cantú

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican Ethanol Project has the potential of power up rural economy, improve the environment quality, and substitute the non-renewable fossil energy resources. But the risk of not achieving these is latent: the market distorts that it could unleash can change the expected outcomes. Public policies, such as No Deforestation, Investments in Agricultural Productivity, and Ethanol Manufacture in situ, could help orientate the private incentives to increase social welfare. In a big proportion,...

  12. Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Marisa; Treistman, Steven N; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Weiner, Jeff; Galindo, Rafael; Mameli, Manuel; Valenzuela, Fernando; Zhu, Ping Jun; Lovinger, David; Zhang, Tao A; Hendricson, Adam H; Morrisett, Richard; Siggins, George Robert

    2006-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium entitled "The Tipsy Terminal: Presynaptic Effects of Ethanol" (held at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, in Santa Barbara, CA, June 27, 2005). The objective of this symposium was to focus on a cellular site of ethanol action underrepresented in the alcohol literature, but quickly becoming a "hot" topic. The chairs of the session were Marisa Roberto and George Robert Siggins. Our speakers were chosen on the basis of the diverse electrophysiological and other methods used to discern the effects of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals and on the basis of significant insights that their data provide for understanding ethanol actions on neurons in general, as mechanisms underlying problematic behavioral effects of alcohol. The 5 presenters drew from their recent studies examining the effects of acute and chronic ethanol using a range of sophisticated methods from electrophysiological analysis of paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous and miniature synaptic currents (Drs. Weiner, Valenzuela, Zhu, and Morrisett), to direct recording of ion channel activity and peptide release from acutely isolated synaptic terminals (Dr. Treistman), to direct microscopic observation of vesicular release (Dr. Morrisett). They showed that ethanol administration could both increase and decrease the probability of release of different transmitters from synaptic terminals. The effects of ethanol on synaptic terminals could often be correlated with important behavioral or developmental actions of alcohol. These and other novel findings suggest that future analyses of synaptic effects of ethanol should attempt to ascertain, in multiple brain regions, the role of presynaptic terminals, relevant presynaptic receptors and signal transduction linkages, exocytotic mechanisms, and their involvement in alcohol's behavioral actions. Such studies could lead to new treatment strategies for alcohol intoxication

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Ethanol Extract against Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani; Farzaneh Zeighampour; Elaheh Shams; Nafiseh Sadat NaghaviP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burn wound is a suitable site for incidence of resistant infections; thus, the research for finding effective drugs against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of Isfahan bee propolis extracts against beta-lactamase producing bacteria isolated from burn wound infections. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of Isfahan bee propolis was prepared by 28 g of propolis in 100 ml of 70% ethanol. Antibacterial activity of eth...

  14. Endogenous bufadienolide mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkin, Vladimir A.; Zvartau, Edwin E.; Fedorova, Olga V.; Bagrov, Yakov Y.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.

    2007-01-01

    An endogenous natriuretic and vasoconstrictor Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), is implicated in NaCl-induced hypertension and in ethanol addiction. In rats, MBG suppresses voluntary alcohol intake, while immunization against MBG induces alcohol-seeking behavior. Since alcohol withdrawal is associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium retention, we hypothesized that MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, forced ethano...

  15. Ethanol Metabolism Activates Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase, Chk2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Dahn L.; Mahan Schneider, Katrina J.; Nuss, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse results in hepatocyte injury and impairs hepatocyte replication. We have previously shown that ethanol metabolism results in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition, which is partially mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2. To further delineate the mechanisms by which ethanol metabolism mediates this G2/M arrest, we investigated the involvement of upstream regulators of Cdc2 activity. Cdc2 is activated by the phosphatase Cdc25C. The activity of Cdc25C can, in turn, be regulated by the checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which is regulated by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). To investigate the involvement of these regulators of Cdc2 activity, VA-13 cells, which are Hep G2 cells modified to efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase, were cultured in the presence or absence of 25 mM ethanol. Immunoblots were performed to determine the effects of ethanol metabolism on the activation of Cdc25C, Chk2, and ATM. Ethanol metabolism increased the active forms of ATM, and Chk2, as well as the phosphorylated form of Cdc25C. Additionally, inhibition of ATM resulted in approximately 50% of the cells being rescued from the G2/M cell cycle arrest, and ameliorated the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Our findings demonstrate that ethanol metabolism activates ATM. ATM can activate the checkpoint kinase Chk2, resulting in phosphorylation of Cdc25C, and ultimately in the accumulation of inactive Cdc2. This may, in part, explain the ethanol metabolism-mediated impairment in hepatocyte replication, which may be important in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:21924579

  16. Scaffolding of Fyn Kinase to the NMDA Receptor Determines Brain Region Sensitivity to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yaka, Rami; Phamluong, Khanhky; Ron, Dorit

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) abuse is a major societal problem. Although ethanol is a structurally simple, diffusible molecule, its sites of action are surprisingly selective, and the molecular mechanisms underlying specificity in ethanol actions are not understood. The NMDA receptor channel is one of the main targets for ethanol in the brain. We report here that the brain region-specific compartmentalization of Fyn kinase determines NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. We demonstrate that, in the hipp...

  17. Repeated ethanol exposure affects the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim K.; Sircar, Debashish

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ethanol on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated ethanol or saline treatments, and spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. For comparison, adult female rats were subjected to similar ethanol treatment and behavioral assessments as for adolescent rats. Ethanol...

  18. Chronic Ethanol Feeding to Rats Decreases Adiponectin Secretion by Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding to mice and rats decreases serum adiponectin concentration and adiponectin treatment attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver injury. While it is clear that lowered adiponectin has pathophysiological importance, the mechanisms by which chronic ethanol decreases adiponectin are not known. Here we have investigated the impact of chronic ethanol feeding on adiponectin expression and secretion by adipose tissue. Rats were fed a 36% Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid ...

  19. Ethanol and Meat in the U.S.: A Multi-Market Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Suparna; Azzam, Azzeddine M.; Mark, Darrell R.

    2009-01-01

    Since corn is the primary feedstock used for producing ethanol in the U.S., and ethanol production yields byproducts that can be fed to livestock in combination with corn, addressing the effect of ethanol production on meat markets should consider not only demand and supply interdependence between corn, ethanol, and ethanol byproducts; but also demand and supply interdependence between different types of meats. This paper develops a multi-market equilibrium displacement model to account for t...

  20. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  1. Sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technlogical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.I.F.; Oliveira, D.R.M.S.; Marin, F.R.; Santos, A.D.; Hanashiro, M.M. [Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vian, C.E.F; Sollero, G.C.; Andrioli, K.G. [Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describes Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) pioneer initiative creating an online service which provides sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technological information. Embrapa has developed software tools for structuring Knowledge Trees, management contents, graphic visualization (hyperbolic tree) and it has also developed its own methodologies for organizing information. The Knowledge Tree is designed in the patterns of the productive chain of sugarcane; the sets of data present the main instructions, recommendations and technologies produced by Brazilian public research institutions. It is intended to offer an ample amount of pertinent and relevant technical information - displayed at Embrapa Information Agency website - to many professionals in the sugarcane sector, especially for producers, students and technical support staff. Moreover, it is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the technology transference process to allow competitive gains in Brazilian agri-business and to socialize knowledge - which is the mission of Embrapa in its business. It is still expected to contribute to the diffusion of technological information and the knowledge of sugarcane for the areas of tropical agriculture around the world.

  2. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  3. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  4. D-xylulose fermentation to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.C.; Gong, C.S.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-08-01

    Commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used to study the conversion of D-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of D-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for D-xylulose fermentation was 35 degrees Celcius, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of D-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of D-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of D-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from D-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. (Refs. 21).

  5. Effects of soya fatty acids on cassava ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongguang; Wu, Shuai; Zhu, Xudong; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol tolerance is a key trait of microbes in bioethanol production. Previous studies have shown that soya flour contributed to the increase of ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. In this paper, the mechanism of this ethanol tolerance improvement was investigated in cassava ethanol fermentation supplemented with soya flour or defatted soya flour, respectively. Experiment results showed that ethanol tolerance of cells from soya flour supplemented medium increased by 4-6% (v/v) than the control with defatted soya flour. Microscopic observation found that soya flour can retain the cell shape while dramatic elongations of cells were observed with the defatted soya flour supplemented medium. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) compositions of cell membrane were analyzed and the UFAs amounts increased significantly in all tested strains grown in soya flour supplemented medium. Growth study also showed that soya flour stimulated the cell growth rate by approximately tenfolds at 72-h fermentation. All these results suggested that soya fatty acids play an important role to protect yeast cells from ethanol stress during fermentation process.

  6. Effect of ethanol on galactose tolerance in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, C.T.; Rudnick, J.; McInteer, B.B.; Whaley, T.W.; Shreeve, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Galactose-/sup 13/C was given to 18 subjects; /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion in respiratory air was followed for 3 hours. Each subject was given galactose-/sup 13/C/sub 6/ (10 g/m/sup 2/), then retested some days later with the same amount of labeled sugar and a low level (3.5 g/m/sup 2/) of ethanol. On the basis of the /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion curves in the presence and absence of ethanol, the subjects were divided into four groups (i.e., subjects considered as normal, probably normal, probable liver damage, and liver damage). Ethanol strongly inhibited galactose metabolism in normal subjects. This effect of ethanol progressively declined in the four groups until, in the last group (liver damage), ethanol had no further effect on the already severely depressed oxidation of galactose. Comparison of the galactose tolerance data with other clinical tests and with the results of a drinking history suggests that the ethanol-primed galactose tolerance test may give good discrimination between groups of people with varying degrees of liver damage short of frank cirrhosis, although alcohol-priming is not necessary to distinguish between normal and cirrhotic subjects.

  7. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Switchgrass Ethanol Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz W. Patzek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The switchgrass-driven process for producing ethanol has received much popular attention. However, a realistic analysis of this process indicates three serious limitations: (a If switchgrass planted on 140 million hectares (the entire area of active U.S. cropland were used as feedstock and energy source for ethanol production, the net ethanol yield would replace on average about 20% of today’s gasoline consumption in the U.S. (b Because nonrenewable resources are required to produce ethanol from switchgrass, the incremental gas emissions would be on average 55 million tons of equivalent carbon dioxide per year to replace just 10% of U.S. automotive gasoline. (c In terms of delivering electrical or mechanical power, ethanol from 1 hectare (10,000 m2 of switchgrass is equivalent, on average, to 30 m2 of low-efficiency photovoltaic cells. This analysis suggests that investing toward more efficient and durable solar cells, and batteries, may be more promising than investing in a process to convert switchgrass to ethanol.

  8. The addition of sugar beet to ethanol pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the GHGenius model is used to estimate the life cycle emissions of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as the criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The model can be used to analyze the emissions from conventional and alternatively fuelled combustion engines and fuel cell powered trucks and vehicles, as well as light duty powered electric vehicles. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used. This paper examined the effects of adding energy used to produce materials consumed in the production of alternative fuels in GHGenius energy balance calculations, as well as vehicle emission calculations on a carbon dioxide (CO2) eq/GJ of fuel consumed basis. This paper also examined the addition of sugar beet ethanol pathways to GHGenius. Energy balances were obtained and a number of process improvements to sugar beet ethanol processing were examined as sensitivity cases. GHGenius was used to calculate the energy consumption of each stage in the production cycle. Estimates included the energy required to produce the chemicals used in the ethanol processing procedure. Results were then compared with results obtained from gasoline, corn and wheat ethanols. Results of the study showed that energy balances were lower than corn or wheat ethanol. Feedstock transmission and processing requirements were also higher due to the higher moisture content of the feedstock. The results of several European studies considering the use of sugar beet ethanol were also included. 17 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Specific Conditions for Resveratrol Neuroprotection against Ethanol-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gonthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. 3,5,4′-Trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, a natural polyphenolic compound present in wine and grapes and better known as resveratrol, has free radical scavenging properties and is a potent protector against oxidative stress induced by alcohol metabolism. Today, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its toxicity is still not well understood, but it is generally considered that free radical generation plays an important role in the appearance of structural and functional alterations in cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of resveratrol against ethanol-induced brain cell injury. Methods. Primary cultures of rat astrocytes were exposed to ethanol, with or without a pretreatment with resveratrol. We examined the dose-dependent effects of this resveratrol pretreatment on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ethanol. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT reduction test. Genotoxicity was evidenced using single cell gel electrophoresis. In addition, DNA staining with fluorescent dyes allowed visualization of nuclear damage using confocal microscopy. Results. Cell pretreatment with low concentrations of trans-resveratrol (0.1–10 μM slowed down cell death and DNA damage induced by ethanol exposure, while higher concentrations (50–100 μM enhanced these same effects. No protection by cis-resveratrol was observed. Conclusion. Protection offered by trans-resveratrol against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity was only effective for low concentrations of this polyphenol.

  10. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  11. Chronic ethanol consumption decreases adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased alcohol consumption by adolescents and teenagers has heightened awareness of potential endocrine and developmental alterations. The current study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol intake alters pituitary and adrenal function in the developing rat. One month old male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 6% ethanol in drinking water. After one month of treatment animals were sacrificed and blood, pituitary and adrenal glands collected. Plasma was assayed for ACTH and corticosterone (CS) by radioimmunossay (RIA). Five anterior pituitary glands per group were challenged with 100 μM corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) for 90 min at 37C under 95% air / 5% CO2. Media were analyzed for either ACTH (pituitary) or CS (adrenal) by RIA. Plasma ACTH and CS were unaffected by ethanol consumption. Pituitary response to CRF was not altered by ethanol. The lack of difference in ACTH release was not due to differences in pituitary content of ACTH. However, chronic ethanol consumption did decrease adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. In vitro corticosterone production was 1.21 ± 0.14 μg/adrenal in controls and 0.70 ± 0.06 μg/adrenal in ethanol consuming rats

  12. Rsu1 regulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojelade, Shamsideen A; Jia, Tianye; Rodan, Aylin R; Chenyang, Tao; Kadrmas, Julie L; Cattrell, Anna; Ruggeri, Barbara; Charoen, Pimphen; Lemaitre, Hervé; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Bokde, Arun L W; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny A; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lubbe, Steven; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomás; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; O'Reilly, Paul F; Laitinen, Jaana; Veijola, Juha M; Feng, Jianfeng; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Schumann, Gunter; Rothenfluh, Adrian

    2015-07-28

    Alcohol abuse is highly prevalent, but little is understood about the molecular causes. Here, we report that Ras suppressor 1 (Rsu1) affects ethanol consumption in flies and humans. Drosophila lacking Rsu1 show reduced sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation. We show that Rsu1 is required in the adult nervous system for normal sensitivity and that it acts downstream of the integrin cell adhesion molecule and upstream of the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. In an ethanol preference assay, global loss of Rsu1 causes high naïve preference. In contrast, flies lacking Rsu1 only in the mushroom bodies of the brain show normal naïve preference but then fail to acquire ethanol preference like normal flies. Rsu1 is, thus, required in distinct neurons to modulate naïve and acquired ethanol preference. In humans, we find that polymorphisms in RSU1 are associated with brain activation in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in adolescents and alcohol consumption in both adolescents and adults. Together, these data suggest a conserved role for integrin/Rsu1/Rac1/actin signaling in modulating reward-related phenotypes, including ethanol consumption, across phyla.

  13. Metal oxide blended ZSM-5 nanocomposites as ethanol sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHURI LAKHANE; RAJENDRA KHAIRNAR; MEGHA MAHABOLE

    2016-10-01

    Nano-ZSM-5 is synthesized without organic template via microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nano-ZSM-5 zeolite is blended with metal oxides (ZnO and TiO$_2$) to have novel composites as ethanol sensors. The composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. A study on ethanol sensing behaviour of metal oxide blended composite screen-printed thick films is carried out and the effect of metal oxide concentration on various ethanol sensing features, specifically operating temperature, response/recovery time and active region of the sensor, are investigated. XRD and FTIR confirm the blending of metal oxides in ZSM-5 matrix. Both, ZnO and TiO$_2$ blended, composite films are sensitive to ethanol. It can be concluded that metal oxide blending improves the preformance of sensor for ethanol detection. The response/recovery time and active sensing regions depend upon the concentration of metal oxide in host zeolite. The ZnO/ZSM-5 and TiO$_2$/ZSM-5 composite films are the excellent ethanol sensors.

  14. Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the main constituent of alcoholic beverages that exerts toxicity to neuronal development. Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third trimester of pregnancy, and in rodents this period corresponds to the initial few weeks of postnatal development. In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations. Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol’s harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening of neuronal plasticity. Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the signaling mechanisms that are required for proper neuronal development, and how these processes are impaired by ethanol resulting in harmful consequences to brain development.

  15. Ethanol contamination in commercial buffers: ethanol contaminating tris-maleate and other commercial buffers induces germ tube formation in Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, J H; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the presence of trace amounts of ethanol in certain commercial buffers. It was shown that germ tube formation occurring in Candida albicans suspended in the buffers was due to the contaminating ethanol.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  17. Metabolic engineering of ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Yao

    2010-11-15

    Strain BG1 is a xylanolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium originally isolated from an Icelandic hot spring. The strain belongs to the species Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. The strain ferments glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and mannose simultaneously and produces ethanol, acetate, lactate, CO{sub 2}, and H2 as fermentation end-products. As a potential ethanol producer from lignocellulosic biomass, tailor-made BG1 strain with the metabolism redirected to produce ethanol is needed. Metabolic engineering of T. mathranii BG1 is therefore necessary to improve ethanol production. Strain BG1 contains four alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) encoding genes. They are adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE encoding primary alcohol dehydrogenase, secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, butanol dehydrogenase and bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. The presence in an organism of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with overlapping specificities makes the determination of the specific role of each ADH difficult. Deletion of each individual adh gene in the strain revealed that the adhE deficient mutant strain fails to produce ethanol as the fermentation product. The bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, AdhE, is therefore proposed responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii BG1, by catalyzing sequential NADH-dependent reductions of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol under fermentative conditions. Moreover, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Over-expression of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitates the production of ethanol at an increased yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii BG1, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol

  18. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  19. How does petroleum price and corn yield volatility affect ethanol markets with and without an ethanol use mandate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent increase in ethanol use in the US strengthens and changes the nature of links between agricultural and energy markets. Here, we explore the interaction of market volatility and the scope for policy to affect this interaction, with a focus on how corn yields and petroleum prices affect ethanol prices. Mandates associated with new US energy legislation may intervene in these links in the medium-term future. We simulate stochastically a structural model that represents these markets, and that includes mandates, in order to assess how shocks to corn or oil markets can affect ethanol price and use. We estimate that the mandate makes ethanol producer prices more sensitive to corn yields and less sensitive to changes in petroleum prices overall. We note a discontinuity in these links that is caused by the mandate. Ethanol use can exceed the mandate if petroleum prices and corn yields are high enough, but the mandate limits downside adjustments in ethanol use to low petroleum prices or corn yields

  20. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a

  1. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, C C; Azam, M M; Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N

    2016-07-01

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity. Use of xylose alone resulted in the production of 20.68 ± 0.44 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.17 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1), while xylose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 24.68 ± 0.75 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.21 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of xylose plus glucose in combination with 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 47.37 ± 0.55 g L(-1) ethanol (aerobic culture), thus resulting in an ethanol productivity of 0.39 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1). These values are 229 % of that achieved in xylose medium. Supplementation of xylose and glucose medium with 0.40 g L(-1) CaCl2 resulted in the production of 44.84 ± 0.28 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.37 ± 0.02 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of glucose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 57.39 ± 1.41 g L(-1) ethanol under micro-aerophilic conditions. These results indicate that supplementation of cellulosic sugars in the fermentation medium with CaCO3 and CaCl2 would improve economics of ethanol production from agricultural residues. PMID:26966011

  2. Ethanol fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah; Syahidah Ku Ismail, Ku

    2004-05-01

    Fermentation of sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of ethanol in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was successfully carried out to improve the performance of the fermentation process. The fermentation set-up was comprised of a column packed with beads of immobilized cells. The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was simply performed by the enriched cells cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase. The fixed cell loaded ICR was carried out at initial stage of operation and the cell was entrapped by calcium alginate. The production of ethanol was steady after 24 h of operation. The concentration of ethanol was affected by the media flow rates and residence time distribution from 2 to 7 h. In addition, batch fermentation was carried out with 50 g/l glucose concentration. Subsequently, the ethanol productions and the reactor productivities of batch fermentation and immobilized cells were compared. In batch fermentation, sugar consumption and ethanol production obtained were 99.6% and 12.5% v/v after 27 h while in the ICR, 88.2% and 16.7% v/v were obtained with 6 h retention time. Nearly 5% ethanol production was achieved with high glucose concentration (150 g/l) at 6 h retention time. A yield of 38% was obtained with 150 g/l glucose. The yield was improved approximately 27% on ICR and a 24 h fermentation time was reduced to 7 h. The cell growth rate was based on the Monod rate equation. The kinetic constants (K(s) and mu(m)) of batch fermentation were 2.3 g/l and 0.35 g/lh, respectively. The maximum yield of biomass on substrate (Y(X-S)) and the maximum yield of product on substrate (Y(P-S)) in batch fermentations were 50.8% and 31.2% respectively. Productivity of the ICR were 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 g/lh for 25, 35, 50 g/l of glucose concentration, respectively. The productivity of ethanol in batch fermentation with 50 g/l glucose was calculated as 0.29 g/lh. Maximum production of ethanol in ICR when compared to batch reactor has shown to increase

  3. Sorption of mono ethanol amine and mono ethanol aminate of copper(II) and cadmium(II) on hydrated zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of mono ethanol amine and mono ethanol aminate of copper(II) and cadmium(II) on hydrated zirconium dioxide is studied. Influence of ph of equilibrium solution, nature of central cation and outer-sphere anion on sorption of mono ethanol amine on hydrated zirconium dioxide is considered.

  4. Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa-Correia, I.; Van Uden, N.

    1983-06-01

    Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures. (Refs. 8).

  5. Neuropeptide Y Administration into the Amygdala Suppresses Ethanol Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats Following Multiple Deprivations

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Stewart, Robert B.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-e...

  6. Emissions from Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: A Single Particle Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. McMurry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the addition of ethanol to a fuel reduces the particulate mass concentration in the exhaust, little attention has been paid to changes in the physicochemical properties of the emitted particles. In this work, a dynamometer-mounted GM Quad-4 spark ignition engine run without aftertreatment at 1,500 RPM and 100% load was used with four different fuel blends, containing 0, 20, 40 and 85 percent ethanol in gasoline. This allowed the effects of the fuel composition to be isolated from other effects. Instrumentation employed included two Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers covering different size ranges for analysis of single particle composition, an Aethalometer for black carbon, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for particle size distributions, a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH species and gravimetric filter measurements for particulate mass concentrations. It was found that, under the conditions investigated here, additional ethanol content in the fuel changes the particle size distribution, especially in the accumulation mode, and decreases the black carbon and total particulate mass concentrations. The molecular weight distribution of the PAHs was found to decrease with added ethanol. However, PAHs produced from higher ethanol-content fuels are associated with NO2− (m/z—46 in the single-particle mass spectra, indicating the presence of nitro-PAHs. Compounds associated with the gasoline (e.g., sulfur-containing species are diminished due to dilution as ethanol is added to the fuel relative to those associated with the lubricating oil (e.g., calcium, zinc, phosphate in the single particle spectra. These changes have potential

  7. Comparative abuse liability of GHB and ethanol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate) is approved for narcolepsy symptom treatment, and it is also abused. This study compared the participant-rated, observer-rated effects, motor/cognitive, physiological, and reinforcing effects of GHB and ethanol in participants with histories of sedative (including alcohol) abuse. Fourteen participants lived on a residential unit for ∼1 month. Sessions were conducted Monday through Friday. Measures were taken before and repeatedly up to 24 hours after drug administration. Participants were administered GHB (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/70 kg), ethanol (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 g/70 kg), or placebo in a double-blind, within-subjects design. For safety, GHB and ethanol were administered in an ascending dose sequence, with placebos and both drugs intermixed across sessions. The sequence for each drug was stopped if significant impairment or intolerable effects occurred. Only 9 and 10 participants received the full dose range for GHB and ethanol, respectively. The highest doses of GHB and ethanol showed onset within 30 minutes, with peak effects at 60 minutes. GHB effects dissipated between 4 and 6 hours, whereas ethanol effects dissipated between 6 and 8 hours. Dose-related effects were observed for both drugs on a variety of measures assessing sedative drug effects, abuse liability, performance impairment, and physiological effects. Within-session measures of abuse liability were similar between the two drugs. However, postsession measures of abuse liability, including a direct preference test between the highest tolerated doses of each drug, suggested somewhat greater abuse liability for GHB, most likely as a result of the delayed aversive ethanol effects (e.g., headache).

  8. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abreu-Cavalheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  9. Ethanol metabolism modifies hepatic protein acylation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer S Fritz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated

  10. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile.

  11. Ethanol Metabolism Modifies Hepatic Protein Acylation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kristofer S.; Green, Michelle F.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated metabolism, induce specific

  12. Environmental aspects of ethanol-based fuels from Brassica carinata. A case study of second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century is to meet the increasing demand for energy requirements by means of a more sustainable energy supply. In countries that are net fossil fuel importers, expectation about the benefit of using alternative fuels on reducing oil imports is the primary driving force behind efforts to promote its production and use. Spain is scarce in domestic energy sources and more than 50% of the energy used is fossil fuel based. The promotion of renewable energies use is one of the principal vectors in the Spanish energy policy. Selected herbaceous crops such as Brassica carinata are currently under study as potential energy sources. Its biomass can be considered as potential feedstock to ethanol conversion by an enzymatic process due to the characteristics of its composition, rich in cellulose and hemicellulose. This paper aims to analyse the environmental performance of two ethanol-based fuel applications (E10 and E85) in a passenger car (E10 fuel: a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; E85 fuel: a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) as well as their comparison with conventional gasoline as transport fuel. Two types of functional units are applied in this study: ethanol production oriented and travelling distance oriented functional units in order to reflect the availability or not of ethanol supply. E85 seems to be the best alternative when ethanol production based functional unit is considered in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and E10 in terms of non-renewable energy resources use. Nevertheless, E85 offers the best environmental performance when travelling distance oriented functional unit is assumed in both impacts. In both functional unit perspectives, the use of ethanol-based fuels reduces the global warming and fossil fuels consumption. However, the contributions to other impact indicators (e.g. acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidants formation) were lower

  13. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  14. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  15. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non

  16. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  17. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  18. Regulation of ethanol-related behavior and ethanol metabolism by the Corazonin neurons and Corazonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Kai; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Im, Jeongdae; Lee, Gyunghee G; Loeffler, Frank; Park, Jae H

    2014-01-01

    Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR) as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD) flies displayed significantly delayed recovery from ethanol-induced sedation that we refer to as hangover-like phenotype. Newly generated mutant lacking Crz Receptor (CrzR(01) ) and CrzR-knockdown flies showed even more severe hangover-like phenotype, which is causally associated with fast accumulation of acetaldehyde in the CrzR(01) mutant following ethanol exposure. Higher levels of acetaldehyde are likely due to 30% reduced ALDH activity in the mutants. Moreover, increased ADH activity was found in the CrzR(01) mutant, but not in the Crz-CD flies. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed transcriptional upregulation of Adh gene in the CrzR(01) . Transgenic inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also results in significantly increased ADH activity and Adh mRNA levels, indicating PKA-dependent transcriptional regulation of Adh by CrzR. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA or cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in CrzR cells leads to comparable hangover-like phenotype to the CrzR(01) mutant. These findings suggest that CrzR-associated signaling pathway is critical for ethanol detoxification via Crz-dependent regulation of ALDH activity and Crz-independent transcriptional regulation of ADH. Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism. PMID:24489834

  19. Regulation of ethanol-related behavior and ethanol metabolism by the Corazonin neurons and Corazonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sha

    Full Text Available Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD flies displayed significantly delayed recovery from ethanol-induced sedation that we refer to as hangover-like phenotype. Newly generated mutant lacking Crz Receptor (CrzR(01 and CrzR-knockdown flies showed even more severe hangover-like phenotype, which is causally associated with fast accumulation of acetaldehyde in the CrzR(01 mutant following ethanol exposure. Higher levels of acetaldehyde are likely due to 30% reduced ALDH activity in the mutants. Moreover, increased ADH activity was found in the CrzR(01 mutant, but not in the Crz-CD flies. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed transcriptional upregulation of Adh gene in the CrzR(01 . Transgenic inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA also results in significantly increased ADH activity and Adh mRNA levels, indicating PKA-dependent transcriptional regulation of Adh by CrzR. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA or cAMP response element binding protein (CREB in CrzR cells leads to comparable hangover-like phenotype to the CrzR(01 mutant. These findings suggest that CrzR-associated signaling pathway is critical for ethanol detoxification via Crz-dependent regulation of ALDH activity and Crz-independent transcriptional regulation of ADH. Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism.

  20. Regulation of Ethanol-Related Behavior and Ethanol Metabolism by the Corazonin Neurons and Corazonin Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Kai; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Im, Jeongdae; Lee, Gyunghee G.; Loeffler, Frank; Park, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR) as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD) flies displayed significantly delayed recovery from ethanol-induced sedation that we refer to as hangover-like phenotype. Newly generated mutant lacking Crz Receptor (CrzR01) and CrzR-knockdown flies showed even more severe hangover-like phenotype, which is causally associated with fast accumulation of acetaldehyde in the CrzR01 mutant following ethanol exposure. Higher levels of acetaldehyde are likely due to 30% reduced ALDH activity in the mutants. Moreover, increased ADH activity was found in the CrzR01 mutant, but not in the Crz-CD flies. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed transcriptional upregulation of Adh gene in the CrzR01. Transgenic inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also results in significantly increased ADH activity and Adh mRNA levels, indicating PKA-dependent transcriptional regulation of Adh by CrzR. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA or cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in CrzR cells leads to comparable hangover-like phenotype to the CrzR01 mutant. These findings suggest that CrzR-associated signaling pathway is critical for ethanol detoxification via Crz-dependent regulation of ALDH activity and Crz-independent transcriptional regulation of ADH. Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism. PMID:24489834

  1. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

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    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  2. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  3. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  4. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  5. Rapid process for the conversion of xylose to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, G.B.; Levy-Rick, S.; Mahmourides, G.; Labelle, J.; Schneider, H.

    1990-02-27

    This invention concerns a method for producing ethanol from a substrate containing D-xylose. The process has two stages. In the first, cells of selected yeast species are cultured for several generations aerobically with D-xylose substantially the sole source of sugar, in order to condition the cells to D-xylose as a major carbon source. The cells are harvested when they are in a physiological state wherein ethanol productivity is maximal. Yeast species that function particularly well in this process include Candida fennica, C. insectorum, C. ishiwadae, C. silvanorum, C. steatolytica, Debaryomyces polymorphus (cantarelli), Pichia stipitis, and Schwanniomyces occidentalis. The cells are then concentrated and used in the second stage to inoculate a D-xylose-containing medium. The medium is fermented under conditions deficient in oxygen such that cells yield ethanol. The cells resulting from the second stage can be obtained from the first stage or recycled through the second stage many times, and when the efficiency of ethanol conversion of such cells falls, they can be recycled through the first stage. This process has been shown to provide high yields and high rates of production; yields equivalent to theoretical (0.5114 g ethanol/g xylose) have been obtained from 10% D-xylose in 17 hours. 4 figs.

  6. Interactions of cocaine with barbital, pentobarbital and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with the interactions of cocaine with barbital, pentobarbital and ethanol in nontolerant and tolerant male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cocaine hydrochloride (50 mg) pellets implanted s.c. in rats prior to the i.p. injections of sodium barbital (150 mg/kg dose once daily for 4 days) potentiated the hypothermic response 2 hr after the barbital injection, when maximum hypothermia occurred. The s.c. implantation of the same type of pellets prior to the i.p. injections of sodium pentobarbital (75 mg/kg dose once daily for 5 days) potentiated the pentobarbital hypnosis as measured by the duration of loss of the righting reflex in animals. Cocaine pellets (12.5 mg) implanted s.c. in rats potentiated the hypnosis induced by ethanol (3.2 g/kg i.p.) and the implantation of the same type of pellets (12.5, 25 mg) in ethanol-tolerant rats restored the ethanol hypnosis to levels observed in acutely treated animals. The course of tolerance development to barbital-induced hypothermia or pentobarbital hypnosis did not appear to be affected by cocaine. The possible role of central monoamines in the potentiation of barbital hypothermia and pentobarbital and ethanol hypnosis by cocaine is discussed. PMID:2774771

  7. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  8. Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Ma José; Oliva, José Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    Bioconversion of cereal straw to bioethanol is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional fuel ethanol production from grains. In this work, the best operational conditions for steam-explosion pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process were studied, using diluted acid [H2SO4 0.9% (w/w)] and water as preimpregnation agents. Acid- or water-impregnated biomass was steam-exploded at different temperatures (160-200 degrees C) and residence times (5, 10, and 20 min). Composition of solid and filtrate obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility and ethanol production of pretreated wheat straw at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best pretreatment conditions to obtain high conversion yield to ethanol (approx 80% of theoretical) of cellulose-rich residue after steam-explosion were 190 degrees C and 10 min or 200 degrees C and 5 min, in acid-impregnated straw. However, 180 degrees C for 10 min in acid-impregnated biomass provided the highest ethanol yield referred to raw material (140 L/t wheat straw), and sugars recovery yield in the filtrate (300 g/kg wheat straw).

  9. Decomposition and aromatization of ethanol on ZSM-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthos, R; Széchenyi, A; Solymosi, F

    2006-11-01

    The adsorption, desorption, and reactions of ethanol have been investigated on pure and promoted ZSM-5 catalysts. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the formation of a strongly bonded ethoxy species on ZSM-5(80) at 300 K. TPD experiments following the adsorption of ethanol on both ZSM-5 and Mo2C/ZSM-5 have shown desorption profiles corresponding to unreacted ethanol and decomposition products (H2O, H2, CH3CHO, C4H10O, and C2H4). The main reaction pathway of ethanol on pure ZSM-5 is the dehydration reaction yielding ethylene, small amounts of hydrocarbons, and aromatics. Deposition of different additives, such as Mo2C, ZnO, and Ga2O3 on zeolite, greatly promoted the formation of benzene and toluene at 773-973 K, very likely by catalyzing the aromatization of ethylene formed in the dehydration process of ethanol. Separate studies of the reaction of ethylene revealed that the previous additives markedly enhanced the selectivity and the yield of aromatics on ZSM-5.

  10. Production of fuel ethanol from molasses by thermotolerant yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxians, isolated from Kenana sugar factory in the Sudan, was used for the production of ethanol from molasses. Fermentations were carried out in a bioreactor with 10-litre working volume at three temperatures and three sugar concentrations in batch and at one temperature and three feeding rates in fed-batch processes. In the batch fermentations, the best results were obtained at 40 oC and 20% sugar, where a maximum of 9.2% (w/v) ethanol concentration was produced in 30 hours with a yield of 90% of the theoretical and a maximum ethanol specific productivity of 0.65 g per gramme yeast and hour. In the fed-batch process at 40 oC, the best results were obtained at 0.5 1/h feeding rate of a substrate with 400 g/1 sugar. Under such conditions, the yeast produced up to 9.34% (w/v) ethanol with 91.6% of the theoretical yield in 14 hours of fermentation and a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.9 g per gramme yeast and hour. (Author)

  11. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2010-07-01

    Membranes with low ethanol crossover were prepared aiming their application for direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). They were based on (1) sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) coated with carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and (2) on SPEEK/PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm and 400 nm thick layers) SPEEK were 8.5 and 3.1 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2) and for the homogeneous SPEEK/PI blends membranes with 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of PI were 4.4, 1.0 and 0.4 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2) respectively, which is 2- to 50-fold lower than that for plain SPEEK (19 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2)). Particularly the SPEEK/PI membranes had substantially better performance than Nafion 117 membranes in DEFC tests at 60 degrees C and 90 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial & Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Jia, Ren-Bing, E-mail: jrb19760517@hotmail.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Wang, De-Ming, E-mail: wdmdeming@hotmail.com; Lv, Ming-Ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@aliyun.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China)

    2015-06-15

    ObjectiveArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization and/or direct percutaneous puncture embolization were performed in the 16 patients. Pure or diluted ethanol was manually injected. The follow-up evaluations included physical examination and angiography at 1- to 6-month intervals.ResultsDuring the 28 ethanol embolization sessions, the amount of ethanol used ranged from 2 to 65 mL. The obliteration of ulceration, hemorrhage, pain, infection, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients was obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all the 16 patients, with down-staging of the Schobinger status for each patient. AVMs were devascularized 100 % in 3 patients, 76–99 % in 7 patients, and 50–75 % in 6 patients, according to the angiographic findings. The most common complications were necrosis and reversible blister. No permanent visual abnormality was found in any of the cases.ConclusionEthanol embolization is efficacious and safe in the treatment of AVMs in the periorbital region and has the potential to be accepted as the primary mode of therapy in the management of these lesions.

  13. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  14. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  15. Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols over Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts induced by ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Zhang; Xiaomei Yang; Lipeng Zhou; Yunlai Su; Zhongmin Liu

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol induced method was applied to prepare Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts for conversion of syngas to higher alcohols. The catalytic performance of the catalysts induced by ethanol was superior to that of the catalyst prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Among various procedures for ethanol induced method,it was found that incorporation of ethanol in the precipitation process was the better. After incorporation of ethanol,the crystal size of CuO decreased and the reduction of copper species became easier. The better activity of Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts prepared by ethanol induced procedures was probably caused by the higher dispersion of Cu species.

  16. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  17. Tolerance to ethanol-induced contractions of vascular smooth muscle: role of endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knych, E.T.; Guimaraes, C.M.S.; Boivin, S.

    1984-08-06

    Ethanol, at high concentrations, produced a dose-dependent contraction of male rat aortic rings, in vitro. Mechanical removal of endothelial cells from aortic rings of control rats resulted in a small, but significant, shift of the ethanol dose-response curve to the right without a change in the maximal contraction. Removing the endothelial cells of aortic rings obtained from rats intoxicated with ethanol for two days significantly shifted the ethanol dose-response curve to the left and significantly increased the maximal contraction induced by ethanol. A comparison of the ethanol dose-response curves in aortic rings with endothelium o

  18. IL-6-deficient Mice Are Susceptible to Ethanol-induced Hepatic Steatosis: IL-6 Protects against Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in the Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OsamaEl-Assal; FengHong; Won-HoKim; SvetlanaRadaeva; BinGao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-deficient mice are prone to ethanol-induced apoptosis and steatosis in the liver; however,the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress is an early event that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the protective role of IL-6 in ethanol-induced liver injury is mediated via suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of IL-6 on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, and energy depletion in the livers of IL-6 (-/-) mice and hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol consumption leads to stronger induction of malondialdehyde (MDA) in IL-6 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type control mice, which can be corrected by administration of IL-6. In vitro,IL-6 treatment prevents ethanol-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), MDA, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and ethanol-mediated depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. Administration of IL-6 in vivo also reverses ethanol-induced MDA and ATP depletion in hepatocytes. Finally, IL-6 treatment induces metallothionein protein expression, but not superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, IL-6 protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes v/a induction of metallothionein protein expression, which mav account for the nrotective role of IL-6 in alcoholic liver disease.

  19. IL-6-deficient Mice Are Susceptible to Ethanol-induced Hepatic Steatosis: IL-6 Protects against Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in the Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama El-Assal; Feng Hong; Won-Ho Kim; Svetlana Radaeva; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-deficient mice are prone to ethanol-induced apoptosis and steatosis in the liver; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress is an early event that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the protective role of IL-6 in ethanol-induced liver injury is mediated via suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of IL-6 on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, and energy depletion in the livers of IL-6 (-/-) mice and hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol consumption leads to stronger induction of malondialdehyde (MDA) in IL-6 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type control mice, which can be corrected by administration of IL-6. In vitro,IL-6 treatment prevents ethanol-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), MDA, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and ethanol-mediated depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. Administration of IL-6 in vivo also reverses ethanol-induced MDA and ATP depletion in hepatocytes. Finally, IL-6 treatment induces metallothionein protein expression, but not superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, IL-6 protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes via induction of metallothionein protein expression, which may account for the protective role of IL-6 in alcoholic liver disease.

  20. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  1. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...... loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity....

  2. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  3. The state of autotrophic ethanol production in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J; Armshaw, P; Sheahan, C; Pembroke, J T

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production directly from CO2 , utilizing genetically engineered photosynthetic cyanobacteria as a biocatalyst, offers significant potential as a renewable and sustainable source of biofuel. Despite the current absence of a commercially successful production system, significant resources have been deployed to realize this goal. Utilizing the pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas species, metabolically derived pyruvate can be converted to ethanol. This review of both peer-reviewed and patent literature focuses on the genetic modifications utilized for metabolic engineering and the resultant effect on ethanol yield. Gene dosage, induced expression and cassette optimizat-ion have been analyzed to optimize production, with production rates of 0·1-0·5 g L(-1) day(-1) being achieved. The current 'toolbox' of molecular manipulations and future directions focusing on applicability, addressing the primary challenges facing commercialization of cyanobacterial technologies are discussed.

  4. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongjianXu; XinpingLi; MeiyunZhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stagesand the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp hadbeen investigated, and the reason for higher kappanumber of the ethanol pulp was discussed. Theresults preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignincould re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiberclassification technology and explained the questionsfound during the study. Some measures were taken toreduce the kappa number, the results had shown thatthere was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolvedand the pulp with lower kappa number could beobtained at a higher temperature; the kappa numbercould reduce by increasing washing time; it couldenable dissolved lignin to separate out fi'om theethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption byblowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  5. Development of metal oxide impregnated stilbite thick film ethanol sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabole, M. P.; Lakhane, M. A.; Choudhari, A. L.; Khairnar, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the study of the sensing efficiency of Titanium oxide/ Stilbite and Copper oxide /Stilbite composites towards detection of hazardous pollutants like ethanol. Stilbite based composites are prepared by physically mixing zeolite with metal oxides namely TiO2 and CuO with weight ratios of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25. The resulting sensor materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy techniques. Composite sensors are fabricated in the form of thick film by using screen printing technique. The effect of metal oxide concentration on various ethanol sensing parameters such as operating temperature, maximum uptake capacity and response/recovery time are investigated. The results indicate that metal oxide impregnated stilbite composites have great potential as low temperature ethanol sensor.

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  7. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  8. Composition and ethanol production potential of cotton gin residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, Foster A; Batz, Sandra; Trumbo, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Cotton gin residue (CGR) collected from five cotton gins was fractionated and characterized for summative composition. The major fractions of the CGR varied widely between cotton gins and consisted of clean lint (5-12%),hulls (16-48%), seeds (6-24%), motes (16-24%), and leaves (14-30%). The summative composition varied within and between cotton gins and consisted of ash (7.9-14.6%), acid-insoluble material (18-26%), xylan (4-15%),and cellulose (20-38%). Overlimed steam-exploded cotton gin waste was readily fermented to ethanol by Escherichia coli KO11. Ethanol yields were feedstock and severity dependent and ranged from 58 to 92.5% of the theoretical yields. The highest ethanol yield was 191 L (50 gal)/t, and the lowest was 120 L (32 gal)/t. PMID:12721487

  9. Influence of high temperature and ethanol on thermostable lignocellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Jørgensen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic enzymes are among the most costly part in production of bioethanol. Therefore, recycling of enzymes is interesting as a concept for reduction of process costs. However, stability of the enzymes during the process is critical. In this work, focus has been on investigating...... the influence of temperature and ethanol on enzyme activity and stability in the distillation step, where most enzymes are inactivated due to high temperatures. Two enzyme mixtures, a mesophilic and a thermostable mixture, were exposed to typical process conditions [temperatures from 55 to 65 °C and up to 5...... % ethanol (w/v)] followed by specific enzyme activity analyses and SDS-PAGE. The thermostable and mesophilic mixture remained active at up to 65 and 55 °C, respectively. When the enzyme mixtures reached their maximum temperature limit, ethanol had a remarkable influence on enzyme activity, e.g., the more...

  10. Hydrothermal pretreatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplar biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment has been recognized as a key step in enzyme-based conversion processes of lignocellulose biomass to ethanol. The aim of this study is to evaluate two hydrothermal pretreatments (steam explosion and liquid hot water) to enhance ethanol production from poplar (Populus nigra) biomass by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The composition of liquid and solid fractions obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol production of poplar biomass pretreated at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best results were obtained in steam explosion pretreatment at 210 C and 4 min, taking into account cellulose recovery above 95%, enzymatic hydrolysis yield of about 60%, SSF yield of 60% of theoretical, and 41% xylose recovery in the liquid fraction. Large particles can be used for poplar biomass in both pretreatments, since no significant effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF was obtained.

  11. Ethanol-mediated metal transfer printing on organic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakov, Dmitry; Tondelier, Denis; Palacin, Serge; Bonnassieux, Yvan

    2011-03-01

    Ethanol-mediated metal transfer printing (mTP) is a soft method, which allows to efficiently deposit metals onto various organic surfaces for applications in organic electronics. This simple approach in based on the stronger adhesion of the metals to the organic materials in the presence of thin ethanol layer between the metallized PDMS and the substrate due to the capillary action. Patterns with a resolution of at least 20 μm have been obtained on organic polymeric materials and photoresists without heating or applied pressure. Compared to other methods ethanol mediated mTP is considerably faster and has smaller limitations on the stamp depth. Residual silicone layer detected on the metal surface after the transfer by XPS studies has been mostly removed by UV/ozone treatment. Organic field-effect transistors (OTFTs) based on the metal electrodes deposited by mTP have been successfully fabricated and tested.

  12. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  13. Novel zeolite-supported rhodium catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Skrobot, Fabiana C.; Rizzo-Domingues, Roberta C. P.; Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R. C.; Cantão, Mauricio P.

    Renewable bioethanol is an interesting hydrogen source for fuel cells through steam reforming, but its C-C bond promotes parallel reactions, mainly coke and by-products formation. In this way, good ethanol reforming catalysts are still needed, which explains current research and development efforts around the world. Most catalysts proposed for ethanol reforming are based on oxide-supported noble metals with surface area below 100 m 2 g -1 and reaction temperatures above 500 °C. Novel Rh and Rh-K catalysts supported on NaY zeolite with surface area above 440 m 2 g -1 are presented in this work. Reaction temperature was fixed at 300 °C and H 2O/EtOH molar ratio and reagent flow were varied. Ethanol conversion varied from 50 to 99%, with average increase of 50% due to K promoter, and hydrogen production yield achieved 68%.

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  15. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production.

  16. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  17. SIRT1 IS INVOLVED IN ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF CHRONIC ETHANOL FEEDING AND RESVERATROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Joan; French, Barbara A.; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Fu, Paul; French, Samuel W.

    2010-01-01

    Sirt1, a deacetylase involved in regulating energy metabolism in response to calorie restriction, is up regulated after chronic ethanol feeding using the intragastric feeding model of alcohol liver disease. PGC1α is also up regulated in response to ethanol. These changes are consistent with activation of the Sirt1/PGC1α pathway of metabolism and aging, involved in alcohol liver disease including steatosis, necrosis and fibrosis of the liver. To test this hypothesis, male rats fed ethanol intragastrically for 1 month were compared with rats fed ethanol plus resveratrol or naringin. Liver histology showed macrovesicular steatosis caused by ethanol and this change was unchanged by resveratrol or naringin treatment. Necrosis occurred with ethanol alone but was accentuated by resveratrol treatment, as was fibrosis. The expression of Sirt1 and PGC1α was increased by ethanol but not when naringin or resveratrol was fed with ethanol. Sirt3 was also up regulated by ethanol but not when resveratrol was fed with ethanol. These results support the concept that ethanol induces the Sirt1/PGC1α pathway of gene regulation and both naringin and resveratrol prevent the activation of this pathway by ethanol. However, resveratrol did not reduce the liver pathology caused by chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:18793633

  18. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  19. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAloon, Andrew [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Yee, Winnie [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  20. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  1. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  2. Ethanol-Induced Cerebellar Ataxia: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M Saeed

    2015-08-01

    The cerebellum is an important target of ethanol toxicity given that cerebellar ataxia is the most consistent physical manifestation of acute ethanol consumption. Despite the significance of the cerebellum in ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia (EICA), the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying EICA are incompletely understood. However, two important findings have shed greater light on this phenomenon. First, ethanol-induced blockade of cerebellar adenosine uptake in rodent models points to a role for adenosinergic A1 modulation of EICA. Second, the consistent observation that intracerebellar administration of nicotine in mice leads to antagonism of EICA provides evidence for a critical role of cerebellar nitric oxide (NO) in EICA reversal. Based on these two important findings, this review discusses the potential molecular events at two key synaptic sites (mossy fiber-granule cell-Golgi cell (MGG synaptic site) and granule cell parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (GPP synaptic site) that lead to EICA. Specifically, ethanol-induced neuronal NOS inhibition at the MGG synaptic site acts as a critical trigger for Golgi cell activation which leads to granule cell deafferentation. Concurrently, ethanol-induced inhibition of adenosine uptake at the GPP synaptic site produces adenosine accumulation which decreases glutamate release and leads to the profound activation of Purkinje cells (PCs). These molecular events at the MGG and GPP synaptic sites are mutually reinforcing and lead to cerebellar dysfunction, decreased excitatory output of deep cerebellar nuclei, and EICA. The critical importance of PCs as the sole output of the cerebellar cortex suggests normalization of PC function could have important therapeutic implications.

  3. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  4. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Ethanol Extract against Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn wound is a suitable site for incidence of resistant infections; thus, the research for finding effective drugs against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of Isfahan bee propolis extracts against beta-lactamase producing bacteria isolated from burn wound infections. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of Isfahan bee propolis was prepared by 28 g of propolis in 100 ml of 70% ethanol. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts were evaluated against beta-lactamase producing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated of burn wound infection by well diffusion method. Broth serial dilution method was used to determine MBC of extract. Beta-lactamase production of isolates was detected by iodometric test, imipenem-EDTA combined disk test and imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test. Results: Ethanol extract of propolis was found to be the most effective against S. aureus strains (inhibition zone=17.66±0.47 mm than P. aeruginosa strains (inhibition zone=7 mm. The MIC and MBC values of the extracts against S. aureus strains were 0.0143 and 0.0286 mg/ml and these values against P. aeruginosa strains were 0.75 and 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. Among the S. aureus clinical isolates, all of strains produced beta-lactamase. Imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test showed that only one clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa was metallo-beta-lactamase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ethanol extract of Isfahan bee propolis is mainly active against S. aureus and it is effective on P. aeruginosa at higher concentration. Ethanol extract of propolis did not inhibit production of beta-lactamase enzyme in tested bacteria.

  6. Applicability of unconventional energy raw materials in ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gumienna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The difficult position of Polish agriculture, including one of its branches, i.e. sugar industry, is conducive of search for solutions aiming at an improvement of the condition of industry. One of the potential solutions in this respect may be to focus on alternative raw materials and search for ways to overcome recession in renewable energy sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using non-starchy materials – sugar materials, without enzymatic treatment for ethanol production using selected yeast strains. Material and methods. Sugar beet pulp and thick juice, as a semi product from sugar beet, were fermented. The efficiency of the process was assessed using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae preparations – Ethanol Red, Fermiol. Fermentation was run for 72 h at 30°C. Quality of produced raw distillates was evaluated using the GC method. Results. The research on fermentation processes showed that sugar beet pulp let obtain higher ethanol yield – 87% of theoretical than sugar beet thick juice – 84% of theoretical, both for Ethanol Red and Fermiol yeast preparations. Moreover, it was exhibited that the increase of sugar concentration in the fermentation medium obtained from thick juice, statistically importantly influenced ethanol yield decrease, for both yeast preparations. The distillates’ quality analysis showed the influence of raw materials and microorganism used for fermentation on pollution degree. Distillate obtained from thick juice was characterised with the lowest by-products content after fermentation with Ethanol Red. Conclusions. The results make additional possibilities for sugar beet utilization in distillery industry and new markets using production surpluses both for sugar beet and its semi-product – thick juice.

  7. Sasol process technology - the challenge of synfuels from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N.

    1986-08-01

    Description is given of how the design challenges were met in commissioning the Sasol Two plant in 1980, a larger plant than Sasol One, and devoted to producing liquid fuels. The design parameters included treating South African coals of poor quality with high ash contents, and rapidity in building the plant.

  8. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H2 +CO2) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 10000F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH4 + H2O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR

  9. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  10. Synfuel program analysis. Volume 2: VENVAL users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddiman, J. B.; Whelan, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    This volume is intended for program analysts and is a users manual for the VENVAL model. It contains specific explanations as to input data requirements and programming procedures for the use of this model. VENVAL is a generalized computer program to aid in evaluation of prospective private sector production ventures. The program can project interrelated values of installed capacity, production, sales revenue, operating costs, depreciation, investment, dent, earnings, taxes, return on investment, depletion, and cash flow measures. It can also compute related public sector and other external costs and revenues if unit costs are furnished.

  11. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  12. Labor productivity in heavy construction: impact on synfuels program employment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusterer, K.C.

    1980-06-01

    This study focuses on variations in labor productivity in the heavy construction industry. Productivity is one of a number of factors likely to affect the speed and cost of constructing a synthetic fuels plant. The findings of this study are presented with reference to synthetic fuels plants, but they are relevant to other large energy facilities as well. The data were gathered through a detailed literature search and extensive in-depth interviews with consultants in heavy industrial construction, union officials, and management. In this manner the most important determinants of labor productivity were identified and ranked in terms of relative significance. The type of project under construction is the most important factor affecting the productivity of heavy construction labor. Projects characterized by the utility work syndrome are large, complex, relatively unique, highly regulated, and have cost-plus contracts and tight deadlines. Such projects generally have lower-than-average levels of labor productivity. Labor productivity is also lowered by worker and management morale problems, due to delays and design changes, and by high levels of unemployment among construction workers. Finally, boom town conditions, caused by workers moving to live near large projects located in rural areas, also are likely to result in below-average labor productivity.Synthetic fuels plants are likely to have a number of these identified characteristics. Consequently, the findings suggest that labor productivity may well be a problem for the timely development of an economically competitive synthetic fuels industry.

  13. Transportation impacts of increased ethanol production: A kansas case study

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the U.S. biofuel industry has driven the Kansas agricultural transportation market into a new era. Nationally, fuel alcohol production rose from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 9,239 million in 2008, a 467% increase. The number of ethanol production plants increased from 54 in January 2000 to 170 in January 2009, a 215% increase. Many factors have contributed to the growth of the U.S. ethanol industry. Energy security and energy independence from unstable foreign count...

  14. Adsorption of Water and Ethanol in MFI-Type Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2012-06-12

    Water and ethanol vapor adsorption phenomena are investigated systematically on a series of MFI-type zeolites: silicalite-1 samples synthesized via both alkaline (OH -) and fluoride (F -) routes, and ZSM-5 samples with different Si/Al ratios as well as different charge-balancing cations. Full isotherms (0.05-0.95 activity) over the range 25-55 °C are presented, and the lowest total water uptake ever reported in the literature is shown for silicalite-1 made via a fluoride-mediated route wherein internal silanol defects are significantly reduced. At a water activity level of 0.95 (35 °C), the total water uptake by silicalite-1 (F -) was found to be 0.263 mmol/g, which was only 12.6%, 9.8%, and 3.3% of the capacity for silicalite-1 (OH -), H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:140), and H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:15), respectively, under the same conditions. While water adsorption shows distinct isotherms for different MFI-type zeolites due to the difference in the concentration, distribution, and types of hydrophilic sites, the ethanol adsorption isotherms present relatively comparable results because of the overall organophilic nature of the zeolite framework. Due to the dramatic differences in the sorption behavior with the different sorbate-sorbent pairs, different models are applied to correlate and analyze the sorption isotherms. An adsorption potential theory was used to fit the water adsorption isotherms on all MFI-type zeolite adsorbents studied. The Langmuir model and Sircar\\'s model are applied to describe ethanol adsorption on silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 samples, respectively. An ideal ethanol/water adsorption selectivity (α) was estimated for the fluoride-mediated silicalite-1. At 35 °C, α was estimated to be 36 for a 5 mol % ethanol solution in water increasing to 53 at an ethanol concentration of 1 mol %. The adsorption data demonstrate that silicalite-1 made via the fluoride-mediated route is a promising candidate for ethanol extraction from dilute ethanol-water solutions. © 2012

  15. Water resource requirements of corn-based ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Mubako, Stanley; Lant, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol derived from fermentation of corn is a very water-intensive product with water to ethanol mass ratios of 927 to 1178 and volumetric ratios of 1174 to 1492 for the major rainfed corn-growing U.S. states of Illinois and Iowa and the leading irrigated corn-growing state of Nebraska, respectively. Over 99% of water requirements are for growing corn feed stocks, with 99% of that amount in Illinois and Iowa, occurring as evapotranspiration of rainfall in corn fields, and 60% as evapotranspi...

  16. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO2eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  17. Lipid peroxidation in ethanol poisoning: a critical reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianzani, M U

    1985-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver after ethanol administration to rats is discussed. A criticism of the methods used to measure lipid peroxidation is also given. Most authors who are in favour of the presence of lipid peroxidation after ethanol have used the detection of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reacting substances as a measure of lipid peroxidation. This test is not entirely satisfactory, because: (1) it is not specific; (2) it mostly measures malonaldehyde, a substance of low toxicity, following a 1-2 hr incubation time; (3) several aldehydes produced during lipid peroxidation do not react with TBA. However, it is now clear that the aldehydes produced during lipid peroxidation are actively metabolized by homogenates, so differences in catabolism may influence the result of a TBA test. Measurement of the diene conjugation band, the other test usually used to detect lipid peroxidation, produces information only on the presence of dienes at a given moment, but does not give any information on the production or decomposition rates of such dienes. Thus differences in production or decomposition kinetics may mask the results. Notwithstanding these criticisms, most of the evidence at present is in favour of some involvement of lipid peroxidation in ethanol intoxication. One hypothesis is that of the direct impact of ethanol-derived free radicals. Another is that ethanol provokes the formation of oxygen free radical species, which can start lipid peroxidation either directly, or by exhausting anti-oxidant substances in the cell so as to change the balance in favour of increased peroxidation. Finally, a third hypothesis is that acetaldehyde, the main product of ethanol oxidation, is able to stimulate lipid peroxidation, possibly through the formation of free radicals, or depletion of levels of antioxidant substances. Experiments consisting of measuring total glutathione (GSH and GSSG) during lipid peroxidation stimulated by ethanol

  18. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Barbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol.

  19. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were compared with control and zone of inhibition values were compared with standard ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel KAHRAMAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that consumption of R. cristatus DC can be beneficial effects due to its antioxidant properties

  1. Equilibrium data on ethanol-water-solvent ternaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirbaslar, I.; Cehreli, S.; Ustun, D.; Keskinocak, E. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). School of Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering. E-mail: krbaslar@istanbul.edu.tr

    2000-06-01

    Experimental liquid equilibria of water-ethanol and water-ethanol-1-decanol systems were investigated at 303.16{+-} o.20 K. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. distribution coefficients (D{sub i}) and separation factors (S) were evaluated for the immiscibility region. It is concluded that the solvents with high boiling point, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol, are suitable separation agents for dilute aqueous ethyl alcohols solutions. (author)

  2. Equilibrium data on ethanol-water-solvent ternaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kirbaslar

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of water-ethanol-1-nonanol and water-ethanol-1-decanol systems were investigated at 303.16± 0.20 K. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. Distribution coefficients (Di and separation factors (S were evaluated for the immiscibility region. It is concluded that the solvents with high boiling point, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol, are suitable separating agents for dilute aqueous ethyl alcohol solutions.

  3. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic)thyroid nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Erich Apitzsch. M.D.; Staedtische Paracelsusklinik; Marl, Germany

    2005-01-01

    @@ Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy(PElT) has been established as an interventional method of the ablation of hepatic malignancies, especially hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), since long. Its effects are based on cellular dehydration,toxic and coagulation necrosis and thrombosis of small venules within the tumour. The result is fibrosis of the damaged tissue, loss of function and shrinkage. Hence the "ablative" effect of absolute(95%) ethanol. The more confined ally lesion the better the ablative effect due to the high concentration of the toxic liquid. Highest effects will be achieved in encapsulated nodules which prevent diffusion of the toxic agent into surrounding normal tissue which is the case in HCC.

  4. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south, creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

  5. Production of ethanol from blackstrap molasses by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstrap molasses was analyzed for its composition and its fermentation was brought about by the yeast S. cerevisiae at predetermined optimal environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, Sugar concentration, and incubation period. The results revealed that sugar concentration 17%, pH 4.5, temperature 30 C and incubation period of 72 hours were the optimal conditions for producing maximum (73 g/l) ethanol. Clearance of molasses by 20% single superphosphate enhanced ethanol production by only 0.2%. (author)

  6. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, M.; Arun, A.; Elumalai, M.; S. Kiruthika; Muthukumaran, B.

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a ...

  7. Transient Behavior of Ethanol Fermentation in Immobilized Cell Bioreactors*

    OpenAIRE

    Tohru, KANNO; Yoshinori, FUJISHIGE; Hiroyuki, Ito; koichi, yamazaki; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of ethanol fermentation catalysed by an immobilized cell has been studied in batch and continuous stirred tank bioreactors, changing the operating conditions in a stepwise fashion. The rate of ethanol fermentation in the flow reactor reaches a new steady state within 60 min for the stepwise change in temperature or flow rate at 15〜30℃ and the residence time t_R=40 hr. The rate of fermentation obeys the Lineweaven-Burk plot and the Michaelis constant is calculated

  8. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  9. Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Levko, D

    2012-01-01

    The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  11. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. ...

  12. Evaluation of antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena using forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Dolati

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Although ethanolic extract did not have antidepressant effect, we cannot rule out this effect altogether. In our opinion, antidepressant effect is masked by CNS depression effect of ethanolic extract of R. damascena.

  13. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  14. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  15. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  16. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Ju, Hyunsu; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <0.2% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 were observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. PMID:24625836

  17. The Pathogenesis of Ethanol versus Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gyamfi, Maxwell Afari; Damjanov, Ivan; French, Samuel; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The differences and similarities of the pathogenesis of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were examined. Mice (6/group) received 1 of 4 Lieber-Decarli liquid diets for 6 weeks: (1) paired-fed control diet; (2) control diet with ethanol (ethanol); (3) paired-fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet; and (4) MCD plus ethanol (combination). Hepatotoxicity, histology, and gene expression changes were examined. Both MCD and ethanol induced macrovesicular steatosis. Howeve...

  18. Network Effects in Alternative Fuel Adoption: Empirical Analysis of the Market for Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Scott K. Shriver

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of network effects in the demand for ethanol-compatible vehicles and the supply of ethanol fuel retailers. An indirect network effect, or positive feedback loop, arises in this context due to spatially-dependent complementarities in the availability of ethanol fuel and the installed base of ethanol-compatible vehicles. Marketers and social planners are interested in whether these effects exist, and if so, how policy might accelerate adoption of the ethan...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and compounds from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2008-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora was tested against human pathogens,including bacteria, yeast and dermatophyte fungi, using the agar disc diffusion. The ethanol extract exhibited strong antifungalactivity against dermatophytes with clear zone values from 10.7-19.8 mm at concentration of 2 mg/disc. However,ethanol extract showed no activities against all bacteria and yeast tested. The ethanol extract and seven compounds of K.parviflora were further stu...

  20. Mianserin, but not Ondansetron, reduces the locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol in preweanling rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ariaslow, Carles; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    During infancy rats are highly sensitive to the locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol, an effect particularly observed when they are tested during the rising phase of the blood ethanol curve and in a novel environment. According to a recent study infant rats require some degree of stress to get stimulated after being challenged with ethanol. Ethanol-induced stimulation in preweanling rats required the activation of CRH-1 receptors. Considering these antecedents, we explored modulation of th...