WorldWideScience

Sample records for 8-year prospective study

  1. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  2. Hypoadiponectinemia predicts impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: an 8-year prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XIAO Yang; LIU Hui; CHEN Xiao-yan; LI Xin-ying; TANG Wei-li; LIU Shi-ping; XU Ai-min; ZHOU Zhi-guang

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic properties.The aim of this study was to investigate whether low adiponectin levels predict the impairment of endothelial function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients in an 8-year prospective study.Methods In the prospective study,we enrolled 133 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without subclinical atherosclerosis and gave them intensive therapy; the mean treatment period was 8 years.Intensive treatment was a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacological therapy targeting hyperglycaemia,hypertension,dyslipidaemia and obesity.We measured baseline circulating adiponectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation by high-resolution vascular ultrasound.At year 8,102 patients were reexamined for endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation.Results Sex-adjusted adiponectin level was positively correlated with endothelium-independent vasodilation both at baseline (r=0.150,P=0.043) and at year 8 (r=0.339,P=0.001),whereas no association was found between adiponectin and endothelium-dependent vasodilation.In a stepwise multivariate linear regression model,adiponectin was an independent predictor for impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation at year 8 (P=0.001).Conclusions Plasma adiponectin concentration was associated with endothelium-independent vasodilation and hypoadiponectinemia predicted the impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients under multifactorial intervention.These data support the causative link of impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation with hypoadiponectinemia.

  3. Prospective study of the cementless "New Wave" total knee mobile-bearing arthroplasty: 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Xavier; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Ragot, Jean-Marie; Verdier, Régis; Aslanian, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    One of the main factors affecting the survival of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the fixation method. The constraints placed on the bone-implant interface of a mobile-bearing TKA must be taken in account during the design and evaluation phases. For more than two decades, calcium phosphate ceramics, particularly hydroxyapatitis, have been used in Europe to accelerate the bone integration of cementless implants. A prospective study of patients continuously recruited by three senior surgeons at three French private hospitals has been carried out. There were no exclusion criteria. Eighty-four (84) cementless mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis of the brand "New Wave" were implanted in 74 patients over a 2-year period (2004-2005). Implant survival at 8 years was 95% [with a confidence interval of 95%: 80.2-96.4%] when revision for any cause was defined as the endpoint. Five implants required surgical revision to exchange all or part of the implant: two for aseptic loosening of tibial component, one for osteolysis, one for persistent flessum (30°) and one for tibial periprosthetic fracture. Completely integrated implants and event-free outcomes were recorded in 91.4% of the cases at eight-year follow-up. The Hospital for Special Surgery score significantly improved from 56.8/100 points before the surgery to 83.9/100 points at the last follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiologically, only one patient had radiolucent lines around the tibial and femoral components. This cementless total knee prosthesis yielded good medium-term survival. Cementless arthroplasty can generate solid and durable bone fixation in this total weight-bearing implant, and it seems that the hidroxyapathitis surface in this series stimulate the bone integration at the bone-implant interface.

  4. More-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with low bone density: an 8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L; Bliuc, D; Stanford, P; Eisman, J A; Center, J R

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between more-than-minimal-trauma fractures and bone density. This study demonstrated that more-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with lower bone density similar to that seen in minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture should be investigated to exclude low bone density.

  5. High beverage sugar as well as high animal protein intake at infancy may increase overweight risk at 8 years: a prospective longitudinal pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, J.M. Peter; Kool, M. Laura; Baar, M. van Nicolien; Zee, C. van der Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food rec

  6. Fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a 8-year prospective study Infecções fúngicas em pacientes neutropênicos: estudo prospectivo de 8 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a eight-year prospective study designed to further characterize incidence, epidemiology, specific syndromes, treatment and prognosis associated with fungal infections in neutropenic patients. During the study period 30 fungal infections were diagnosed in 30 patients among 313 episodes of fever and neutropenia (10%. There were 15 cases of candidiasis, 5 pulmonary aspergillosis, 3 sinusitis by Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infections by Fusarium sp., one infection by Trichosporon sp., and one infection due to Rhodotorula rubra. Blood cultures were positive in 18 cases (60%. The predisposing factors for fungal infection in multivariate analysis were the presence of central venous catheter (pCom o objetivo de melhor caracterizar incidência, epidemiologia, síndromes específicas, tratamento e prognóstico associado com infecções fúngicas sistêmicas em pacientes neutropênicos foi feito um estudo prospectivo de 8 anos. Durante este período foram diagnosticadas 30 infecções fúngicas em 30 pacientes neutropênicos febris (10%. Houve 15 casos de candidíase, 5 aspergiloses pulmonares, 3 sinusites por Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infecções por Fusarium sp., uma infecção por Trichosporon sp., e uma infecção por Rhodotorula rubra. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 18 casos (60%. Os fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em análise multivariada foram: presença de cateter venoso central (p<0,001, duração maior de neutropenia <100/mm³ (p<0,001, uso de corticosteróides (p<0,001, bacteremia por germes gram-positivos (p=0,002 e idade menor (p=0.03. Em análise multivariada apenas recuperação da neutropenia (p<0,001 esteve associada com bom prognóstico, enquanto que o diagnóstico de infecção por Fusarium sp. (p=0,006 se correlacionou com um mau prognóstico. A taxa de óbito foi de 43%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas taxas de óbito em pacientes que receberam (52% ou não (50% terapia anti

  7. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  8. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age: the PIAMA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M. van de; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H.A.; Jongste, J.C. de; Aalberse, R.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. METHODS: Event history analysis was

  9. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  10. Four Years Prospective Study of Natural History of Atopic Dermatitis Aged 7~8 Years at an Individual Level: A Community-Based Survey by Dermatologists' Skin Examination in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jee; Yun, Sook Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong Jin; Won, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent change in atopic dermatitis (AD) at an individual level has mostly performed in a hospital-setting. Objective We evaluated the age-dependent change of AD symptoms at an individual level in a community-setting. Methods For the diagnostic accuracy, all participants of schoolchildren were received skin examination by dermatologists (twice a year for the same group), instead of questionnaire-based surveys. For this study, sequential check-ups of 273 elementary school children, aged 7~8 years, were performed for 4 years up to the age of 10~11 years. Results Among the 47 AD children, who had been diagnosed as having AD at the first-year check-up, spontaneous remission was detected in nine children during the follow-up periods (remission rate of 19.1%). As a consequence, the one-year AD prevalence was decreased by 5.9% in the elementary schoolchildren over four years. Unexpectedly, late onset (after 8 years of age) AD was observed in 21.7% of AD children. There was no statistically significant relationship between spontaneous remission and host factors including sex and family history of atopic diseases. Conclusion We observed that 19.1% of AD children in the age group of 7~11 years showed spontaneous remission based on skin examination by dermatologists. There might be an increase in the prevalence of late onset AD in Korea. PMID:27904266

  11. Orthodeoxia and postural orthostatic tachycardia in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: a prospective 8-year series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirapala, V; Chamali, B; McKernan, H; Tighe, H C; Williams, L C; Springett, J T; Bellenberg, H R; Whitaker, A J; Shovlin, C L

    2014-11-01

    Postural changes in 258 patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) reviewed between 2005 and 2013 were evaluated prospectively using validated pulse oximetry methods. Of the 257 completing the test, 75 (29%) demonstrated orthodeoxia with an oxygen saturation fall of at least 2% on standing. None described platypnoea (dyspnoea on standing). The heart rate was consistently higher in the erect posture: 74 (29%) had a postural orthostatic tachycardia of ≥20 min(-1), and in 25 (10%) this exceeded 30 min(-1). Orthostatic tachycardia was more pronounced in PAVM patients than controls without orthodeoxia (age-adjusted coefficient 5.5 (95% CIs 2.6, 8.4) min(-1), ppostural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, in this population, there was a trend for more pronounced orthostatic tachycardia to be associated with better exercise tolerance.

  12. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference. The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI (rho = 0.81. Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

  13. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  14. Relationships matter in personality development: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Franz J; Lehnart, Judith

    2007-06-01

    Personality-relationship transactions were investigated in a general population sample of young German adults with three assessments over 8 years. Four general findings were obtained. First, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences in change. Second, bivariate latent growth models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with change in peer and family relationships. Third, forming a partner relationship for the first time moderated the maturation of personality. This finding was replicated over two subsequent time intervals with independent subgroups. Fourth, higher neuroticism and higher sociability predicted which of the singles began a partner relationship during the next 8 years. The results confirm that individual differences in personality development predict and result from life transitions and relationship experiences.

  15. A STUDY OF LUNG PATHOLOGY IN PEDIATRICS AUTOPSIES: AN 8 YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majethia Nikhil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the number one killer of children, taking the lives of 1.3 million in 2011 alone. More than 99% of all pneumonia deaths occur in developing countries. The majority of pneumonia cases are preventable and treatable, but clinical diagnosis is highly fallible in many cases and the frequency of morbid state is best assessed by post-mortem examination that may reveal diagnosis which may not be suspected clinically or may, in some way, discredit. AIMS: 1. To ascertain various pulmonary lesions in paediatric deaths. 2. To find incidence of pulmonary lesions. 3. To study the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, 4. To find incidence of pulmonary pathology directly and indirectly contributing to the death. SETTINGS: Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: In this study pediatric age group of (0-15 years admitted in IPCU,NICU and Pediatric, Medicine and Surgery unit are included from the period of 2006-2013. The lung pathology in various diseases entities were studied and co-related with age, sex and clinical history. RESULTS: Of total 3606 autopsies, 642 were pediatric autopsies i.e. 17.8% of all autopsies, and 111 were neonatal autopsies. Of 642, 531(82.7% had primary lung pathology and 157(24.4% had secondary lung pathology. The common age group affected is < 5 years. Bronchopneumonia was the commonest pathology observed as primary lung pathology. Interstitial/viral pneumonia was 2nd most common of primary lung pathology Infective pathology was the most common lesions, of which bronchopneumonia was the most common pathology observed and tuberculosis contributed to 3%of primary lung pathologies. CONCLUSION: The most common lung lesion in pediatric age is infections, which are preventable and curative with appropriate measures. This study will help to improve mother child health services

  16. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  17. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at thre

  18. An 8-year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine, M.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu; Rubesin, S.E.; Laufer, I. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for diagnosing gastroparesis in patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms. Materials and methods: Radiology files revealed gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on upper gastrointestinal tract barium studies in 50 patients with nausea, vomiting, and other related symptoms. Original reports and images were reviewed to determine whether gastric peristalsis was decreased/absent and to investigate gastric dilatation, fluid or debris, and delayed emptying of barium. Twenty patients (40%) had nuclear gastric emptying studies. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presentation, treatment, and course. The diagnosis of gastroparesis was considered accurate if patients with gastroparesis on barium studies responded to treatment. Results: Forty-six patients (92%) had predisposing factors for gastroparesis, including narcotics and diabetes. Forty-five patients (90%) presented with nausea or vomiting, and 40 patients (80%) had one or more other symptoms, including bloating, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Barium studies revealed decreased gastric peristalsis in 46 (92%) of the 50 patients and absent peristalsis in four (8%); 46 patients (92%) had additional findings, including gastric dilatation in 30 (60%), delayed emptying of barium in 27 (54%), debris in 28 (56%; bezoars in three), and retained fluid in 13 (26%). Thirteen (65%) of 20 patients with nuclear gastric emptying studies had delayed emptying of solids and seven (35%) had normal emptying. Thirty-five (83%) of 42 patients treated for gastroparesis had symptomatic improvement versus two (25%) of eight patients not treated. Conclusion: Patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms who have gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on barium studies can be treated for this condition on the basis of the clinical and radiographic findings.

  19. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  20. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  1. Renal histology in pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: 8-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana W Minz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The need to perform reporting of renal biopsies of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA-associated vasculitides in a more uniform manner required relook at our eight-year data. Aims: To document detailed renal histopathology of pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and also to seek any significant differences in renal histology of C-ANCA-positive, P-ANCA-positive, and ANCA-negative patients. Materials and Methods: A detailed analysis of the histopathologic features of renal biopsies of 48 patients in whom a diagnosis of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis was concluded on renal biopsy and who presented clinically as rapidly progressive renal failure was done. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Pearson Chi square tests. Results: Compared with ANCA +ve patients, the ANCA -ve patients were much younger (46.85 ± 16.12 years vs 34.28±15.94 years. No significant differences were found between renal lesions of C-ANCA, P-ANCA, and ANCA-negative patients, except for diffuse tubular atrophy which was more severe and more frequently present with P-ANCA positivity (P value=0.013. Conclusions: Pauci-immune RPGN (irrespective of ANCA status is a relatively rare disorder in patients who are undergoing the renal biopsy at our institute, constituting 2% of all renal biopsies submitted. It is mandatory to have ANCA serology status during reporting of a kidney biopsy showing pauci-immune crescentic or necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Also, if a uniform reporting strategy is followed throughout the country, the studies from this vast country will be comparable.

  2. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCSBCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the risk of lameness. Low BW (independent of BCS) and increased age at first

  3. Early-life determinants of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations in 8-year-old children; the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adolescents is scarce and conflicting. We investigated the influence of 6 different perinatal risk factors on childhood total and HDL cholesterol concentrations and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio measured at 8 years of age, and additionally we studied the role of the child's current Body Mass Index (BMI. METHODS: Anthropometric measures and blood plasma samples were collected during a medical examination in 751 8-year-old children participating in the prospective Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study. Linear and logistic regression were performed to estimate associations of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations with breastfeeding, birth weight, infant weight gain, maternal overweight before pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal smoking during pregnancy, taking into account the child's current BMI. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed an association between total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (β = 0.15, Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.02, 0.28, rapid infant weight gain (β = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.26, and maternal smoking during pregnancy (β = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.29. These associations were partly mediated by the child's BMI. CONCLUSION: Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in 8-year-old children was positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid infant weight gain.

  4. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  5. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A;

    2009-01-01

    Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International...

  6. Clinical Significance of Optic Disc Progression by Topographic Change Analysis Maps in Glaucoma: An 8-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kourkoutas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3 Topographic Change Analysis (TCA map to predict the subsequent development of clinical change, in patients with glaucoma. Materials. 61 eyes of 61 patients, which, from a retrospective review were defined as stable on optic nerve head (ONH stereophotographs and visual field (VF, were enrolled in a prospective study. Eyes were classified as TCA-stable or TCA-progressed based on the TCA map. All patients underwent HRT3, VF, and ONH stereophotography at 9–12 months intervals. Clinical glaucoma progression was determined by masked assessment of ONH stereophotographs and VF Guided Progression Analysis. Results. The median (IQR total HRT follow-up period was 8.1 (7.3, 9.1 years, which included a median retrospective and prospective follow-up time of 3.9 (3.1, 5.0 and 4.0 (3.5, 4.7 years, respectively. In the TCA-stable eyes, VF and/or photographic progression occurred in 5/13 (38.4% eyes compared to 11/48 (22.9% of the TCA-progressed eyes. There was no statistically significant association between TCA progression and clinically relevant (photographic and/or VF progression (hazard ratio, 1.18; P=0.762. The observed median time to clinical progression from enrollment was significantly shorter in the TCA-progressed group compared to the TCA-stable group (P=0.04. Conclusion. Our results indicate that the commercially available TCA progression criteria do not adequately predict subsequent photographic and/or VF progression.

  7. Metal-on-metal hip prostheses and systemic health: a cross-sectional association study 8 years after implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Prentice

    Full Text Available There is public concern over the long term systemic health effects of metal released from hip replacement prostheses that use large-diameter metal-on-metal bearings. However, to date there has been no systematic study to determine which organs may be at risk, or the magnitude of any effect. We undertook a detailed cross-sectional health screen at a mean of 8 years after surgery in 35 asymptomatic patients who had previously received a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR versus 35 individually age and sex matched asymptomatic patients who had received a conventional hip replacement. Total body bone mineral density was 5% higher (mean difference 0.05 g/cm², P = 0.02 and bone turnover was 14% lower (TRAP 5b, mean difference -0.56IU/L, P = 0.006; osteocalcin, mean difference -3.08 ng/mL, P = 0.03 in the hip resurfacing versus conventional hip replacement group. Cardiac ejection fraction was 7% lower (mean absolute difference -5%, P = 0.04 and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 6% larger (mean difference 2.7 mm, P = 0.007 in the hip resurfacing group versus those patients who received a conventional hip replacement. The urinary fractional excretion of metal was low (cobalt 5%, chromium 1.5% in patients with MoMHR, but creatinine clearance was normal. Diuretic prescription was associated with a 40% increase in the fractional excretion of chromium (mean difference 0.5%, P = 0.03. There was no evidence of difference in neuropsychological, renal tubular, hepatic or endocrine function between groups (P>0.05. Our findings of differences in bone and cardiac function between patient groups suggest that chronic exposure to low elevated metal concentrations in patients with well-functioning MoMHR prostheses may have systemic effects. Long-term epidemiological studies in patients with well-functioning metal on metal hip prostheses should include musculoskeletal and cardiac endpoints to quantitate the risk of clinical disease.

  8. Kidney diseases associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): an 8-year observational study at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Escudier, Bernard; Lhomme, Catherine; Pautier, Patricia; Rouvier, Philippe; Gueutin, Victor; Baumelou, Alain; Derosa, Lisa; Bahleda, Rastilav; Hollebecque, Antoine; Sahali, Djillali; Soria, Jean Charles

    2014-11-01

    Expanded clinical experience with patients taking antiangiogenic compounds has come with increasing recognition of the renal adverse effects. Because renal histology is rarely sought in those patients, the renal consequences are underestimated. Antiangiogenic-treated-cancer patients, who had a renal biopsy for renal adverse effects from 2006 to 2013, were included in the current study. Clinical features and renal histologic findings were reviewed. Our cohort was 100 patients (58 women) with biopsy-proven kidney disease using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy with a mean age of 59.8 years (range, 20-85 yr). Patients were referred for proteinuria, hypertension, and/or renal insufficiency. Kidney biopsy was performed 6.87 ± 7.18 months after the beginning of treatment. Seventy-three patients experienced renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and 27 patients had variable glomerulopathies, mainly minimal change disease and/or collapsing-like focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (MCN/cFSGS). MCN/cFSGS-like lesions developed mainly with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, whereas TMA complicated anti-VEGF ligand. Thirty-one percent of TMA patients had proteinuria up to 1 g/24 h. Half of TMA cases are exclusively renal localized. Pathologic TMA features are intraglomerular exclusively. MCN/cFSGS glomeruli displayed a high abundance of KI-67, but synaptopodin was not detected. Conversely, TMA glomeruli exhibited a normal abundance of synaptopodin-like control, whereas KI-67 was absent. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1-80 mo). Fifty-four patients died due to cancer progression. Hypertension and proteinuria resolved following drug discontinuation and antihypertensive agents. No patient developed severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Drug continuation or reintroduction resulted in a more severe recurrence of TMA in 3 out of 4 patients requiring maintenance of anti-VEGF agents despite renal TMA. In conclusion, TMA and MCN/cFSGS are the most

  9. A prospective 8-year follow-up of posterior resin composite restorations in permanent teeth of children and adolescents in Public Dental Health Service: reasons for replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Halken, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: the aim of the study was to investigate reasons for replacement and repair of posterior resin composite (RC) restorations placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service in Denmark. Material and method: all posterior RC placed consecutively...

  10. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2013-11-01

    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

  11. a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rörster, Elisa geb. Pätel

    2012-01-01

    Bulk fractures only occur on very rare occasions in bilayered all-ceramic crowns, where as veneer fractures, above all chippings, still present a frequent amount of clinical complications. The purpose of the current prospective study was to examine the clinical performance of an anatomically modified framework for a period of two years. All crowns were manufactured following the Cercon process (DeguDent GmbH, Hanau). As is common practice, the frameworks for the control group were made of ...

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25 was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2% in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population.

  13. Change in HbA1c levels between the age of 8 years and the age of 12 years in Dutch children without diabetes: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Jansen

    Full Text Available HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years.Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires.We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7 mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1 %/yr. Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years.The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time.

  14. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...... girls by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the forearm and calcaneus. An accelerometer registered the level of physical activity during 4 days (2 weekdays and the weekend). Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured. In order to establish thresholds (count . min(-1)) for bone......-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...

  15. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones.

  16. Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline): a study of 8 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    In this study we assessed, by simultaneous recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and pattern-electroretinograms (PERGs), the effects cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) on retinal function and/or visual cortical responses in glaucoma patients. Thirty glaucoma patients were randomly divided into two age-matched groups: patients in group GC (15 patients) were treated with citicoline (1,000 mg/die intramuscularly) for 2 months; patients in group GP (15 patients) were treated with placebo for 2 months. After 4 months of wash-out (month 6), GC patients underwent a further 2-month period of citicoline treatment (months 7-8) followed by another 4-month period of wash-out (months 9-12). In GP patients the wash-out was extended for a further 6 months (months 7-12). During the following 13-96 months, GC patients received additional 2-month periods of treatment with citicoline (each period followed by 4 months of wash-out) for a total of 16 periods in 8 years. GP patients were also examined at months 24, 26, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. In GC patients the first two treatments with citicoline induced a significant (p citicoline treatment in GC patients during the subsequent 13-96 months induced a greater (p citicoline significantly improves retinal and cortical bioelectrical responses in glaucoma patients, suggesting a potential use of this substance in the medical treatment of glaucoma, as a complement to hypotensive therapy.

  17. Perceived Motor Competence Differs From Actual Performance in 8-Year-Old Neonatal ECMO Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, L.C.; Cammen-van Zijp, M.H. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Heijst, A.F. van; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess perceived motor competence, social competence, self-worth, health-related quality of life, and actual motor performancein 8-year-old survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: In a prospective nationwide study, 135 children completed the extended

  18. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino-Maija Eloranta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective: To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design: We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213 and boys (n=217 aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results: Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake, vitamin D (32%, potassium (20%, calcium (39%, magnesium (17%, and zinc (16%. Vegetable oils (15% and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14% were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27% and iron (12%. Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14% and vitamin C (22%. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion: Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education

  19. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and

  20. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Conclusions Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  1. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-03-15

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

  2. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  3. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Tumati

    Full Text Available Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400 and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286. Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study may be associated with better cognitive function.

  4. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function.

  5. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  6. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  7. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  8. The usage of playing studies for development of spatial reasoning of 5-8-year-old children with spastic diplegi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlapachenko O.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article is shown the influence of rehabilitation-correction program with the usage of outdoor games on the level of influence of spatial thinking and constructive activity of 5-8-year-old children with spastic diplegi. 64 children took part in the experiment, all had main diagnosis - children cerebral paralysis, spastic diplegi. The experiment was conducted in a few phases during the year. It is proved that conducting of outdoor games promote positive influence on forming the level of influence of spatial thinking of children, increasing capacity of work. It is revealed that the level of development of spatial thinking of children with spastic diplegi depends on clinical display of an illness. It is mentioned that involving parents for participation in games with children promote rehabilitation of children in home conditions.

  9. Efficacy of single and multi-metric fish-based indices in tracking anthropogenic pressures in estuaries: An 8-year case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Filipe; Nyitrai, Daniel; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-12-15

    Facing a generalized increase in water degradation, several programmes have been implemented for protecting and enhancing the water quality and associated wildlife, which rely on ecological indicators to assess the degree of deviation from a pristine state. Here, single (species number, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou J') and multi-metric (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index, EFAI) community-based ecological quality measures were evaluated in a temperate estuary over an 8-year period (2005-2012), and established their relationships with an anthropogenic pressure index (API). Single metric indices were highly variable and neither concordant amongst themselves nor with the EFAI. The EFAI was the only index significantly correlated with the API, indicating that higher ecological quality was associated with lower anthropogenic pressure. Pressure scenarios were related with specific fish community composition, as a result of distinct food web complexity and nursery functioning of the estuary. Results were discussed in the scope of the implementation of water protection programmes.

  10. Long-term Reduction in Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke with 7,8 Years of Intensified, Multifactorial Intervention in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria in the Steno-2 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ) and cerebrovascular disease. Methods: The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8 years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria that were randomly assigned to either conventional therapy or intensified, multifactorial treatment including both behavioral and pharmacological......Introduction: Intensified multifactorial intervention for 7.8 years in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria increased life length and reduces complication rates. The present analysis is a sub-study examining the long-term effects specifically on coronary artery disease (CAD...... approaches. After 7.8 years the study continued as an observational follow-up with all patients offered treatment as for the original intensive-therapy group. The primary end-point of this sub-analysis of the follow-up, 21.2 years after intervention start was the relative risk reduction in CAD (defined...

  11. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  12. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R; Leeson Payne, C; G Lister; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  13. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adol

  14. Transcranial Doppler, MRA, and MRI as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in patients with sickle cell anemia: an 8-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Allison, J.W.; James, C.A.; Kinder, D.L.; Cox, K.S.; Lairry, F.; Graves, R.A. [Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kirby, R.S.; Flick, E.L. [Center for Ambulatory Research, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Becton, D.L.; Jackson, F.J. [Dept. of Hematology, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Objective. The authors previously reported five transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) findings as significant in detecting clinical cerebrovascular disease in a 4-year study in patients with sickle cell disease. This is a follow-up to evaluate the validity of the original findings over another 4-year period during which the study population doubled. A clinical follow-up of the original asymptomatic sickle cell patients with positive TCD, MRA, and MRI was also made. Results. Of the 4 out of original 46 control patients in 1992 who had positive MRA and TCD, 3 have subsequently had clinical stroke. None of the 9 original patients with positive TCD and positive MRI but negative MRA have developed stroke. All five original TCD indicators of disease were still significant (P<0.05) for detecting clinical disease: maximum velocity in ophthalmic artery (OA)>35 cm/s, mean velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) >170 cm/s, resistive index (RI) in OA<50, velocity in OA greater than in MCA, and velocity in posterior cerebral (PCA), vertebral, or basilar arteries greater than in MCA. Four additional factors were also significant: turbulence, PCA or ACA without MCA, RI<30, and maximum velocity in MCA>200 cm/s. (orig.)

  15. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  16. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  17. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  18. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental “circumstance” with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development. PMID:28114381

  19. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Daniel; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development.

  20. Exercises may be as efficient as subacromial decompression in patients with subacromial stage II impingement: 4-8-years' follow-up in a prospective, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2006-01-01

    with graded physiotherapy and exercises or arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Outcomes were proportion of time per year with income transfers (indexed 0-1), including total transfers (marginalization), sick leave and disability pension obtained from the registry at the Ministry of Work. Self......-reported function, working capability, employment status and global improvement were obtained by questionnaire in September 2004. The main outcomes are given as differences in development from baseline. RESULTS: Seventy-nine (88%) responded to the questionnaire and registry data were obtained from 81. After 1 year...

  1. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren;

    1978-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut...

  2. Neurocutaneous syndrome: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radheshyam Purkait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocutaneous syndromes (NCS are a group of genetic disorders that produce a variety of developmental abnormalities of the skin along with an increased risk of neurological complications. Cutaneous manifestations usually appear early in life and progress with time, but neurological features generally present at a later age. There is a paucity of data regarding the evolution of skin lesions and their correlation with the central nervous system involvement in children. Aim: The primary objective was to track the course of skin lesions in various forms of NCS in the pediatric age group. Our secondary aim was to assess whether there was any predictive value of the lesions in relation to the neurological manifestations. Materials and Methods: This prospective longitudinal study was conducted at a tertiary care pediatric dermatology referral clinic of the Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal. Children between the age group 0 and 12 years were included in the study on the basis of standard diagnostic criteria for different NCS, during the period from March, 2000 to February, 2004, and each of the enrolled cases were followed up for a duration of six years. Results: The study population comprised of 67 children (35 boys, 32 girls.The mean age of presentation was 33.8±27.8 months (range 10 days to 111 months. The various forms of NCS observed was neurofibromatosis 1(NF1 (n=33, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC (n=23, Sturge Weber syndrome (n=6, ataxia telangiectasia (n=2, PHACE syndrome (n=1, incontinentia pigmenti (n=1, and hypomelanosis of Ito (n=1. The presentations were varied, ranging from predominantly cutaneous to primarily neurological, depending on the disease entity and age group concerned. There was a significant increase in the number of café au lait macules (CALMs with time (P=0.0002 in NF1, unlike that of hypopigmented macules of TSC (P=0.15. Statistically, no relation was documented between the evolution of skin

  3. Five- to 8-year results of the uncemented Duracon total knee arthroplasty system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana, Rishi; Shenava, Yatish; Nicholl, Alison P; Lusted, Felicity J; Skinner, Paul W; Gibb, Paul A

    2008-08-01

    We report prospective clinical and radiographic outcomes of a series of 219 hydroxyapatite-coated Duracon (Stryker Howmedica Osteonics Corporation, Kalamazoo, Mich) total knee arthroplasties with a follow-up of 5 to 8 years. Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), and SF-12 Health Status Questionnaire were used. Analysis of fluoroscopic radiographs was performed with the American Knee Society Score. All living patients (186 knees) were followed up. Twenty-eight patients (30 knees) had died. The preoperative Knee Society Score of 43.8 increased to 77.1 and the preoperative Function score of 20.3 increased to 63.4. WOMAC scores showed marked improvement (pain, 250 preoperatively to 157; stiffness, 115 preoperatively to 56; and function, 910 preoperatively to 588). There was no radiographic evidence of loosening or migration. Gaps visible at the bone-implant interface healed over the first year. Three prostheses were revised, 2 for deep infection and 1 for tibial tray subsidence. A survivorship of 98.6% has been achieved at 8 years. This intermediate-term study with 100% follow-up at 8 years demonstrates excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes. It is our opinion that these are comparable to the gold standard cemented total knee arthroplasties and may have advantages over other uncoated cementless designs.

  4. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  5. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut......Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out...... of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  6. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34]), uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25]), APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67]), cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48]), and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]); however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71), 0.90 (0.85–0.96), and 0.29 (0.20–0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers. PMID:28133615

  7. Shevchenko Study: "Eternal" Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varenikova Olena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the definitions of some Ukrainian researchers in the field of Shevchenko study during the 1st third of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries, concerning the unlimited subject of studies, analyses some social-scientific correlation that contributes to the phenomenon of "always new Shevchenko study".

  8. A retro- and prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reference ranges of hematological parameters in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the one hand. We especially looked at the automatically measured hematocrit and the absolute reticulocyte count. On the other hand the causes and the severity of anemia in pet rabbits were studied. The reference range for the automatically measured hematocrit of 68 healthy pet rabbits was between 0,33 and 0,45 l/l. The reference range for reticuloc...

  9. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014 in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra-Gabriela Socolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08–1.35], foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21–1.48], episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34], uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25], APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67], cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48], and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]; however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]. The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]: anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17], low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18], pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00], anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17], and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]. The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71, 0.90 (0.85–0.96, and 0.29 (0.20–0.41, while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  10. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities.

  11. A retro- and prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Madel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological findings of pet rabbits with azotemia (plasma creatinine concentration > 166 µmol/l) and to differentiate prerenal, renal [acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF)] and post renal azotemia using several criteria. In addition, the course and causes of azotemia were evaluated and compared between azotemia groups. In a period of 13 years (2000 to 2013), data from 161 pet rabbits (50 animals p...

  12. LICHENSTEIN TENSION FREE MESH HERNIOPLASTY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Mesh inguinal hernioplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgery by general surgeons. One of the significant problems following hernia repair is recurrence. Prosthetic materials like polypropylene mesh has been used for inguinal hernia repair and has many advantages like low recurrence rates, less postoperative pain, decreased hospital stay and fewer complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 432 open Lichenstein tension-free inguinal mesh hernioplasty was performed between June 2004 and May 2014. Various parameters regarding postoperative complications were studied. RESULTS: In 432 cases, inguinal hernia was indirect in 59.03% of cases (255 cases, direct in 36.57% (158 cases and of the pantaloon (mixed type in 4.39% (18 cases. Mean age of patients was 50.8 years (range 19–92. The median follow-up period was 2.1 years (range 1 month–5 years. Seroma and hematoma formation requiring drainage was observed in 9 and 11 patients, respectively, while transient testicular swelling occurred in 28 patients. We have not observed acute infection or abscess formation related to the presence of the foreign body (mesh. There was one recurrence of the hernia. Residual neuralgia was observed in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: Lichtenstein Tension-free mesh hernioplasty has many advantages of being simple, effective, low recurrence rate, early return to daily activities and good patient compliance and satisfaction. This technique is preferable for hernia repair in our setting.

  13. The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnt, Hayley; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to prospectively examine the role of peer and media influences in the development of body satisfaction (incorporating the desire for thinness and satisfaction with appearance) in young girls, as well as the relationship between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A sample of 97 girls 5-8 years of age completed individual interviews…

  14. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI. An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0 and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years. Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85% and 7 (54% patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI.

  15. Complications of ERCP: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Matzen, Peter; Schulze, Svend;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of ERCP-related morbidity seldom include a sufficient patient follow-up. The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the frequency of complications, cardiopulmonary untoward events in particular. METHODS: All patients undergoing ERCP during a 2-year period were...... included in this prospective study. Complications were assessed at the time of ERCP and by postal/telephone contact at 30-days after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 1177 ERCPs were included in the analysis, of which 56.2% were therapeutic. The 30-day complication rate was 15.9%; the procedure...... occurred in relation to 5% of the ERCP procedures (3 deaths). Cardiorespiratory complications occurred in 2.3% (2 deaths). Dilated bile duct ( p = 0.0001), placement of stent ( p = 0.001), and use of more than 40 mg of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide ( p complications by multivariate...

  16. Histidinaemia. Part III: Impact; a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, J T; Kammerer, B L; Levy, H L; Hirsch, B Z; Scriver, C R

    1983-01-01

    We describe a prospective study of histidinaemia. Probands and siblings (n = 21) with typical histidinaemia in 16 families were ascertained by newborn screening; diagnosis was confirmed by appropriate investigations in each subject; none had been treated by low histidine diet. The median age of subjects with histidinaemia was 9.5 y (mean 10.0, SD 3.5, range 6-18). Age-matched sib-pairs and their mothers were studied. IQ scores (Full Scale, Verbal and Performance Scores), Visual-Motor Integration Performance (Bender Gestalt and Koppitz scores), Wide Range Achievement Test (Reading and Mathematics), school performance, and psychological history were evaluated, as well as the medical history (pregnancy, delivery, neonatal, post-natal development). Findings were correlated with biochemical phenotype. CNS development in histidinaemic subjects (mean and distribution of scores) was normal; outlier values did not correlate with degree of histidinaemia. We can conclude that histidinaemia detected by newborn screening is a non-disadaptive phenotype.

  17. ADOLESCENT GYNAECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT/BACKGROUND Adolescence, meaning “To grow up,” is a transitional stage of physical, sexual and mental human development occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The Government of India in National Youth Policy defines adolescents as individuals between 13 to 19 yrs. of age. AIMS To study the magnitude of different adolescent gynecological problems in patients attending OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Prospective study in patients attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SAMPLE SIZE: 75 METHODS AND MATERIALS Seventy five adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 yrs. attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, from November 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. Detailed history, general examinations and investigations were done to evaluate their health. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS Incidence of gynecological problem in our study was 3.33%. Different gynecological problems were menstrual disorders (60%, leucorrhoea (10.66%, infections (8%, ovarian cyst (5.33%, sexual assault (2.66%, teenage pregnancy (10.66% and infertility (2.66%. Majority of girls with menstrual disorders suffered from puberty menorrhagia (55.55%. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was diagnosed in 96% of girls suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was exclusively seen in married adolescent girls. Vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen were causes of primary amenorrhoea. PCOD was commonest cause of secondary amenorrhoea amongst adolescents. CONCLUSION Menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescent girls. Setting up adolescent clinics is desirable.

  18. Early pituitary-gonadal activation before clinical signs of puberty in 5- to 8-year-old adopted girls: a study of 99 foreign adopted girls and 93 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete Katrine; Boas, Malene; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking.......Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking....

  19. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  20. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Shripatrao Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best.   Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP, partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP, and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG   Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG.   Conclusion:  With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded.  

  1. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Shripatrao Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best.   Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP, partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP, and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG   Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG.   Conclusion:  With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded.

  2. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury.

  3. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  4. Effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy and anthropometrics at birth on offspring metabolic profile at 2.8 years - results from the Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring (LiPO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are linked to offspring adverse metabolic profile, and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women may have long-term positive effect on their children. Furthermore, although the association between birth weight and later metabolic...... outcomes is well established, little is known about the predictive value of abdominal circumference at birth. Objectives: To study: i) effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women on offspring metabolic risk factors and ii) predictive values of birth weight (BW) and birth abdominal...... circumference (BAC). Design: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial; the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study Setting: Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark Participants: Offspring of LiP study participants (n=157) and offspring of normal weight mothers (external reference group, ER, n=97...

  5. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  6. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula.

  7. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities.

  8. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. RESULTS: The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%, 39 men (68.42%, 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%, 16 literate (28.07 % and 30 married (52.63%. The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32% at time zero to 17 (29.82% after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28% before and 10 (17.54% after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14% to 28 (49.12%, and severe of three (5.26% for two (3.51% patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory.

  9. A prospective PET study of patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Blinkenberg, M; Lassen, U;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the post-surgical metabolic and structural cerebral changes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined ten patients prospectively with newly diagnosed GBM. All patients were primarily treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy...

  10. Prospects for study of tectono-geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Focusing on fault tectono-geochemistry, the authors will illustrate four aspects of the fault tectono-geochemistry and its research prospects: (1) the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements and their differentiation and dissipation sequence; (2)mineral veins, secondary inclusions, sync-deformation fluids and their micro-kinetic analyses; (3) pressure intensity, temperature grads,solution concentration and their coupled correlation system; (4) tectonic stress fields, rheologic physical fields, geochemical fields and digital modeling of parameters. The four aspects are unique in their own systems and related to one another. A unified explanation of spatial and temporal evolution can be obtained in combination with the geodynamics and tectonic chronology.

  11. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  12. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Kratimenos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint.

  13. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  14. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with(out) ECMO: impaired development at 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madderom, M.J.; Toussaint, L.; Cammen-van Zijp, M.H. van der; Gischler, S.J.; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Tibboel, D.; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate developmental and social-emotional outcomes at 8 years of age for children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), treated with or without neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) between January 1999 and December 2003. DESIGN: Cohort study with structural prosp

  15. Retention of fetal bones 8 years following termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Hasan Onur; Şimşek, Bilge Şener; Taşdemir, Umit; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Doğanay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies; in particular, fetal bones may present with a variety of clinical symptoms and signs including infertility, vaginal discharge, disparonia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding. Many case reports were described post- abortal removal of retained fetal bone at varying time intervals from the previous (D&E), ranging from weeks to years. In our case, a 34-year-old woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and secondary infertility, her only pregnancy being a termination 8 years previously at 15 weeks' gestation. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed a normal-sized, normal-shaped uterus with an echogenic scarred endometrium. After then office hysterescopy revealed fragments of the immature bone. All the immature bones were removed by operative hysterescopy. Significant numbers of patients may have endometrial pathology; the differential diagnosis of such unusual findings on ultrasound examination includes intrauterine contraceptive devices, foreign bodies, calcified submucous fibroids and Asherman's syndrome, as well as rarities such as heterotopic bone. The presence of this pathology may be a causal or contributory factor to subfertilty, and will remain undetected if the endometrium is not routinely evaluated. Indeed, these cases highlight the advantage of performing a hysteroscopy at the same time as the more invasive laparoscopy and dye insufflation, in selected cases.

  16. Prospective studies on diet and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of prospective studies on fatty acids, B-vitamins and arginine and the occurrence of coronary heart disease have been described. The results presented are mainly based on the Zutphen Elderly Study. In this study of 939 men aged 64-84 years, detailed information was availa

  17. Work Disability After Whiplash A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t

  18. Work disability after whiplash : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t

  19. Determinants of depression in chronic stroke : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Kwakkel, Gert; Bruin, Margje; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients. Methods. Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and thr

  20. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, respon

  1. Personality and substance use disorders: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Bartholow, B D; Wood, M D

    2000-10-01

    The personality systems of Cloninger (as measured by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire [TPQ]) and Eysenck (as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire [EPQ]) both have been linked to substance use and abuse. The current study examined the predictive utility of both systems for substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Participants (N = 489 at baseline) completed the EPQ and TPQ and were assessed via structured diagnostic interview at baseline and 6 years later (N = 457 at follow-up). Both the EPQ and TPQ scales demonstrated bivariate cross-sectional and prospective associations with SUDs. Within each system, those dimensions marking a broad impulsive sensation-seeking or behavioral disinhibition trait were the best predictors prospectively, although the 2 systems were differentially sensitive to specific diagnoses. These relations remained significant even with autoregressivity, other concurrent SUD diagnoses, and multiple personality dimensions statistically controlled.

  2. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, S. E.; Stampfer, M.J.; Seddon, J. M.; Colditz, G A; Rosner, B; Speizer, F. E.; Willett, W C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the association between dietary intake of vitamins C and E, carotene, and riboflavin and cataract extraction in women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study beginning in 1980 with eight years of follow up. SETTING--11 states of the United States. PARTICIPANTS--Female registered nurses who were 45 to 67 years of age. 50,828 women were included in 1980 and others were added as they became 45 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of extraction of senile cat...

  3. Data management for prospective research studies using SAS® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehr David R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining data quality and integrity is important for research studies involving prospective data collection. Data must be entered, erroneous or missing data must be identified and corrected if possible, and an audit trail created. Methods Using as an example a large prospective study, the Missouri Lower Respiratory Infection (LRI Project, we present an approach to data management predominantly using SAS software. The Missouri LRI Project was a prospective cohort study of nursing home residents who developed an LRI. Subjects were enrolled, data collected, and follow-ups occurred for over three years. Data were collected on twenty different forms. Forms were inspected visually and sent off-site for data entry. SAS software was used to read the entered data files, check for potential errors, apply corrections to data sets, and combine batches into analytic data sets. The data management procedures are described. Results Study data collection resulted in over 20,000 completed forms. Data management was successful, resulting in clean, internally consistent data sets for analysis. The amount of time required for data management was substantially underestimated. Conclusion Data management for prospective studies should be planned well in advance of data collection. An ongoing process with data entered and checked as they become available allows timely recovery of errors and missing data.

  4. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  5. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  6. A Prospective Study of Perception in Adolescent Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This prospective study examined how environmental smoking affects the perception of lifetime smoking prevalence and thereby the likelihood of subsequent regular smoking. Methods - A longitudinal design (N = 6769) with three waves was used to test our research questions. Exposure to smoking

  7. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  8. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS IN MODERN CHILDREN 7-8 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebneva, N.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of comparative evaluation of children’s physical development level (7-8 years old over a twelve-year period (1999-2012. The study revealed drastic decrease in the number of children with average (normal level of physical development and its disharmony, which is mainly caused by excessive body weight. Increase in body weight depends on the sex: the indicators among girls are twice as high as same indicators for boys. It is assumed that decrease in physical development level of modern children 7-8 years of age is caused by nutritional inferiority, irrational nutrition and decline in physical activity, particularly due to the start formal schooling.

  9. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research...... to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means...... are "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...

  10. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research...... are "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...... to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means...

  11. Nationwide Prospective Study of Outcomes after Elective Incisional Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia repair is a frequent surgical procedure, but perioperative risk factors and outcomes have not been prospectively assessed in large-scale studies. The aim of this nationwide study was to analyze surgical risk factors for early and late outcomes after incisional hernia...... in open repair were significant risk factors for poor late outcomes (p rates of readmission and reoperation for recurrence. Readmission and reoperation for recurrence were most pronounced after open repair and repair for hernia...... repair. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nationwide study on all elective incisional hernia repairs registered in the Danish Ventral Hernia Database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Main outcomes measures were surgical risk factors for 30-day readmission, reoperation (excluding...

  12. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-07

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes.

  13. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals for maintenance dialysis treatment are to improve patient survival, reduce patient morbidity, and improve patient quality of life. This is the first randomized prospective study comparing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......, dialysis-related complications, dialysis-related expenses. RESULTS: The quality-of-life studies showed that significantly more time for work, family, and social activities was available to patients on APD compared to those on CAPD (p

  14. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    hormone therapy, nonprescription hormones (e.g., melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone), black cohosh, tamoxifen, raloxifene, diabetes medication...The follow-up was conducted in collaboration with another NIH-funded study, the “Epidemiology of Type-2 Diabetes ” study, which is a prospective cohort...The re-call included participants without history of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and clinically defined type-2 diabetes at baseline interviewed

  15. CLINICO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA BREAST: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and the second most cause of death in cancer. Over the past several decades there has been increase in incidence of the disease. Analysis of the incidence, clinical presentations, various risk factors, accuracy of FNAC and frozen section, incidence of various pathological types, stage at presentation and ER, PR, HER-2/neu status. METHODS In this prospective study, 51 consecutive patients who were diagnosed to have carcinoma breast admitted between April 2013 to April 2014 in the Department of Surgery, Rajarajeshwari Hospital, Bangalore, were included in the study. A detailed clinical history was elicited from all patients at the time of admission. All patients who had triple assessment evidence of malignancy were worked up for surgery with necessary investigations. Written consent was obtained from each patient for surgery. After data collection, it was checked, verified, edited manually for consistency to reduce error. Descriptive and graphical methods were used in analysing the data. The important variables were considered and analysed to fulfil the objective of the study. RESULTS In our study, the incidence of carcinoma breast is 5.6 per 1000, 32% of them were between 41-50 year age group, 63.3% had early menarche, 14.3% were nulliparous. Nearly 84.3% of them presented with lump of which 54% left sided involving upper outer quadrant 54.9%. Most cases belong to stage II and stage III at the time of presentation. FNAC was done in all cases with accuracy rate of 82.4%, followed by frozen section which showed about 71.4% of accuracy for those false negative cases. CONCLUSION Various risk factors in relation to breast carcinoma have been proved. As most of the cases presented late in our series because of lack of awareness, proper awareness and early screening by breast self-examination and mammogram should be emphasized. FNAC proved to be a simple and reliable procedure

  16. Why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentations: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Ana Mafalda Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão Hoteleira e Turismo/ JEL codes: L83; M31 This dissertation is a qualitative study about why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentation even though they earn a small incentive for doing so. The Hoffman and Bateson’s decision process model is used as a broad theoretical framework. On this basis and the inputs of managers and off-premise contact (OPC) representatives of a Marketing company located in Orlando, Florida, USA, five main lik...

  17. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the sam...

  18. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the sam...

  19. Blood pressure is associated with occult cardiovascular disease in prospectively studied Hodgkin lymphoma survivors after chest radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming Hui; Blackington, Lauren H; Zhou, Jing; Chu, Tammy F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Marcus, Karen J; Fisher, David C; Diller, Lisa R; Ng, Andrea K

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to prospectively screen a cohort of asymptomatic long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with chest irradiation for occult cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlate screen-detected disease with prospectively measured cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs). A total of 182 HL survivors treated with chest irradiation (median follow-up time 14.8 years) were enrolled and underwent prospective CRF measurement and resting and stress echocardiography to assess coronary artery disease (CAD)/valve disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Forty-seven (26%) patients had occult CAD/valve disease and/or LVSD. LVSD was not correlated with CRFs. Controlling for treatment factors, hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0) and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 2.7) increased the likelihood of occult CAD/valve disease. Risk of CAD/valve disease rose exponentially with increasing blood pressure (BP) values, even in the normal range. Our findings suggest that BP screening may be useful in determining those survivors at greatest risk for occult CVD.

  20. Prospective economical study of the nuclear power file; Etude economique prospective de la filiere electrique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, J.M. [Commissariat General du Plan, 75 - Paris (France); Dessus, B. [Ecodev-CNRS, 92 - Meudon (France); Pellat, R. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    On May 7, 1999 an economical study of the overall nuclear file, and in particular, of the back-end part of the fuel cycle and including the reprocessing, was requested by the French Prime Minister. This study includes the cost comparisons with the other means of power production and takes into consideration the environmental costs. The study is shared into five chapters dealing with: 1 - the legacy of the past: todays park of nuclear plants, economical and material status; 2 - the international evolution: the dynamics of nuclear policies worldwide (existing parks and R and D programs), the rise of environmental problems worldwide (CO{sub 2} and the climate convention, nuclear risks, attempts of including environment in the power costs), the choices made for the management of spent fuels in the main countries; 3 - the technological prospects for the power production and use: technologies for the mastery of power demand (residential, industrial and tertiary sectors, power transportation), technologies of power production (production from nuclear, fossil and renewable energies); 4 - prospective scenarios for France: two demand scenarios at the year 2050 vista (energy, electric power), power supply (supply structure with respect to scenarios, nuclear parks, power capacities), environmental aspects (CO{sub 2} emissions, plutonium and minor actinides production); 5 - the economical status of the different scenarios: data preparation, fossil fuel price scenarios, investment and operation costs of the different power production means (nuclear, fossil and renewable energies, natural gas and power distribution networks), comparison between fluxes and cumulated economic costs linked with the different scenarios (investments, exploitation, fuels, R and D, status for 2000 to 2050), time structure of expenditures with respect to the different scenarios (chronology, statuses, kWh costs, sensitivity with respect to the rate of discount, valorization of existing parks in 2050

  1. Stapedotomy in osteogenesis imperfecta : a prospective study of 32 consecutive cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Robert; Wegner, Inge; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate hearing outcomes in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta undergoing primary stapes surgery and to isolate prognostic factors for success. STUDY DESIGN: A nonrandomized, open, prospective case series. SETTING: A tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-five con

  2. Primary stapedotomy in children with otosclerosis : A prospective study of 41 consecutive cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Robert; Wegner, Inge; Vonck, Bernard M D; Bittermann, Arnold J; Kamalski, Digna M A; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To prospectively evaluate hearing outcomes in children with otosclerosis undergoing primary stapes surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A nonrandomized, nonblinded, prospective case series. METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive pediatric patients who underwent 41 primary stapedotomies for otoscl

  3. Neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction An 8-year bibliometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Du; Xiaoxia Yang; Hong Song; Bo Chen; Lin Li; Yue Pan; Qiong Wu; Jia Li

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To identify global research trends in neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science.DATA RETRIEVAL:We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrieval for neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction containing the key words "CT,magnetic resonance imaging,MRI,transcranial Doppler,transvaginal color Doppler,digital subtraction angiography,and cerebral infarction" using the Web of Science.SELECTION CRITERIA:Inclusion criteria were:(a) peer-reviewed articles on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles and reviews; and (c) publication between 2004-2011.Exclusion criteria were:(a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; and (b) corrected papers or book chapters.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:(1)Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country;(3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction.RESULTS:Imaging has become the predominant method used in diagnosing cerebral infarction.The most frequently used clinical imaging methods were digital subtraction angiography,CT,MRI,and transcranial color Doppler examination.Digital subtraction angiography is used as the gold standard.However,it is a costly and time-consuming invasive diagnosis that requires some radiation exposure,and is poorly accepted by patients.As such,it is mostly adopted in interventional therapy in the clinic.CT is now accepted as a rapid,simple,and reliable non-invasive method for use in diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease and preoperative appraisal.Ultrasonic Doppler can be used to reflect the hardness of the vascular wall and the nature of the plaque more clearly than CT and MRI.CONCLUSION:At present,there is no unified standard of classification of cerebral infarction

  4. Vitamin D and hypertension: Prospective study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dan; Nie, Xiao-lu; Wu, Shouling; Cai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to determine the link between vitamin D concentrations and incident hypertension in prospective study and meta-analysis. Methods The study was embedded in the Kailuan Study, a population-based cohort of adults that contains underground miners. In 2012, we studied 2,456 men and women free of prevalent hypertension, age 21 to 67 at baseline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured from previously frozen baseline samples using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoadSorbent Assay). We use the logistic regression analysis to estimate the odd radio (ORs) 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with incident hypertension. To help place our new data in context, we conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective reports of vitamin D and hypertension. Results During a median follow-up of 2 years, 42.6% of the cohort (n = 1047) developed hypertension. Compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D >30ng/ml, 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin D deficiencies and incident hypertension (HRs = 1.235 (95% CI: 1.083 to 1.409, p = 0.002)). Conclusion Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with a greater risk of incident hypertension. More research is needed to further determine the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in hypertension prevention and therapy. PMID:28358827

  5. The Stability of Extreme Response Style and Acquiescence Over 8 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Lüdtke, Oliver; Zettler, Ingo; Böhnke, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the stability of extreme response style (ERS) and acquiescence response style (ARS) over a period of 8 years. ERS and ARS were measured with item sets drawn randomly from a large pool of items used in an ongoing German panel study. Latent-trait-state-occasion and latent-state models were applied to test the relationship between time-specific (state) response style behaviors and time-invariant trait components of response styles. The results show that across different random item samples, on average between 49% and 59% of the variance in the state response style factors was explained by the trait response style factors. This indicates that the systematic differences respondents show in their preferences for certain response categories are remarkably stable over a period of 8 years. The stability of ERS and ARS implies that it is important to consider response styles in the analysis of self-report data from polytomous rating scales, especially in longitudinal studies aimed at investigating stability in substantive traits. Furthermore, the stability of response styles raises the question in how far they might be considered trait-like latent variables themselves that could be of substantive interest.

  6. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.;

    2008-01-01

    between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...... of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated...

  7. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about psychologi......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...... stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological...

  8. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  9. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  10. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  11. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  12. A Prospective Study of Nonsuppurative Complications of Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group A Streptococci (GAS are the most important bacterial cause of pharyngitis. Antibiotic therapy can be prescribed and failure to treat it is associated with suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. Nonsuppurative complications occur after a latency period of a few weeks and include acute rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococci. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of nonsuppurative complications in properly treated children with GAS pharyngitis. Methods: We investigated the frequency of nonsuppurative complications in 1030 proven GAS pharyngitis patients between 5 and 15 years old, who were properly treated by a prospective observational study. All patients diagnosed with GAS pharyngitis were followed up prospectively using a standard form for six months made by monthly phone calls. Results: All the isolates recovered from the patients were susceptible to penicillin. Twentyseven (2.6% patients developed scarlet fever. No other nonsuppurative complications occured in our patient cohort. Conclusions: Penicillin remains the drug of choice for treatment of GAS pharyngitis. The rate of nonsuppurative complications of GAS pharyngitis has decreased significantly in the antibiotic era. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 8-11

  13. Hypnosis and dental anesthesia in children: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Adeline; Lucas-Polomeni, Marie-Madeleine; Robert, Jean-Claude; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Wodey, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this prospective study initially hypothesized that hypnosis would lower the anxiety and pain associated with dental anesthesia. Thirty children aged 5 to 12 were randomly assigned to 2 groups receiving hypnosis (H) or not (NH) at the time of anesthesia. Anxiety was assessed at inclusion in the study, initial consultation, installation in the dentist's chair, and at the time of anesthesia using the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (mYPAS). Following anesthesia, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a modified objective pain score (mOPS) were used to assess the pain experienced. The median mYPAS and mOPS scores were significantly lower in the H group than in the NH group. Significantly more children in the H group had no or mild pain. This study suggests that hypnosis may be effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children receiving dental anesthesia.

  14. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  15. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  16. progress and prospects for studies on chinese amphibians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    this work summarizes the history and progress of the studies on chinese amphibians since they first appeared in the chinese literature.a wide range of research has been carried out,including the history of the definition of amphibians,faunal surveys,systematic research,ecological research,biochemical research (isozyme and other proteins or peptides,chromosomes,dna),anatomical research,embryological research,phylogenetic and zoogeographical research,and many others such as ultrastructure of organs,crossbreeding test,regeneration of organs,abnormality survey,acoustics,fossils,sperm ultrastructure and parasites.in addition,the prospects for studies on chinese amphibians in future are proposed in this paper.

  17. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    to these three diagnostic categories. Twelve-year-old children destined to develop a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum deviated significantly from healthy controls on a number of personality characteristics: they were rated significantly lower than controls on intelligence, concentration, maturity......Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...... schizophrenia spectrum disorder in adult life. In 1972, 265 children at an average age of 12 (90 with at least one schizophrenic parent) from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort participated in a 1-day follow-up during which they were in contact with seven examiners who rated their personality by means...

  18. Prospective Clinical Study of Precision Oncology in Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Davendra P S; Rini, Brian I; Khorana, Alok A; Dreicer, Robert; Abraham, Jame; Procop, Gary W; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Pennell, Nathan A; Stevenson, James P; Pelley, Robert; Estfan, Bassam; Shepard, Dale; Funchain, Pauline; Elson, Paul; Adelstein, David J; Bolwell, Brian J

    2016-03-01

    Systematic studies evaluating clinical benefit of tumor genomic profiling are lacking. We conducted a prospective study in 250 patients with select solid tumors at the Cleveland Clinic. Eligibility required histopathologic diagnosis, age of 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and written informed consent. Tumors were sequenced using FoundationOne (Cambridge, MA). Results were reviewed at the Cleveland Clinic Genomics Tumor Board. Outcomes included feasibility and clinical impact. Colorectal (25%), breast (18%), lung (13%), and pancreatobiliary (13%) cancers were the most common diagnoses. Median time from consent to result was 25 days (range = 3-140). Of 223 evaluable samples, 49% (n = 109) of patients were recommended a specific therapy, but only 11% (n = 24) received such therapy: 12 on clinical trials, nine off-label, three on-label. Lack of clinical trial access (n = 49) and clinical deterioration (n = 29) were the most common reasons for nonrecommendation/nonreceipt of genomics-driven therapy.

  19. The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2004-01-01

    . Exposure assessments comprise respiratory, intestinal, and skin microbiology; the child's diet; indoor and outdoor air quality; allergens; and indicators of lifestyle. Genetic characteristics of probands and parents are evaluated. Quality assurance follows Good Clinical Practice guidelines. RESULTS: Four....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships among genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors in the development of atopic diseases in high-risk children with the aim of developing evidence-based prevention strategies. METHODS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood is a single......-center, birth cohort study of children of asthmatic mothers. Objective assessments begin at birth, with scheduled visits every 6 months and when acute symptoms manifest. Clinical outcomes comprise preasthma, asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness...

  20. Prospective capillaroscopy-based study on transition from primary to secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernero, E; Sulli, A; Ferrari, G; Ravera, F; Pizzorni, C; Ruaro, B; Zampogna, G; Alessandri, E; Cutolo, M

    2013-10-31

    The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the transition from primary (PRP) to secondary (SRP) Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), in a large cohort of patients affected by isolated RP. A total of 2065 patients with RP were investigated by clinical interview, laboratory examinations, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC). Patients with negative NVC at first visit were yearly followed to monitor either the appearance of specific morphological alterations at NVC, or clinical manifestations of an underlying disease. Capillary abnormalities at NVC were scored, as well as the qualitative patterns of microangiopathy (Early, Active and Late). NVC was found negative at first visit in 1500 subjects; among them, 412 patients were evaluable and they were followed for a mean time of 5±4 years (range 2-13 years). Sixty-eight patients (16%) achieved a diagnosis of SRP during follow-up, showing normal or not specific capillary alterations at NVC 4% of patients (the diagnosis was undifferentiated connective tissue diseases), Early scleroderma-pattern 57%, Active scleroderma-pattern 7%, Late scleroderma-pattern 12%, and scleroderma-like pattern 18% of patients. The time of transition from normal/not specific capillary alterations to Early scleroderma-pattern was 4.4±3.8 years. Enlarged capillaries (diameter between 20 and 50 microns) and mild reduction of capillary density were found the more frequent markers at first NVC visit in patients who progressed to a scleroderma pattern (P=0.01). This study demonstrates in a large cohort, that almost 16% of patients initially diagnosed as affected by RP with negative NVC may transit to SRP during a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. PRP patients showing major notspecific alterations of nailfold capillaries at first NVC should be strictly monitored at least once a year since at higher risk of transition to SRP.

  1. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  2. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  3. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  4. Obstetric anal sphincter injury, risk factors and method of delivery - an 8-year analysis across two tertiary referral centers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) represents a major cause of maternal morbidity and is a risk factor for the development of fecal incontinence. We set out to analyze the incidence of OASIS and its association with mode of delivery in two large obstetric hospitals across an 8-year study period.

  5. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing...

  6. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  7. [Study and prospects for clinical diseases treated with scraping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-ying; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2009-02-01

    In order to explore characteristics of clinical diseases treated by scraping therapy, summarize laws of clinical application of scraping therapy, and prospect for research direction of scraping therapy in future, collect 437 articles about scraping therapy between 1994-2007 and analyze and summarize the treated diseases and methods of scraping therapy. Results indicate that scraping therapy has been widely applied to commonly encountered diseases and frequently encountered diseases in departments of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology and pediatrics, etc. with more obvious therapeutic effects. Clinically, it can combine with acupuncture and moxibustion, cupping, massage, blood-letting puncture and other methods. In future, the studies on standardization of manipulation and standards for assessment of therapeutic effect, suitable diseases and the mechanisms of scraping therapy, and development of tools and media, etc. of scraping therapy should be strengthened.

  8. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-22

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  9. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  10. A prospective study of the onset of symptoms of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Amy E; Wilcox, Allen J; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide prospectively collected data on the onset of pregnancy symptoms. Two hundred twenty-one women attempting pregnancy kept daily records of the occurrence of symptoms of pregnancy. Among 136 women delivering live infants, half began experiencing symptoms by day 36 after their last menstrual period (LMP), and 89% by the end of the eighth week. Onset of symptoms occurred later in pregnancies that went on to miscarry. Among 48 women with biochemically detected pregnancy loss before 6 weeks LMP, symptoms were substantially reduced but not entirely absent. Women who smoked tobacco or marijuana tended to have delayed onset of symptoms. Nearly 90% of women with successful pregnancies experience symptoms within 8 weeks LMP. Even pregnancies lost very early (before 6 weeks) are sometimes symptomatic. The earliest symptoms do not begin until after key stages of embryogenesis, reinforcing the need for women to initiate sound health behaviors before pregnancy is apparent. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Uniparental disomy in congenital disorders: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindor, N.M.; Karnes, P.S.; Michels, V.V. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-28

    Whole chromosome uniparental disomy (UPD) for several different chromosomes has been described in individuals with phenotypes that encompass a broad range of abnormalities. We prospectively searched for UPD in 25 cytogenetically normal individuals who had one or more of the following features: nonsyndromic multiple congenital anomalies, short stature, mental retardation, or dysmorphic findings. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite repeats, biparental inheritance of at least one locus on every chromosome was found in every individual and uniparental inheritance was not detected at any locus. If UPD does exist in this clinical setting, its frequency is less than 13.7% (95% confidence interval). Our data indicate that additional studies will be required to determine the true incidence of UPD in this population. 41 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Prospective study of strongyloidosis in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeff-Teixeira Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals infected with Strongyloides stercoralis may develop severe hyperinfection or disseminated disease with high mortality. Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk because of immunodepression produced either by the disease or its treatment. A prospective study was undertaken at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from July 1994 to July 1995. Seventy-two (HIV negative, had 3 stool samples collected at different days and had not received recent anti-helmintic therapy. Larvae, isolated in a modified Baermann method, were found in 6 patients, with a resultant prevalence of 8.3%. No complicated strongyloidosis was documented. The positive result for S. stercoralis larvae was significantly associated (p < 0.001 with eosinophilia. Knowledge of prevalence figures and incidence of severe disease is important to adequate guidelines for empirical treatment besides the rigorous search for strongyloidosis in patients with hematological malignancies.

  13. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  14. Posttraumatic stress in intensive care unit survivors - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Mette; Brink, Ole; Knudsen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to identify factors associated with PTSD in survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment following traumatic injury. Methods: Fifty-two patients who were admitted to an ICU through...... the emergency ward following traumatic injury were prospectively followed. Information on injury severity and ICU treatment were obtained through medical records. Demographic information and measures of acute stress symptoms, experienced social support, coping style, sense of coherence (SOC) and locus...... of control were assessed within one-month post-accident (T1). At the six months follow-up (T2), PTSD was assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Results: In the six months follow-up, 10 respondents (19.2%) had HTQ total scores reaching a level suggestive of PTSD (N = 52), and 11 respondents (21...

  15. Hysteroscopic evaluation in infertile patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Sahu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysteroscopy is the gold standard procedure for uterine cavity exploration. However, hysteroscopy is only recommended by the WHO when clinical or complementary exams (ultrasound, HSG suggest intrauterine abnormality or after in vitro fertilization failure. Nevertheless, many specialists feel that hysteroscopy is a more accurate tool. The aim of this prospective study is to assess the value of diagnostic hysteroscopy in a primary workup of infertility by describing hysteroscopy findings in a population of 324 infertile patients during 18 months (December 2010 - May 2012. Methods: We analysed prospectively 324 infertile patients in gynaecology OT setting. Diagnostic video-assisted hysteroscopy was performed using a flexible hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy was performed with a standard sequence, inspecting the endocervical canal, uterine cavity, endometrium, and tubal ostia and findings recorded. Results: Hysteroscopy was normal in 65.12% of patients. Cervico-isthmic abnormalities were present in 6.48% of patients with cervical stenosis being the major abnormality. Uterine cavity was normal in 86% of patients. Observed abnormalities were septate uterus in 10 cases, intrauterine synechiae in 16 cases, sub mucus myoma in 2 cases, deformed cavity in 10 cases and endometrial polyp in 2 cases. Ostial fibrosis was observed in 29 patients. Endometrial abnormalities (fibrosis, inflammation were observed in 30 patients. Seven patients turned out to be of genital tuberculosis with endometrial biopsy. No significance was found regarding the total number of intrauterine pathologies when comparing the groups of primary versus secondary infertility. Conclusions: Rates of abnormal findings in infertile patient who underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy was 34.88% in our study. Our data are an additional argument to suggest hysteroscopy as part of investigation in infertile woman. Routine diagnostic hysteroscopy should be part of an infertility workup in primary

  16. ECG Changes in 8-Year-Old Boy with Pulmonary Edema after Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojko Bjelakovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case story of an 8-year-old boy with no prior history of cardiac disease who developed acute pulmonary edema with ECG changes similar to transmural myocardial infarction after basilar skull fracture. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated total creatine kinase activity –1,350 U/L with 12% MB isoenzyme fraction. The brain scan on admission showed cerebral edema with ethmoidal sinuses hemorrhage. Neurogenic pulmonary edema following CNS damage is an extremely rare entity in the pediatric population and there are few reports. There are many proposed mechanisms and explanations of its origin. Based on previous reports and experimental studies, the cause of “neurogenic” pulmonary edema may be of cardiac as well as of noncardiac origin.

  17. The improvement of coordination abilities of young gymnasts aged 7-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligildina A.Ya.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the substantive training in gymnastics by young gymnasts aged 7-8 years, the improvement of coordination abilities of gymnasts through simultaneous work with two balls is highlighted. The research has involved 20 young gymnasts and the experimental group had 10 people. The level of coordination abilities of gymnasts is underpinned, the comparative analysis of subject possession by the right and the left hand is stressed. The method of studying with two balls aimed on the development of athletes sensorimotor coordination is pointed out in the article. The authors obtain significant changes in the coordination abilities of experimental group gymnasts, a positive impact on the preparation of other events is demonstrated.

  18. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward; Rimm, Eric B; Liu, Yan; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C

    2003-12-01

    High intake of cruciferous vegetables may offer some protection against prostate cancer, but overall data are inconclusive. Thus, we examined the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Between 1986 and 2000, 2,969 cases of nonstage T1a prostate cancer were diagnosed in 47,365 men who completed dietary assessments in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We calculated the multivariate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox regression. Overall, we found no appreciable association between baseline intake of cruciferous vegetables and risk of prostate cancer (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82-1.05, for > or = 5 versus cancer (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.05; P for trend = 0.06). The inverse association was stronger for men under the age of 65 years (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P for trend = 0.02), especially for organ-confined cancers (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.97; P for trend = 0.007). In addition, this inverse association was stronger when we restricted the analysis to men with more consistent intake of vegetables over the 10 years before 1986, when we limited the analysis to men who had had a prostate-specific antigen test, and when we considered an 8-year time lag. This study does not provide compelling evidence of a protective influence of cruciferous vegetables on prostate cancer risk. However, if cruciferous vegetables are protective early in prostate carcinogenesis, as suggested by proposed mechanisms, we may expect stronger associations, as observed, for more remote diet for prostate-specific antigen-detected early stage (organ-confined) cancers in younger men. In contrast, for advanced cancers in older men, which were probably initiated decades in the past, recent dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables may be irrelevant. These findings suggest that future studies of cruciferous vegetables should focus on early stages of prostate cancer.

  19. Renal profile in patients with orthopaedic trauma: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ashish; John, Bobby; Pawar, Basant; Sadiq, Shalinder

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and to identify factors contributing to development of ARF in orthopaedic trauma patients. A total of 55 patients who presented over a period of one year with trauma to upper and lower limbs were studied. Patients with renal injury, chest or abdominal injury, isolated fractures of the hands, feet and axial skeleton involvement were excluded. Out of these, five developed acute renal failure, three recovered and two died. The overall incidence of ARF in this study was 9.1%. Patients with lower limb injuries are at higher risk of developing ARF. Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) > or = 7, higher age, patient presenting with shock, increased myoglobin levels in urine and serum have been correlated with a greater risk of patients developing ARF and a higher mortality. This study attempts to determine the magnitude of crush injury causing renal failure and the incidence of renal failure in patients with injuries affecting the appendicular skeleton exclusively.

  20. Stroke in Kuwait: a three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghaffar, N U; el-Sonbaty, M R; el-Din Abdul-Baky, M S; Marafie, A A; al-Said, A M

    1997-01-01

    To study the pattern of stroke in Kuwait, prospective data were collected from all patients admitted with first-ever stroke to our hospital over 3 years: 1989, 1992 and 1993. The primary-care registry over the same period was examined to ascertain that all cases of stroke seen by the primary-care doctors were referred to a hospital. Death certificates issued for people who died outside the hospital were also examined. The study included: clinical evaluation, computed tomography, electrocardiography, blood laboratories, serum chemistry and other investigations as required. The overall annual crude incidence rate was 27.6/100,000 population. The age-adjusted annual crude incidence rate was 145.6/100,000 population. No seasonal variation in the stroke incidence was observed in our study. Carotid-territory large infarction represented 46.5% of all strokes followed by intracerebral haemorrhage in 19.9%, lacunar infarction in 17%, basilar infarction in 8.3% and subarachnoid haemorrhage in 1.7%. The overall case fatality rate was 10%. Mortality increased with age and when loss of consciousness was present. The study demonstrated that stroke incidence in Kuwait is very low due to the young average age of the Kuwaiti population.

  1. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; pleprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions. PMID:27851766

  2. Kartini Research Reactor prospective studies for neutron scattering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widarto [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, BATAN (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The Kartini Research Reactor (KRR) is located in Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta - Indonesia. The reactor is operated for 100 kW thermal power used for research, experiments and training of nuclear technology. There are 4 beam ports and 1 column thermal are available at the reactor. Those beam ports have thermal neutron flux around 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s each other and used for sub critical assembly, neutron radiography studies and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Design of neutron collimator has been done for piercing radial beam port and the calculation result of collimated neutron flux is around 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}s. This paper describes experiment facilities and parameters of the Kartini research reactor, and further more the prospective studies for neutron scattering application. The purpose of this paper is to optimize in utilization of the beam ports facilities and enhance the manpower specialty. The special characteristic of the beam ports and preliminary studies, pre activities regarding with neutron scattering studies for KKR is presented. (author)

  3. Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: A prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Elias Mallas; Konstantinos Giorgiotis; Georgios Karamanolis; Dimitrios Trigonis; Apostolos Markadas; Vana Sipsa; Sotirios A. Raptis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence of ulcerative colitis UC in the prefecture of Trikala, Central Greece.METHODS: A prospective and population basedepidemiological study of UC from 1990 to the end of 1994was conducted. Trikala is a semirural prefecture of Central Greece with a population of 138 946 (census 1991). Three gastroenterologists (one hospital based, two private doctors)of the prefecture participated in this study.RESULTS: During the study period, 66 new histologically verified cases of UC were recorded. The mean annual incidence of the disease in 1990-1994 was 11.2 per 105inhabitants (95%CI: 8.7-14.3). There was no difference between men and women (annual incidence: 10.5 and 12.0 per 105 inhabitants respectively), either among urban,semirural or rural populations (annual incidence: 11.7,17.1 and 9.9 per 105 inhabitants respectively). The majority (56%) of the patients never smoked and a quarter were ex-smokers. About a half of all cases had proctitis.CONCLUSION: UC is common in Central Greece and its incidence is similar to that in North-Western European countries.

  4. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.;

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978 participa...

  5. PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS AND THEIR UNUSUAL LOCATIONS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The aim of our study was to detect the various sites of fluid collections in acute and chronic pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective study of 72 adult patients, (45 male patients and 27 female patients with Acute and Chronic pancreatitis was undertaken from January 2011 to December 2015. CT scans of 72 patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis were reviewed. Of these in the patients with pseudocyst formation (28 of 72 patients, the location of intrapancreatic, peripancreatic and distal fluid collections in the setting of acute and chronic pancreatitis was studied. RESULTS Fluid collections developed in 28 of 72 patients (21 male patients and 7 female patients for an incidence of 38.9%. Incidence of pseudocyst formation was high in age group of 50-60 yrs. (32.1%, retroperitoneal space according to location (39.2% and alcohol was noted to be the most common aetiology (60.8%. CONCLUSION Most common locations are the omental bursa and the retroperitoneal space. Pseudocysts in rare sites notably splenic parenchyma, mediastinum and left perinephric space were noted in four patients.

  6. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LAPAROSCOPIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a common benign gynaecological disorder. The true prevalence is difficult to quantify as women with disease are often asymptomatic and imaging modalities have low sensitivities for diagnosis. The primary method of diagnosis is Laparoscopy with or without biopsy for histologic diagnosis. Strict histologic criteria will confirm the surgical diagnosis in approximately 50-65% of cases. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS This is a prospective observational institution based study. A total of 50 patients undergoing laparoscopy were included in the study in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results were tabulated for comparison and standard statistical software were used for data presentation. RESULTS In this study, we observed that laparoscopy although adequately sensitive to diagnose endometriosis lacks the specificity except in the case of ovarian endometriosis. So laparoscopy without histological confirmation may give rise to false positive results, which may lead to overtreatment of patients. Due to the high negative predictive value of laparoscopy, absence of lesion anywhere on laparoscopy can virtually exclude the diagnosis of endometriosis, saving both time and expertise. CONCLUSION We conclude that laparoscopy should always be combined with histopathology for accurate diagnosis in presence of any suggestive or doubtful lesion, but is not mandatory in absence of lesion anywhere in the pelvis. The laparoscopic staging of endometriosis has a positive correlation with histologic diagnosis of endometriosis.

  7. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  8. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  10. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  11. Impact of Social Capital on 8-year Mortality Among Older People in 34 Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Ulla;

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline.......To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline....

  12. Superficial dermatomycoses: a prospective clinico-mycological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatomycoses are more prevalent in India due to favourable climatic conditions, poverty, poor hygiene and overcrowding. Sparse published data are available regarding superficial dermatomycoses from India. Methods: In this prospective study, demographic characteristics, clinical spectrum and risk factors for the development were studied in 198 patients with superficial dermatomycoses. Results: Their mean age was 34.1 ± 15.3 years; there were 108 (54.5% males. Majority of the patients (50.5% belonged to upper-lower socio-economic status (Class IV as per modified Kuppuswamy’s classification. Most of the patients (69.7% had presented with dermatophytoses. Among superficial dermatomy-coses, tinea corporis was the most common (29.3% clinical type. Potassium hydroxide mount was positive in 77.7% and culture was positive in 30.8%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species isolated (64%. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression revealed older age (> 50 years to be an independent predictor for the development of tinea corporis (p<0.001. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that superficial dermatomycoses are an important cause of morbidity and should be carefully searched for especially in the elderly so that effective curative treatment can be instituted.

  13. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  14. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  15. A prospective study on knee proprioception after meniscal allograft transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Y; Witvrouw, E; Evens, B; Coorevits, P; Almqvist, F; Verdonk, R

    2007-06-01

    The meniscus plays an important role in the proprioceptive ability of the knee joint. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the short-term influence of a meniscus replacement on the proprioception of the knee. Fourteen patients who had undergone a fresh meniscal allograft transplantation between May 2001 and June 2003 were tested pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Disability regarding pain, stiffness and functionality of the affected knee during daily activities was measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) scale. The knee joint position sense was assessed using the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. The results of the WOMAC scale showed no significant differences concerning pain, stiffness or knee function between the pre- and post-operative condition of the knee. Assessment of the knee joint position sense at a reference point of 70 degrees of knee flexion revealed a significant improvement of the proprioception of the operated knee at 6 months after surgery compared with the pre-operative condition. The results of this study suggest that although no significant improvement of pain and functionality of the operated knee occurred at this short-term follow-up period, a meniscal allograft transplantation seems to have a significant positive effect on the joint position sense of the previously meniscectomised knee.

  16. A prospective study of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Ramachandran; Nada, Ritambhra; Yadav, Ashok K; Kumar, Ashwani; Goyal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Rathi, Manish; Kohli, H S; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, Vinay; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the clinicopathological spectrum of cFSGS and compared its clinical behavior to steroid and tacrolimus (TAC)-resistant noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients (>14 years) diagnosed with cFSGS were enrolled in the study. Staining for differentiated podocyte markers such as WT 1, PAX and KI67 were performed in all patients. The outcome and histological features of cFSGS was compared with a prospectively followed cohort of steroid and TAC-resistant noncollapsing FSGS. The study included 22 cFSGS patients and 19 cases of steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS. Complete remission, partial remission, steroid resistance, progression to ESRD and death were observed in 13.6%, 4.5%, 27.3%, 36.4% and 18.2% patients, respectively. Patients with cFSGS had higher serum creatinine and more advanced tubulointerstitial changes compared to resistant FSGS. Twenty-six percent of therapy resistant noncollapsing FSGS progressed to ESRD after two years of stopping TAC. However, there was no difference in progression to ESRD between cFSGS and therapy-resistant noncollapsing FSGS at the end of two years. Glomerular collapse in the setting of FSGS is poorly responsive to treatment and has a high rate of progression to ESRD. The long-term prognosis of cFSGS and steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS are similar.

  17. Tooth loss in individuals under periodontal maintenance therapy: prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Campos Medeiros Lorentz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence, the underlying reasons, and the influence of predictors of risk for the occurrence of tooth loss (TL in a program of Periodontal Maintenance Therapy (PMT. The sample was composed of 150 complier individuals diagnosed with chronic moderate-severe periodontitis who had finished active periodontal treatment and were incorporated in a program of PMT. Social, demographic, behavioral and biological variables were collected at quarterly recalls, over a 12-month period. The effect of predictors of risk of and confounding for the dependent variable TL was tested by univariate and multivariate analysis, as well as the underlying reasons and the types of teeth lost. During the monitoring period, there was a considerable improvement in periodontal clinical parameters, with a stability of periodontal status in the majority of individuals. Twenty-eight subjects (18.66% had TL, totaling 47 lost teeth (1.4%. The underlying reasons for TL were: periodontal disease (n = 34, 72.3%, caries (n = 3, 6.4%, prosthetic reasons (n = 9, 19.2%, and endodontic reasons (n = 1, 2.1%. Additionally, subjects with 10% of sites with probing depth between 4 and 6 mm were 5 times more likely to present TL (OR = 5.13, 95% CI 2.04-12.09. In this study, the incidence of TL was small and limited to few individuals. Additionally, gender and severity of periodontitis were significantly associated with TL during the monitoring period.

  18. Effect of a clown’s presence at botulinum toxin injections in children: a randomized, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen LK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen1, Maria Kibaek1, Torben Martinussen2, Lene Kragh3, Mogens Hejl11Department of Paediatrics, Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense; 2Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde; 3Department of Statistics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkBackground: The effect of the presence of a hospital clown during pediatric procedures has rarely been evaluated. In a pediatric ward, botulinum toxin injection is a painful procedure and a stressful experience for the child. We undertook a study of the effect of the presence of a hospital clown on children treated with botulinum toxin in an outpatient setting.Methods: In total, 60 children, the majority of whom had spastic cerebral palsy, were subjected to a total of 121 botulinum toxin treatment sessions. Thirty-two children were being treated for the first time. During a 2-year period, we enrolled 121 treatment sessions prospectively, and the children were randomized to either the presence of a female clown during treatment or to no presence of a clown. The duration of the child's crying during the procedure was used as an indicator of the effect of the presence of a clown.Results: The effect of the clown was significantly related to patient gender. Girls were found to have a significantly shorter period of crying when the clown was present. For children younger than 8 years, the effect on boys was negative. Children treated for the first time did not appear to benefit from the presence of the clown, and showed no difference in effect between genders.Conclusion: No effect of the clown was documented for children being treated for the first time. At repeat treatments, we saw a positive effect of the female clown in relation to girls, and a negative effect on boys younger than 8 years of age.Keywords: clown, injections, pain, botulinum toxin

  19. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garvin

    Full Text Available The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma.To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up.428 men and 438 women, aged 45-69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein.53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033. Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low.Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events.

  20. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  1. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  2. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an instrume

  3. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  4. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  5. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis : a prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, EN; Jansen, TLTA; Mourad, L; Houtman, PM; Bruyn, GAW; Griep, EN; Wilffert, B; Tobi, H; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2004-01-01

    Aims We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods In this prospective case series study, from outpatient medical records a standard dataset was c

  6. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, E.N.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Mourad, L.; Houtman, P.M.; Bruyn, G.A.W.; Griep, E.N.; Wilffert, B.; Tobi, H.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods: In this prospective case series study, a standard dataset was collected from outpatient medic

  7. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the incidence, age and sex related demographics in children with Nephrotic Syndrome (NS and to find the aetiology in atypical cases of NS by renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was a single centre, descriptive, prospective and observational cross sectional study. All patients who were admitted in the department of paediatrics with Nephrotic syndrome during the study period of 2 years from July 2010 to June 2012 were included. The demographics and renal biopsy results were analys ed further. RESULTS : Total number of cases of NS was 44 against total Paediatric admissions of 4827. Incidence of NS was 0.91% (44/4827 among all paediatric admissions. Male to female ratio was 2.14:1. Majority of NS cases were 3 - 5 years old (36.36%, n=44 , followed by 5 - 7 years (29.55%, n=44, 7 - 9 years (18.18%, n=44 and 1 - 3 years (15.91%, n=44. Total number of renal biopsies done was 18, out of which 14 (77.78%, n=18 had minimal change disease (MCNS and 3 (16.67%, n=18 had Focal Segmental Glomerulos clerosis (FSGS and 1 (5.55%, n=18 had anti Glomerular Basement Membrane disease. CONCLUSION: The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome in children was 0.91% (44/4827 among total paediatric admissions, had male preponderance with ratio of males to females of 2 .14:1, most commonly affecting children of 3 - 5 years of age and the most common aetiology being Minimal Change Disease (MCD.

  8. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  9. 77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: Under... Collection: Title: The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for...: This is to continue the Phase II follow-up of the Sister Study -- a study of genetic and...

  10. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and... Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type of Information...-up of the Sister Study--a study of genetic and environmental risk factors for the development...

  11. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  12. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  13. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  14. Depression symptoms reduce physical activity in COPD patients: a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas-Espín I

    2016-06-01

    regression models with a repeated measures approach.Results: Patients had a mean (standard deviation age of 67 (8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 57 (20% predicted. At baseline, the prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 10% and 5%, respectively. In multivariable models adjusted by confounders and previous PA, patients performed 81 fewer steps/day (95% confidence interval, -149 to -12, P=0.02 per extra point in HADS-depression score. HADS-anxiety symptoms were not associated with PA.Conclusion: In COPD patients, symptoms of depression are prospectively associated with a measurable reduction in PA 6 months later. Keywords: COPD, anxiety, depression, HADS, physical activity, prospective study

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. Aims: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA Settings and Design: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups .Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Results: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02 while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours. No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor.

  16. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON MANAGEMENT OF INCISIONAL HERNIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the age and sex incidence, various factors leading to incisional hernia, methods to control them and various types of surgical repair by mesh and their complications. BACKGROUND DATA: Incisional hernia is a common surgical condition with a reported incidence of 5-11% of patients subjected to abdominal operations. Many factors are associated with incisional hernia like age, sex, obesity, chest infections, type of suture material, type of incision and most important wound infection. All of them present a challenging problem to the surgeon. So this study has been undertaken to assess the magnitude of this condition and different modalities in surgical repair by mesh in our setup. MATERIALS & METHODS: This is a prospective study of 70 cases of incisional hernia who attended to OPD and emergency department of Sri B. M. Patil medical college Hospital & Research Centre from March 2012 to March 2014. Data were collected from the patients ie, clinical history, examination and appropriate investigations. Documentations of patients which include identification, history, clinical finding, investigative tests, operation findings, operative procedures and complications during the stay in hospital and during subsequent follow up period, were all recorded in a proforma specially prepared. RESULTS: In our series of 70 patients, clinical details of 70 patients were available. Females (80%, n=48 out- numbered males (20%, n=12 and the highest incidence was in the age group of 30 to 60 years with mean age of 45 years. Gynecological operation accounted for 73.3% (n=50 of the index operations, with lower midline incision resulting in 53.3%(n=44 of the incisional hernias. The polypropylene mesh placed overlay or inlay method. All patients attended our follow up ranging from 3 months to 2 year. Two recurrences were noticed in inlay mesh repair group. CONCLUSION: Based on our analysis, we believe that overlay mesh repair is superior to inlay mesh

  17. Structural and functional reorganization of the corpus callosum between the age of 6 and 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Luders, Eileen; Specht, Karsten; Ofte, Sonja H; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    The establishment of an efficient exchange of information between the cerebral hemispheres is of crucial importance in the developing functionally lateralized brain. The corpus callosum, the major connection between the cerebral hemispheres, grows constantly throughout childhood and adolescence. However, behavioral studies suggest the existence of a critical time period for callosal functional development starting around the age of 6 years. In the present longitudinal study, examining a cohort of 20 children at the age of 6 and 8 years, we assessed the relationship between structural and functional callosal development during this time period. The structural development was quantified by calculating the increase in callosal thickness using a shape-based computational analysis of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum as obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. The functional development was assessed with a speech discrimination task based on the dichotic presentation of consonant-vowel syllables. The statistical analysis revealed that children whose callosal isthmus increased in thickness over the course of 2 years showed a decrease in interhemispheric information transfer. However, children exhibiting a decrease in isthmus thickness revealed an increase in information transfer. These results might indicate a refinement process of the callosal connections to optimize the neuronal communication between the developing cerebral hemispheres.

  18. Neurological aspects of HTLV-1 infection in Bahia: results from an 8-year cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Tanajura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1 is the causal agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, a disease observed in up to 5% of individuals infected with HTLV-1. However, infected individuals without the disease can present neurological complaints relating to sensory, motor or urinary manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of neurological manifestations among patients with HTLV-1. Method HTLV-1 patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were enrolled into a cohort study. Results Among 414 subjects, 76 had definite and 87 had possible or probable HAM/TSP at the baseline, whereas 251 subjects had no neurological signs or symptoms. Definite HAM/TSP developed in 5 patients (1.74%. The asymptomatic subjects were selected for analysis. The incidence rate expressed per 1,000 persons-year was calculated. It was 206 for hand numbness, 129 for nocturia and 126 for urinary urgency. In the neurological examination, leg hyperreflexia presented an average incidence rate of 76; leg paraparesis, 52; and Babinski sign, 36. Kaplan-Meyer curves categorized according to gender and proviral load showed that females and patients with proviral load of more than 100,000 copies per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs presented higher risk. Conclusion Development of neurological symptoms or signs occurred in up to 30% of asymptomatic subjects during 8 years of follow-up. Female gender and high proviral load were risk factors for neurological disease.

  19. Clinical and echocardiographic assessment of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis: the Scandinavian multicentre, prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaverstad, Rune; Vitale, Nicola; Karevold, Asbjørn;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is the prospective, multicentre evaluation of clinical results and haemodynamic performance of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis. METHODS: From April 2001 to June 2003, 166 patients (male:female 125:41; mean (SD) age 61.8 (11.8) years) received...... an aortic advantage valve prosthesis. Complete cumulative follow-up was 242.7 patient-years (maximum 3.2; mean 1.6 years). Postoperatively, patients underwent early (within 30 days) and 1 year transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: 30 day mortality was 2.4% (n = 4). Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from...... echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic performance and early clinical results of Medtronic advantage in the aortic position were satisfactory and comparable with those of other bileaflet valves in current clinical use....

  20. Sugammadex versus neostigmine in pediatric patients: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Kara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may cause postoperative residual curarization when they are used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular blockade by chemical encapsulation and is not associated with the side effects that may occur with the use of anticholinesterase agents. Because of increased outpatient surgical procedures postoperative residual curarization and rapid postoperative recovery have a greater importance in the pediatric patient population. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sugammadex and neostigmine on reversing neuromuscular blockade in pediatric patients undergoing outpatient surgical procedures. Methods: 80 patients, aged 2-12 years, scheduled for outpatient surgery were enrolled in this randomized prospective study. Neuromuscular blockade was achieved with 0.6 mgkg−1 rocuronium and monitorized with train-of-four. Group RN (n = 40 received 0.03 mgkg−1 neostigmine, Group RS (n = 40 received 2 mgkg−1 sugammadex for reversal of rocuronium. Extubation time (time from the reversal of neuromuscular blockade to extubation, train-of-four ratio during this time, time to reach train-of-four > 0.9, and probable complications were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the patients' characteristics. Extubation time and time to reach train-of-four > 0.9 were significantly higher in Group RN (p = 0.001, p = 0.002. Train-of-four at the time of neostigmine/sugammadex injection in Group RN were significantly higher than in the RS group (p = 0.020. Extubation train-of-four ratio was significantly lower in Group RN (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Sugammadex provides safer extubation with a shorter recovery time than neostigmine in pediatric patients undergoing outpatient surgical procedures.

  1. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R.; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. Results The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Conclusions Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes. PMID:26177089

  2. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8% and critical injuries (24.7%, followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes.

  3. NEONATAL OUTCOME IN ANEMIC MOTHERS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the commonest cause of neonatal mortality .It is responsible for 30 - 50% of neonatal deaths in developing countries. Anemia during pregnancy is highly prev alent in India. Anemia in pregnancy has adverse effects on maternal and fetal health. Obstetrical complications like low birth weight babies, IUGR, increased rate of preterm deliveries & increased perinatal mortality are known. OBJECTIVES: Primary: To find relation between maternal anemia and proven neonatal sepsis. Secondary: To find long term morbidity and mortality of babies born to anemic mother. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore for a period of two years. A prospective randomized study conducted on 200 pregnant women who were found to be anaemic. All subjects were analyzed in full details and hemoglobin estimation done during 1 st v isit, at 30 th week and 36 th week of gestation. Blood cultures were done in all the babies admitted to NICU for various reasons. RESULTS: The incidence of mild anaemia 29.5%, moderate anemia 53% and 17.5% severe anaemia was noted in mothers. Out of total 20 0, 194 were liveborn and met the inclusion criteria, 20% were preterm, 28% IUGR, 51 babies(25 % required NICU admission due to various reasons out of which 9% developed proven sepsis. CONCLUSION: Anaemia in pregnancy continues to be a major problem in dev eloping countries with maternal and fetal complications and neonatal sepsis was found to be indirectly associated with maternal anaemia.

  4. Trigeminal neuralgia--a prospective systematic study of clinical characteristics in 158 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Gozalov, Aydin; Olesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe the clinical characteristics of classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in a standardized manner. BACKGROUND: TN is a rare disease and most clinicians only see a few patients. There is a lack of prospective systematic studies of the clinical characteristics of TN...

  5. A study on adaptation of 8-year medical education program interns on whole course management%八年制临床医学专业学生全病程管理实习模式的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜勇卿; 王天兵; 周庆环; 石淑宵; 姜保国

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨八年制临床医学专业学生对全病程管理实习模式的适应情况.方法 自2007年6月到2008年10月,北京大学人民医院2002级、2003级2个年级共有63名医学生在创伤骨科进行临床实习,参与了全病程管理,随机抽取其中29名学生进行问卷调查,并对21名学生的书面出科小结进行了统计和分析.结果 100.0%的被调查学生基本完成了全病程管理和病例报道,52.4%的学生能够真正做到全病程管理;与传统实习模式相比,62.1%的学生认为全病程管理对提高医患沟通能力有所帮助,69.0%的学生认为全病程管理能够提高医学论文写作能力,90.4%的学生认同全病程管理的理念,71.4%的学生认为全病程管理实施细节有待改进,47.6%的学生认为全病程管理带教教师的指导有待提高.结论 全病程管理实习模式具有可行性,针对其实践过程中的问题需要进一步加以完善.%Objective To explore the degree of adaptation and the problems occurred to the 8-year medical education program interns on whole course management, as well as the solving strategies for the problems. Methods 29 interns were collected randomly in 63 8-year medical education program interns on whole course management in questionnaire survey as well as analysis of personal understanding of 21 interns about whole course management. Results 100. 0% of the investigated interns could basically finish whole course management,52.4% of the interns could really achieve the meaning of whole course management.Compared with traditional internship model, 62. 1% of the investigated interns considered whole course management could improve their communication with patients. 69.0% of the interns considered the whole course management improved their medical thesis writing skills. 90.4% of the interns agreed with the idea of whole course management, while 71.4% of the interns believed that the detailed implementation in practice should be improved

  6. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  7. Monitoring Levothyroxine Dose during Pregnancy: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women can influence the outcome for mother and fetus at all stages of pregnancy. As the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormones for its development until about 13 weeks of gestation, it is important to ensure adequate thyroxine substitution in pregnant women during the first trimester. Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to explore whether hypothyroidic pregnant women are adequately levothyroxine (L-T4 substituted in early pregnancy. Approach: During March 2008 to July 2009, 93 pregnant females with thyroid diseases were followed at the outpatient department of INMAS. At the first visit 86 patients were on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism. Seven other patients had hyperthyroidism. The patients were regularly followed every 4-8 weeks during pregnancy for dose adjustment. Before each visit serum Free Thyroxine (FT4 and TSH concentrations were determined. Results: Of the 86 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 56 (65.12% had serum TSH values within the reference range at their first TSH test. Thirty (34.9% had TSH values outside the reference range. In 5 patients TSH was 4 increase at the first evaluation during pregnancy was 17.46±30.8µg day1. In the 50 patients who needed to increase L-T4, 26% reached a definitive therapeutic dosage within 12th week of pregnancy, 24% within the 20th week and 50% within the 31st week. Conclusion/Recommendations: In 34.9% of pregnant women on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism, serum TSH values were abnormal when first tested and they had increased chances of fetal loss if not treated timely. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored as soon as pregnancy has been confirmed and carefully followed during pregnancy.

  8. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eOttaviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mind wandering (MW has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9 underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG, a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up, the same participants underwent a 24-hour Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a ‘mind wanderer’ was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging. There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry, MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors one year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-hour heart rate on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term ‘side effects’ but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process.

  9. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the same participants underwent a 24-h Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a "mind wanderer" was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging). There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry), MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors 1 year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-h heart rate (HR) on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term "side effects" but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process.

  10. Effect of unilateral and simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, A. van; Smulders, Y.E.; Ramakers, G.G.; Stegeman, I.; Smit, A.L.; Zanten, G.A.; Stokroos, R.J.; Hendrice, N.; Free, R.H.; Maat, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Huinck, W.J.; Topsakal, V.; Tange, R.A.; Grolman, W.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus perception in patients with severe bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss and to demonstrate possible differences between unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. MET

  11. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients; the EURODIAB Prospective Complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Kruidhof, J.S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. METHODS: The EURODIAB Prospective

  12. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis and/

  13. The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Köllensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Günther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, François; Poewe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. Findings 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1–11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09–3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02–4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5–0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1–10·2; p=0·03) predicted

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN DISCECTOMY FOR IVDP – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low back pain (LBP results in loss in productivity than any other medical condition. Approximately 70 - 80% of all people will develop LBP in their life . There are various causes of LBP , out of which the lumber disc herniation is one of the most frequent reason for physical , functional restriction in patients. Patients who have u ndergone surgical treatment are found to possess increased short term outcome instead of conservative treated patients. Surgically treated patients experienced fast pain relief , improvement of function & satisfaction in comparison to conservative patients. The comparative results of patients treated with surgery and conservatively treated patients have revealed that surgical treatment is much better at short term follow up (upto 1 year however no variations have been shown among treatment at long term foll ow up. Some patients operated for spine diseases are still left with poor results. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of open discectomy for L 4 – L 5 IVDP prospectively. METHODS : 30 cases of lumbar disc prolapse , above 18 years of age admitte d at KIMS hospital , Bangalore with MRI showing conclusive disc prolapsed were taken for the study. They were pre operatively evaluated for their ODI score. Only those patients who have scored 40% and above in ODI were included in the study. They underwent dis c ectomy. Methods of surgery used were fenestration , extended fenestration , hemilaminectomy & total laminectomy as per operative requirement. Follow - ups were carried out at 6 , 12 and 24weeks on selected areas. Pre and post of ODI total and sub scale scor es were compared at the end of 24 weeks. RESULTS : There was a significant reduction of post operative ODI score indicating good success rate in open disectomy. The pre operative mean ODI score was 58.28 , SD was 5.06 and the post operative mean ODI score wa s 15.28 and SD was 2.40 with t value of 38.56 and p value of

  15. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Willy

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E. The males (79.9/1,000 A-E sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E, followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E. Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E. All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E. However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E. Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E. Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E. Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.

  16. PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON DIFFERENT MODALITIES OF TREATMENT FOR SYMPTOMATIC HEMORRHOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Prospective observational study of symptomatic pile masses reveals that all masses in a patient may not be of the same size or degree. Since long the only treatment for different degrees of piles had been hemorrhoidectomy. Acceptance for non- surgical modalities have come up in recent past and they are being utilized because they minimize the morbidity and save working hours. Present study has successfully utilized both surgical and non -surgical methods together in a patient in the same sitting. METHODS: 102 patients with symptomatic first to third degree hemorrhoids were studied. Depending upon the degree, treatment modality was selected. Depending on the treatment given patients were divided into four groups. Sclerotherapy alone (n=25, Sclerotherapy & Band ligation (n=17, Sclerotherapy and Hemorrhoidectomy (n=24, sclerotherapy, Band Ligation & Hemorrhoidectomy (n=36. All 102 patients were subjected to four finger Lord’s Dilatation before the definitive procedures. All of them were followed for six months. Symptomatic relief, early side effects and need for re-treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: Satisfactory response was seen in 83 patients (I-20, II-13, III-20, lV-30. Sclerotherapy was more effective for 1st degree than for 2nd degree (p=0.04. Hemorrhoidectomy & band ligation were equally effective for uncomplicated 2nd degree piles. Use of hemorrhoidectomy had a definite edge in 3rd degree cases with or without associated external hemorrhoids and in 2nd degree masses with external pile mass. Local pain (no=32 and bleeding (n=6 were the most common complications. Single session was used in all the groups. None of the patients required additional treatment during follow up. Dietary modifications and life style changes were incorporated in the discharge advice for each patient. CONCLUSIONS: Conservative (non-surgical methods can be effectively used with good results even for 2nd & 3rd degree piles. Sclerotherapy & band ligation have got

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  18. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  19. Duodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction:Prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Guimar(a)es Hourneaux Moura; Flávio Coelho Ferreira; Spencer Cheng; Diogo Turiani Hourneaux Moura; Paulo Sakai; Bruno Zilberstain

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the results of duodenal stenting for palliation of gastroduodenal malignant obstruction by using a gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS).METHODS:A prospective,non-randomized study was performed at a tertiary center between August 2005 and April 2010.Patients were eligible if they had malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and were not candidates for surgical treatment.Medical history and patient demographics were collected at baseline.Scheduled interviews were made on the day of the procedure and 15,30,90 and 180 d later or unscheduled as necessary.RESULTS:Fifteen patients (6 male,9 female; median age 61 years) with GOO who had undergone duodenal stenting were evaluated.Ten patients had metastasis at baseline (66.6%) and 14 were unable to accept oral intake (93.33%),including 7 patients who were using a feeding tube.Laboratory data showed biliary obstruction in eight cases (53.33%); all were submitted to biliary drainage.Two patients developed obstructive symptoms due to tumor ingrowth after 30 d and another due to tumor overgrowth after 180 d.Two cases of stent migration occurred.A good response to treatment was observed,with a mean time of approximately 1 d (19 h) until toleration of a liquid diet and slightly more than 2 d for both soft solids (51 h) and a solid food/normal diet (55 h).The mean time to first failure to maintain liquid intake (GOOS ≥ 1) was 93 d.During follow-up,the mean time to first failure to maintain the previously achieved GOOS of 2-3 (solid/semi-solid food),considered technical failure,was 71 d.On the basis of oral intake a GOOS is defined:0 for no oral intake; 1 for liquids only; 2 for soft solids only; 3 for lowresidue or full diet.CONCLUSION:Enteral stenting to alleviate gastroduodenal malignant obstruction improves quality of life in patients with limited life expectancy,which can be evaluated by using a GOO scoring system.

  20. [The preclinical efficacy of emergency care. A prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, H J; Reinhardt, T; Otto, S; Dick, W

    1993-07-01

    Quality assurance has become an important issue in emergency medicine. At present, no prospective studies are available that quantify the efficacy of interventions performed by emergency doctors. The development and implementation of a rapid, yet simple scoring system, allowing preclinical assessment of all emergency medicine patients, is required. Once the scoring system is implemented, evaluation of the prehospital intervention, based upon objective parameters, is possible. METHODS. The Mainz Emergency Evaluation Score (MEES) is based on seven parameters: level of consciousness, heart rate, heart rhythm, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, partial arterial oxygen saturation and pain. A coded value is assigned to each parameter, with the normal physiological condition securing a score of 4, while a life-threatening condition receives a value of 1. For the parameter of pain there is no life-threatening condition, so the lowest value allowed is 2 (Table 2). Addition of the respective values from the seven parameters yields the MEES value, which objectively reflects the patients' condition (minimum = 8, maximum = 28). Comparing the MEES value before (MEES1) and after the intervention (MEES2) allows an objective evaluation of the efficacy of the preclinical care (delta-MEES = MEES2-MEES1). A difference of > or = +2 is considered an improvement, +1, +/- 0, -1 are rated as unchanged and rank sum test (Wilcoxon) and the correlation coefficient (Kendall-Tau). RESULTS. In 356 patients the condition of 187 (52%) patients improved during the preclinical treatment; the condition of 156 (44%) patients did not change. In 13 patients (3%) the condition became worse (Table 5, Fig. 2). Allocation to 16 diagnosis groups revealed that the improvement in the patient's condition depended on the underlying disease (Table 3); the disease-specific parameter improved in all cases (Table 7). CONCLUSIONS. With the MEES score one can assess the patient's prehospital condition and

  1. Medical adverse events in elderly hospitalized patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Szlejf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of medical adverse events in elderly patients admitted to an acute care geriatric unit, the predictive factors of occurrence, and the correlation between adverse events and hospital mortality rates. METHODS: This prospective study included 171 admissions of patients aged 60 years and older in the acute care geriatric unit in a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. The following variables were assessed at admission: the patient age, gender, number of prescription drugs, geriatric syndromes (e.g., immobility, postural instability, dementia, depression, delirium, and incontinence, comorbidities, functional status (evaluated with the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living, and severity of illness (evaluated with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score Il. The incidence of delirium, infection, mortality, and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (based on the Beers criteria were assessed during hospitalization. An observer who was uninvolved in patient care reported the adverse events. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 78.12 years. A total of 187 medical adverse events occurred in 94 admissions (55%. The predictors of medical adverse events were undetermined. Compared with the patients with no adverse events, the patients with medical adverse events had a significantly longer hospital stay (21.41 ± 15.08 days versus 10.91 ± 7.21 days and a higher mortality rate (39 deaths [41.5%] versus 17 deaths [22.1%]. Mortality was significantly predicted by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.07 to 1.20, the Katz score (OR=1.47, CI 95%, 1.18 to 1.83, and medical adverse events (OR = 3.59, CI 95%, 1.55 to 8.30. CONCLUSION: Medical adverse events should be monitored in every elderly hospitalized patient because there is no risk profile for susceptible patients, and the consequences of adverse events are

  2. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  3. An 8-year-old boy with a Pott's puffy tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijssoon, E; Woerdeman, PA; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Hanlo, PW; Plotz, FB

    2003-01-01

    An 8-year old boy with a history of trauma, sinusitis and a swelling of the frontal. bone with somnolence was diagnosed with a Pott's puffy tumor (PPT). Minimal invasive surgical intervention was performed together with a strict regimen of antibiotic therapy. In this case debridement of the frontal

  4. Perinatal risk factors for wheezing phenotypes in the first 8 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, D.; Savenije, O. E. M.; Smit, H. A.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Wijga, A. H.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel data-driven approach was used to identify wheezing phenotypes in pre-schoolchildren aged 0-8 years, in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort. Five phenotypes were identified: never/infrequent wheeze, transient early wheeze, intermediate onset

  5. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and ...

  6. A bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celkan, Mehmet Adnan; Bayatli, Kivanc

    2012-10-01

    Prevention of retained foreign bodies in the pericardial cavity is critical for patient safety. We report a patient with a bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago, which was detected by chance and removed.

  7. Is Isolated Aphasia Associated with Atrial Fibrillation A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn P.A. Giesbers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A cardioembolic source, usually atrial fibrillation (AF, is detected in 14-30% of strokes. If AF is found, anticoagulation therapy provides a substantial decrease of the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic events. AF is often paroxysmal, and extensive diagnostic procedures may be necessary to detect it in patients. Considering cost-effectiveness and patient burden, however, not every suspected patient can be thoroughly screened. Therefore, the identification of risk factors for AF may be helpful. Previous studies have identified isolated aphasia as a risk factor for AF as the cause of the stroke. These studies, however, were performed with small population samples, in a retrospective setting or focused on a specific subtype of aphasia. The aim of this observational study is to prospectively evaluate whether there is a relation between isolated aphasia and AF as the cause of cerebrovascular ischemia. Methods: All patients admitted to the Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, the Netherlands, with cerebrovascular ischemia or transient ischemic attack in the period of August 2009 to March 2010 or October 2013 to January 2014 were included. The patients were evaluated by a neurologist and admitted to the Brain Care Unit for 24-48 h. Medical history, physical examination and diagnostic results were entered in a database. A diagnosis of isolated aphasia was assigned at admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Presence of AF was determined using a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG on admission and continuous ECG monitoring for 1-2 days. During admission, aphasia tests were done, notably the ScreeLing Test and the Boston Naming Test. Data were analyzed using Pearson's χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 347 patients were included, of which 115 (33.1% met the criteria for aphasia, with 26 (7.5% meeting the criteria

  8. Continuation of cinacalcet immediately after renal transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cinacalcet is used for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients, but it is currently unknown whether it can safely be continued immediately after renal transplantation. METHODS: we prospectively studied renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who

  9. Epidemiology, Severity Classification, and Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.J.C. Andriessen; J. Horn; G. Franschman; J. van der Naalt; I. Haitsma; B. Jacobs; E.W. Steyerberg; P.E. Vos

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  10. Epidemiology, severity classification, and outcome of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Horn, J.; Franschman, G.; Naalt, J. van der; Haitsma, I.; Jacobs, B.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Vos, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  11. Epidemiology, Severity Classification, and Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury : A Prospective Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Teuntje M. J. C.; Horn, Janneke; Franschman, Gaby; van der Naalt, Joukje; Haitsma, Iain; Jacobs, Bram; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Vos, Pieter E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  12. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  13. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  14. Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, M. E.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2016-07-01

    The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite provides an opportunity to study the longitudinal variation in polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). We examined the longitudinal variation in PMC albedo using 8 years (2007-2014) of observations from the CIPS instrument. The results show that the PMC albedo in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the latitude band of 80°S-85°S, is persistently low ( 65% relative to the rest of the hemisphere) within 60°W to 150°W longitude. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, PMC albedo is found to be relatively zonally asymmetry. Harmonic analyses show that the persistent longitudinal variation in the SH PMC albedo is due to zonal wave numbers 1 through 4 (WN1-WN4) processes with minima in the longitude range of 60°W-150°W. The influence of temperature and H2O on the longitudinal variation of the PMC albedo is discussed based on results obtained using a simple 0-D PMC model and temperature from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and H2O from MLS. The modeled region of low ice mass in the SH is generally consistent with that of low PMC albedo seen in CIPS. Tidal analyses using the SABER temperatures indicate that the nonmigrating semidiurnal tides with modes of S0, W1, and E1 might be the main drivers of the persistent longitudinal variations of PMC albedo in the SH. Nonmigrating tides are much weaker in the NH and consistent with the observed lack of longitudinal variability in PMC albedo.

  15. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (MVPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  16. Fixed partial dentures in an up to 8-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the longevity of fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures (inlay FPDs should be considered in the selection of materials, operative techniques and patient instructions related to prognosis and long-term cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the long-term survival of fiber-reinforced, adhesively-bonded composite prostheses placed in posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients that received adhesively bonded polyethylene inlay FPDs in posterior teeth were selected from a private practice dental office and invited to evaluation. Of the eligible 21 patients, 13 (mean age 50.3 ± 11.5 years agreed to be enrolled as participants, providing 22 restorations, as several subjects presented more than one inlay FPD. One dentist placed all inlay FPDs using Ribbond as reinforcement and Tetric Ceram/Durafil or Charisma/Renamel composite combinations, according to manufacturer's instructions. Two independent calibrated operators performed the evaluation, using modified USPHS criteria. Survival functions of restorations were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: The majority of restorations received A or B scores. Four (18.2% inlay FPDs fractured among the 22 evaluated. The mean estimate survival rate was 7 years (95% CI: 5.9 to 8.1, and the overall percentage of survival was 81.8%. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 between composite combinations or tooth location considering all clinical aspects evaluated and survival functions. CONCLUSION: Posterior fiber-reinforced fixed partial dentures exhibited acceptable clinical performance after a period up to 8 years.

  17. Pharmacological Therapy for Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly: An 8-year Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pinho Makdisse

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess the changes in the medicamentous treatment of elderly patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction occurring over an 8-year period. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 379 patients above the age of 65 years with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the coronary unit of a university-affiliated hospital from 1990 to 1997. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the period of time of hospital admission as follows: group 1 - from 1990 to 1993; and group 2 - from 1994 to 1997. RESULTS:The use of beta-blockers (40.8%chi 75.2%, p<0.0001 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (42% chi59.5%, p=0.001 was significantly greater in group 2, while the use of calcium antagonists (42% chi 18.5%, p<0.0001 and general antiarrhythmic drugs (19.1% chi 10.8%, p=0.03 was significantly lower. No significant difference was observed in regard to the use of acetylsalicylic acid, thrombolytic agents, nitrate, and digitalis in the period studied. The length of hospitalization was shorter in group 2 (13.4±8.9 days chi 10.5±7.5 days, p<0.001. The in-hospital mortality was 35.7% in group 1 and 26.6% in group 2 (p=0.07. CONCLUSION: Significant changes were observed in the treatment of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, with a greater use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a lower use of calcium antagonists and antiarrhythmic drugs in group 2. The length of hospitalization and the mortality rate were also lower in group 2, even though the reduction in mortality was not statistically significant.

  18. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Tobin; Nicolas Bisson; Simon Grondin

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospective...

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF THE DIABETIC FOOT OSTEOMYELITIS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTER - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mithun N; Pattanashetty; Reshmina; Sharath Babu; Harikrishna; Sreedhar Reddy; Ramakrishna J

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. Diabetic foot osteomyelitis is considered as one of the severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot osteomyelitis tends to complicate around one third of diabetic foot infections. In v iew of this we conducted a prospective study on the bacteriological analysis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis at a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A prospective study was perform...

  20. Long-term Efficacy of Trabeculectomy on Chinese Patients with Pigmentary Glaucoma: A Prospective Case Series Observational Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ping Qing; Ning-Li Wang; Tao Wang; Hong Chen; Da-Peng Mou

    2016-01-01

    Background:Though trabeculectomy is often performed on patients with medically refractive pigmentary glaucoma (PG),the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment on PG remain unknown.The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy on PG.Methods:This was a prospective case series observational study.Eighteen consecutive PG patients were followed up for 8 years after trabeculectomy from May 2006 to April 2007.Visual acuity (VA),best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),slit lamp biomicroscopy,intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement,Humphrey visual field analysis (VFA),and stereoscopic funduscopy were performed on admission and every 6 months after the surgery.Postoperative IOP,VA,BCVA,VFA,adjunctive anti-glaucoma medication,treatment-related side-effects,changes in blebs,and main clinical findings in the anterior segment of PG were recorded and compared with the baseline.Results:Eighteen PG eyes from 18 patients,with average preoperative IOP of 34.5 ± 4.7 mmHg (range:21-47 mmHg,1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)were enrolled in this study.All enrolled patients completed the follow-up visits and required examinations.Eight years after trabeculectomy,all surgical eyes (18/18) had satisfactory IOP control with an average of 13.7 ± 2.5 mmHg (range:9-19 mmHg),which was significantly lower than baseline (P =0.001).Majority (15/18) of the PG eyes had stable VA,BCVA,VFA,and optic disc cupping parameters.Functional blebs still existed in 12/18 of the PG eyes at the last follow-up visit.Unanimously,pigmentation in the anterior segment attenuated with time after surgical treatment.No severe side-effects were recorded in any of the surgical eyes.Conclusions:All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function.The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.

  1. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  2. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  3. Awake Tracheal Intubation in an 8-Year-Old Girl with McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, J Kyle; Segura, Leal

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome presented for resection of a very large fibrous dysplasia mass of the face with significant distortion of the airway anatomy. She had significant obstructive sleep apnea with daytime somnolence and hemoglobin oxygen desaturations while breathing room air preoperatively. We were able to successfully manage her airway by providing IV sedation, topical anesthesia of the airway, and oral fiberoptic intubation in close collaboration with our otorhinolaryngology colleagues.

  4. Concurrent spinal cord and vertebral bone marrow radionecrosis 8 years after therapeutic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warscotte, L.; Sindic, C.J.M. [Department of Neurology, Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Duprez, T.; Lecouvet, F.E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Lonneux, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Michaux, L. [Department of Hematology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Renard, L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-03-01

    Concurrent radionecrosis within the spinal cord and the bone marrow at the same thoracic level was observed 8 years after localized therapeutic irradiation in a patient who had undergone repeated cycles of radiotherapy, glucocorticoid treatment, and chemotherapy for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mechanisms combining radiotoxic potentialization by glucocorticoids/alkylating agents and delayed radiation-induced vasculitis involving the common arterial pathways to the spinal cord and to the vertebrae were speculated to have acted in a synergistic way. (orig.)

  5. Exposure to Greenness and Mortality in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study of Women

    OpenAIRE

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Rachel F. Banay; Laden, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green, natural environments may ameliorate adverse environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution, noise, and extreme heat), increase physical activity and social engagement, and lower stress. Objectives: We aimed to examine the prospective association between residential greenness and mortality. Methods: Using data from the U.S.-based Nurses’ Health Study prospective cohort, we defined cumulative average time-varying seasonal greenness surrounding each participant’s address using s...

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Microscopic Colitis in Korea: Prospective Multicenter Study by KASID

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Microscopic colitis (MC) encompasses collagenous and lymphocytic colitis and is characterized by chronic diarrhea. In cases of MC, colonic mucosae are macroscopically normal, and diagnostic histopathological features are observed only upon microscopic examination. We designed a prospective multicenter study to determine the clinical features, pathological distribution in the colon and prevalence of MC in Korea. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients having watery diarrhea ...

  7. Orthodontics as a prospective career choice among undergraduate dental students: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purposes of this study were to investigate the factors influencing the career choice of dental students and to identify the future life plans of the students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Dental College who had chosen orthodontics as their future specialty. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological descriptive survey was conducted using a set of questionnaire among the second year to fourth year students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Data were categorized by demographic variables and were analyzed with statistical methods using descriptive statistical analysis. Results: The most important factor influencing the decision to pursue specialty in orthodontics was considering that “orthodontics is intellectually challenging” (23%), followed by “previous positive experience” (15%). The decision to become an orthodontist was made by 3.7% of the respondents in the first year of their course, 44.4% in the second year of their study, 11.1% during the third year of their study, 25.9% during the fourth year of their study, while none of them had made their decision during the final year of their dental school studies. Only one student (3.7) said he planned to work in a private college in an academic setting, five students (18.5%) had plans to do private practice, two students indicated that they would work for the Ministry of Health, while most students (40.7%) reported that they were planning to try a combination of all of the above. Six students (22.2%) remained undecided. Conclusions: Majority of the students who had chosen orthodontics as their future specialty of choice at Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Dental College, Saudi Arabia had taken up this specialty as they felt that orthodontics was intellectually challenging. PMID:26312228

  8. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  9. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  10. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  11. A Prospecting Mineralogy Study:Arsenopyrite In Endogenetic Gold Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaomin; ZHANG Hongzhi

    2001-01-01

    Arsenopyrite is one of very important and common auriferous minerals in endogenetic gold deposits. In seven gold deposits, the prospecting typomorphic characteristics of arsenopyrite, such as morphological typomorphism, composition typomorphism, pyroelectricity typomorphism and so on, were established. The crystal form of arsenopyrite is simple, and the form symbols mainly are {101}, {120}, {210}, {140}, {230}, {012}, etc. The smaller groin and poor crystal form arsenopyrite indicates the better auriferous characteristics. The major elements (Fe, As and S) of gold- bearing arsenopyrite usually show Fe/As + S > 0.5, As/S< 1 which deviates from its theoretical value. The most important trace element is Au and next is Ag in arsenopyrite, and they often show the positive correlation. The pyroelectricity of arsenopyrite can reflect the mineralization epoch, and it also is related to the crystal form and granudarity.

  12. Fatty liver: prospective comparative study with sonography and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, W. S.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, J. S.; Han, C. K.; Kim, C. W. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    To identify the reasonable criteria in detection of the degree of Fatty liver, we prospectively evaluated sonograms and CT scans in 33 Patients With bright liver on sonography. On sonograms, we analyzed the echogenicity of the liver, acoustic attenuation, and visualization of the portal vein and the diaphragm, Each criterion was scored from 0 to 2. CT criterion for fatty liver was assessed by the attenuation difference between the liver and the spleen on nonocontrast CT scans, The average sonographic grade for CT Grade I was 1.3, Grade II was 2.1,and Grade III was 2.8. The accurate detection rate of each sonographic grade was as follows, Grade

  13. Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be associated with time-dependent reductions in tuberculosis (TB incidence, the long-term impact of ART on incidence remains imprecisely defined due to limited duration of follow-up and incomplete CD4 cell count recovery in existing studies. We determined TB incidence in a South African ART cohort with up to 8 years of follow-up and stratified rates according to CD4 cell count recovery. We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART in a community-based cohort in Cape Town were analysed. 1544 patients with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR 2.4-5.8 were included in the analysis. 484 episodes of incident TB (73.6% culture-confirmed were diagnosed in 424 patients during 6506 person-years (PYs of follow-up. The TB incidence rate during the first year of ART was 12.4 (95% CI 10.8-14.4 cases/100PYs and decreased to 4.92 (95% CI 3.64-8.62 cases/100PYs between 5 and 8 years of ART. During person-time accrued within CD4 cell strata 0-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-700 and ≥700 cells/µL, TB incidence rates (95% CI were 25.5 (21.6-30.3, 11.2 (9.4-13.5, 7.9 (6.4-9.7, 5.0 (3.9-6.6, 5.1 (3.8-6.8, 4.1 (3.1-5.4 and 2.7 (1.7-4.5 cases/100PYs, respectively. Overall, 75% (95% CI 70.9-78.8 of TB episodes were recurrent cases. Updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were independently associated with long-term TB risk. TB rates during person-time accrued in the highest CD4 cell count stratum (>700 cells/µL were 4.4-fold higher that the rate in HIV uninfected individuals living in the same community (2.7 versus 0.62 cases/100PYs; 95%CI 0.58-0.65. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TB rates during long-term ART remained substantially greater than rates in the local HIV uninfected populations regardless of duration of ART or attainment of CD4

  14. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  15. Diagnosing epilepsy in neurology clinics: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus-Leppan, Heather

    2008-07-01

    The certainty of the initial diagnosis of epilepsy was assessed prospectively by one neurologist in outpatients. One hundred and fifty-eight consecutive referrals with loss of consciousness or possible epilepsy were seen. The relative contributions to the initial diagnosis from the referral letter, history taking in clinic, physical examination, and investigation were compared. There was a referring diagnosis in 28.5%. The neurologist reached a diagnosis in 87% of the 158 cases: in 43% epilepsy, 25% syncope, 12% non-epileptic seizures and in 7% other diagnoses. There was a low correlation between referral and specialist diagnosis. Physical examination did not change the diagnosis in any patient. Investigations changed the diagnosis in one patient. Neuro-imaging revealed a relevant abnormality in 12/43 (27.9%) scanned. The yield from EEG was 7/25 (28%), but the EEG changed the diagnosis in only one case. Cardiac testing confirmed the type of syncope in 2/47 (4.3%) of patients. Blood tests did not contribute to the diagnosis in any patient. The neurology consultation significantly increased diagnostic certainty. The diagnosis of epilepsy remains largely clinical. It is important that patients are aware of this prior to investigation.

  16. Lacerations in urban children. A prospective 12-January study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M D; Selbst, S M; Lanuti, M

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of all lacerations (N = 2834) repaired at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) during 1987 and identified common hazards and possible avenues of intervention. Two-year-old children incurred most injuries; males outnumbered females 2:1. Almost two thirds (61.8%) of all lacerations occurred from May through September, and 62.2% between 3 and 9 PM. Most injuries occurred indoors (47.0%), on the sidewalk or street (22.5%), or in the residential yard (13.0%). Injuries usually occurred during play (42.3%) or daily activity (32.1%); 1247 (44.0%) involved some sort of fall. Vectors most frequently causing injury were broken glass bottles (15.0%), wooden furniture (12.0%), and asphalt or concrete (11.0%). Broken glass bottles also most frequently inflicted injuries resulting in functional impairment (0.2%), hospitalization (0.9%), or both. Complications were seen in 8% of all lacerations. Our data confirm the importance of injury-prevention strategies aimed at reduction of discarded glass objects (ie, recycling legislation), improved furniture design, and improved municipal services (ie, street repair).

  17. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  18. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  19. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF SPUTUM CONVERSION RATE AND CURE RATE IN SMEAR POSITIVE RETREATMENT PATIENTS UNDER RNTCP IN RURAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Directly Observed Treatment , Short course (DOTS is the name of the World Health Organization (WHO recommended TB (Tuberculosis control strategy. It is vital for the success of the TB control program. This study has been taken up to assess the compliance , bacteriological sputum conversion and cure rates in retreatment smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. M ETHODS : A prospective study which included one hundred and twenty four smear positive retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Baseline data from patients was collected. Subsequent follow up was done at 3rd , 4th , 5 th , 6th , 8th and 9th month. On follow up repeat sputum sample was taken and patients were assessed for sputum conversion and cure rate. RESULTS : The most affected group was 45 - 54(29.8% years , followed by 35 - 44yrs (27.4%.The overall sputum conversion rate at the end of 3rd /4th month was 55.6 %. The cure rate for patients with sputum 3+ , 2+ , 1+ were 33.96% , 22.64% and 37.74% respectively. There is no association between outcome and sputum grading (p=0.607. The overall cure rate was 42.7% and the default rate was 33.04%. The failure rate was 12 .09% and the death rate was 11.29%. The commonest cause for default was illiteracy , smoking and alcohol intake. CONCLUSION : Patient education and counseling regarding the importance of giving up addictions , providing drugs to the doorsteps , involving famil y members in the treatment and treating failure group of patients with appropriate drugs based on DST will improve cure rates and reduce default rates.

  1. Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

  2. Prospective capillaroscopy-based study on transition from primary to secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bernero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the transition from primary (PRP to secondary (SRP Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP, in a large cohort of patients affected by isolated RP. A total of 2065 patients with RP were investigated by clinical interview, laboratory examinations, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC. Patients with negative NVC at first visit were yearly followed to monitor either the appearance of specific morphological alterations at NVC, or clinical manifestations of an underlying disease. Capillary abnormalities at NVC were scored, as well as the qualitative patterns of microangiopathy (Early, Active and Late. NVC was found negative at first visit in 1500 subjects; among them, 412 patients were evaluable and they were followed for a mean time of 5±4 years (range 2-13 years. Sixty-eight patients (16% achieved a diagnosis of SRP during follow-up, showing normal or not specific capillary alterations at NVC 4% of patients (the diagnosis was undifferentiated connective tissue diseases, Early scleroderma-pattern 57%, Active scleroderma-pattern 7%, Late scleroderma-pattern 12%, and scleroderma-like pattern 18% of patients. The time of transition from normal/not specific capillary alterations to Early scleroderma-pattern was 4.4±3.8 years. Enlarged capillaries (diameter between 20 and 50 microns and mild reduction of capillary density were found the more frequent markers at first NVC visit in patients who progressed to a scleroderma pattern (P=0.01. This study demonstrates in a large cohort, that almost 16% of patients initially diagnosed as affected by RP with negative NVC may transit to SRP during a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. PRP patients showing major notspecific alterations of nailfold capillaries at first NVC should be strictly monitored at least once a year since at higher risk of transition to SRP.

  3. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  4. Resuming Work After Cancer : A Prospective Study of Occupational Register Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Schellart, A. J. M.; van der Beek, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Long-term employment rates have been studied in cancer survivors, but little is known about the return to work of cancer patients. This study investigated return to work (RTW) within 2 years after the diagnosis of different types of cancer. Methods This prospective study investigated th

  5. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) in children: a multicenter and prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglešić, V.; Kovačič, Ž.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinović, V.S.; Petrović, M.; Stephens, J.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjøen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Grimaud, F.; Fauvel, F.; Longis, J.; Corre, P.; Løes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Meijer, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year. Study Design The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396 patie

  6. Salt intake, cured meat consumption, refrigerator use and stomach cancer incidence: A prospective cohort study (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Many case-control studies have reported that salt and cured meat intake are positively, and refrigerator use is inversely, associated with stomach cancer risk. In the current prospective study these associations were evaluated. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study consisted of 120,852 me

  7. Course and prognosis of older back pain patients in general practice : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Jantine; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Peul, Wilco C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Koes, Bart W.; Luijsterburg, Pim A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the course of back pain in older patients and identify prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up. We conducted a prospective cohort study (the BACE study) of patients aged >55 years visiting a general practitioner (GP) with a new episode

  8. Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-H.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S.-S.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Jacobs, E.J.; Leitzmann, M.; Mannisto, S.; Miller, A.B.; Potter, J.D.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Speizer, F.E.; Stevens, V.L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Terry, P.; Toniolo, P.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Methods: Study-and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards model

  9. Decision Making and Response Inhibition as Predictors of Heavy Alcohol Use: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Goudriaan; E.R. Grekin; K.J. Sher

    2011-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have investigated the "real world" prospective, predictive value of behavioral instruments used in laboratory studies to test decision-making abilities or impulse control. The current study examines the degree to which 2 commonly used decision-making/impulse control meas

  10. General health status and incidence of first-onset temporomandibular disorder: OPPERA prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Anne E.; Slade, Gary D; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Greenspan, Joel D.; Maixner, William; Ohrbach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) overlap with other health conditions but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18–44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006–08 at four U.S. study sites in the OPPERA prospective cohort study. First-...

  11. Hyperbilirubinemia after extracorporeal circulation surgery: A recent and prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An; Ying-Bin Xiao; Qian-Jin Zhong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the incidence and nature of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia in patients after modern extracorporeal circulation, to analyze possible perioperative risk factors, and to elucidate the clinical significance of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia associated morality and morbidity.METHODS: Between March 2005 and May 2006, three hundred and eighty six consecutive patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation surgery due to a variety of cardiac lesions were investigated prospectively. The incidence of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was defined as a serum total bilirubin concentration of more than 51 μmol/L. Several perioperative parameters were compared by logistic regression between hyperbilirubinemia and non-hyperbilirubinemia patients to determine possible risk factors contributing to postoperative hyperbilirubinemia and mortality.RESULTS: Overall incidence of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was 25.3% (98/386). In patients with postoperative hyperbilirubinemia, 56.2%reached peak total bilirubin concentration on the first postoperative day, 33.5% on the second day, and 10.3%on the seventh day. Eighty percent of the increase of total bilirubin resulted from an increase of both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin. Development of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was associated with a higher mortality (P < 0.01), longer duration of mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05) and longer ICU stay time (P < 0.05). Preoperative total bilirubin concentration, preoperative right atrium pressure,numbers of valves replaced and of blood transfusion requirement were identified as important predictors for postoperative hyperbilirubinemia.CONCLUSION: Early postoperative hyperbilirubinemia after modern extracorporeal circulation is mainly caused by an increase in both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, and is associated with a high mortality.Important contributing factors are the preoperative total bilirubin concentration, preoperative severity of right atrial

  12. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  13. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-09-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth.

  14. 激素治疗6.8年后的心血管疾病结局心脏与雌/孕激素替代治疗研究随访(HERSⅡ)%Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes During 6.8 Years of Hormone Therapy Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deborah Grady; Steven Khan; L.Kristin Newby; David Waters; Eric Vittinghoff; Nanette Wenger; David Herrington; Vera Bittner; Roger Blumenthal; Michael Davidson; Mark Hlatky; Judith Hsia; Stephen Hulley; Alan Herd

    2003-01-01

    @@ 背景:心脏与雌、孕激素替代治疗研究(Heart and Estrogen/Progestin ReplacementStudy,HERS)发现,患有冠心病(coronary heart disease,CHD)的绝经后妇女冠心病事件总体风险并无下降.然而,研究还显示,激素组冠心病事件风险第1年增加,第3~5年下降. 目的:确定HERS后期观察到的冠心病事件风险下降是否持续存在,是否随时间的延长而致整体风险下降. 设计与地点:试验在美国20个临床中心门诊及社区医院实施.先进行为期4.1年的随机、盲法、安慰剂对照试验(HERS),随后继续非盲法随诊2.7年(HERSⅡ).对象:共计2 763例患有冠心病的绝经后妇女,入选HERS时的平均年龄为67岁;2 321例妇女(占存活者的93%)同意参加HERSⅡ随诊. 干预:在HERS期间,受试者随机分配接受0.625 mg/d结合雌激素加2.5 mg/d醋酸甲羟孕酮(1 380例)或安慰剂(1 383例).HERSⅡ期间,由经治医生决定开放标记的激素治疗的使用.坚持服用激素至少达80%的比例在激素组从第1年的81%降至第6年的45%,在安慰剂组则从第1年的0%升至第6年的8%. 主要结局指标:主要结局为非致死性心肌梗死和冠心病死亡.次要(或二级)心血管事件包括冠状动脉再通术、因不稳定心绞痛或充血性心力衰竭住院、非致死性室性心律失常、猝死、卒中或短暂缺血发作以及外周动脉疾病. 结果:在HERS、HERSⅡ或整个试验期间,激素组与安慰剂组妇女相比,主要冠心病事件或次要心血管事件的发生率均无明显下降.冠心病事件未校正的相对风险(rela-tive hazard,RH)在HERS为0.99(95%可信区间[CI],0.81~1.22),在HERSⅡ为1.0(95%CI,0.77~1.29),在整个试验为0.99(95%CI,0.84~1.17).校正潜在混淆因素及组间他汀类药物的使用差异后,其总体RH相似,为0.97(95%CI,0.82~1.14).在分析限于坚持原随机分配方案治疗的受试者时,冠心病事件的RH也相似0.96(95%CI,0.77~1.19). 结论:HERS后期

  15. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  16. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  17. Follow-up of a Case of Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Over an 8-year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Feng Wen; Guangwei Luo; Futian Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show the follow-up of a case of vitelliform mac-ular dystrophy with morphological and visual functional tests over an 8-year period. Methods:.Retrospective review of medical records..The mor-phological examination included color photography,.fluores-cein angiography, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT). The visual functional tests included visual acuity, electro-ocu-logram (EOG) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). The patient was observed for 8 years, from 2003 to 2011. Results:.During the follow-up,.the improvement of sensory retinal detachment and reduction of yellow-white deposit were observed with color photography and fluorescein angiography. OCT revealed a decrease in sensory retinal detachment and subretinal hyper-reflective deposits; both of these morphologi-cal changes were correspondent. Visual acuity was maintained throughout the follow-up..The Arden ratio of EOG was de-creased. The amplitudes of mfERG were decreased but slightly increased during the follow-up. Conclusion:.The retinal morphological changes and visual function slightly improved in this case of vitelliform macu-lopathy. The prognosis is good. (Eye Science 2014; 29:165-169)

  18. Transfer of figural face aftereffects suggests mature orientation selectivity in 8-year-olds' face coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-10-01

    Adult face perception mechanisms are tuned to upright faces, and this orientation selectivity is central to adult expertise with upright faces. Children are less expert than adults, and it has been argued that their face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults. Here we used face aftereffects to test this hypothesis by examining whether children's aftereffects show greater transfer across changes in orientation than do adults' aftereffects. We adapted 7- to 8-year-old children and adults to figural face distortions in both upright and inverted orientations and examined the size of resulting aftereffects in both upright and inverted test faces. If children's face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults, then children's aftereffects should transfer more strongly across changes in orientation. We found no evidence to support this prediction. Children's and adults' aftereffects were similarly reduced by orientation differences between adapt and test. These results indicate that children, like adults, show a high degree of orientation selectivity in face shape coding and suggest that neural tuning to face orientation may be mature by 8 years of age. Our findings are consistent with an emerging view that many of the key attributes of specialized face perception emerge much earlier in development than previously thought.

  19. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  20. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, S. M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Scholtens, S.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA)

  1. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W.J., E-mail: p.voet@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center–Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3075EA (Netherlands); Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center–Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3075EA (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  2. Prospective study of serum uric acid and risk of brain infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively investigate the association between serum uric acid concentration and the risk of brain infarction in Chinese adults.Methods In this prospective cohort study,a total of 95 738 participants(aged 18-98 years old)were included and were categorized into sex-specific quintiles according to serum uric acid concentration which were collected during 2006—2007 by health examinations.The study was followed up for an average of 4 years.We used Cox regression models to

  3. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity.

  4. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  5. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic devic

  6. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  7. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  8. A prospective study on cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cognitive function in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, S; Launer, LJ; Stolk, RP; de Jong, FH; Pols, HAP; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between the peripheral concentrations of the adrenal steroid hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cognitive impairment and decline. A prospective study design was used. The setting was a suburb of Rotterdam, The

  9. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  10. Recurrence Risk after a First Remote Symptomatic Unprovoked Seizure in Childhood: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lizana, J.; Aguirre-Rodriguez, J.; Aguilera-Lopez, P.; Cassinello-Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk after a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure in childhood. All consecutive patients younger than 14 years with a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure who were seen at our hospital between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study and prospectively followed. Only two patients received…

  11. Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: A review of prospective cohort and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnelie, P.C.; Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed 37 prospective cohort and four intervention studies on potential dietary risk factors for prostate cancer, published between 1966 and September 2003. Some studies were limited by small size, crude measurement of dietary exposure and limited control for confounders. Intervention and prosp

  12. Ascorbic acid is lower during pregnancy in diabetic women compared to controls: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non-diabetic w...

  13. Ascorbic acid is lower during pregnancy in diabetic women compared to controls: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non-diabetic women (n=6...

  14. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  15. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  16. Depression in older people after fall-related injuries: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaf-Klomp, W.; Sanderman, R.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I J M

    2003-01-01

    Background: objectives of the study were i) to describe changes in depression in independently living people aged 57 or older with fall-related injuries, and ii) to examine the effect of incomplete recovery of physical functions on depression one year post-injury. Method: prospective cohort-study, i

  17. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  18. Course of disability reduction during a pain rehabilitation program : a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterschoot, Franka P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the course of reduction of disability during a pain rehabilitation program (PRP) and factors influencing this course. A prospective cohort study was carried out. All patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain treated in a PRP between March 2010 and December 2010

  19. A Prospective Study of Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    a prospective cohort study of 32 002 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study observed from 1990 to 2008. Weekly time spent on weight training and aerobic exercise (including brisk walking, jogging, running, bicycling, swimming, tennis, squash, and calisthenics/rowing) was obtained from questionnaires...

  20. Symptoms, treatment and "dying peacefully" in terminally ill cancer patients: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georges, J.J.; Philipsen, B.D.; Heide, van der A.; Wal, van der G.; Maas, van der P.J.

    2005-01-01

    GOALS: The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms, their treatment during the final months of life of terminally ill cancer patients and to assess characteristics of the dying process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a prospective study design. From a representative sample of physicians who

  1. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  2. Predictors for re-employment success in newly unemployed : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.; Bakker, R. H.; Schellekens, J. M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine which personal and situational factors affect reemployment success in persons in their first year of unemployment. In a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up, we investigated a sample of 3618 subjects who became unemployed. A survey was sent t

  3. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  4. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using sel

  5. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  6. Cognitive Function, Progression of Age-related Behavioral Changes, Biomarkers, and Survival in Dogs More Than 8 Years Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    patted, difficulty finding dropped food and anxiety. Thirty-three percent of dogs with a normal cognitive status progressed to MCI and 22% classified as MCI progressed to CCD during the study period. For 6 dogs diagnosed with CCD, signs of cognitive dysfunction increased with time. A diagnosis of CCD did......BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes......, survival, and possible biomarkers of CCD in aged dogs. AnimalsFifty-one dogs >8 years old; 21 with no cognitive deficits, 17 with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and 13 with CCD. MethodsLongitudinal study. Recruitment period of 12 months and an observational period of 24 months including a baseline and 3...

  7. Mother and Child Behaviour in Very Preterm and Term Dyads at 6 and 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter; Chernova, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Mothers of very preterm children have been reported to behave less sensitively and to be more controlling. It is unknown whether this is the result of maternal factors or due to maternal adaptation to children's cognitive problems. Method: We investigated a geographically defined prospective whole-population sample of very low birthweight (…

  8. A prospective study of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in China: The Kailuan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anand; Cui, Liufu; Sun, Lixia; Lu, Bing; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xiurong; Xie, Xiaobing; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study.A prospective cohort included 100,279 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2006). Examination surveys were conducted every 2 years in 2008 and 2010. For the analyses of incident diabetes, we included 76,869 participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline and participants in the 2008 and/or 2010 follow-up. Diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7 mmol/L, self-reported history, or active treatment with insulin or any oral hypoglycemic agent. IFG was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L.During the 4-year study, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG rose from 6.6% to 7.7%, and 17.3% to 22.6%, respectively. There were 17,811 incident cases of IFG and 4867 incident cases of diabetes. The age-standardized incident rate of IFG and diabetes were 62.6/1000 person-years (51.2/1000 person-years in women and 73.8/1000 person-years in men) and 10.0/1000 person-years (7.8/1000 person-years in women and 12.1/1000 person-years in men), respectively. We observed steady increases in fasting blood glucose with body anthropometrics and in every defined category of body mass index, including in those traditionally considered to be well within the "normal" range.In this large longitudinal study of Chinese adults, we observed a high prevalence and incidence of IFG

  9. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  10. Pediatric renal transplantation in a highly sensitised child-8 years on.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2012-01-26

    Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.

  11. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  12. Cognitive development over 8 years in midlife and its association with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Garde, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    ) was drawn randomly from the community, followed for 8 years, and assessed on cognitive function, health, and lifestyle risk factors at 4 yearly intervals. A summary risk score (PATHrisk) was computed for presence of smoking, hypertension, depression, high body mass index, diabetes, and insufficient physical......OBJECTIVE: We describe population-level cognitive development in early middle-age and evaluate whether cardiovascular risk factors for late-onset dementia influence cognitive change in midlife. METHOD: The sample from the PATH Through Life (PATH) Project (N = 2,530; 40-44 years of age at baseline...... activity. RESULTS: Decline in processing speed and reaction time (RT) and improvement in memory and verbal ability were observed. Higher PATHrisk score was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive tests, except for RT. Participants with higher PATHrisk scores had greater slowing on choice RT...

  13. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  14. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  15. [Breast cancer mass screening in the Province of Liege. Results after 8 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Delleuze, J M

    2000-08-01

    Breast cancer mass screening by mobile units started in 1992 in the Province of Liège (Belgium). This project is developed for rural areas and interests all women between 40-69 years old not regularly X-rayed in traditional breast cancer diagnosis centers. Despite lots of efforts population participation is low (25%). Nevertheless, the experiment results are encouraging: in a series of 31,443 women, 213 cancers were diagnosed, corresponding to a rate of 6.9/1000, 75% of which are of good prognosis. After an 8 years experiment, it is hoped that the population concerned becomes more sensitive to this mass screening project and one should expect a better collaboration with the other actors in the field of breast diseases diagnosis.

  16. Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: from 18 months to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sherryl Scott; Boris, Neil W; Fuselier, Sarah-Hinshaw; Page, Timothy; Koren-Karie, Nina; Miron, Devi

    2006-03-01

    The best means for the diagnosis and treatment of reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood have not been established. Though some longitudinal data on institutionalized children is available, reports of maltreated young children who are followed over time and assessed with measures of attachment are lacking. This paper presents the clinical course of a set of maltreated fraternal twins who were assessed and treated from 19 months to 30 months of age and then seen in follow-up at 3 and 8 years of age. A summary of the early assessment and course is provided and findings from follow-up assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning of each child is analysed. Follow-up measures, chosen to capture social-cognitive processing of these children from an attachment perspective, are highlighted. Finally, findings from the case are discussed from nosological and theoretical perspectives.

  17. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  18. UK pneumonectomy outcome study (UKPOS: a prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Paul

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to assess the short term risks of pneumonectomy for lung cancer in contemporary practice a one year prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome was made. Current UK practice for pneumonectomy was observed to note patient and treatment factors associated with major complications. Methods A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was performed. All 35 UK thoracic surgical centres were invited to submit data to the study. All adult patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between 1 January and 31 December 2005 were included. Patients undergoing pleuropneumonectomy, extended pneumonectomy, completion pneumonectomy following previous lobectomy and pneumonectomy for benign disease, were excluded from the study. The main outcome measure was suffering a major complication. Major complications were defined as: death within 30 days of surgery; treated cardiac arrhythmia or hypotension; unplanned intensive care admission; further surgery or inotrope usage. Results 312 pneumonectomies from 28 participating centres were entered. The major complication incidence was: 30-day mortality 5.4%; treated cardiac arrhythmia 19.9%; unplanned intensive care unit admission 9.3%; further surgery 4.8%; inotrope usage 3.5%. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ P3, pre-operative diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO and epidural analgesia were collectively the strongest risk factors for major complications. Major complications prolonged median hospital stay by 2 days. Conclusion The 30 day mortality rate was less than 8%, in agreement with the British Thoracic Society guidelines. Pneumonectomy was associated with a high rate of major complications. Age, ASA physical status, DLCO and epidural analgesia appeared collectively most associated with major complications.

  19. Fracture Risk Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease, Prospective Testing Under Real World Environments (FRACTURE: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Sarah L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Decreased bone mass and disruption of microarchitecture occur early in the course of CKD and worsens with the progressive decline in renal function so that at the time of initiation of dialysis at least 50% of patients have had a fracture. Despite the excess fracture risk, and the associated increases in morbidity and mortality, little is known about the factors that are associated with an increase in fracture risk. Our study aims to identify prognostic factors for bone loss and fractures in patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Methods This prospective study aims to enroll two hundred and sixty men and women with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Subjects will be followed for 24 months and we will examine the ability of: 1 bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the spine, hip, and radius; 2 volumetric bone density by high resolution peripheral quantitated computed tomography at the radius and tibia; 3 serum markers of bone turnover; 4 bone formation rate by bone biopsy; and 5 muscle strength and balance to predict spine and non-spine fractures, identified by self-report and/or vertebral morphometry. All measurements will be obtained at baseline, at 12 and at 24 months with the exception of bone biopsy, which will be measured once at 12 months. Subjects will be contacted every 4 months to determine if there have been incident fractures or falls. Discussion This study is one of the first that aims to identify risk factors for fracture in early stage CKD patients. Ultimately, by identifying risk factors for fracture and targeting treatments in this group-before the initiation of renal replacement therapy - we will reduce the burden of disease due to fractures among patients with CKD.

  20. Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, G.E.; Miday, R.K.; Bercz, J.P.; Miller, R.G.; Greathouse, D.G.; Kraemer, D.F.; Lucas, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared with test results after 115 days of exposure. Chlorite ion levels in the water averaged approximately 5 ppM during the study period. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the data failed to identify any significant exposure-related effects. This study suggests that future evaluations of chlorine dioxide disinfection should be directed toward populations with potentially increased sensitivity to hemolytic agents.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective c

  2. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  3. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation : Results of a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, Miranda E M C; Schilstra, Cornelis; Beetz, Ivo; Muijs, C.T.; Chouvalova, Olga; Burlage, Fred R.; Doornaert, P.; Koken, P.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Rinkel, R.N.; de Bruijn, M.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Roodenburg, J.L.; van der Laan, B.F.; Slotman, B.J.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop

  4. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  5. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  6. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  7. Poststroke depression and its multifactorial nature : Results from a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ryck, A.; Fransen, E.; Brouns, R.; Geurden, M.; Peij, D.; Marien, P.; De Deyn, P. P.; Engelborghs, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Poststroke depression (PSD) is commonly observed in stroke patients and has a negative impact on functional outcome and quality of life. Therefore, a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted aiming to determine prevalence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18

  8. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for incid

  9. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.;

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...

  10. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  11. Treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures : A multicenter prospective randomized study of operative versus nonsurgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenga, Jan; Leferink, Vincent J. M.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. Th. M.; Rommens, Pol M.; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Multicenter prospective randomized trial. Objective. To test the hypotheses that thoracolumbar AO Type A spine fractures without neurologic deficit, managed with short-segment posterior stabilization will show an improved radiographic outcome and at least the same functional outcome as

  12. Soccer injuries and recovery in dutch male amateur soccer players: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUR

  13. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S-S.; Adami, H-O.; Beeson, L.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The association between anthropometric indices and the risk of breast cancer was analyzed using pooled data from seven prospective cohort studies. Together, these cohorts comprise 337,819 women and 4,385 incident invasive breast cancer cases. In multivariate analyses controlling for reproductive, di

  14. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Klaveren, J.D. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by me

  15. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  16. Nosocomial infection in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne L; Reinholdt, Jes; Jensen, Anders Mørup

    2009-01-01

    and respiratory tract infection, and central venous catheter and parenteral nutrition risk factors for first time blood stream infection. CONCLUSION: This first prospective study of nosocomial infection in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit found an overall incidence of 8.8/1000 hospital days, which is low...

  17. A prospective study of plasma exchange in the treatment of diffuse scleroderma.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    A prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy between plasma exchange (PE) plus Dpenicillamine (13 cases) (group Ⅰ)and D-penicillamine alone (16 cases) (group Ⅱ) in the treatment of diffuse scleroderma was carried out. Total skin score, the distance between finger and palm the distance between

  18. A prospective study of PET/CT in initial staging of small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Langer, S W

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15%-20% of all lung cancer cases. Accurate and fast staging is mandatory when choosing treatment, but current staging procedures are time consuming and lack sensitivity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was designed to examine the ro...

  19. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  20. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in Ja

  1. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  2. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; van de Beek, D.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired ba

  3. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  4. Outcome of HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients: a prospective and multicenter cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miro, J.M.; Montejo, M.; Castells, L.; Rafecas, A.; Moreno, S.; Aguero, F.; Abradelo, M.; Miralles, P.; Torre-Cisneros, J.; Pedreira, J.D.; Cordero, E.; Rosa, G. De; Moyano, B.; Moreno, A.; Perez, I.; Rimola, A.; Barrera, P.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-four HCV/HIV-coinfected and 252-matched HCV-monoinfected liver transplant recipients were included in a prospective multicenter study. Thirty-six (43%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 75 (30%) HCV-monoinfected patients died, with a survival rate at 5 years of 54% (95% CI, 42-64) and 71% (95% CI, 66 to

  5. Application of the ThinPrep Imaging System in Urine Cytology A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, Bettien M.; Haarsma, Jolanda G.; Ruitenbeek, Teus; Groen, Henk; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this prospective study, for the first time, the authors compared the accuracy of reading urine specimens using the ThinPrep Imager System (TIS) with the accuracy of conventional screening for the detection of abnormal urine cells. METHODS ThinPrep slides were made from 1455 urine speci

  6. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubin; M.O. Pozo; C.A. Casabella; F.,Jr Pálizas; G. Murias; M.C. Moseinco; V.S. Kanoore Edul; F. Pálizas; E. Estenssoro; C. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were mecha

  7. The effect of HIV infection on adult meningitis in Indonesia: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganiem, A.R.; Parwati, I.; Wisaksana, R.; Zanden, A. van der; Beek, D. van de; Sturm, P.D.J.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Alisjahbana, B.; Brouwer, A.E.; Kurniani, N.; Gans, J. de; Crevel, R. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Indonesia has a concentrated but rapidly growing HIV epidemic. We examined the effect of HIV on causative organisms, clinical features and prognosis of adult meningitis. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: All adult patients at a referral hospital who underwent cerebrospinal flui

  8. First-onset psychosis occurring in the postpartum period: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bergink (Veerle); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke); K.M. Koorengevel (Kathelijne); R.W. Kupka (Ralph ); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To prospectively characterize a cohort of patients for whom first lifetime episode of psychosis occurs in the postpartum period. Method: Included in the study were 51 women admitted to an inpatient facility for postpartum psychosis and a population-based control group (n = 6,9

  9. Predicting mobility outcome one year after stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, I.G. van de; Kwakkel, G.; Schepers, V.P.; Lindeman, E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a prognostic model to predict mobility outcome one year post-stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in patients with a first-ever stroke admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. PATIENTS: A total of 217 patients with stroke (mean age 58 years) following inpatient rehabilitation

  10. Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Bode, P.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial have suggested a protective effect of selenium against prostate cancer. Few other prospective studies have been conducted to confirm or refute this. The association between prostate cancer and baseline toenail selenium level was evaluated in the Netherlands C

  11. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  12. General practitioners' continuing medical education: A prospective study from the County of Aarhus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan E.; Lous, Jørgen; Adeler, H.F.;

    2002-01-01

    Participation of Danish general practitioners (GPs) in continuing medical education (CME) has often been the subject of debate, although very little is known about the extent and content of activities. One-hundred-and-sixty-one Danish GPs participated in this one-year prospective study...

  13. A Prospective Study of Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perceptions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles F.; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    There have been limited prospective studies investigating physical activity and physical self-perceptions in children. In this investigation, mean steps/day did not significantly change from late elementary to junior high for either boys or girls; however, boys accumulated more steps both at baseline and follow-up. Physical self-perception…

  14. Asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli and mood in a cohort of older people: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by transcrania

  15. Mandibular overdentures supported by two Branemark, IMZ or ITI implants : a 5-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, HJA; Batenburg, RHK; Raghoebar, GM; Vissink, A

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to evaluate the survival rate and the condition of the peri-implant tissues of the IMZ implant system (two-stage cylindertype), the Branemark implant system (two-stage screwtype) and the ITI implant system (one-stage screwtype) supporting

  16. COLLABORATIVE PROSPECTIVE-STUDY OF THE FRAGILE-X SYNDROME - ONE-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHERMAN, SL; BARBI, G; BRONDUMNIELSEN, K; BROWN, WT; CARPENTER, NJ; CHUDLEY, AE; FERRAZ, OP; FERREIRA, P; GUSTAVSON, KH; HALLIDAY, J; HOCKEY, A; HOWARDPEEBLES, PN; JENKINS, E; KENNERKNECHT, [No Value; KAHKONEN, M; LADAIQUE, P; LEISTI, J; MADDALENA, A; MAZURCZAK, T; MATTEI, JF; MATTINA, T; MCKINLEY, MJ; MURPHY, P; PELLISSIER, MC; PURVISSMITH, S; ROBINSON, H; SCAPAGNINI, U; SCHAAP, T; SHAPIRO, LR; SMITS, APT; STEINBACH, P; TURNER, G; UCHIDA, IA; VANOOST, BA; VOELCKEL, MA; WEAVER, DD; WEBB, T

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study of the fragile X syndrome [fra(X)] was initiated one year ago to refine the estimates of recurrence risks based on the phenotype of the mother and the family history of the syndrome. The basic unit of data consists of the description of the conceptus of women known to carry the f

  17. Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, D.S.M.; Lau, R.; Aune, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospe

  18. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, D.S.; Lau, R.; Aune, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospe

  19. Dynasplint Trismus System exercises for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer : a prospective explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Reintsema, Harry; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2016-01-01

    The Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) can be used to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study with the following aims: (1) to determine the effects of DTS exercises on changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, quality of life (QoL), and symptomatolog

  20. Functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dros, J.; Maarsingh, O.R.; Beem, L.; Horst, H.E. van der; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F.G.; Weert, H.C.P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 6-month functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care, to identify important predictors of dizziness-related impairment, and to construct a score to assist risk prediction. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Setting: Twenty-fou

  1. Robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse: a prospective cohort study on feasibility and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaisma, W.A.; Nieuwenhuis, D.H.; Janssen, L.W.M.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic systems may be particularly supportive for procedures requiring careful pelvic dissection and suturing in the Douglas pouch, as in surgery for rectal prolapse. Studies reporting robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse, however, are scarce. This prospective cohort stud

  2. Distress in suspected lung cancer patients following rapid and standard diagnostic programs: a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, P.; Heijden, E.H. van der; Oud, K.T.; Bootsma, G.; Groen, H.J.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Prins, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Timeliness may influence emotional distress during the diagnostic phase of suspected lung cancer patients. We performed a prospective observational study to compare distress and quality of life (QoL) in two medical centres with a Rapid Outpatient Diagnostic Program (RODP) and two using co

  3. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  4. Postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine : A prospective study in 614 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1996-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine, we performed a prospective study in 614 patients undergoing major surgery. Before surgical incision, all patients received an initial dose of 50 mu g sufentanil in 6-10 mL bupivacaine 0.

  5. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidant

  6. Do Specific Types of Networking Predict Specific Mobility Outcomes? A Two-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established a general relation between networking and career outcomes, as postulated by theories on protean careers and career self management. We suggest that specific facets of networking behavior differentially affect specific career mobility outcomes over time. In a 2-year prospective study, we examined the impact of six…

  7. Prognosis of abdominal pain in children in primary care : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Spee, Leo A A; Benninga, Marc A; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Abdominal pain is a common complaint in children. Because few data exist on its natural history, we wanted to investigate the prognosis of abdominal pain in children in general practice. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of children (aged 4 to 17 years) complaining of abdominal pain, f

  8. How distressing is referral to colposcopy in cervical cancer screening? : A prospective quality of life study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); S.M. Westenberg (Steven); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Referral for colposcopy because of abnormal Pap test results is likely to be distressing, but the extent and duration of these effects are unknown. We aimed to fill this gap. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  9. The extremely resorbed mandible : A comparative prospective study of 2-year results with 3 treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results of 3 modes of implant treatment in combination with an overdenture in patients with extremely resorbed mandibles. The 3 treatment strategies used were a transmandibular implant, augmentation of t

  10. Mood after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Valk-Kleibeuker (Linda); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate the course of mood and identify its determinants up to 3 years after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Patients: Patients hospitalised with moderate to severe TBI, who survived until hospital discharge. Methods: At 3

  11. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  12. The magic and menace of metagenomics: prospects for the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveau, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to be a pragmatic primer into the field of metagenomics with special emphasis on the prospective contributions of metagenomics to the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). After an introduction into the concepts and methodologies of metagenomics and a discussion of

  13. Mandibular Overdentures Supported by 6-mm Dental Implants : A 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Ter Meulen, Jan-Willem P.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Guljé, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Background: The extremely resorbed edentulous mandible, with a bone height of 8 mm or less, is still a challenge in implant dentistry. Recently, dental implants of 6 mm in length have been developed. Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year prospective cohort study was to evaluate treatment outcome of ma

  14. Vismodegib Therapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma in an 8-Year-Old Chinese Boy with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Douglas; Laitinen, Marko A; Myers, David J; Landsteiner, Pamela B

    2017-03-01

    Vismodegib is an oral inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and has been used to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in adults. This article reports clearance of a nodular BCC of the nasal tip in an 8-year-old boy with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). BCC can pose therapeutic challenges when located in areas that are not amenable to traditional therapies such as Mohs micrographic surgery or topical agents. Vismodegib was used at a dose of 150 mg/day to treat the boy's BCC. After 4 months of therapy, we achieved complete clinical clearance. During 21 months of follow-up, the patient's nose remained clinically clear of tumor. Vismodegib was successfully used to treat a child with XP and nodular BCC. Our goal in using vismodegib was tumor regression while avoiding cosmetic and functional disfigurement. Vismodegib was effective in clinically clearing the tumor, and the patient has shown no signs of recurrence. Further studies are warranted.

  15. The End-state Comfort Effect in 3- to 8-year-old Children in two Object Manipulation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eKnudsen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare 3- to 8-year-old children’s propensity to anticipate a comfortable hand posture at the end of a grasping movement (end-state comfort effect between two different object manipulation tasks, the bar-transport task and the overturned-glass task. In the bar-transport task, participants were asked to insert a vertically positioned bar into a small opening of a box. In the overturned-glass task, participants were asked to put an overturned glass right-side-up on a coaster. Half of the participants experienced action effects (lights as a consequence of their movements (AE groups, while the other half of the participants did not (No-AE groups. While there was no difference between the AE and No-AE groups, end-state comfort performance differed across age as well as between tasks. Results revealed a significant increase in end-state comfort performance in the bar-transport task from 13% in the 3-year-olds to 94% in the 8-year-olds. Interestingly, the number of children grasping the bar according to end-state comfort doubled from 3 to 4 years and from 4 to 5 years of age. In the overturned-glass task an increase in end-state comfort performance from already 63% in the 3-year-olds to 100% in the 8-year-olds was significant as well. When comparing end-state comfort performance across tasks, results showed that 3- and 4-year-old children were better at manipulating the glass as compared to manipulating the bar, most probably, because children are more familiar with manipulating glasses. Together, these results suggest that preschool years are an important period for the development of motor planning in which the familiarity with the object involved in the task plays a significant role in children’s ability to plan their movements according to end-state comfort.

  16. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  17. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.

  18. Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In our cohort, use of sunitinib showed similar outcome to previously published articles. Our study supports the use of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma; sunitinib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

  19. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  20. Prospective, Controlled, Multicentre Study of Loperimide in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Einarson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loperamide is a synthetic piperidine derivative used for the treatment of both acute and chronic diarrhea. Little is known about its safety and risk in pregnancy. Human data are limited to one surveillance study of Michigan Medicaid patients, with 108 women exposed in the first trimester. In this study there were six major birth defects, three of which were cardiovascular anomalies.

  1. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  2. Effects of aversive stimuli on prospective memory. An event-related fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rea

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10 and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10 would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour.

  3. Status and prospects of frozen soil studies using CT technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiJie Chen; ShuPing Zhao; Wei Ma; QianTao Zhu; LiLi Xing

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of Computed Tomography (CT) technology and reviews its history, current situation, representative achievements, and use of using CT technology on frozen soil study, including auxiliary equipment specially de-signed for frozen soil studies. CT numbers are used to analyze frozen soil internal structure change, defining and exploring dam-age evolution, and use of CT images on observing soil mesostructure. Finally, this paper presents existing problems confronted by using CT in frozen soil studies, possible solutions and challenges, among which, we introduce high quality CT image processing for frozen soils, and relations between CT number change and each component change on frozen soil samples within the region of interest. It is shown that present CT technology is one of the most ideal and effective technology to study frozen soil mesostructure using non-destructive testing. CT technology will play a key role in the study and development in the field of frozen soil by means of auxiliary equipment and the digital imaging processing.

  4. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F Biddle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Manhes et al. 2011, Martiny et al. 2006. Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org.

  5. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  6. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimnaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES OF STUDY: To study the electrocardiographic findings in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To correlate these findings with duration, severity of the disease and pulmonary function test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consists of 50 patients selected randomly from the cases admitted in the medical wards with symptoms suggestive of airway obstruction of more than 2 years duration, and in whom clinical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was made. All these patients were subjected to Spirometric tests, the values of forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 less than 80% of the expected value, which does not alter significantly after bronchodilator inhalation (<200ml were included in this study. The cases like Bronchial asthma, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Bronchiectasis, Cor pulmonale in failure, Cardiac illness, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. RESULT: 50 patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were studied Majority of patient had moderate airflow obstruction. The commonest ECG changes were P wave axis ≥+900, QRS axis ≥ + 90and P wave height in L2 ≥ 2.5mm. R wave in V6 < 5 mm and R/S ratio in V5 V6 ≤1 were seen less commonly. Unifocal right ventricular ectopics and RBBB were seen rarely. CONCLUSION: E.C.G. changes correlate significantly with low value of FEV1/FVC ratio. The commonest ECG changes were P wave axis ≥+900, QRS axis ≥ + 90 and P wave height in L2 ≥2.5mm. R wave in V6 <5 mm and R/S ratio in V5 V6 ≤1 were seen less commonly. Unifocal right ventricular ectopics and RBBB were seen rarely.

  7. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CYTO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. In the present era, late marriage, late child birth, shorter period of breast feeding and nulliparity or low parity have contributed to increase in the number of cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a useful method for initial evaluation and diagnosis of breast cancers and it has the ability of providing necessary prognostic predictive information. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate t he accuracy of FNAC of breast lesions with histopathological correlation. To study the cytomorphological features of palpable breast lumps. To study the various cytological patterns in aspirates from breast lesions and to classify them into non - neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions. To correlate the cytology findings with subsequent histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. To establish accuracy and efficacy of aspiration cytology as an early and preoperative diagnostic aid. To compare the statistic al analysis of present study with other contemporary studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study includes the study of aspiration smears of all cases referred to the Department of Pathology, Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam from various outpatient departments from King George Hospital, with a palpable breast lesion. True cut Biopsy and Mastectomy specimens for Histopathological correlation RESULTS: Out of 952 analyzed cases benign lesions were 691 (72.58%, malignant lesions were 146 (15. 33%,non - neoplastic lesions were common in the age group of 21 - 30 years, benign lesions in 21 - 30 years, and malignant lesions were common in the age group of 41 - 50 years. Majority of the patients were female with 913 (95.90% and male patents are 39 (4 .09%.The results of sensitivity (97.18%, specificity (98.74%, positive predictive value (97.18% and negative predictive value (98.74% with diagnostic accuracy of 98.26%. CONCLUSION: FNAC

  8. Swarna Bhasma in cancer: A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumen; Das, Mangal C; Paul, Retina

    2012-07-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of cancer, mortality is still high. Complementary and alternative medicine is emerging as a potent modality in cancer treatment. 'Swarna Bhasma' (SB), containing gold particles, is an ancient Indian medicine has shown its anticancer activity. This present study was conducted to detect the effect of SB on solid malignancies. A total of 43 patients were included in this study received SB for 1 year. Seventeen patients showed response. The response was best in rectal cancer group 70% (7/10). Nearly 41.02% patients survived for 1 year after treatment but after 5 years this came down to 15.38%.

  9. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  10. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  11. A Prospective Study of Occupation and Prostate Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall

  12. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglešić, V.; Kovačič, Ž.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinović, V.S.; Petrović, M.; Stephens, M.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjøen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Koudougou, C.; Mouallem, G.; Corre, P.; Løes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury

  13. Prospective study of bone marrow in haematological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed the usefulness of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in evaluation of the bone marrow in routine haematological disorders and also for understanding disease progression, for diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. These are also helpful in planning further investigation and management. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1917-1921

  14. Falls prediction in elderly people : A 1-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether force plate variables in single- and dual-task situations are able to predict the risk of multiple falls in a community-dwelling elderly population. Two hundred and seventy elderly persons (225 females, 45 males; age, 73 7 years) performed balanc

  15. Prognosis of coma after therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwes, A.; Binnekade, J.M.; Kuiper, M.A.; Bosch, F.H.; Zandstra, D.F.; Toornvliet, A.C.; Biemond, H.S.; Kors, B.M.; Koelman, J.H.; Verbeek, M.M.; Weinstein, H.C.; Hijdra, A.; Horn, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to establish the reliability of neurologic examination, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and median nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) to predict poor outcome in patients treated with mild hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: This

  16. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Whitlock, Gary; Lewington, Sarah;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies....

  17. Integrated Database And Knowledge Base For Genomic Prospective Cohort Study In Tohoku Medical Megabank Toward Personalized Prevention And Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, Soichi; Takai, Takako; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nagaie, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project is a national project to revitalization of the disaster area in the Tohoku region by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and have conducted large-scale prospective genome-cohort study. Along with prospective genome-cohort study, we have developed integrated database and knowledge base which will be key database for realizing personalized prevention and medicine.

  18. Influence of Age on Clinical Performance of Mandibular Two-Implant Overdentures : A 10-Year Prospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R.; Visser, Anita; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to assess whether age has influence on peri-implant health in patients treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures during a 10-year evaluation period. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out with two groups of edentul

  19. Epidemiology of recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – an international prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Burns John W; Fleming Lora E; Schluter Philip J; Webb Penelope M; Stewart Ian; Gantar Miroslav; Backer Lorraine C; Shaw Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Case studies and anecdotal reports have documented a range of acute illnesses associated with exposure to cyanobacteria and their toxins in recreational waters. The epidemiological data to date are limited; we sought to improve on the design of some previously conducted studies in order to facilitate revision and refinement of guidelines for exposure to cyanobacteria in recreational waters. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the incidence of ac...

  20. Association between occupational physical activity and myocardial infarction : a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Anna M; Alfredsson, Lars; Knutsson, Anders; Westerholm, Peter J M; Fransson, Eleonor I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recommendations regarding physical activity typically include both leisure time and occupational physical activity. However, the results from previous studies on occupational physical activity and the association with myocardial infarction have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate if occupational physical activity is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. Design: Prospective cohort study. Participants: Data from the Swedish Work, Lipids and Fibrin...

  1. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CT IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand S .

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of the pancreas was far better by CT than b y ultrasound. Ultrasound had certain limitation. Due to bowel gas the pancreas may not be visualized. Extra pancreatic spread of inflammation and vascular complications was not always picked up by Ultrasonography. These limitations were overcome with the u se of CT which yielded more diagnostic information in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis. CT is a confirmative investigation in diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis. MCTSI is a very useful tool for the screening of patients with acute pancreatitis for the classification of severity accurately and to predict the clinical outcome. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY: To determine the value of computed tomography in evaluation of early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. To evaluate the complications using computed tom ography severity index. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 100 patients with clinical suspicion of acute pancreatitis, altered biochemical parameters (Serum amylase, Serum lipase in favor of acute pancreatitis, ultrasonography suggestive of acute pancreatitis and complications known case of chronic pancreatitis with features of acute symptoms who were referred to the department of Radiodiagnosis, Basaveshwar teaching & General Hospital, Kalaburagi. Before evaluating a patient by CT imaging, i nformed consent was obtained from the patient or guardian. The patient were informed about the radiation exposure in the examination. CT was carried out using Philips 6 slice scanner. Scan was obtained with both plain and contrast study. RESULT: 100 patien ts were included in the study. 83% patients were males and 17% patients were females. Majority of patients belonged to 31 - 40 yrs. of age group. Alcohol was the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. 73 patients had positive ultrasound finding while CT wa s positive in all cases. According to, MCTSI 63 patients had moderate, 26 patients had mild and 11 patients had severe

  2. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Domingues, Marlos R

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, durin...

  3. Carotid artery stenting: a single-centre experience with up to 8 years' follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Gandini, Roberto; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Stefanini, Matteo; Spinelli, Alessio; Reale, Carlo Andrea; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Gaspari, Eleonora [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy, Rome (Italy); Versaci, Francesco [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) may be an alternative to surgical endoarterectomy not only in high-risk patients. We report results in the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease with up to 8 years' follow-up. In this retrospective study, we analysed data from 853 consecutive patients (946 arteries) treated for carotid artery stenosis between April 1999 and March 2007; 491 (52%) arteries were symptomatic and 455(48%) were asymptomatic. Preprocedural evaluation of the patients was performed with echo Doppler, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and a neurological examination. A cerebral protection device was used in 879 (92.9%) procedures. Anti-platelet therapy was administered before and after the procedure. All patients were included in a follow-up of up to 8 years. Technical success was achieved in 943 (99.6%) lesions. At 30 days, there was a 0.21% (n = 2) death rate, a 0.42% major stroke rate, a 1.69% minor stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) rate and a combined 2.32% TIA/stroke and death rate. During follow-up, echo Doppler evidenced restenosis in 39 (4.85%) cases; of these, only five, presenting restenosis >80%, were treated with an endovascular reintervention. At the long-term follow-up, two strokes (0.23%) were reported, which both occurred within the first 2 years. In our experience, carotid artery stenting seems to be a safe and effective treatment, providing satisfactory long-term clinical results. (orig.)

  4. Potentiometric study of antioxidant activity: development and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A V; Gerasimova, E L; Brainina, Kh Z

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the study of the antioxidant activity of different objects is caused by an unbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the performance of the antioxidant system in humans under certain conditions, which leads to oxidative stress and pathological states of the organism. This article presents a brief critical review of the methods that are used to measure integrated antioxidant activity (AOA). It is shown that the most promising methods for measuring AOA are electrochemical ones, particularly potentiometry, as it best fits the nature of the processes causing oxidative stress. The article gives the theoretical rational for requirements that an oxidizer of antioxidants (AO) should meet. The work presents the thermodynamic grounds for the use of an earlier proposed mediator system, kinetics of chemical reactions between AO and the mediator system. In order to confirm reliability and accuracy of the results, numerous correlation studies were conducted, aiming to compare the data obtained with the use the proposed method and independent analytical methods. The article presents the results of the potentiometric study of AOA for a variety of objects, including individual antioxidant → nutritional supplements → food → blood and blood fractions.

  5. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX OPEN FRACTURES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The incidence of Open fractures is on the rise, due to the increasing Road Traffic Accidents in India. In fact accidents are the leading cause of death in young, healthy individuals now. As the number of compound fractures are flooding the outpatient departments of all the major hospitals a viable and effective strategy has to be in place to manage these patients. The various treatment options available to treat these fractures and t heir effectiveness is the basis for this study. MATERIAL & METHODS : This study was conducted by our unit, from Department of Orthopedics and Traumat ology, Osmania General Hospital /Medical College during September 2012 to September 2014. The study comprises of 40 patients who were treated during this period, the patients selected were with Compound fractures Grade III A and Grade III B of Femur , Tibia and fibula. Various modalities of fixation were used in the management of these patients depending upon the clinical condition of the patient . CONCLUSIONS : External fixation was the mainstay of these fractures. It may be a first aid procedure or a definitive treatment option. The other options like Primary Nailing, biological plating have their own ind ications . Secondary procedures do play their role in the effective management of these complex injuries. All in all the successful management of these limb / life threatening injuries lies in the initial management and early intervention , secure fixation of fractures , prevention of infection and reasonable covering of the wounds.

  7. Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids.

  8. Acute Renal Failure in Snake Envenomation: A Large Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athappan Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebite is a common problem in India. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic factors in snakebite induced acute renal failure and to determine their outcome from a tertiary care center in India. A total of 1548 cases of snakebite admitted to adult medical wards of Government Rajaji hospital from January 2003 to December 2004, were studied from hospitalization to discharge or death. There were 1180 poisonous and 368 nonpoisonous snakebites. Among the poisonous, there were 1121 viperidae and 59 elapidae bites. A total of 159 (13.5% patients (M = 98, F = 61 developed acute renal failure; of them 72 (45.3% required dialysis and 36 (22.6% expired (of them, 23 required dialysis. ARF patients were older than non ARF (39.1 vs. 35.4 years, p = 0.03. Cellulites (OR 9.20, p = 0.032, regional lymphadenopathy (OR 22.0, p= 0.001, intravascular hemolysis (OR 3.70, p = 0.004 and bite to needle time more than 2 hours (OR 2.10, p = 0.001 were identified as independent risk factors for the development of acute renal failure. Bite to needle time more than 2 hours (OR 2.10, p = 0.01, presence of intravascular hemolysis (OR 13.0, p = 0.004 and hypotension (OR 22.2, p = 0.04 and the presence of bleeding manifestations (OR 7.91, p = 0.032 were identified as independent predictors of poor outcome in snakebite victims. We conclude that our study demonstrates several risk factors and predictors for the development and outcome of ARF in patients with snakebites.

  9. COMPARING STANDARD AND TOTALLY TUBELESS PCNL: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Raj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL was introduced in 1976, and rapidly evolved into the gold standard for treatment of large and complex renal stones. The procedure continues to evolve with an emphasis on maintaining a high success rate of stone treatment while improving patient outcome with decreased morbidity. With the improvement of instrumentation and experience of PCNL, several modifications to the procedure have taken place in order to reduce the morbidity & early return to normal lifestyle. First described by Wickham et al., another technical variation of tubeless PCNL is totally tubeless approach. The aim of this study is to compare standard and totally tubeless PCNL with respect to safety and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was performed in the Department of Urology, RajaRajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore from June 2015 to March 2016 after ethics committee clearance. Forty patients planned for PCNL and who gave informed written consent were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups, standard PCNL (with a nephrostomy tube and totally tubeless PCNL (no ureter stents or ureteric catheters. RESULTS Both the groups were similar in terms of patient and stone characteristics. The mean operation time was slightly longer in the standard group (106.74 minutes than in the totally tubeless group (100.32 minutes, but there was no statistically significant difference. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to serum creatinine change or blood loss. However, hospital stay and analgesia requirement was significantly less in the totally tubeless group. CONCLUSION Totally tubeless PCNL leads to shorter hospital stays and less postoperative pain. It can be used with a favourable outcome in selected patients (stone burden <2 cm, single tract access, no significant residual stones, minimal bleeding, and no requirement for a secondary procedure.

  10. Weight cycling and mortality in a large prospective US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; Jacobs, Eric J; Sun, Juzhong; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M

    2012-04-15

    Weight cycling has been associated with an increased risk of death in some studies, but few studies differentiated weight cycling initiated by intentional weight loss from that initiated by illness. The association of weight cycling with death was examined among 55,983 men and 66,655 women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2008. A weight cycle was defined as an intentional loss of 10 or more pounds (≥4.5 kg) followed by regain of that weight, and the lifetime number of weight cycles was reported on a questionnaire administered at enrollment in 1992. A total of 15,138 men and 10,087 women died during follow-up, which ended in 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When the models were adjusted for age only, weight cycling was positively associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.0001). However, after adjustment for body mass index and other risk factors, low numbers of weight cycles (1-4 cycles) were associated with slightly lower mortality rates (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 0.97 in men and HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89, 0.98 in women), whereas high numbers of weight cycles (≥20 cycles) were not associated with mortality (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.19 in men and HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.12 in women). These results do not support an increased risk of mortality associated with weight cycling.

  11. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being.

  12. Estudio sobre la prevención quimioterapéutica de la caries dental con barnices de clorhexidina y timol, en niños de 5-8 años de edad, con riesgo alto de caries.: Un reporte preliminar Study on the chemotherapeutic prevention of the caries with chlorhexidine/thymol varnish in children of 5-8 years old, with high caries risk.: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C García-Santos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de reducir la caries de fisura en las caras oclusales de los primeros molares permanentes, a través de barnices antimicrobianos, en escolares con alta incidencia de caries. Se ha realizado un ensayo clínico aleatorio a doble ciego. Sujetos: 35 niños saludables con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y 8 años, con alto riesgo de caries, fueron seleccionados en un colegio de Madrid. Par ser incluidos en el estudio cada niño debería tener como mínimo dos primeros molares permanentes sanos, y presentar caries en dentina en sus molares temporales. Métodos: después de la profilaxis dental, el grupo de estudio se le aplicaba un barniz de clorhexidina 1% y timol 1% (Cervitec, y al grupo control un barniz de placebo. El barniz era colocado sobre todos los dientes (dentición temporal y permanente cada tres meses (al inicio a los 3,6 y 9 meses y el incremento de caries era comparado a los 12 meses. Resultados: al inicio del estudio no habían diferencias entre los grupos. Al año existía una diferencia significativa entre el grupo de estudio y el de control, en CAO-D P=0,001, CAO-S P=0,000 (en los primeros molares permanentes . Conclusión: la aplicación de Cervitec cada 3 meses, es efectiva previniendo la caries en los primeros molares permanentes de escolares con alta actividad de caries.Objective: the purpose of this study, was to evaluate the possibility of reducing occlusal fissures caries development, in permanent first molars, using an antimicrobial varnish, in schoolchildren with high caries activity. Randomised, a double-blind clinical trial was developed. Subjects: 35 healthy children aged 6-8 years with high caries risk, were selected from a schools in Madrid. To be included in the study, each child had to have least 2 sound permanent molars and primary molars with carious lesions in dentin. Methods: after prophylaxis, test groups received 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol

  13. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyue Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36. In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74 and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54, and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93. There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03. Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation.

  14. Helminthic infestation in children of Kupwara district: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the investigation of the frequency of intestinal helminth parasites in children of Kupwara, Kashmir, India. Three hundred and twelve children in the age group of 4-15 years were examined for different intestinal helminths in three schools located in rural areas. Two hundred and twenty two of 312 (71.15% tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various helminth parasites included Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata . By far, the highest frequency of 69.23% (216/312 was noted for Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Trichuris trichiura 30.76% (96/312, Enterobius vermicularis 7.69% (24/312 and Taenia saginata 7.69% (24/312. Single infection was found in 33.65% (105/312 and mixed infection was seen in 37.5% (117/312 children. This study emphasizes the need for improved environmental conditions, i.e., clean water supplies, enhanced sanitation and chemotherapy of school-age children in rural areas.

  15. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  16. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley–Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and “other vegetables” [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1] and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1

  17. Prospective randomized clinical studies involving reirradiation. Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Langendijk, Johannes A. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Grosu, Anca L. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Reirradiation is a potentially useful option for many patients with recurrent cancer. The purpose of this study was to review all recently published randomized trials in order to identify methodological strengths and weaknesses, comment on the results, clinical implications and open questions, and give advice for the planning of future trials. Systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2015 (databases searched were PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). We reviewed 9 trials, most of which addressed reirradiation of head and neck tumours. The median number of patients was 69. Trial design, primary endpoint and statistical hypotheses varied widely. The results contribute mainly to decision making for reirradiation of nasopharynx cancer and bone metastases. The trials with relatively long median follow-up confirm that serious toxicity remains a concern after high cumulative total doses. Multi-institutional collaboration is encouraged to complete sufficiently large trials. Despite a paucity of large randomized studies, reirradiation has been adopted in different clinical scenarios by many institutions. Typically, the patients have been assessed by multidisciplinary tumour boards and advanced technologies are used to create highly conformal dose distributions. (orig.) [German] Eine Rebestrahlung kann fuer viele Patienten mit rezidivierenden Malignomen eine nuetzliche Option bieten. Der Zweck dieser Studie bestand darin, alle in der juengeren Vergangenheit publizierten randomisierten Studien zu beurteilen, da deren methodische Staerken und Schwaechen, Ergebnisse und resultierende Implikationen bzw. offene Fragen die Planung kuenftiger Studien wesentlich beeinflussen koennen. Systematische Uebersicht aller zwischen 2000 und 2015 veroeffentlichten Studien (Literatursuche ueber PubMed, Scopus und Web of Science). Ausgewertet wurden 9 Studien, in die vor allem Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren eingeschlossen waren. Im Median hatten 69 Patienten teilgenommen. Das

  18. Retinal detachment in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedeke Asaminew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5% had retinal detachment (RD and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5. Fourteen patients (17.5% had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9% were blind from RD and 11 (13.8% patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5% and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%. The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%, myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%, posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8% and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%. Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1% were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%. Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9% and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011, and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

  19. Picturing Perspectives: Development of Perspective-Taking Abilities in 4- to 8-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eFrick

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the development of perspective taking has been well researched, there is no uniform methodology for assessing this ability across a wide age span when frames of reference conflict. To address this gap, we created scenes of toy photographers taking pictures of layouts of objects from different angles, and presented them to 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 80. Children were asked to choose which one of four pictures could have been taken from a specific viewpoint. Results showed that this new technique confirmed the classic pattern of developmental progress on this kind of spatial skill: (1 4-year-olds responded near chance level, regardless of layout complexity, (2 there was a growing ability to inhibit egocentric choices around age 6 with layouts of low complexity (one object, (3 performance increased and egocentric responses decreased dramatically around age 7, (4 even at age 8, children still showed considerable individual variability. This perspective-taking task can thus be used to address important questions about the supports for early spatial development and the structure of early intellect.

  20. Infratentorial meningioma in an 8-year-old child as first sign of neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, G M; Rostasy, K M; Ludwig, H C; Merkler, D; Fahsold, R; Gärtner, J

    2007-02-01

    Meningiomas are rare intracranial tumors in pediatric patients. In contrast to meningiomas in adults, childhood ones have a poorer prognosis because of their high growth potential and tendency to recur. Meningiomas are often associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) which is an autosomal-dominant disorder. In contrast to adults who primarily present with symptoms due to vestibular tumors, the initial symptoms in children with NF2 are subtle skin tumors, posterior capsular cataracts, or neurological signs secondary to cranial nerve(s) schwannoma excluding vestibular nerve, and/or brainstem or spinal cord compression. Here we report on the clinical, radiological, and histological findings in an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed with an isolated infratentorial meningioma and a novel splice site mutation in the NF2 gene. The same mutation was detected in the boy's mother who suffered from hearing loss and tinnitus due to a bilateral vestibular schwannoma. Our patient demonstrates the need for molecular testing for NF2 gene mutations even in isolated childhood meningiomas although they do not fulfill the clinical criteria of NF2.

  1. Pediatric Renal Transplantation in a Highly Sensitised Child—8 Years On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Quinlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  3. A Prospective Study of Villous Capillary Lesions in Complicated Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Priyadharshini Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascularity of placental tissue is dependent on various factors of which fetomaternal hypoxia plays a major role. Hypoxia can be of different types and each type influences the vascularity of the villi, especially terminal villi, in its own way. In this study, we attempted to identify villous vascular changes in a group of term placentae from mothers with diseases complicating pregnancy. Chorangiosis was the most frequently identified lesion while chorangioma was found in only 2 cases. There were no cases of chorangiomatosis. A few cases had normal villous vasculature. Maternal diseases have a major role in disrupting the placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis by creating a hypoxic environment that may affect the fetus adversely. Hence, such conditions need to be identified early in pregnancy and managed appropriately as it is possible to maintain a normal vasculature and prevent neonatal mortality and morbidity if prompt intervention is done.

  4. Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A L; Snider, P R

    1993-01-01

    Employing the stress and coping theory of Lazarus and Folkman, this study followed 117 women age 40 or over regarding personality, cognitive appraisal, coping, and mood variables before breast biopsy, after diagnosis, and, for those who had cancer, after surgery. Upon biopsy, 36 received a cancer diagnosis, and 81 received a benign diagnosis. The 2 groups did not differ on appraisals, coping, or affect before diagnosis. With prebiopsy affect controlled, cancer patients reported more negative affect postbiopsy than did benign patients. Postsurgery, cancer patients expressed less vigor and more fatigue than benign patients, but the groups did not differ on other negative emotions. Prebiopsy, psychosocial predictors accounted for 54% and 29% of the variance in negative and positive emotion, respectively. Prebiopsy variables also predicted postbiopsy and postsurgery mood; cognitive avoidance coping was a particularly important predictor of high distress and low vigor.

  5. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: Foreground Science Knowledge and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Fraisse, A A; Dobler, G; Dotson, J L; Draine, B T; Frisch, P C; Haverkorn, M; Hirata, C M; Jansson, R; Lazarian, A; Magalhães, A M; Waelkens, A; Wolleben, M

    2008-01-01

    We report on our knowledge of Galactic foregrounds, as well as on how a CMB satellite mission aiming at detecting a primordial B-mode signal (CMBPol) will contribute to improving it. We review the observational and analysis techniques used to constrain the structure of the Galactic magnetic field, whose presence is responsible for the polarization of Galactic emissions. Although our current understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium is somewhat limited, dramatic improvements in our knowledge of its properties are expected by the time CMBPol flies. Thanks to high resolution and high sensitivity instruments observing the whole sky at frequencies between 30 GHz and 850 GHz, CMBPol will not only improve this picture by observing the synchrotron emission from our galaxy, but also help constrain dust models. Polarized emission from interstellar dust indeed dominates over any other signal in CMBPol's highest frequency channels. Observations at these wavelengths, combined with ground-based studies of starlig...

  6. A prospective study on geriatric abdominal surgical emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Chavan

    2014-06-01

    Results: 128 patients aged 60 years or more who presented with abdominal emergency surgical conditions were studied. Most common cause for emergency abdominal surgery was perforated peptic ulcer (38% followed by intestinal obstruction (17%. The most common post-operative complication was surgical site infection (29%. Mortality rate was 17%. Most common cause of death was septic shock with multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Geriatric population is an important subgroup of population undergoing emergency abdominal surgeries. Most common cause is peptic ulcer perforation followed by intestinal obstruction due to adhesions. More than the age per say, the delay in presentation may be the cause for mortality in this age group. The therapeutic outcome in patients with co morbid factors like hypertension and diabetes mellitus in control, were similar to other patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 963-971

  7. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON JOB PROSPECTS IN BPO: INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhermendra Mehta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The gamut of globalization is far reaching and yielding rich dividends to the business activities of developing countries like India. The impact of information and technology is clearly visible in augmenting the growth of business. The business houses are more prone to meet the deadline of their set objectives. The evolution of Business Process Outsourcing is an indication of enabling the organizations to nurture the available knowledge and utilizing the resources at the optimum level. In India, BPO as a career option is growing in leaps and bounds. It is very revealing that so far the youth of rural areas have not identifying BPO as a lucrative career option. The present research study was conducted on 200 youth aspirants belonging to sub-urban and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh, the second largest state of India in terms of area. The data were analyzed and interpreted and significant results were obtained.

  8. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age.

  9. Ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Ahmed Al-Ghazo; Ibrahim Fathi Ghalayini; Ismail Ibrahim Matalka

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of the 10 systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostate biopsy compared with the sextant biopsy technique for patients with suspected prostate cancer. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients with suspected prostate cancer were included in the study. Patients were entered in the study because they presented with high levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) (over 4 ng/mL) and/or had undergone an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). In addition to sextant prostate biopsy cores, four more biopsies were obtained from the lateral peripheral zone with additional cores from each suspicious area revealed by transrectal ultrasound. Sextant, lateral peripheral zone and suspicious area biopsy cores were submitted separately to the pathological department. Results: Cancer detection rates were 27.6% (42/152) and 19.7% (30/152) for the 10-core and sextant core biopsy protocols, respectively. Adding the lateral peripheral zone (PZ) to the sextant prostate biopsy showed a 28.6% (12/42) increase in the cancer detection rate in patients with positive prostate cancer (P < 0.01).The cancer detection rate in patients who presented with elevated PSA was 29.3% (34/116). When serum PSA was 4-10 ng/mL TRUS-guided biopsy detected cancer in 20.6%, while the detection rate was 32.4% and 47.0% when serum PSA was 10-20 ng/mL and above 20 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The 10 systematic TRUS-guided prostate biopsy improves the detection rate of prostate cancer by 28.6% when compared with the sextant biopsy technique alone, without increase in the morbidity. We therefore recommend the 10-core biopsy protocol to be the preferred method for early detection of prostate cancer.

  10. Seroprevalence of pertussis in Senegal: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Gaayeb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP. Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab response against pertussis toxin (PT. A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs.

  11. Seroprevalence of Pertussis in Senegal: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaayeb, Lobna; Sarr, Jean Biram; Ndiath, Mamadou O.; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Seck, Modou; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Remoué, Franck; Hermann, Emmanuel; Riveau, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Background Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP). Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab) response against pertussis toxin (PT). A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children. Principal Findings PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT) suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed. Conclusions Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs. PMID:23119090

  12. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  13. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95% CI 0...

  14. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  15. Postoperative Complications Following Gingival Grafts: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ROMAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Treating gingival recessions (GRs is a challenge for the practitioner who must take into consideration objective clinical factors, subjective symptoms and also factors related to the patient’s expectations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative complications associated with connective tissue graft (CTG plus coronally advanced flap (CAF and free gingival graft (FGG used to cover GRs and to compare post-operative morbidities for the two groups of procedures. Material and Methods: A total of 17 patients diagnosed with Miller class 1 to 3 GRs ≥2mm were surgically treated using CTG plus CAF or FGG. When minimum 2 mm of keratinized gingiva was present apically to GR, CTG plus CAF was used. FGG was chosen to cover GRs when keratinized gingiva was absent. Post-operative complications were evaluated with a questionnaire with six questions given to the patients at 14 days follow-up visit. The study used a 1 to 10 visual analogic scale (VAS and the levels of outcomes were classified as “none to minimum” “moderate” and “very important/severe”. Results: A total of 21 procedures, 10 CTG plus CAG and 11 FGG were included in the analysis. No palatal bleeding and no severe pain or swelling were recorded. The patients experienced more pain in the grafted area than in the donor area, for both surgical techniques, with a mean value of 3.09 (1.3 standard deviation sd versus 2.27 (1.4 sd for CTG plus CAF group and of 3.7 (2.21 sd versus 2.9 (1.7 sd for FGG group, respectively. CTG plus CAF generated significantly higher scores of tumefaction than FGG, the mean values being 2.45 (0.93 sd and 4 (2.21 sd (t-value=2.12, p<0.05 respectively. Conclusion: The complications associated with the two periodontal surgical approaches seem manageable and clinically acceptable.

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  17. Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Clinically depressed persons suffer from impaired mood and distortion of cognition. This study assessed changes in depression severity and perceived attentional capacity of clinically depressed adults (N=18) during a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Attentional Function Index (AFI) were administered at baseline, twice during (4 and 8 weeks), and immediately after the intervention (12 weeks), and at a 3-month follow-up. Experiences of being away and fascination related to the intervention were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The mean BDI score declined 9.7 points from pretest (27.3) to posttest (p or =6) for 72% of the cases. The mean AFI score increased 10.2 points from pretest (68.8) to posttest (p = .06). The greatest change in BDI and AFI scores occurred in the initial weeks of the intervention. The reduction in BDI scores remained significant and clinically relevant at the 3-month follow-up (N=16). The decline in depression severity during the intervention correlated strongly with the degree to which the participants found that it captured their attention. Therapeutic horticulture may decrease depression severity and improve perceived attentional capacity by engaging effortless attention and interrupting rumination.

  18. Spinal alignment evolution with age: A prospective gait analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Sébastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Peltier, Emilie; Viehweger, Elke; Pomero, Vincent; Authier, Guillaume; Fuentes, Stéphane; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe, using gait analysis, the development of spinal motion in the growing child. METHODS Thirty-six healthy children aged from 3 to 16 years old were included in this study for a gait analysis (9 m-walk). Various kinematic parameters were recorded and analyzed such as thoracic angle (TA), lumbar angle (LA) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The kinetic parameters were the net reaction moments (N.m/kg) at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions. RESULTS TA and LA curves were not statistically correlated to the age (respectively, P = 0.32 and P = 0.41). SVA increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). Moments in sagittal plane at the lumbosacral junction were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.003), underlining the fact that sagittal mechanical constraints at the lumbosacral junction increase with age. Moments in transversal plane at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0006), revealing that transversal mechanical constraints decrease with age. CONCLUSION The kinetic analysis showed that during growth, a decrease of torsional constraint occurs while an increase of sagittal constraint is observed. These changes in spine biomechanics are related to the crucial role of the trunk for bipedalism acquisition, allowing stabilization despite lower limbs immaturity. With the acquisition of mature gait, the spine will mainly undergo constraints in the sagittal plane.

  19. Etiology of epilepsy a prospective study of 210 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the etiology of epilepsy in 210 chronic epileptics (110 female, 100 male, aged 14-82 years (34.2±13.3. Patients less than 10 years-old and alcoholism were excluded. All underwent neurological examination, routine blood tests, EEG and CT-scan. Twenty patients (10.5% were submitted to spinal tap for CSF examination. Neurological examination was abnormal in 26 (12.4%, the EEG in 68 (45.5%, and CT-scan in 93 (44.3%. According to the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures (1981, 101 (48.1% have generalized seizures, 66 (31.4% partial seizures secondarily generalized, 25 (11.8% simple partial and complex partial seizures, and 14 (6.6% generalized and partial seizures. Four patients (2.0% could not be classified. In 125 (59.5% patients the etiology was unknown. Neurocysticercosis accounted for 57 (27.1% of cases, followed by cerebrovascular disease 8 (3.8%, perinatal damage 5 (2.4%, familial epilepsy 4 (1.9%, head injury 4 (1.9%, infective 1 (0.5%, and miscelanea 6 (2.8%.

  20. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  1. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TRAUMATIC CATARACT AND ITS VISUAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharam S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness all over the world.[1] The incidence of ocular trauma varies in different parts of the world. From India, the reported incidence is 20.53%.[2] Any strategy for prevention requires knowledge of the cause of injury, which may enable more appropriate targeting of resources towards preventing such injuries.[3] Eye trauma represents a large, potentially preventable burden on both victims and society as a whole. Traumatic cataracts occur secondary to blunt or penetrating ocular trauma, Infrared energy (glass-blower's cataract, electric shock and ionizing radiation are other rare causes of traumatic cataracts.[4] It form a separate category of cataracts as they present with other ocular morbidity like corneal tears, iris injury, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal tears; and they are to some extent, preventable. The methods used to evaluate the visual outcome in eyes managed for traumatic cataracts and senile cataracts are similar, but the damage to other ocular tissues owing to trauma may compromise the visual gain in eyes treated surgically for traumatic cataracts.[5] Hence, the success rates may differ between eyes with these two types of cataract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the final visual outcome of a patient with surgical extraction of traumatic cataract along with demographic features and modes of trauma.

  2. Studying Linguistic and Cultural Contact in Borneo: Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Soriente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the variegated landscape of languages and cultures of Borneo, the study of languages is a powerful tool to shed light on the intricate history of relations that has long been obscured by the polarization between ‘Dayak’ and ‘Malay’. This article looks at some of the features of Lebu’ Kulit Kenyah, Penan Benalui, Punan Tubu’ and Ma’ Pnaan (Punan Malinau/Segah languages to clarify the linguistic and cultural affiliations among groups that were otherwise lumped together in vague classifications. It demonstrates what is to follow: according to a number of phonological, morphological and lexical evidence, and other historical evidence, Lebu’ Kulit has to be listed among the Kayanic languages. Penan Benalui, like the other Penan languages, is not a Kenyah language, whereas Punan Tubu’, despite the alleged cultural and social similarity with other Punan groups, cannot be classified within the Penan branch nor with other Punan languages. Ma’ Pnaan or Punan Malinau/Segah is not a Punan language and is linguistically classified within the Kayanic branch of the Kayan-Kenyah subgroup.

  3. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences.

  4. Prospective study of enteropathogens in two communities of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M; Quiroga, M; Grenon, S; Pegels, E; Oviedo, P; Deschutter, J; Rivas, M; Binsztein, N; Claramount, R

    1996-01-01

    Children under five years of age, from two communities of different socio-economic strata (97 from Zaiman and 55 from Las Dolores) were examined epidemiologically during 2 years, by means of quarterly visits of the working team, who carried out the collection of faecal samples. During the study, one or more enteropathogens were identified in 73.9% of samples in children from Zaiman and in 58.3% of the samples from Las Dolores, being associated to diarrhoea in 70.5% and to asymptomatic infections in 65.7%. The number of diarrheic episodes was higher in Zaiman (15.45%) than in Las Dolores (12.35%), being more frequent in the spring-summer seasons. In Zaiman, the bacterial enteropathogen proportion was relevantly higher (p < 0.005) in children with diarrhoea, whereas the presence of parasites was more frequent in asymptomatic children (p < 0.01). Rotavirus had an even distribution within diarrheic and asymptomatic children. In Las Dolores, no relevant differences were found in the detection of enteroparasites between diarrheic and asymptomatic children. Mixed infections were detected; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-rotavirus and ETEC-parasites being the most frequent ones. ETEC was involved in 85% of these infections. These data, together with the high enteropathogen carriage, suggest an elevated level of environmental contamination. The latter plays an important role in diarrheic diseases, and added to the most extreme poverty, it affects children's lives.

  5. A randomized, prospective study of adjunctive Ampicillin in preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehranian A

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute amniotic fluid infection has emerged as a possible cause of many heretofore unexplained preterm births. Our purpose was to determine the effect of ampicillin in the prolongation of pregnancies receiving tocolysis for preterm labor. A blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to study ampicillin in women hospitalized for preterm labor between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation. A total of 60 patients with intact membranes and without chorioamnionitis who were receiving magnesium sulfate were screened. Thirty women with preterm labor received ampicillin, and 30 received placebos. The primary end point was prolongation of gestation. There was no difference in age of delivery (37.6±9.7 days vs 36.08±3.9 days, P=0.085 and no difference in retardation of delivery (4.7±3.1 vs 4.1±2.1, P=0.39. The mean degree of preterm delivery were 0.62±1.93 and 1.8±3.3 weeks in ampicillin and placebo groups, respectively (not significant, P>0.1. Conclusions: Ampicillin had no effect on interval to delivery or duration of pregnancy in women treated for preterm labor. So rotine clinical use of ampicillin during tocolysis should not be recommended.

  6. Design and baseline characteristics of a coronary heart disease prospective cohort: two-year experience from the strategy of registry of acute coronary syndrome study (ERICO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra C. Goulart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome, a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. RESULTS: From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 288 (39.0% had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and 242 (32.8% had unstable angina (UA. The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76% and sedentarism (73.4%. Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03. Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  8. SENILE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN ADULT LUMBAR SPINE! - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garjesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is a common presenting complaint affecting mostly middle aged and older person and traditionally considered as ageing process, but now-a-days large number of younger people are also affected by this debilitating chronic disorder. The cause of early onset of degenerative spine disease is multifactorial, but genetical predisposition plays very important role. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To find out association between genetic predisposition and degenerative spine disease in adult patients and to assess the pattern of MRI findings of various degenerative diseases in lumbo-sacral spine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present cross-sectional study had been performed among 100 selected patients in 1yr period, who presented with chief complaint of chronic low back pain. After taking detailed clinical and professional history, MRI of lumbosacral spine had been performed. Total 100 patients were divided in two groups on the basis of genetical predisposition. Prevalence and spectrum of degenerative changes were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Hundred patients of 20 to 35-year age had been selected with mean age of 27yr. Out of 100 patients; 47 were male and 53 were female. The most common degenerative findings were desiccation of disc (95% followed by disc bulge, herniation, spinal canal stenosis, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy and modic changes. L4-L5 and L5- S1 were the most commonly involved spinal levels for any degenerative pathology. CONCLUSION: Good association is seen between early onset of degenerative spine disease and genetical predisposition in patients who have history of similar type degenerative spine disease in one or more first degree relatives in comparison to those patients who do not have any genetical predisposition. So it can be concluded that heredity play important role in early onset of degenerative spine disease in adults.

  9. Evaluation of dermatologic emergeny patients: An unicentral prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Köşlü

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The definition of emergent diseases includes potentially risky diseases that need urgent medical intervention. Diagnostic and therapeutic processes are managed mostly at ourpatient setting in dermatology. Therefore, it is unclear that which diseases are real emergencies and which patients apply urgently. There are a few studies assessing this topic. Our aim was to evaluate patients referred to our clinic urgently, and to review the concept of ‘‘real dermatologic emergency’’ by comparing dermatologic emergency patients and outpatients. Material and Method: A total of 800 patients (400 urgent patients, 400 outpatients were included. Demographic features, complaints, disease duration and severity, whether the disease occurs for the first time were questionned, application time and diagnosis were recorded. The opinions of patients and physicians were inquired about why they thought that the disease was emergent. Results: Most common skin diseases were acute urticaria-angioedema, contact dermatitis, and insect bite in emergency patients; acne vulgaris, verruca and tinea pedis in outpatients. Itching was more common in emergency patients. Emergency patients' complaints were more severe than those of outpatients. Patients who experience disease first time applied to emergency service more than others. Emergency patients had a shorter disease duration than outpatients. Patients and physicians revealed different reasons and criteria about the urgency of the diseases. 93.5% of patients and 49% of physicians thought that existing disease was emergent. Conclusion: Our data reveal that the concept of dermatologic emergency is unsettled. It changes according to socio-cultural, personal features and to the present health system. Determination of the main criteria of the definition of “dermatologic urgent”, and training of dermatologists, emergency centers’physicians and also of patients in this regard seem to be a necessity

  10. Bariatric Surgery in Moderately Obese Patients: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cerci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Moderate obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2 affects 25% of the western population. The role of bariatric surgery in this context is currently debated, reserved for patients with comorbidity, as an alternative to conservative medical treatment. We describe our experience in moderately obese patients treated with bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 25 patients with grade I obesity and comorbidities underwent bariatric surgery: preoperative mean BMI 33.2 kg/m2, 10 males, mean age 42 years. In presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (56%, gastric bypass was performed; in cases with hypertension (64% and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA (12%, sleeve gastrectomy was performed. All operations were performed laparoscopically. Results. Mean follow-up was 12.4 months. A postoperative complication occurred: bleeding from the trocar site was resolved with surgery in local anesthesia. Reduction in average BMI was 6 points, with a value of 27.2 kg/m2. Of the 14 patients with T2DM, 12 (86% discontinued medical therapy because of a normalization of glycemia. Of the 16 patients with arterial hypertension, 14 (87% showed remission and 2 (13% improvement. Complete remission was observed in patients with OSAS. Conclusions. The results of our study support the validity of bariatric surgery in patients with BMI 30–35 kg/m2. Our opinion is that, in the future, bariatric surgery could be successful in selected cases of moderately obese patients.

  11. A prospective study of Astra single tooth implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R M; Smith, B J; Palmer, P J; Floyd, P D

    1997-06-01

    A new design of single tooth implant (AstraTech, Molndal Sweden) featuring a microthreaded conical neck and TiO blast surface was evaluated clinically and radiographically after 2 years in function. Fifteen patients (age range 16 to 48) with missing maxillary anterior teeth (6 central incisors, 8 laterals, 1 bicuspid) had 4, 13 mm and 11, 15 mm implants placed under local anaesthesia and left for a period of 6 months before exposure and abutment connection/crown fabrication. All patients were seen at 4 to 6 monthly intervals for hygienist maintenance. Radiographs using Rinn holders and a long cone technique were taken at the crown insertion and after 1 year (14 subjects) and 2 years (12 subjects). All implants were successfully integrated at stage 2, and no implants have been lost. The internal conical seal design of the abutment/implant interface facilitated connection and there were no cases of abutment screw loosening. No soft tissue problems were observed, and the gingival morphology/health was well maintained. One crown was recemented after 18 months in function, and 1 crown was replaced because of a fracture to the porcelain incisal edge. At crown insertion, the mean bone level was 0.46 to 0.48 mm apical to the top of the implant and there were no statistically significant changes in the bone level over the 2 years of the study. In conclusion, the single tooth Astra implants were highly successful and bone changes within the first 2 years of function were comparable with other systems reporting high long-term success rates.

  12. Bariatric Surgery in Moderately Obese Patients: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, M.; Bellini, M. I.; Russo, F.; Benavoli, D.; Capperucci, M.; Gaspari, A. L.; Gentileschi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Moderate obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2) affects 25% of the western population. The role of bariatric surgery in this context is currently debated, reserved for patients with comorbidity, as an alternative to conservative medical treatment. We describe our experience in moderately obese patients treated with bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 25 patients with grade I obesity and comorbidities underwent bariatric surgery: preoperative mean BMI 33.2 kg/m2, 10 males, mean age 42 years. In presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (56%), gastric bypass was performed; in cases with hypertension (64%) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (12%), sleeve gastrectomy was performed. All operations were performed laparoscopically. Results. Mean follow-up was 12.4 months. A postoperative complication occurred: bleeding from the trocar site was resolved with surgery in local anesthesia. Reduction in average BMI was 6 points, with a value of 27.2 kg/m2. Of the 14 patients with T2DM, 12 (86%) discontinued medical therapy because of a normalization of glycemia. Of the 16 patients with arterial hypertension, 14 (87%) showed remission and 2 (13%) improvement. Complete remission was observed in patients with OSAS. Conclusions. The results of our study support the validity of bariatric surgery in patients with BMI 30–35 kg/m2. Our opinion is that, in the future, bariatric surgery could be successful in selected cases of moderately obese patients. PMID:24454338

  13. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Baccard, M.; Barrazza, V.; Havard, S.; Verrier, A.; Wechsler, J. [Prevention et Epidemiologie des Tumeurs en Region Ile de France (PETRI), Domus Medica, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The

  14. Prospective study in 142 cases of hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Mei Fan; Wan-Fu Zhu; Li-Min Yin; Lai Wei; Xiao-Yuan Xu; Hui Zhuang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: There is limited information on the natural history of HCV infection in China. We investigated the outcome of HCV infection after nine-year follow-up and the risk factors in blood donors in China in order to provide the foundation for prevention and therapy.METHODS: A total of 172 cases of HCV infection with antiHCV positive and ALT abnormality were enrolled in the archives when was screened blood in Hebei Province in 1993. In them 142 blood donors were followed up till July 2002. No antiviral treatment was applied to them during the period of infection. In the present study, anti-HCV, HCVRNA and aminotransferase were detected and genotyping was conducted by the method of restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP). B-type ultrasound detection was performed in all the patients. Age, sex, alcohol consumption and clinical symptoms were questioned.RESULTS: After nine years' follow-up, 10.56% (15/142)of the cases were negative for anti-HCV and 16.42% (12/134)of them were negative for HCV-RNA. The genotypes 1b,2a and 1b/2a were 91.07%, 6.25% and 2.68% respectively.Twelve cases (8.45%) were negative for both HCV RNA and anti-HCV. The rate of chronicity in this group was 83.58% (112/134), and the rate of viral spontaneous resolution was 16.42% (22/134). The mean level of ALT,AST, γ-GT in HCV RNA positive cases was significantly higher than that in HCV RNA negative cases (P<0.001).The abnormal rate of ALT and/or AST in male donors was significantly higher than that in female donors (P = 0.005).The rate of progression to liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis C was significantly higher in the cases of super-infection with HBV than that in the cases of single HCV infection.Overdose alcohol consumption promoted the progression to chronicity.CONCLUSION: This area (Hebei Province) has a higher rate of chronicity in HCV infection, and measures should be taken to prevent its progression to serious liver diseases,especially for patients super-infected with HCV and HBV.

  15. Occupational exposure to noise in maxillofacial operating theatres: an initial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Brian Diaz; Prabhu, I S; Cousin, C H S; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise could impair surgical performance and communication, and lead to long-term hearing loss, but it is only recently that studies on occupational exposure to noise in operating theatres have been published. The aim of this prospective study was to assess mean and peak levels of noise during maxillofacial operations. We found that both were comparable to those in other surgical specialties such as orthopaedics in which power tools are used.

  16. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Stephanie S; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. Results showed that higher trait anger and anger expressed outwardly over the follow-up was related to...

  17. Myocardial function at the early phase of traumatic brain injury: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisinier, Adrien; Maufrais, Claire; Payen, Jean-François; Nottin, Stephane; Walther, Guillaume; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of brain-heart interaction has been described in several brain injuries. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may also lead to cardiac dysfunction but evidences are mainly based upon experimental and clinical retrospective studies. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study in a level I trauma center. Twenty consecutive adult patients with severe TBI were matched according to age and gender with 20 control patients. The control group included adult patients undergoin...

  18. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Health professionals in the United States. Participants: 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results: We documented 2830 cases of b...

  19. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results We documented 2830 cases of breast...

  20. [Positive rolandic sharp waves, periventricular ischemia and neurologic outcome. Prospective study in 66 premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Jeannot, E; Parain, D; Samson-Dollfus, D; Fessard, C

    1989-04-01

    A prospective study concerning 66 prematures born after 32 weeks of gestation showed a 33% incidence of positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW) on EEGs. The results showed a good sensitivity (Se = 95%) and specificity (Sp = 93%) of PRSW for the diagnosis of periventricular ischemia with motor sequelae. A PRSW frequency higher than one per minute and its persistence on 2 successive EEGs constitutes an indication of severity of the lesions. This study emphasizes the necessity of several EEG recordings in prematures.

  1. Survival of immediately versus delayed loaded short implants: a prospective case series study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira González, Joaquín; Díaz Campos, Erick; Sánchez Garcés, María Angeles; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess and compare survival rates of immediately and delayed loaded short implants (7 mm) in free ends of a partially edentulous jaw with moderate-severe alveolar bone resorption. Material and Methods 24 patients with atrophic edentulous free-ends were included in this prospective study. Four study groups were monitored monthly and their behavior was evaluated: bridges supported only by short implants and mixed short and long implant bridge groups, both with immediate and delaye...

  2. Hearing impairment and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuqiu; Fan, Shengnuo; Liao, Wang; Fang, Wenli; Xiao, Songhua; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Observational studies suggested an association between hearing impairment and cognitive disorders. However, whether hearing impairment is an independent risk factor or a harbinger of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. Our goal was to assess the association between hearing impairment (HI) and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases on January 19, 2016 to incorporate all the prospective cohort studies meeting the inclusion criteria to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four prospective cohort studies with comparison between hearing impairment and normal hearing were incorporated, with 7461 participants. The outcomes of three studies were the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and the outcome of the fourth study was the incidence of mild cognitive impairment. The overall combined relative risk of people with hearing impairment to develop Alzheimer's disease was 4.87 (95% CI 0.90-26.35; p = 0.066), compared with the control group. Since both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are cognitive disorders, we incorporated all the four studies and the overall combined relative risk was 2.82 (95% CI 1.47-5.42; p = 0.002), indicating that the difference was significant. This meta-analysis suggests that hearing impairment significantly increases the risk of cognitive disorders and future well-designed prospective cohort studies are awaited to confirm the association between hearing impairment and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Diagnosis of Post-Radiotherapy Local Failures in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Institutional Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background This prospective study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacies of nasopharyngoscopy and CT scan in the diagnosis of local failure of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Total 52 patients of histopathologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were included in this study. For every patient computed tomography (CT), nasopharyngoscopy and nasopharyngeal biopsies were performed 3 months afte...

  4. Psychological Resources are Associated with Reduced Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease. An 8-Year Follow-up of a Community-Based Swedish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Oskar; Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Kristenson, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of studies have provided clear evidence for a link between the risk of coronary heart disease and psychological risk factors. Much less attention has been given to the potential protective effect of psychological resources. Purpose The major aim of this study was to investigate the independent association between psychological resources and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in an 8-year follow-up study of a Swedish community-based cohort. Methods The cohort c...

  5. Feelings of being disabled as a risk factor for mortality up to 8 years after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Vlugt, Maureen J; van Domburg, Ron T; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2005-01-01

    We examined the independent prognostic value of the four subscales of the Heart Patients Psychological Questionnaire (HPPQ) on mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors up to 8 years after the event....

  6. Trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease.

  7. Coping and its effect on psychological distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients : a longitudinal prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Kamps, Willem A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This prospective 5-year longitudinal study examined the use of coping styles of fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients over time and the prospective effects of coping on distress. Methods Psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and the use of seven coping styles (Ut

  8. Effect of maternal dietary counselling during the 1st year of life on glucose profile and insulin resistance at the age of 8 years: a randomised field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cintia S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Lumey, L H; Vitolo, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to intervention (n 200) and control groups (n 300), and the mothers in the intervention group received dietary counselling on breast-feeding and complementary feeding of their children during the 1st year of life. Fieldworkers blinded to assignment assessed socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data during follow-up at ages 1, 4 and 8 years. Blood tests were performed in 305 children aged 8 years to measure fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). At the age of 8 years, the intervention group showed no changes in glucose and insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR values (change 0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21 for girls; and change -0·07; 95 % CI -0·19, 0·04 for boys) compared with study controls. Insulin resistance was highly correlated, however, with increases in BMI between birth and 8 years of age. Although this dietary intervention had no impact on glucose profile at age 8 years, our findings suggest that BMI changes in early childhood can serve as an effective marker of insulin resistance.

  9. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  10. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-12-01

    Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We quantitatively assessed the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a meta-analysis of prospective studies published through March 2006. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships. We identified 15 prospective studies on red meat (involving 7,367 cases) and 14 prospective studies on processed meat consumption (7,903 cases). The summary relative risks (RRs) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. the lowest intake categories were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.42) for red meat and 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11-1.31) for processed meat. The estimated summary RRs were 1.28 (95% CI = 1.18-1.39) for an increase of 120 g/day of red meat and 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05-1.13) for an increase of 30 g/day of processed meat. Consumption of red meat and processed meat was positively associated with risk of both colon and rectal cancer, although the association with red meat appeared to be stronger for rectal cancer. In 3 studies that reported results for subsites in the colon, high consumption of processed meat was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer but not of proximal colon cancer. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective studies support the hypothesis that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  11. Effect of Collaborative Studies on Prospective Teachers’ Creative Thinking Skills while Designing Computer Based Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih BİRİŞÇİ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers‟ creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers‟ creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.

  12. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood.

  13. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  14. Rates and predictors of remission in young women with specific phobia: a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpf, Julia; Becker, Eni S; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H; Margraf, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    This prospective study reports rates and predictors of remission in young women with specific phobia. Data came from a prospective community study, in which German women (aged 18-25 years) completed an extended version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV-L) at two time points. Of the 137 women with specific phobia at baseline, 41.6% were partially remitted and an additional 19.0% were fully remitted at follow-up, defined as absence of any specific fears. A remitting course of specific phobia was predicted by residual protective factors at baseline, especially participants' positive mental health and life satisfaction. Baseline levels of stress, coping skills, cognitive factors, psychopathology, and specific phobia characteristics did not predict remission. Results show that specific phobia in young women rarely takes a stable course at the full diagnostic threshold. The factors that influence remission of specific phobia are different from those that predict the incidence.

  15. Objectively Measured Daily Steps and Subsequent Long Term All-Cause Mortality: The Tasped Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Dwyer

    Full Text Available Self-reported physical activity has been inversely associated with mortality but the effect of objectively measured step activity on mortality has never been evaluated. The objective is to determine the prospective association of daily step activity on mortality among free-living adults.Cohort study of free-living adults residing in Tasmania, Australia between 2000 and 2005 who participated in one of three cohort studies (n = 2 576 total participants. Daily step activity by pedometer at baseline at a mean of 58.8 years of age, and for a subset, repeated monitoring was available 3.7 (SD 1.3 years later (n = 1 679. All-cause mortality (n = 219 deaths was ascertained by record-linkage to the Australian National Death Index; 90% of participants were followed-up over ten years, until June 2011. Higher daily step count at baseline was linearly associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98 per 1 000 steps; P = 0.004. Risk was altered little by removing deaths occurring in the first two years. Increasing baseline daily steps from sedentary to 10 000 steps a day was associated with a 46% (95% CI, 18% to 65%; P = 0.004 lower risk of mortality in the decade of follow-up. In addition, those who increased their daily steps over the monitoring period had a substantial reduction in mortality risk, after adjusting for baseline daily step count (AHR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.72; P = 0.002, or other factors (AHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.70; P = 0.002.Higher daily step count was linearly associated with subsequent long term mortality among free living adults. These data are the first to quantify mortality reductions using an objective measure of physical activity in a free living population. They strongly underscore the importance of physical inactivity as a major public health problem.

  16. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, G.; Linseisen, J.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Romieu, I.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Roswall, N.; Witt, P.M.; Overvad, K.; Rohrmann, S.; Kaaks, R.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Stratigakou, V.; Zylis, D.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Berrino, F.; Grioni, S.; Mattiello, A.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Zanetti, R.; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ardanaz, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Huerta, J.M.; Amiano, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Spencer, E.A.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Rinaldi, S.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary i

  17. A 5 year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... postoperatively. RESULTS: Response rate at 5 years was 86%. At 6 months significant improvement was seen in all KOOS and SF-36 scores (P

  18. Did Knut Hamsun suffer from seasonal variation in mood? : A prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Background: Studies on creativity and mental illness and reports on Seasonal Affective Disorder in artist often have methodological weaknesses; in particular they tend to be retrospective. Knut Hamsun was an original writer and Nobel Prize winner in literature. Anecdotes from his life suggest that he suffered from SAD. Prospective methods were used to investigate if Hamsun revealed seasonal variations in mood. Methods: 3318 of Hamsuns’s letters are published and stored electronically in...

  19. A prospective study evaluating the presence of Rickettsia in Danish patients with sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Milman, Nils; Nielsen, Henrik Winther;

    2009-01-01

    prospectively enrolled in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy in 18 and by clinical characteristics in 8 patients; 11 patients with different non-sarcoid lung diseases were recruited as controls. We obtained information regarding tick exposure and sarcoid disease manifestations by a structured....... There was no difference in the reported frequency of tick bite between patients and controls. In conclusion, we found no evidence of Rickettsia being involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in Denmark....

  20. Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether pre-eclampsia is more common in first pregnancies solely because fewer affected women, who presumably have a higher risk of recurrence, go on to have subsequent pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants: 763 795 primiparous mothers who had their first births in Sweden, 1987-2004. Main outcome measures: Pre-eclampsia. Results: The risk of pre-eclampsia was 4.1% in the first pregnancy and 1.7% in later ...

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection amongst Arab Israeli women with hyperemesis gravidarum—a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Doron Boltin; Tsachi Tsadok Perets; Sami Abu Elheiga; Asher Sharony; Yaron Niv; Hussein Shamaly; Ram Dickman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori has been associated with hyperemesis gravidarum in some geographical regions. The prevalence of H. pylori in Arab Israeli women in the Upper Galilee and its association with hyperemesis gravidarum has not been studied previously. We aimed to examine if hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with H. pylori in this population. Methods: Subjects with hyperemesis gravidarum carrying a singleton fetus were recruited prospectively. Women with an uncomplicated pregnan...

  2. Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Craig; Berr, Claudine; Artero, Sylvaine; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated. DESIGN: Prospective seven year cohort study. SETTING: General population, Montpellier, France. PARTICIPANTS: 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination. RESULTS: Cox models we...

  3. Benzodiazepine use and risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline: prospective population based study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether higher cumulative use of benzodiazepines is associated with a higher risk of dementia or more rapid cognitive decline. Design Prospective population based cohort. Setting Integrated healthcare delivery system, Seattle, Washington. Participants 3434 participants aged ≥65 without dementia at study entry. There were two rounds of recruitment (1994-96 and 2000-03) followed by continuous enrollment beginning in 2004. Main outcomes measures The cognitive abilities scr...

  4. Estimate and prospective studies on Peruvian environmental legal system after Río + 20

    OpenAIRE

    Foy Valencia, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended to explain core ideas resulting from processes of which Peruvian environmental legal system is derived; it is morean overview rather than a system characterization, as well as a perspective or sampling foresight representing Río +20 process meaning. In that sense, it examines the modern environmental regulations rising context and provides a brief retrospective of Peruvian environmental legal system development and prospective studies within the frame of green economy...

  5. Individual Variables, Attitudes towards English and Being a Teacher: A study on Prospective Teachers of English

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Güryay

    2016-01-01

    The achievement in learning a foreign language depends not only on cognitive factors such as intelligence, aptitude etc., but also on affective factors such as attitude and motivation. As the main branch of prospective teachers of English is teaching a language, their attitudes towards English and towards being a teacher are of vital importance in their future careers. The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether the attitudes of the students of Engl...

  6. Prospective study of MMP7 serum levels in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kawin; Leelawat; Siriluck; Narong; Jerasak; Wannaprasert; Thawee; Ratanashu-ek

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) has the potential to diagnosis cholangiocarcinoma from benign biliary tract diseases. METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRoBE (a prospective-specimen-collection, retrospectiveblinded-evaluation) design. A total of 187 patients with obstructive jaundice were consecutively enrolled. After the diagnostic status of these patients was ascertained, their levels of serum MMP7 were assayed and compared with serum carbohy...

  7. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Impact of Carbapenem Resistance on Mortality in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical outcomes is the subject of ongoing investigations, although uncertainty remains about its contribution to mortality. We investigated the impact of carbapenem resistance on mortality in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in a prospective multicenter (10 teaching hospitals) observational study of patients with monomicrobial bacteremia followed up for 30 days after the onset of bacteremia. The adjusted influence of carbapenem resistance on mortal...

  8. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A ...

  9. Suction drain tip culture in orthopaedic surgery: a prospective study of 214 clean operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sankar, B.; P Ray; Rai, J.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study in order to determine whether suction drain specimen cultures from orthopaedic surgery predicted an early wound infection. We included 218 consecutive clean orthopaedic operations requiring drains in one unit over a period of 1 year. The suction drain tip, drain fluid and wound discharge specimens were cultured, and the surgical wound was followed up for 3 months. There were six deep and two superficial wound infections. Wound infection was significantl...

  10. Tuberculosis en terneros: resultados de un estudio prospectivo (Tuberculosis in calves: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garro, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUn estudio prospectivo fue realizado en un rodeo lechero con tuberculosis bovina (TB endémica para investigar el riesgo atribuido a la alimentación con leche cruda en terneros durante la crianza artificial.SummaryA prospective study was conducted in a dairy herd with endemic bovine tuberculosis (BT to assess the risk attributed to raw milk in feeding calves during the artificial rearing.

  11. Routine calcium measurement is not necessary after most thyroid surgeries: a prospective clinical study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, E M

    2010-12-01

    Calcium levels are often measured to diagnose postoperative hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy. The aims of this study were to (i) prospectively determine the incidence of symptomatic and biochemical hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy, (ii) to identify if any associations exist between hypocalcaemia, type of surgery, histological diagnosis, specimen size\\/weight and the presence of histological parathyroid tissue and (iii) to evaluate the necessity of routine measurement of calcium levels following all thyroidectomies.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease in Estonia: a prospective epidemiologic study 1993-1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina Salupere

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn,s disease (CD)in Estonia 1993-1998 was investigated prospectively .The mean annual incidence of UC was 1.7 per 100 000,and that of CD1.4 per 100 000.This population-based study showed much lower incidence of UC and CD than those reported for western and northern Europe .

  13. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  14. Prospective study of relations between cortical Lewy bodies, poor eyesight, and hallucinations in Alzheimer's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    McShane, R.; Gedling, K; Reading, M.; McDonald, B.; Esiri, M M; Hope, T

    1995-01-01

    The presence of hallucinations is included in some, but not all, of the sets of clinical diagnostic criteria that have been proposed for dementia associated with cortical Lewy bodies. These criteria were developed from retrospective casenote analyses. This prospective, longitudinal study suggests that, in patients with Alzheimer's disease, cortical Lewy bodies are associated with more persistent and severe hallucinations, independently of any association with severity of cognitive decline. Po...

  15. Prospective study of relations between cortical Lewy bodies, poor eyesight, and hallucinations in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, R; Gedling, K; Reading, M; McDonald, B; Esiri, M M; Hope, T

    1995-08-01

    The presence of hallucinations is included in some, but not all, of the sets of clinical diagnostic criteria that have been proposed for dementia associated with cortical Lewy bodies. These criteria were developed from retrospective casenote analyses. This prospective, longitudinal study suggests that, in patients with Alzheimer's disease, cortical Lewy bodies are associated with more persistent and severe hallucinations, independently of any association with severity of cognitive decline. Poor eyesight contributes to the severity but not the persistence of the hallucinations.

  16. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from castor oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get closet to the future, being the prospective the one that conceives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human beign future actions. For all this, the human being takes knowledge, the yearings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the oleochemical castor oil sector, because Colombia has resources to develop Ricinus comunnis cultivation and industrial uses of castor oil and its derivates. The study establishes the keys that define the current and future behaviour of the system, the position and the power of each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations with more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  17. Estimate and prospective studies on Peruvian environmental legal system after Río + 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to explain core ideas resulting from processes of which Peruvian environmental legal system is derived; it is morean overview rather than a system characterization, as well as a perspective or sampling foresight representing Río +20 process meaning. In that sense, it examines the modern environmental regulations rising context and provides a brief retrospective of Peruvian environmental legal system development and prospective studies within the frame of green economy paradigms and the environmental governance, presenting only three prospective references aschallenges and trends on: Climate and Energy Law, a new legal Framework for a Green Economy and Sustainable Enterprise, and finally, stressing emphatically on mega-cities, Conurbation and Land use Planning issues given little attention usually law renders to this matters.

  18. Predictors of psychiatric inpatient suicide: a national prospective register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben B;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and risk factors of psychiatric inpatient suicide within a national cohort representing all psychiatric hospital admissions. METHOD: This national prospective register-based study followed all psychiatric hospital admissions in Denmark from the date of patient...... admission until patient discharge or inpatient suicide over a 10-year study period from 1997 through 2006. By using survival analysis techniques, this study was the first to take the inpatient time at risk into account in the estimation of the suicide rate and the predictors of suicide among hospital...

  19. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important.

  20. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease in patients older than 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Xu, Rui-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The natural history of Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD) in children older than 8 years is usually poor without treatment. The treatment goal is to prevent deformity and incongruity of the hip by achieving a stable spherical femoral head in a deep, congruent, sharp-edged acetabulum, with a good range of hip movement at skeletal maturity. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in LCPD can increase the coverage of the femoral head, benefiting the remodeling of the femoral head and acetabulum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lateral shelf acetabuloplasty for severe LCPD in patients older than 8 years. We evaluated 51 patients with severe LCPD who underwent shelf acetabuloplasty between 1994 and 2005. Clinical and radiological examinations were evaluated preoperatively and over a mean follow-up of 132.35 months (range 102–183 months). According to the Catterall classification, the LCPD was classified as grade II in 11 (21.6%) patients, grade III in 15 (29.4%), and grade IV in 25 (49.0%). According to the Herring classification, there were 12 (23.5%) patients in grade B, 24 (47.1%) in grade B/C, and 15 (29.4%) in grade C. The mean ages at the onset of signs and at surgery were 103.39 months and 110.78 months, respectively. By the end of follow-up, all patients had a normal passive range of hip movement without pain. The mean Iowa hip score was improved from 69.5 ± 7.28 to 91.6 ± 5.14 (P hips were classified as grade 1, 19 (37.3%) hips as grade 2, 14 (27.5%) hips as grade 3, and 7 (13.7%) hips as grade 4. The CE angle, Sharp angle, medial joint space ratio, epiphysis height ratio, and percentage of acetabular coverage were significantly improved by shelf acetabuloplasty (P hip. Shelf acetabuloplasty can improve femoral head coverage and reduce subluxation of the hip, with a benefit to the biological remodeling of the femoral head within the acetabulum. PMID:27828848