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Sample records for 8-year clinical study

  1. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

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    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  2. Clinical characteristics and consequences of hand eczema - an 8-year follow-up study of a population-based twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, Anne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Ravn, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    affected. Mean hand eczema severity index score in individuals with clinical symptoms was 12.0. Sick leave was reported by 12.4%; job change by 8.5%. Being in the lowest socio-economic group and atopic dermatitis were risk factors for sick leave [odds ratio (OR) = 5.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1...

  3. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A;

    2009-01-01

    In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly...... Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International...

  4. Early pituitary-gonadal activation before clinical signs of puberty in 5- to 8-year-old adopted girls: a study of 99 foreign adopted girls and 93 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete Katrine; Boas, Malene; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking.......Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking....

  5. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with retinoblastoma: 8-year follow-up

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    Luo, Xin; YE, HUIJING; Ding, Yun-gang; Du, Yi; Yang, Huasheng

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with retinoblastoma (Rb). Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 314 Rb patients. Clinical data including laterality of eyes, sex, age, presenting signs, lag time, and survival were recorded and analyzed. Results: Leukocoria is the most common clinical presentation of Rb. Patients with isolated leukocoria had shorter lag time and e...

  6. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  7. Clinical audits in a postgraduate general practice training program: an evaluation of 8 years' experience.

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    Abeer Al-Baho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical audit can be of valuable assistance to any program which aims to improve the quality of health care and its delivery. Yet without a coherent strategy aimed at evaluating audits' effectiveness, valuable opportunities will be overlooked. Clinical audit projects are required as a part of the formative assessment of trainees in the Family Medicine Residency Program (FMRP in Kuwait. This study was undertaken to draw a picture of trainees' understanding of the audit project with attention to the knowledge of audit theory and its educational significance and scrutinize the difficulties confronted during the experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The materials included the records of 133 audits carried out by trainees and 165 post course questionnaires carried out between 2004 and 2011. They were reviewed and analyzed. The majority of audit projects were performed on diabetic (44.4% and hypertensive (38.3% care. Regarding audits done on diabetic care, they were carried out to assess doctors' awareness about screening for smoking status (8.6%, microalbuminuria (19.3%, hemoglobin A1c (15.5%, retinopathy (10.3%, dyslipidemia (15.8%, peripheral neuropathy (8.8%, and other problems (21.7%. As for audits concerning hypertensive care, they were carried out to assess doctors' awareness about screening for smoking status (38.0%, obesity (26.0%, dyslipidemia (12.0%, microalbuminuria (10.0% and other problems (14.0%. More than half the participants (68.48% who attended the audit course stated that they 'definitely agreed' about understanding the meaning of clinical audit. Most of them (75.8% 'definitely agreed' about realizing the importance of clinical audit in improving patients' care. About half (49.7% of them 'agreed' that they can distinguish between 'criteria' and 'standards'. CONCLUSION: The eight years of experience were beneficial. Trainees showed a good understanding of the idea behind auditing the services provided. They

  8. The Harstad injury prevention study: the epidemiology of sports injuries. An 8 year study.

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    Ytterstad, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of sports injuries occurring in a community during 8 years and to evaluate the outcome of an intervention implemented against injuries occurring in downhill skiing. METHODS--Hospital treated sports injuries occurring in Harstad, Norway (population 22 600) were recorded prospectively during an 8 year period. A prevention programme targeting downhill skiing injuries was evaluated. RESULTS--2234 sports injuries accounted for 17.2% of recorded unintentional...

  9. A STUDY OF LUNG PATHOLOGY IN PEDIATRICS AUTOPSIES: AN 8 YEAR STUDY

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    Majethia Nikhil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the number one killer of children, taking the lives of 1.3 million in 2011 alone. More than 99% of all pneumonia deaths occur in developing countries. The majority of pneumonia cases are preventable and treatable, but clinical diagnosis is highly fallible in many cases and the frequency of morbid state is best assessed by post-mortem examination that may reveal diagnosis which may not be suspected clinically or may, in some way, discredit. AIMS: 1. To ascertain various pulmonary lesions in paediatric deaths. 2. To find incidence of pulmonary lesions. 3. To study the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, 4. To find incidence of pulmonary pathology directly and indirectly contributing to the death. SETTINGS: Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: In this study pediatric age group of (0-15 years admitted in IPCU,NICU and Pediatric, Medicine and Surgery unit are included from the period of 2006-2013. The lung pathology in various diseases entities were studied and co-related with age, sex and clinical history. RESULTS: Of total 3606 autopsies, 642 were pediatric autopsies i.e. 17.8% of all autopsies, and 111 were neonatal autopsies. Of 642, 531(82.7% had primary lung pathology and 157(24.4% had secondary lung pathology. The common age group affected is < 5 years. Bronchopneumonia was the commonest pathology observed as primary lung pathology. Interstitial/viral pneumonia was 2nd most common of primary lung pathology Infective pathology was the most common lesions, of which bronchopneumonia was the most common pathology observed and tuberculosis contributed to 3%of primary lung pathologies. CONCLUSION: The most common lung lesion in pediatric age is infections, which are preventable and curative with appropriate measures. This study will help to improve mother child health services

  10. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

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    Mark S. Pearce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference. The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI (rho = 0.81. Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

  11. Relationships matter in personality development: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood.

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    Neyer, Franz J; Lehnart, Judith

    2007-06-01

    Personality-relationship transactions were investigated in a general population sample of young German adults with three assessments over 8 years. Four general findings were obtained. First, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences in change. Second, bivariate latent growth models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with change in peer and family relationships. Third, forming a partner relationship for the first time moderated the maturation of personality. This finding was replicated over two subsequent time intervals with independent subgroups. Fourth, higher neuroticism and higher sociability predicted which of the singles began a partner relationship during the next 8 years. The results confirm that individual differences in personality development predict and result from life transitions and relationship experiences.

  12. An 8-year review of barium studies in the diagnosis of gastroparesis

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    Levin, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine, M.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu; Rubesin, S.E.; Laufer, I. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for diagnosing gastroparesis in patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms. Materials and methods: Radiology files revealed gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on upper gastrointestinal tract barium studies in 50 patients with nausea, vomiting, and other related symptoms. Original reports and images were reviewed to determine whether gastric peristalsis was decreased/absent and to investigate gastric dilatation, fluid or debris, and delayed emptying of barium. Twenty patients (40%) had nuclear gastric emptying studies. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presentation, treatment, and course. The diagnosis of gastroparesis was considered accurate if patients with gastroparesis on barium studies responded to treatment. Results: Forty-six patients (92%) had predisposing factors for gastroparesis, including narcotics and diabetes. Forty-five patients (90%) presented with nausea or vomiting, and 40 patients (80%) had one or more other symptoms, including bloating, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Barium studies revealed decreased gastric peristalsis in 46 (92%) of the 50 patients and absent peristalsis in four (8%); 46 patients (92%) had additional findings, including gastric dilatation in 30 (60%), delayed emptying of barium in 27 (54%), debris in 28 (56%; bezoars in three), and retained fluid in 13 (26%). Thirteen (65%) of 20 patients with nuclear gastric emptying studies had delayed emptying of solids and seven (35%) had normal emptying. Thirty-five (83%) of 42 patients treated for gastroparesis had symptomatic improvement versus two (25%) of eight patients not treated. Conclusion: Patients with nausea, vomiting, or other related symptoms who have gastroparesis without gastric outlet obstruction on barium studies can be treated for this condition on the basis of the clinical and radiographic findings.

  13. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at thre

  14. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

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    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  15. Renal histology in pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: 8-year retrospective study

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    Ranjana W Minz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The need to perform reporting of renal biopsies of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA-associated vasculitides in a more uniform manner required relook at our eight-year data. Aims: To document detailed renal histopathology of pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and also to seek any significant differences in renal histology of C-ANCA-positive, P-ANCA-positive, and ANCA-negative patients. Materials and Methods: A detailed analysis of the histopathologic features of renal biopsies of 48 patients in whom a diagnosis of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis was concluded on renal biopsy and who presented clinically as rapidly progressive renal failure was done. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Pearson Chi square tests. Results: Compared with ANCA +ve patients, the ANCA -ve patients were much younger (46.85 ± 16.12 years vs 34.28±15.94 years. No significant differences were found between renal lesions of C-ANCA, P-ANCA, and ANCA-negative patients, except for diffuse tubular atrophy which was more severe and more frequently present with P-ANCA positivity (P value=0.013. Conclusions: Pauci-immune RPGN (irrespective of ANCA status is a relatively rare disorder in patients who are undergoing the renal biopsy at our institute, constituting 2% of all renal biopsies submitted. It is mandatory to have ANCA serology status during reporting of a kidney biopsy showing pauci-immune crescentic or necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Also, if a uniform reporting strategy is followed throughout the country, the studies from this vast country will be comparable.

  16. Stability of the Framingham Nutritional Risk Score and its component nutrients over 8 years: The Framingham Nutrition Studies

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    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Newby, P. K.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Campbell, Wei R.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Millen, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Background / Objectives Diet quality indices are increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology as dietary exposures in relation to health outcomes. However, literature on long-term stability of these indices is limited. We aimed to assess the stability of the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score (FNRS) and its component nutrients over 8 years as well as the validity of the follow-up FNRS. Subjects / Methods Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women and men (n=1 734) aged 22-76 years wwver ...

  17. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

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    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  18. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

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    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  19. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

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    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCSBCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the risk of lameness. Low BW (independent of BCS) and increased age at first

  20. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up

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    Willich Stefan N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ≥12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ≥12 weeks duration of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL, and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women, treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0% had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40, 2.15 (2.38; 1.92, and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18 at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39, 0.35 (0.19; 0.52, 0.44 (0.23; 0.65 and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84, 0.71 (0.50; 0.92, 0.65 (0.39; 0.92, 0.74 (0.49; 1.00 at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65 and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00. Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies.

  1. Indicators of fetal growth do not independently predict blood pressure in 8-year-old Australians: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrie J; Blake, Kevin V; Doherty, Dorota; Kendall, Garth E; Newnham, John P; Landau, Louis I; Stanley, Fiona J

    2004-02-01

    Inverse associations between size at birth and blood pressure (BP) in later life are commonly statistically significant only after adjustment for current size, consistent with change in size as the determinant. Few studies have been prospective or have included a range of potential confounders. Using regression models, including maternal and demographic variables, we examined associations between size at birth and BP in Australian children followed from week 16 of gestation to the age of 8 years. BP measurements were available from 1417 children born after 37 weeks gestation without congenital abnormalities. In models adjusted only for sex, the birthweight (BW), birth length, ponderal index, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal girth, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold, placental weight, or BW/placental weight ratio did not significantly predict SBP in 8-year-olds. With adjustment for current size, associations were inverse but not statistically significant (regression coefficients: BW, -1.11; 95% confidence limits [CL], -2.22, 0.01; birth length, -0.25; 95% CL, -0.52, 0.24) and remained nonsignificant after adjustment for confounders. Current weight, height, or body mass index significantly predicted SBP and DBP (P<0.001) with differences of 8/4 mm Hg between upper and lower quartiles; effects were similar in infants with lower and higher BW. These findings are consistent with postnatal change in size as the major determinant of BP in 8-year-olds and are important in the context of the worldwide "epidemic" of obesity in childhood as a likely precursor of increasing rates of hypertension in adults. PMID:14718353

  2. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

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    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  3. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  4. Hypoadiponectinemia predicts impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: an 8-year prospective study

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    LI Hui; XIAO Yang; LIU Hui; CHEN Xiao-yan; LI Xin-ying; TANG Wei-li; LIU Shi-ping; XU Ai-min; ZHOU Zhi-guang

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic properties.The aim of this study was to investigate whether low adiponectin levels predict the impairment of endothelial function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients in an 8-year prospective study.Methods In the prospective study,we enrolled 133 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without subclinical atherosclerosis and gave them intensive therapy; the mean treatment period was 8 years.Intensive treatment was a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacological therapy targeting hyperglycaemia,hypertension,dyslipidaemia and obesity.We measured baseline circulating adiponectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation by high-resolution vascular ultrasound.At year 8,102 patients were reexamined for endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation.Results Sex-adjusted adiponectin level was positively correlated with endothelium-independent vasodilation both at baseline (r=0.150,P=0.043) and at year 8 (r=0.339,P=0.001),whereas no association was found between adiponectin and endothelium-dependent vasodilation.In a stepwise multivariate linear regression model,adiponectin was an independent predictor for impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation at year 8 (P=0.001).Conclusions Plasma adiponectin concentration was associated with endothelium-independent vasodilation and hypoadiponectinemia predicted the impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients under multifactorial intervention.These data support the causative link of impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation with hypoadiponectinemia.

  5. The feasibility of wireless capsule endoscopy in detecting small intestinal pathology in children under the age of 8 years: a multicentre European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fritscher-Ravens; P. Scherbakov; P. Bufler; F. Torroni; T. Ruuska; H. Nuutinen; M. Thomson; M. Tabbers; P. Milla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To systematically evaluate the feasibility and methodology to carry out wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in children,8 years to define small intestinal pathology. Design: Prospective European multicentre study with negative prior investigation. Patients and interventions: 83 children aged

  6. Special care and school difficulties in 8-year-old very preterm children: the Epipage cohort study.

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    Beatrice Larroque

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate school difficulties, special care and behavioral problems in 8 year-old very preterm (VPT children. PATIENT AND METHODS: Longitudinal population-based cohort in nine regions of France of VPT children and a reference group born at 39-40 weeks of gestation (WG. The main outcome measures were information about school, special care and behavioral problems using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire from a questionnaire to parents. RESULTS: Among the 1439 VPT children, 5% (75/1439 were in a specialised school or class, 18% (259/1439 had repeated a grade in a mainstream class and 77% (1105/1439 were in the appropriate grade-level in mainstream class; these figures were 1% (3/327 , 5% (16/327 and 94% (308/327 , respectively, for the reference group. Also, 15% (221/1435 of VPT children in a mainstream class received support at school versus 5% (16/326 of reference group. More VPT children between the ages of five and eight years received special care (55% (794/1436 than children born at term (38% (124/325; more VPT children (21% (292/1387 had behavioral difficulties than the reference group (11% (35/319. School difficulties, support at school, special care and behavioral difficulties in VPT children without neuromotor or sensory deficits varied with gestational age, socioeconomic status, and cognitive score at the age of five. CONCLUSIONS: Most 8-year-old VPT children are in mainstream schools. However, they have a high risk of difficulty in school, with more than half requiring additional support at school and/or special care. Referral to special services has increased between the ages of 5 and 8 years, but remained insufficient for those with borderline cognitive scores.

  7. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

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    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  8. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  9. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  10. The usage of playing studies for development of spatial reasoning of 5-8-year-old children with spastic diplegi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlapachenko O.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article is shown the influence of rehabilitation-correction program with the usage of outdoor games on the level of influence of spatial thinking and constructive activity of 5-8-year-old children with spastic diplegi. 64 children took part in the experiment, all had main diagnosis - children cerebral paralysis, spastic diplegi. The experiment was conducted in a few phases during the year. It is proved that conducting of outdoor games promote positive influence on forming the level of influence of spatial thinking of children, increasing capacity of work. It is revealed that the level of development of spatial thinking of children with spastic diplegi depends on clinical display of an illness. It is mentioned that involving parents for participation in games with children promote rehabilitation of children in home conditions.

  11. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E;

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...... girls by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the forearm and calcaneus. An accelerometer registered the level of physical activity during 4 days (2 weekdays and the weekend). Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured. In order to establish thresholds (count . min(-1)) for bone......-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...

  12. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  13. Aortic valve calcification and mild tricuspid regurgitation but no clinical heart disease after 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kars; V. Delgado (Victoria); E.R. Holman (Eduard); R.A. Feelders (Richard); J.W.A. Smit (Jan); J.A. Romijn (Johannes); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A.M. Pereira (Alberto)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Treatment with ergot-derived dopamine agonists, pergolide, and cabergoline has been associated with an increased frequency of valvular heart disease in Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular heart disease in patients treated

  14. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino-Maija Eloranta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective: To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design: We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213 and boys (n=217 aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results: Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake, vitamin D (32%, potassium (20%, calcium (39%, magnesium (17%, and zinc (16%. Vegetable oils (15% and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14% were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27% and iron (12%. Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14% and vitamin C (22%. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion: Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education

  15. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  16. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  17. Transcranial Doppler, MRA, and MRI as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in patients with sickle cell anemia: an 8-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Allison, J.W.; James, C.A.; Kinder, D.L.; Cox, K.S.; Lairry, F.; Graves, R.A. [Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kirby, R.S.; Flick, E.L. [Center for Ambulatory Research, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Becton, D.L.; Jackson, F.J. [Dept. of Hematology, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Objective. The authors previously reported five transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) findings as significant in detecting clinical cerebrovascular disease in a 4-year study in patients with sickle cell disease. This is a follow-up to evaluate the validity of the original findings over another 4-year period during which the study population doubled. A clinical follow-up of the original asymptomatic sickle cell patients with positive TCD, MRA, and MRI was also made. Results. Of the 4 out of original 46 control patients in 1992 who had positive MRA and TCD, 3 have subsequently had clinical stroke. None of the 9 original patients with positive TCD and positive MRI but negative MRA have developed stroke. All five original TCD indicators of disease were still significant (P<0.05) for detecting clinical disease: maximum velocity in ophthalmic artery (OA)>35 cm/s, mean velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) >170 cm/s, resistive index (RI) in OA<50, velocity in OA greater than in MCA, and velocity in posterior cerebral (PCA), vertebral, or basilar arteries greater than in MCA. Four additional factors were also significant: turbulence, PCA or ACA without MCA, RI<30, and maximum velocity in MCA>200 cm/s. (orig.)

  18. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of a...

  19. Efficacy of single and multi-metric fish-based indices in tracking anthropogenic pressures in estuaries: An 8-year case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Filipe; Nyitrai, Daniel; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-12-15

    Facing a generalized increase in water degradation, several programmes have been implemented for protecting and enhancing the water quality and associated wildlife, which rely on ecological indicators to assess the degree of deviation from a pristine state. Here, single (species number, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou J') and multi-metric (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index, EFAI) community-based ecological quality measures were evaluated in a temperate estuary over an 8-year period (2005-2012), and established their relationships with an anthropogenic pressure index (API). Single metric indices were highly variable and neither concordant amongst themselves nor with the EFAI. The EFAI was the only index significantly correlated with the API, indicating that higher ecological quality was associated with lower anthropogenic pressure. Pressure scenarios were related with specific fish community composition, as a result of distinct food web complexity and nursery functioning of the estuary. Results were discussed in the scope of the implementation of water protection programmes.

  20. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  1. Use of hormone therapy by female gynecologists and female partners of male gynecologists in Germany 8 years after the Women's Health Initiative study : results of a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhling, Kai J.; von Studnitz, Friederike S. G.; Jantke, Andreas; Eulenburg, Christine; Mueck, Alfred O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The publication of the results of the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial in 2002 resulted in a critical discussion on the risks and benefits of hormone therapy (HT), including estrogen plus progestogen therapy and estrogen therapy. The aim of the present study was to ev

  2. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adol

  3. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function. PMID:27115487

  4. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Tumati

    Full Text Available Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400 and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286. Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study may be associated with better cognitive function.

  5. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  6. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  7. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  8. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  9. Fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a 8-year prospective study Infecções fúngicas em pacientes neutropênicos: estudo prospectivo de 8 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a eight-year prospective study designed to further characterize incidence, epidemiology, specific syndromes, treatment and prognosis associated with fungal infections in neutropenic patients. During the study period 30 fungal infections were diagnosed in 30 patients among 313 episodes of fever and neutropenia (10%. There were 15 cases of candidiasis, 5 pulmonary aspergillosis, 3 sinusitis by Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infections by Fusarium sp., one infection by Trichosporon sp., and one infection due to Rhodotorula rubra. Blood cultures were positive in 18 cases (60%. The predisposing factors for fungal infection in multivariate analysis were the presence of central venous catheter (pCom o objetivo de melhor caracterizar incidência, epidemiologia, síndromes específicas, tratamento e prognóstico associado com infecções fúngicas sistêmicas em pacientes neutropênicos foi feito um estudo prospectivo de 8 anos. Durante este período foram diagnosticadas 30 infecções fúngicas em 30 pacientes neutropênicos febris (10%. Houve 15 casos de candidíase, 5 aspergiloses pulmonares, 3 sinusites por Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infecções por Fusarium sp., uma infecção por Trichosporon sp., e uma infecção por Rhodotorula rubra. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 18 casos (60%. Os fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em análise multivariada foram: presença de cateter venoso central (p<0,001, duração maior de neutropenia <100/mm³ (p<0,001, uso de corticosteróides (p<0,001, bacteremia por germes gram-positivos (p=0,002 e idade menor (p=0.03. Em análise multivariada apenas recuperação da neutropenia (p<0,001 esteve associada com bom prognóstico, enquanto que o diagnóstico de infecção por Fusarium sp. (p=0,006 se correlacionou com um mau prognóstico. A taxa de óbito foi de 43%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas taxas de óbito em pacientes que receberam (52% ou não (50% terapia anti

  10. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Your Child: 8 Years Ages & Stages ... rules. But your child can learn safety rules with your help and reminders. Your child now goes out more without you ...

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25 was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2% in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population.

  12. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma in an 8-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, P; Georgiou, G; Zevgolis, G

    1999-04-01

    The case of an ovarian cavernous hemangioma with torsion in an 8-year-old girl is described. Current literature records less than 50 cases of which only 8 are in children. The presenting symptoms of acute abdomen and the ultrasonographic study led to the preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian tumor. Salpingo-oophorectomy and appendicectomy were performed with an uneventful postoperative course. The histological pattern of the tumor was that of an entirely cavernous hemangioma. The case is reported in view of its rarity. PMID:10342121

  13. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and ...

  14. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100215.htm CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series To ... and retrieve an AED until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  15. Early Mortality during Initial Treatment of Tuberculosis in Patients Co-Infected with HIV at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon: An 8-Year Retrospective Cohort Study (2006-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Joel R Bigna

    Full Text Available Understanding contributors to mortality during the initial phase of tuberculosis (TB treatment in patients co-infected with HIV would guide targeted interventions to improve survival. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of death during the initial 2 months (new cases and 3 months (retreatment cases of TB treatment and to assess correlates of mortality in HIV co-infected patients.We conducted a hospital-based retrospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2013 at Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We reviewed medical records to identify co-infected TB/HIV inpatients aged 15 years and older who died during TB treatment. Death was defined as any death occurring during TB treatment, as per World Health Organization recommendations. We collected socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data. We conducted multivariable logistic binary regression analysis to identify factors associated with death during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Magnitudes of associations were expressed by adjusted odds ratio (aOR with 95% confidence interval. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The 99 patients enrolled had a mean age of 39.5 (standard deviation 10.9 years and 53% were male. Patients were followed for 276.3 person-months of observation (PMO. Forty nine patients were died during intensive phase of TB treatment. Death incidence during the intensive phase of TB treatment was 32.2 per 100 PMO. Having a non-AIDS comorbidity (aOR 2.47, 95%CI 1.22-5.02, p = 0.012, having extra-pulmonary TB (aOR 1.89, 95%CI 1.05-3.43, p = 0.035, and one year increase in duration of known HIV infection (aOR 1.23, 95%CI 1.004-1.49 were independently associated with death during the intensive phase of TB treatment.Mortality incidence during intensive phase of TB treatment was high among TB/HIV co-infected patients during TB treatment; and strongly associated with extra pulmonary TB suggesting advanced stage of immunosuppression and

  16. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  17. “All-on-4”即刻种植修复并发症8年追踪分析%Complications of“All-on-4”immediate function treatment:an 8-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明兰; 胡晓文

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析牙列缺失病例中“All-on-4”种植即刻修复的并发症发生情况,探讨其原因与解决方法。方法:2006年12月至2014年12月于澳门接受“All-on-4”种植即刻修复治疗的21例患者,当中上颌牙列缺失1例,下颌牙列缺失19例,全口牙列缺失1例,均在手术当天制作并戴入临时修复体,术后3-6个月复诊制作最终修复体,共完成22件临时修复体及22件最终修复体。戴入后平均追踪39个月(5~92个月),观察种植体与修复体的功能状态及并发症的发生情况,并对数据进行分析。结果:本研究中,88枚种植体及22件最终修复体至最后一次复查情况稳定,种植体存活率100%,修复体存活率100%;21位患者当中,9位患者曾发生并发症,并发症发生率42.9%。结论:“All-on-4”在牙列缺失病例治疗效果的中短期观察中,虽然并发症的发生率甚高,但均为可处理而不影响修复体功能的事件,临床使用上仍能获得满意的效果,是一种可行的方法。%Objective:To observe the clinical complications of"All-on-4"immediate function treatment, an-alyze and discuss the possible reasons for the complications and try to find a clinical solution for those complications. Methods: Retrospective study was conducted among 21 maxillary or mandible edentu-lous patients who received"All-on-4"treatment in Macau since December 2006 to December 2014. A-mong these 21 patients, there are 1 case of maxillary edentulous, 19 cases of mandible edentulous and 1 case of both maxillary and mandible edentulous. All patients received provisional prostheses for func-tion on the day of surgery. Definitive prostheses were delivered to patients after 3-6months post opera-tion and follow-up visits were performed up to 92 months (average 39 months) after placement of definitive prostheses. Result: Twenty-one patients participated in this study and 22 complete-arch im-mediately loaded

  18. “All-on-4”即刻种植修复并发症8年追踪分析%Complications of“All-on-4”immediate function treatment:an 8-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明兰; 胡晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical complications of"All-on-4"immediate function treatment, an-alyze and discuss the possible reasons for the complications and try to find a clinical solution for those complications. Methods: Retrospective study was conducted among 21 maxillary or mandible edentu-lous patients who received"All-on-4"treatment in Macau since December 2006 to December 2014. A-mong these 21 patients, there are 1 case of maxillary edentulous, 19 cases of mandible edentulous and 1 case of both maxillary and mandible edentulous. All patients received provisional prostheses for func-tion on the day of surgery. Definitive prostheses were delivered to patients after 3-6months post opera-tion and follow-up visits were performed up to 92 months (average 39 months) after placement of definitive prostheses. Result: Twenty-one patients participated in this study and 22 complete-arch im-mediately loaded prostheses (2 maxillary and 20 mandibular), each supported by four implants (in total 88 implants), were placed. All implants and prostheses stayed in good condition until the last follow-up visit throughout the study period. Implant survival rate was 100%, prosthesis survival rate was 100%. Complications occurred in 9 cases and accumulative complication rate was 42.9%. Conclusion: Al-though some of the complications are inevitable, most of them are minor problems and will not lead to failure of implants and prostheses if they are well treated. "All-on-4" is a practical treatment concept with satisfying outcomes in short and medium term.%目的:分析牙列缺失病例中“All-on-4”种植即刻修复的并发症发生情况,探讨其原因与解决方法。方法:2006年12月至2014年12月于澳门接受“All-on-4”种植即刻修复治疗的21例患者,当中上颌牙列缺失1例,下颌牙列缺失19例,全口牙列缺失1例,均在手术当天制作并戴入临时修复体,术后3-6个月复诊制作最终修复体,共完成22

  19. Incidence and management of colonoscopic perforations: 8 years' experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hagit Tulchinsky; Osnat Madhala-Givon; Nir Wasserberg; Shlomo Lelcuk; Yaron Niv

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review the experience of a major medical teaching center with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopies and to assess the incidence and management of related colonic perforations.METHODS: All colonoscopies performed between January 1994 and December 2001 were studied. Data on patients, colonoscopic reports and procedure-related complications were collected from the departmental computerized database. The medical records of the patients with post procedural colonic perforation were reviewed.RESULTS: A total of 12 067 colonoscopies were performed during the 8 years of the study. Seven colonoscopic perforations (4 females, 3 males) were diagnosed (0.058%). Five occurred during diagnostic and two during therapeutic colonoscopy. Six were suspected during or immediately after colonoscopy. All except one had signs of diffuse tenderness and underwent immediate operation with primary repair done in 4patients. No deaths were reported.CONCLUSION: Perforation rate during colonoscopy is low. Nevertheless, it is a serious complication and its early recognition and treatment are essential to optimize outcome. In patients with diffuse peritonitis early operative intervention makes primary repair a safe option.

  20. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  1. Prolactinomas : clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An

  2. Prolactinomas: clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kars, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An increased risk of cardiac valve disease has been reported in patients treated with cabergoline for Parkinson’s disease. Stimulation of serotonin receptors on cardiac valves by dopamine agonists re...

  3. Effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy and anthropometrics at birth on offspring metabolic profile at 2.8 years - results from the Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring (LiPO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are linked to offspring adverse metabolic profile, and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women may have long-term positive effect on their children. Furthermore, although the association between birth weight and later metabolic...... outcomes is well established, little is known about the predictive value of abdominal circumference at birth. Objectives: To study: i) effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women on offspring metabolic risk factors and ii) predictive values of birth weight (BW) and birth abdominal...... circumference (BAC). Design: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial; the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study Setting: Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark Participants: Offspring of LiP study participants (n=157) and offspring of normal weight mothers (external reference group, ER, n=97...

  4. Clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period%深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌感染特征及其克隆变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟元; 金晓菲; 吴诗品; 吴劲松; 卢月梅; 吴文苑; 陆坚; 刘映霞

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌(CRAB)感染临床特征、耐药机制及其克隆变迁.方法 收集2002至2009年深圳市人民医院院内感染患者分离鲍曼不动杆菌;琼脂稀释法检测亚胺培南等抗菌药对鲍曼不动杆菌最低抑菌浓度(MICs);聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA测序分析CRAB碳青霉烯酶基因型;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分析菌株同源性;依据中国鲍曼不动杆菌感染诊治与防控专家共识,回顾性调查CRAB感染患者病历资料.结果 2002至2009年共收集到87例CRAB院内感染患者,以呼吸道感染最常见,占69.0%(60/87),其次为血流感染占8.0%(7/87)、伤口感染占8.0% (7/87)和腹腔感染占6.9% (6/87).80.5% (70/87) CRAB来源于重症监护病房(ICu).2009年CRAB感染迅速增多,占48.3%(42/87),以呼吸道感染为主(34/42).87株CRAB共获8种PFGE型别.2002至2006年,CRAB感染主要流行携带blaOXA-58-like基因的CRAB克隆A;2007至2008年主要流行CRAB克隆A和携带blaOXA-23-like基因的CRAB克隆C;2009年携带blaOXA-23-like基因对碳青霉烯高度耐药的CRAB克隆D取代克隆A和C,成为深圳市人民医院CRAB病原菌的主要克隆.结论 携带blaOXA-23-1ike基因的CRAB高耐药克隆D造成深圳市人民医院2009年CRAB感染迅速流行.%Objective To investigate the clinical features,mechanism of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period.Methods A.baumannii isolates were recovered from nosocomial infections patients at this hospital from 2002 to 2009.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents against A.baumannii isolates were detected by agar dilution method.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used to examine the carbapenemase genotype among CRAB.All isolates were typed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Clinical cases of CRAB

  5. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Kratimenos; Ioannis Koutroulis; Dante Marconi; Jennifer Ding; Christos Plakas; Margaret Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If unt...

  6. The sonographic appearance of acute focal pyelonephritis 8 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: Acute focal pyelonephritis (AFP) is a variant of pyelonephritis in which single or multiple discrete areas show changes of inflammation. The reported sonographic appearances of AFP are varied but are typically described as being echopoor. The purpose of this study was to review the sonographic appearances of AFP and attempt to explain the range of findings by correlation with clinical details. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the sonographic findings and medical records of 17 cases of AFP. The study group consisted of 13 women and four men (mean age 20 years). Lesions were designated as echogenic, echopoor or of mixed echogenicity as compared to the adjacent renal cortex, and to the liver or spleen. RESULTS: The abnormal areas were echogenic in 12 patients, echopoor in three and of mixed echogenicity in two. An attempt was made to explain the variation in appearances by correlation with clinical details including the patient's age, the duration of symptoms, the length of antibiotic treatment and the presence of haematuria. CONCLUSION: Areas of acute focal pyelonephritis may be echogenic, echopoor or of mixed echogenicity. Our data would suggest that areas of increased echogenicity are more common. There is no discernible correlation with clinical findings. Farmer, K.D. et al. (2002)

  7. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  8. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Kratimenos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint.

  9. Cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an 8-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior Lauten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on an 8 year old boy with primary cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, in whom the diagnosis was challenging and who was treated with modified chemotherapy without radiation therapy according to the ALCL 99 study protocol [1]. Two years and 4 months after completion of therapy the boy is in complete remission with normal cardiac function.

  10. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  11. Cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an 8-year old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior Lauten; Simon Vieth; Christopher Hart; Wilhelm Wössmann; Birte Tröger; Christoph Härtel; Martin Bethge; André Schrauder; Gunnar Cario

    2014-01-01

    We report on an 8 year old boy with primary cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), in whom the diagnosis was challenging and who was treated with modified chemotherapy without radiation therapy according to the ALCL 99 study protocol [1]. Two years and 4 months after completion of therapy the boy is in complete remission with normal cardiac function.

  12. Clinical Studies with Epothilones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing company. The compound that has been most comprehensively characterized in the clinical literature is ixabepilone (BMS-247550), for which trial results have been described in a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals and which has been granted FDA approval for two clinical indications on Oct. 16, 2007. For all other compounds, most of the information on clinical trials is available only in abstract form. In all these cases it remains uncertain, whether the content of these abstracts fully reflects the content of the subsequent (poster or oral) presentations at the corresponding meeting; in fact, it seems likely that additional data will have been included in the actual meeting presentations that may not have been available at the time of abstract submission. As this is unknown to the author, such additional information cannot be considered in this chapter, which is solely based on information documented in accessible abstracts or journal publications. It should also be kept in mind that the interpretation of data from ongoing clinical trials or forward looking statements based on data from completed trials are always preliminary in character.

  13. Neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction An 8-year bibliometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Du; Xiaoxia Yang; Hong Song; Bo Chen; Lin Li; Yue Pan; Qiong Wu; Jia Li

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To identify global research trends in neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science.DATA RETRIEVAL:We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrieval for neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction containing the key words "CT,magnetic resonance imaging,MRI,transcranial Doppler,transvaginal color Doppler,digital subtraction angiography,and cerebral infarction" using the Web of Science.SELECTION CRITERIA:Inclusion criteria were:(a) peer-reviewed articles on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles and reviews; and (c) publication between 2004-2011.Exclusion criteria were:(a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; and (b) corrected papers or book chapters.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:(1)Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country;(3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction.RESULTS:Imaging has become the predominant method used in diagnosing cerebral infarction.The most frequently used clinical imaging methods were digital subtraction angiography,CT,MRI,and transcranial color Doppler examination.Digital subtraction angiography is used as the gold standard.However,it is a costly and time-consuming invasive diagnosis that requires some radiation exposure,and is poorly accepted by patients.As such,it is mostly adopted in interventional therapy in the clinic.CT is now accepted as a rapid,simple,and reliable non-invasive method for use in diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease and preoperative appraisal.Ultrasonic Doppler can be used to reflect the hardness of the vascular wall and the nature of the plaque more clearly than CT and MRI.CONCLUSION:At present,there is no unified standard of classification of cerebral infarction

  14. Fixed partial dentures in an up to 8-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the longevity of fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures (inlay FPDs should be considered in the selection of materials, operative techniques and patient instructions related to prognosis and long-term cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the long-term survival of fiber-reinforced, adhesively-bonded composite prostheses placed in posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients that received adhesively bonded polyethylene inlay FPDs in posterior teeth were selected from a private practice dental office and invited to evaluation. Of the eligible 21 patients, 13 (mean age 50.3 ± 11.5 years agreed to be enrolled as participants, providing 22 restorations, as several subjects presented more than one inlay FPD. One dentist placed all inlay FPDs using Ribbond as reinforcement and Tetric Ceram/Durafil or Charisma/Renamel composite combinations, according to manufacturer's instructions. Two independent calibrated operators performed the evaluation, using modified USPHS criteria. Survival functions of restorations were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: The majority of restorations received A or B scores. Four (18.2% inlay FPDs fractured among the 22 evaluated. The mean estimate survival rate was 7 years (95% CI: 5.9 to 8.1, and the overall percentage of survival was 81.8%. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 between composite combinations or tooth location considering all clinical aspects evaluated and survival functions. CONCLUSION: Posterior fiber-reinforced fixed partial dentures exhibited acceptable clinical performance after a period up to 8 years.

  15. Retrospective analysis of 8 years of efavirenz drug monotoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.; Roelofsen, M.W.E.E.; Touw, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV) is a NNRTI frequently used in HAART. Therapy with EFV is monitored using TDM and clinical observation. Standard starting dose for EFV is 1 dd 600 mg. This should result in a plasma level in the range of 1-4 mg/l. Plasma levels above 4 mg/l are associated with a higher r

  16. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R.; Leeson Payne, C; Lister, G.; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  17. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) t...

  18. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and treatments based on what is known to ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a ...

  19. OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE: A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Antony,; Rasool Syed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Jaundice is a frequent manifestation of biliary tract disorders and evaluation of obstructive jaundice is a common problem faced by general surgeons. Obstructive jaundice of varied aetiology is one of the main cause of hospital admissions. Hence, comprehensive study of aetiology, clinical presentation, management of obstructive jaundice is important in management of these patients. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES  Study the clinical history and presentation of obstructiv...

  20. Complicated Varicella Infection at 8-year-old Boy with Pulmonary Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzovic–Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Lukovac, Enra; Mehanic, Snjezana; Ahmetspahic-Begic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Varicella or chickenpox is highly contagious, childhood infectious disease caused by primary infection with varicella – zoster virus from the herpes family of viruses. Usually it has a mild clinical course, rarely with described complication, mostly affecting respiratory tract and rarely the central nervous system. Case report The case present 8 year old boy hospitalized eighth day of disease with clinical pictures of varicella complication. Upon receipt tachydyspnea, high fever, tachycardia, hypotensive with positive findings on lung auscultation in the sense of pneumonia. Extremely high values of non-specific inflammatory parameters are implied on bacterial infection which is treated using triple antimicrobial therapy and antiviral. A detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation is determined of clinical disease complication under a picture of MODS that required prolonged multidisciplinary treatment in ICU. Conclusion The disease had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of training completely without consequences but, with the detected congenital absence lower lobe of right lung and transposition of the brachiocephalic trunk. PMID:24493991

  1. Insulin Glargine: a review 8 years after its introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goykhman, Stanislav; Drincic, Andjela; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Rendell, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Insulin Glargine was the first long-acting insulin analog produced by recombinant DNA technology, approved for use by the US FDA in April 2000 and by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products in June, 2000. It has become the most widely used insulin in the USA owing to its long duration of action without a pronounced peak. The principal advantage of insulin Glargine over neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin is in a lower frequency of hypoglycemic reactions, thus affording improved safety. It is used in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, usually as a single daily dose. In type 2 patients, it is often the first insulin introduced as a single daily dose. Although insulin Glargine is typically administered as a single nighttime dose, it can be given in the morning or at any other time convenient for the patient. In labile type 1 diabetes, it is often most effective given as two daily injections. In obese, insulin-resistant patients, it may be best to administer insulin Glargine in two separate doses, owing to the high volumes of injected insulin required. Insulin Glargine does not treat postprandial hyperglycemia. It is necessary to supplement with short-acting insulin at mealtimes to control glucose surges after meals. Insulin Glargine is effective in hospitalized and postsurgical patients on account of its lack of pronounced insulin peaks and long duration of action. Although there is considerable use of Glargine in pregnant diabetic women, there is no definitive study to confirm its benefits. Insulin Glargine is thought to coprecipitate supplementary short-acting insulins when co-administered in the same syringe. Therefore, more injections are typically needed in the usual treatment regimen for insulin requiring diabetes. In many cases, constant basal insulin levels may be achieved with multiple overlapping doses of NPH insulin given together with short-acting insulin at mealtimes. Such a therapy may be less costly, but the major advantage of

  2. Carotid artery stenting: a single-centre experience with up to 8 years' follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Gandini, Roberto; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Stefanini, Matteo; Spinelli, Alessio; Reale, Carlo Andrea; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Gaspari, Eleonora [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy, Rome (Italy); Versaci, Francesco [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) may be an alternative to surgical endoarterectomy not only in high-risk patients. We report results in the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease with up to 8 years' follow-up. In this retrospective study, we analysed data from 853 consecutive patients (946 arteries) treated for carotid artery stenosis between April 1999 and March 2007; 491 (52%) arteries were symptomatic and 455(48%) were asymptomatic. Preprocedural evaluation of the patients was performed with echo Doppler, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and a neurological examination. A cerebral protection device was used in 879 (92.9%) procedures. Anti-platelet therapy was administered before and after the procedure. All patients were included in a follow-up of up to 8 years. Technical success was achieved in 943 (99.6%) lesions. At 30 days, there was a 0.21% (n = 2) death rate, a 0.42% major stroke rate, a 1.69% minor stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) rate and a combined 2.32% TIA/stroke and death rate. During follow-up, echo Doppler evidenced restenosis in 39 (4.85%) cases; of these, only five, presenting restenosis >80%, were treated with an endovascular reintervention. At the long-term follow-up, two strokes (0.23%) were reported, which both occurred within the first 2 years. In our experience, carotid artery stenting seems to be a safe and effective treatment, providing satisfactory long-term clinical results. (orig.)

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF ANORECTAL MALFORMATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh; Sowmya,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A norectal malformations are relatively encountered anomalies. Presentations may vary from mild to severe and bowel control is t he main concern. AIM: To study the modes of presentation , types of anomalies , associated anomalies , reliability of clinical signs and radiological investigations in the diagnosis and the prognosis and continence in the post - operative in relation to type of anomaly and associated anomaly (s)...

  4. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ...

  5. Infratentorial meningioma in an 8-year-old child as first sign of neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, G M; Rostasy, K M; Ludwig, H C; Merkler, D; Fahsold, R; Gärtner, J

    2007-02-01

    Meningiomas are rare intracranial tumors in pediatric patients. In contrast to meningiomas in adults, childhood ones have a poorer prognosis because of their high growth potential and tendency to recur. Meningiomas are often associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) which is an autosomal-dominant disorder. In contrast to adults who primarily present with symptoms due to vestibular tumors, the initial symptoms in children with NF2 are subtle skin tumors, posterior capsular cataracts, or neurological signs secondary to cranial nerve(s) schwannoma excluding vestibular nerve, and/or brainstem or spinal cord compression. Here we report on the clinical, radiological, and histological findings in an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed with an isolated infratentorial meningioma and a novel splice site mutation in the NF2 gene. The same mutation was detected in the boy's mother who suffered from hearing loss and tinnitus due to a bilateral vestibular schwannoma. Our patient demonstrates the need for molecular testing for NF2 gene mutations even in isolated childhood meningiomas although they do not fulfill the clinical criteria of NF2.

  6. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  8. Development of Word Reading Fluency and Spelling in a Consistent Orthography: An 8-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, development of word reading fluency and spelling were followed for almost 8 years. In a group of 115 students (65 girls, 50 boys) acquiring the phonologically transparent German orthography, prediction measures (letter knowledge, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and…

  9. Obstetric anal sphincter injury, risk factors and method of delivery - an 8-year analysis across two tertiary referral centers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) represents a major cause of maternal morbidity and is a risk factor for the development of fecal incontinence. We set out to analyze the incidence of OASIS and its association with mode of delivery in two large obstetric hospitals across an 8-year study period.

  10. CLINICAL STUDY OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic pregnancy is one in which fertilized ovum is implanted at the site other than normal uterine cavity.[1] Incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1:160 deliveries.[2] Clinical presentation is variable from acute to chronic type. Due to its varied clinical presentation ectopic pregnancy poses great diagnostic difficulty both to obstetrician, physician and surgeons.[3] OBJECTIVE: To find out incidence in our study population and to evaluate symptomatically and clinical presentation in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 34 ectopic pregnancies admitted and treated in Medical College hospital, Ujjain from 2010 to 2015 are included in the study. RESULTS: The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is more between the age group of 21-30years (73.52% and in Multigravida 64.71%. Infertility and previous tubal surgery are the high risk factors for tubal pregnancy. Pain in abdomen was present in all 34 cases, amenorrhea in 97.05% and bleeding per vagina in 76.47% cases. Syncopal attacks, vomiting were detected in 14.70% cases. Acute ectopic pregnancy was detected in 14.71% and chronic in 85.29% cases. 82.35% cases presented with adnexal mass, 79.41% with cervical motion tenderness, 50% with pallor, 32.35% with abdominal lump and tenderness and 11.76% with fullness in POD. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pregnancy is leading cause of maternal mortality in first trimester. In spite of advanced diagnostic techniques. It poses great diagnostic difficulties due to varied signs and symptoms. Previous tubal surgery pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility are the risk factors of tubal pregnancy.

  11. The improvement of coordination abilities of young gymnasts aged 7-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligildina A.Ya.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the substantive training in gymnastics by young gymnasts aged 7-8 years, the improvement of coordination abilities of gymnasts through simultaneous work with two balls is highlighted. The research has involved 20 young gymnasts and the experimental group had 10 people. The level of coordination abilities of gymnasts is underpinned, the comparative analysis of subject possession by the right and the left hand is stressed. The method of studying with two balls aimed on the development of athletes sensorimotor coordination is pointed out in the article. The authors obtain significant changes in the coordination abilities of experimental group gymnasts, a positive impact on the preparation of other events is demonstrated.

  12. A preliminary study of sex hormone levels on 3 ~8 years old children’s obstructive sleep apnea hypop-nea syndrome%3~8岁阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征儿童性激素水平的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斯君; 黄敏; 彭湘粤; 李赟

    2014-01-01

    Objetive By detecting the levels of sex hormone levels of preschool children with and with-out obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS)of 3 ~8 years old and comparing the differences ,we aimed at further exploring the impacts of OSAHS on the preschool sex hormone levels and puberty starts.Meth-ods 76 children proved by polysomnography (PSG)examples and 40 healthy children (3 ~8 years old)were chosen.The serum level of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH),Luteinizing Hormone(LH),estradiol(E2 ),pro-lactin(PRL)and testosterone(T)were measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay analyze.By comparing the differences of sex hermone level and analyzing the relationship between sex、hypoxia、BMI and sex hermone further exploring the condition of puberty starts and physical growth.Results The height and weight of OSAHS group was significant lower than the control group and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).OSAHS patient’s E2 level was higher than the control group’s and showed significant statistical difference (P <0.01).Male OSAHS patient's FSH level was significantly lower than male control’s and showed significant statistical difference (P <0.01).Female OSAHS patient’s FSH level was significantly lower than male OSAHS patient’s and showed significant statistical difference (P <0.01). Conclusion OSAHS might influence chil-dren's weight and height;OSAHS might influence E2、FSH’s level,the negative feedback regulation in children of 3 ~8 years old with OSAHS is sensitive,the HPGA in children of 3 ~8 years old with OSAHS is still not open.%目的检测3~8岁阻塞性睡眠暂停低通气综合征(obstructive sleep apnea-bypopnea sgn-drome,OSAHS)儿童血清性激素水平,探讨其性激素变化与下丘脑—垂体—性腺轴(hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis,HPGA)启动的关系。方法以76例3~8岁符合 OSAHS 的儿童和40例3~8岁健康儿童为研究对象,检测血清

  13. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting ...

  14. Clinical studies on cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemorrhagic infarction (HI) is termed as the infarction in which a large part of the necrotic tissue is stippled with small hemorrhage. The pathogenetic mechanism of this disease still remains controversial. Cerebral infarction has long been divided into two subtypes-thrombosis and embolism-according to the pathogenetic mechanisms. Clinical studies were carried out in 31 cases of HI with cerebral thrombosis. CT findings of these cases were classified into five groups according to both size of low density area which indicates regions of infarction and distribution of arterial supply. The low density area of Type I-Type III were observed in the area of the middle cerebral artery. That of Type IV was observed in the area of the internal capsule and basal ganglia. That of Type V was observed in the area of the posterior cerebral artery. CT reveals two patterns of HI -pattern A and pattern B-. The CT finding of pattern A is appearance of high density area in the low density area. The CT finding of pattern B is appearance of iso density area in the low density area. rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation technique in 21 patients with CT type I, II and III. Thereafter, with regard to the various findings in CT, the clinical findings and CBF findings, a comparative study was carried out on these ten groups. From the results of present studies, it is concluded that sequential changes of CBF in cases with pattern A are different from those with pattern B, and that CBF measurement does not permit an estimation of a patient's chance for functionary recovery after a stroke in acute and subacute stage but permits estimation of functional outcome in chronic stage. (J.P.N.)

  15. CLINICAL STUDY OF ANORECTAL MALFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A norectal malformations are relatively encountered anomalies. Presentations may vary from mild to severe and bowel control is t he main concern. AIM: To study the modes of presentation , types of anomalies , associated anomalies , reliability of clinical signs and radiological investigations in the diagnosis and the prognosis and continence in the post - operative in relation to type of anomaly and associated anomaly (s. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 50 cases of anorectal malformations admit ted to Department of Paediatric Surgery , in Medical Coll ege and Research Institute , were included in the study. Data related to the objectives of the study were collected. RESULTS: Commonest mode of presentation was failure to pass meconium 50%. 59% of mal es had high anomalies , while 53% females had intermediate anomalies. The diagnosis of low anomaly was made clinically , while high and intermediate anomalies needed further investigations. Associated anomalies were noted in 46.6% of the cases. 71.42% of the se patients had either a high or intermediate ARM. All patients with high anomalies underwent a 3 stage procedure , while low anomalies underwent a single stage procedure followed by anal dilatations. Rectal mucosal prolapse (2 cases , wound infection (4 ca ses , stenosis (3 cases , retraction of neo anus (1 case was seen. All the patients with low anomalies had a good functional result post operatively , while 57% and 28% of patients with intermediate and high anomalies had good results. CONCLUSION : Anorectal malformations are common congenital anomalies. Males are more commonly affected (1.3:1. Low anomalies are the commonest lesions noted in both the sexes (36.67%. High anomalies are more frequent in males. Invertogram offer an accurate diagnosis for planning management in patients with anorectal malformations. Low anomalies have a better outcome following surgery. For intermediate and high anomalies a staged repair offers better results

  16. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center ... Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ...

  17. A Clinical Study on Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical study was made on 263 patients of hypothyroidism among the 5,970 patients of Various thyroid diseases diagnosed and treated at the Radioisotope Clinic and Laboratory, Seoul National University Hospital from May, 1960 to Aug, 1975. The results obtained with this study are as follows: 1) The etiological classification of hypothyroidism revealed 244 cases (93%) of primary hypothyroidism and 19 cases (7%) of secondary hypothyroidism. 2) The most frequent cause of the thyroprivic primary hypothyroidism was post radioiodine therapy with 109 cases (41.4%). 3) There were 37 cases (14%) of male and 226 cases (86%) of female, showing a ratio of 1 : 6. 4) The majority of patients were between the ages of 30 and 60 with the peak incidence (87 cases, 33%) in their fourth decades of lives. 5) The major symptoms and signs were weakness (97%), edema of face and extremities (92%); Decreased Achilles tendon reflex (87%), cold intolerance (82%), gain in weight (76%), constipation (58%) and cold skin (51%). 6) The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism in patient treated with 131I (3-8 mci) was 7.2% at first year, 33.3% at tenth year and the 50% at fourteenth year and the annual increment was 2.9%. 7) The incidence of hypothyroidism related to the numbers of 131I therapy was not linear. 8) The diagnostic compatibilities of the various tests to hypothyroidism were TSH (100%), T4 (93.8%), 24-hour-RNIU (91.5%), ATR (86.7%), T3RU (66.1%) and BMR (64.9%).

  18. Zirconia ceramic single-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs) after 4 years of clinical service: a retrospective clinical and volumetric study

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Irena; Hämmerle, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was a retrospective assessment of the up to 8-year clinical outcomes of zirconia ceramic single-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs). Fifteen subjects (9 women, 6 men) with 15 anterior zirconia ceramic RBFDPs were included. The RBFDPs replaced 5 maxillary central incisors, 7 maxillary lateral incisors, and 3 mandibular lateral incisors. The patients willing to participate were recalled and the survival of the RBFDPs was assessed. The technical outcome w...

  19. Impact of Social Capital on 8-year Mortality Among Older People in 34 Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Ulla;

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline.......To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline....

  20. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The ... Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical ...

  1. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural ...

  2. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical ... and Postcards ...

  3. Clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Aher, K; Jaiswal, M

    1992-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for a sizeable proportion of infertility and ectopic recurrence. The possibility that a woman is experiencing an ectopic pregnancy must be considered when evaluating a woman, especially a sterilized woman, who has a possible pregnancy, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, or abnormal bleeding; studies have found that one in six pregnancies occurring after tubal sterilization are ectopic. The authors present a clinical study of 82 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Cases of ectopic pregnancy represent 0.99% of total obstetric admissions, of whom 69.51% were diagnosed as such on admission. 40.24% of the women were older than 30 years, while 34.14% were elderly beyond third parity. 70.73% of the women presented before missing their second period. Patients presented with multiple complaints, but the most common was abdominal pain reported by 61.70%. 78.04% were admitted with an acute abdomen, but shock was present in only 7.14% of cases. The main surgical treatment modality was salpingectomy among 59.75%. There was no maternal mortality through postoperative morbidity in the form of paralytic ileus, although fever did occur in some women.

  4. Estudio sobre la prevención quimioterapéutica de la caries dental con barnices de clorhexidina y timol, en niños de 5-8 años de edad, con riesgo alto de caries.: Un reporte preliminar Study on the chemotherapeutic prevention of the caries with chlorhexidine/thymol varnish in children of 5-8 years old, with high caries risk.: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C García-Santos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de reducir la caries de fisura en las caras oclusales de los primeros molares permanentes, a través de barnices antimicrobianos, en escolares con alta incidencia de caries. Se ha realizado un ensayo clínico aleatorio a doble ciego. Sujetos: 35 niños saludables con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y 8 años, con alto riesgo de caries, fueron seleccionados en un colegio de Madrid. Par ser incluidos en el estudio cada niño debería tener como mínimo dos primeros molares permanentes sanos, y presentar caries en dentina en sus molares temporales. Métodos: después de la profilaxis dental, el grupo de estudio se le aplicaba un barniz de clorhexidina 1% y timol 1% (Cervitec, y al grupo control un barniz de placebo. El barniz era colocado sobre todos los dientes (dentición temporal y permanente cada tres meses (al inicio a los 3,6 y 9 meses y el incremento de caries era comparado a los 12 meses. Resultados: al inicio del estudio no habían diferencias entre los grupos. Al año existía una diferencia significativa entre el grupo de estudio y el de control, en CAO-D P=0,001, CAO-S P=0,000 (en los primeros molares permanentes . Conclusión: la aplicación de Cervitec cada 3 meses, es efectiva previniendo la caries en los primeros molares permanentes de escolares con alta actividad de caries.Objective: the purpose of this study, was to evaluate the possibility of reducing occlusal fissures caries development, in permanent first molars, using an antimicrobial varnish, in schoolchildren with high caries activity. Randomised, a double-blind clinical trial was developed. Subjects: 35 healthy children aged 6-8 years with high caries risk, were selected from a schools in Madrid. To be included in the study, each child had to have least 2 sound permanent molars and primary molars with carious lesions in dentin. Methods: after prophylaxis, test groups received 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol

  5. A clinical study of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Subha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to analyze general incidence, age incidence, laterality, common mode of presentation, staging of the tumor, radiological evidence, histopathological confirmation, management and follow-up of cases, which were diagnosed as retinoblastoma. Design: Interventional case series study from April 1997 to March 2000. Materials and Methods: Detailed history regarding the symptoms such as white reflex, watering, pain, redness, protrusion of eyeball, squint, hyphema, and defective vision were obtained. Family history regarding consanguinity between parents, health of the siblings and other relatives were recorded. Ocular examination included vision, pupillary reaction, detailed fundus examination, ocular tension, and corneal diameter. Investigations included X-ray orbit and skull, computed tomography scan orbit and brain, B-scan orbit, serum and aqueous lactate dehydrogenase; enucleated eyes were subjected to holoprosencephaly (HPE. Enucleation, radiotherapy, cryotherapy and chemotherapy were modalities of treatment. The empty socket and the other apparently normal eye were examined carefully at each visit. Results: The incidence of retinoblastoma is less when compared to other diseases of the eye. There was no sex predilection. Most of the cases diagnosed were sporadic and unilateral. Age of onset is earlier for bilateral cases than unilateral cases. Consanguinity bears close relationship with bilateral involvement. Predominant clinical sign is white reflex in the pupillary area. Majority of cases presented in the second stage of the disease. Enucleation plays a greater role in the management of retinoblastoma. HPE should include several sections of the optic nerve to find out skip lesions.

  6. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Clinical ... the general public. Last Updated: August 3, 2015 Resources Educational Website - English / Spanish Paper Kingdom Video ... and Postcards Facebook Page

  7. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) em...

  8. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in processing empathy stories in 4-8 year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Tila TabeaBrink; EvgeniyaKirilina; GiselaKlann-Delius; LarsKuchinke

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4 to 8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of pre-school and school children (N=48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-ver...

  9. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain. PMID:18832336

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ramoa Pires

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. RESULTS: A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001. Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%, alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20% and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19% were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091 and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5% were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004. CONCLUSIONS: The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients.

  11. Crowding in central vision in normally sighted and visually impaired [corrected] children aged 4 to 8 years: the influence of age and test design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cillessen, A.H.; Rens, G. van; Cox, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate crowding ratios in children with a visual impairment due to ocular disease (n = 58) and normally sighted children (n = 75) aged 4 to 8 years using several variants of two clinically available tests with different optotype spacing (fixed or proportional to the optotype

  12. Crowding in Central Vision in Normally Sighted and Visually Impared Children Aged 4 to 8 Years: The Influence of Age and Test Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims: To investigate crowding ratios in children with a visual impairment due to ocular disease (n = 58) and normally sighted children (n = 75) aged 4 to 8 years using several variants of two clinically available tests with different optotype spacing (fixed or proportional to the optotype

  13. CELL-INGROWTH IN A SILICONE PLOMBE - INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BIOMATERIAL AND SCLERAL TISSUE AFTER 8 YEARS INSITU - A SEM AND TEM INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; VANDERVEEN, G; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    A male patient (42 years) who had been treated for retinal detachment by the implantation of a silicone plombe into the sclera, returned to the clinic 8 years after implantation because of inflammation of the tissue and partial protrusion from the sclera. After removal of the plombe this was process

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents in the Real World: 8-Year Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Denise Oliveira, E-mail: dennizmo@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Vitor Osório; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Smidt, Luis; Azeredo, Marco Aurélio; Ledur, Priscila; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Sinnott, Leonardo; Moriguchi, Emílio; Caramori, Paulo [Hospital São Lucas PUC, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the 'real world' may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results.

  15. Perinatal risk factors for wheezing phenotypes in the first 8 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, D.; Savenije, O. E. M.; Smit, H. A.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Wijga, A. H.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel data-driven approach was used to identify wheezing phenotypes in pre-schoolchildren aged 0-8 years, in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort. Five phenotypes were identified: never/infrequent wheeze, transient early wheeze, intermediate onset

  16. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  17. An 8-Year-Old Boy With Treatment-Resistant Encopresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Stein; M.A. Benninga; B.T. Felt

    2010-01-01

    CASE: Paul is an 8-year-old boy with a long-standing history of encopresis and enuresis. Potty training was initiated when he was 21/2 years old. At this time, his mother was absent from the home for 6 weeks when she cared for her ill father in a different city. The process of teaching Paul to use t

  18. Development and health of 5 - 8-year-old singletons born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Marjolein

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the Leiden Artificial Reproductive Techniques Follow-up Project. In this project, the potential long-term effects of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were assessed in 5 – 8-year-old singleton children. ICSI is the method of artificial reproduction in which a sperm cel is

  19. Trends of mortality due to septicemia in Greece: an 8-year analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Falagas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are among the major causes of death worldwide. We evaluated the trends of mortality due to septicemia in Greece and compared it with mortality due to other infections. METHODS: Data on mortality stratified by cause of death during 2003-2010 was obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority. Deaths caused by infectious diseases were grouped by site of infection and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS: 45,451 deaths due to infections were recorded in Greece during the 8-year period of time, among which 12.2% were due to septicemia, 69.7% pneumonia, 1.5% pulmonary tuberculosis, 0.2% influenza, 0.5% other infections of the respiratory tract, 7.9% intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, 2.5% urinary tract infections (UTIs, 2.2% endocarditis or pericarditis or myocarditis, 1.6% hepatitis, 1% infections of the central nervous system, and 0.7% other infections. A percentage of 99.4% of deaths due to septicemia were caused by bacteria that were not reported on the death certificate (noted as indeterminate septicemia. More deaths due to indeterminate septicemia were observed during 2007-2010 compared to 2003-2006 (3,558 versus 1,966; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations related to the quality of death certificates, this study shows that the mortality rate due to septicemia has almost doubled after 2007 in Greece. Proportionally, septicemia accounted for a greater increase in the mortality rate within the infectious causes of death for the same period of time. The emergence of resistance could partially explain this alarming phenomenon. Therefore, stricter infection control measures should be urgently applied in all Greek healthcare facilities.

  20. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  1. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (MVPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  2. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  3. [Follow-up studies and clinical evaluation of model cast dentures with periodontal and periodonto-gingival support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, W; Lesche, M

    1977-11-01

    The authors examined 746 cast denture constructions with an average wearing time of 6 years to study the influence of cast denture constructions on caries increment. The mode of wear of the cast denture constructions had no influence on caries incidence, whereas effects exerted by the duration of wear and the presence of soft deposits could be detected. The evaluation of the functional performance of cast denture constructions showed that the clinical serviceability amounts to more than 8 years.

  4. Clinical studies of biomarkers in suicide prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Jussi

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a major clinical problem in psychiatry and suicidal behaviours can be seen as a nosological entity per se. Predicting suicide is difficult due to its low base-rate and the limited specificity of clinical predictors. Prospective biological studies suggest that dysfunctions in the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the serotonergic system have predictive power for suicide in mood disorders. Suicide attempt is the most robust clinical predictor making suici...

  5. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  6. HERPESE ZOSTER: A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Omprakash; Geeta; Dinesh Chandra; Kavitha; Arora; Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted between August 2012 and July 2013 at the dermatology department of OPD,116 cases studied with personal, present, past, family history, examined thoroughly, done all necessary investigations, taken opinion of other faculties where ever necessary . All the patients were reviewed weekly for 1 month and monthly for two more months. Patients 76 were males and 40 were females. Out of of 116 cases, 75 (64.6%) had definite history of chicken pox. In this study interesting diff...

  7. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Eziuka Oladokun; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age...

  8. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Balkrishna Behere; Akshata Nandu Mulmule

    2013-01-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences incl...

  9. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Debbie J.; Hannah Butler; Pamela Qualter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49) were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and...

  10. Parental reported compared with measured waist circumference in 8-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Scholtens, Salome; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Most epidemiological, questionnaire-based studies collect data on body weight and height but not on waist circumference (WC), although WC is suggested to be clinically more relevant. It is unknown whether valid WC data of school-aged children can be obtained by questionnaires. In this stu

  11. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  12. HERPESE ZOSTER: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted between August 2012 and July 2013 at the dermatology department of OPD,116 cases studied with personal, present, past, family history, examined thoroughly, done all necessary investigations, taken opinion of other faculties where ever necessary . All the patients were reviewed weekly for 1 month and monthly for two more months. Patients 76 were males and 40 were females. Out of of 116 cases, 75 (64.6% had definite history of chicken pox. In this study interesting different to previous studies some features found . Prodromal sign neuralgic pain more in below 20 years. Males more infected. Cranial nerve more involved. Thorasic PHN more. Remaining all detailed study has explained below with routine features.

  13. CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES OF MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUNing; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In ordcr to cxaminc thc pharmacokinetic charactcristics of mifcpristonc, manufactured by the Roussel-Uclaf Company, in Chincsee healthy volunteers and early pregnant womcn, the following two studies wcre carried out.

  14. [Adaptive clinical study methodologies in drug development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, János

    2015-11-29

    The evolution of drug development in human, clinical phase studies triggers the overview of those technologies and procedures which are labelled as adaptive clinical trials. The most relevant procedural and operational aspects will be discussed in this overview from points of view of clinico-methodological aspect.

  15. CLINICAL STUDY OF DUODENAL PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva Rao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The duodenal injury can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly may have devastating results. Over the centuries, there was little to offer the patient of acute abdomen beyond cupping, purgation and enemas, all of which did more harm than good. It was not until 1884 that Mikulicz made an attempt to repair a perforation. Recent statistics indicate roughly 10% of population develop gastric or duodenal ulcer in life time. Roughly 1-3% of population above the age of 20 years have some degree of peptic ulcer activity during any annual period. A detailed history with regards to the signs and symptoms of the patient, a meticulous examination, radiological and biochemical investigations help to arrive at a correct preoperative diagnosis. In this study, a sincere effort has been put to understand the demographic patterns, to understand the underlying aetiology and to understand the effectiveness of the standard methods of investigation and treatment in use today. METHODS This is a 24 months prospective study i.e., from September 2011 to September 2013 carried out at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation. The study included the patients presenting to Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation to emergency ward with signs and symptoms of hollow viscus perforation. The sample size included 30 cases of duodenal perforation. RESULTS Duodenal ulcer perforation commonly occurs in the age group of 30-60 years, but it can occur in any age group. Majority of the patients were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors in most cases (53.3% for the causation of duodenal ulcer perforation. Sudden onset of abdominal pain, situated at epigastrium and right hypochondrium was a constant symptom (100%. Vomiting, constipation and fever were not so common. CONCLUSION The emergency surgical management for perforated duodenal ulcer is by

  16. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  17. Disconnective Hemispherotomy for Medically Intractable Status Epilepticus in an 8-Year-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lucas; Bahgat, Diaa; Sharp, Gregory; Willis, Erin; Ocal, Eylem; Albert, Gregory; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-10-01

    We report here the unusual case of an 8-year-old child with left hemispheric focal epilepsy secondary to a perinatal infarction who presented with new onset absence seizures and eventual nonconvulsive status epilepticus that was refractory to medical management. Following review at our multidisciplinary Epilepsy Surgery conference, the patient underwent disconnective surgical hemispherotomy with immediate cessation of his seizures; and has remained seizure-free at 4 months following surgery. In this context, we present here an overview of hemispherectomy and related procedures, including peri-insular disconnective hemispherotomy, and we discuss the efficacy of surgery for challenging hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:26552284

  18. Radial head subluxation in an 8-year-old girl with joint hypermobility

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Marc Alan

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl attended the children’s emergency department after having been play-fighting with her younger brother. Her arm had been pushed away by her father during the fight. The girl immediately complained of pain in her arm and refused to move it. Following analgesia and investigation with a plain radiograph of the elbow it was decided to attempt a manipulation procedure with the possibility that this could represent a ‘pulled elbow’ in an unusual age group. Soon after the manipulat...

  19. Sexual abuse in 8-year-old child: where do we stand legally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Balkrishna Behere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls′ group.

  20. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Ines Calero; Mariano Sigman

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years o...

  1. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  2. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  3. A Patient with Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Intermingled with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma that Remains Alive more than 8 Years after Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae Sik; Oh, Young Lyun; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course. We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy without neck lymph node dissection. Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamou...

  4. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  5. Visual working memory capacity increases between ages 3 and 8 years, controlling for gains in attention, perception, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Research in adults has aimed to characterize constraints on the capacity of Visual Working Memory (VWM), in part because of the system's broader impacts throughout cognition. However, less is known about how VWM develops in childhood. Existing work has reached conflicting conclusions as to whether VWM storage capacity increases after infancy, and if so, when and by how much. One challenge is that previous studies did not control for developmental changes in attention and executive processing, which also may undergo improvement. We investigated the development of VWM storage capacity in children from 3 to 8 years of age, and in adults, while controlling for developmental change in exogenous and endogenous attention and executive control. Our results reveal that, when controlling for improvements in these abilities, VWM storage capacity increases across development and approaches adult-like levels between ages 6 and 8 years. More generally, this work highlights the value of estimating working memory, attention, perception, and decision-making components together. PMID:27225467

  6. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  7. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  8. Follow-up of a Case of Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Over an 8-year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Feng Wen; Guangwei Luo; Futian Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show the follow-up of a case of vitelliform mac-ular dystrophy with morphological and visual functional tests over an 8-year period. Methods:.Retrospective review of medical records..The mor-phological examination included color photography,.fluores-cein angiography, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT). The visual functional tests included visual acuity, electro-ocu-logram (EOG) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). The patient was observed for 8 years, from 2003 to 2011. Results:.During the follow-up,.the improvement of sensory retinal detachment and reduction of yellow-white deposit were observed with color photography and fluorescein angiography. OCT revealed a decrease in sensory retinal detachment and subretinal hyper-reflective deposits; both of these morphologi-cal changes were correspondent. Visual acuity was maintained throughout the follow-up..The Arden ratio of EOG was de-creased. The amplitudes of mfERG were decreased but slightly increased during the follow-up. Conclusion:.The retinal morphological changes and visual function slightly improved in this case of vitelliform macu-lopathy. The prognosis is good. (Eye Science 2014; 29:165-169)

  9. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  10. The Development of Attitudes About Physical Punishment: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined young adolescents’ endorsement of parental use of corporal punishment to elucidate processes underlying the intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies. The community sample was ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Mothers completed interviews and questionnaires when the target children were entering kindergarten (n = 566) and in 6th and 8th grades. Adolescents completed questionnaires when they were in 8th grade (n = 425). Adolescents’ attitudes about corporal pu...

  11. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  12. Mortality among drug users after discharge from inpatient treatment: an 8-year prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravndal, Edle; Amundsen, Ellen Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Drug users who are leaving/completing inpatient medication-free treatment may, like drug users released from prison, have an elevated risk of dying from fatal overdoses. This is mainly explained by their low drug tolerance. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-six drug users who had been admitted to eleven inpatient facilities in Norway, were followed prospectively after discharge from treatment during an eight year period (1998-2006). The following instruments were used: ...

  13. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, S. M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Scholtens, S.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA)

  14. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls.

  15. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls. PMID:27344610

  16. PPB | What is a Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study ‹an observational clinical research study‹is enrolling children with PPB and their families. In an observational study, investigators assess health outcomes in groups of participants according to a protocol or research plan.

  17. Cognitive Function, Progression of Age-related Behavioral Changes, Biomarkers, and Survival in Dogs More Than 8 Years Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    , survival, and possible biomarkers of CCD in aged dogs. AnimalsFifty-one dogs >8 years old; 21 with no cognitive deficits, 17 with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and 13 with CCD. MethodsLongitudinal study. Recruitment period of 12 months and an observational period of 24 months including a baseline and 3......BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes...... planned subsequent assessments. Cognitive status was determined using validated questionnaires. Plasma A-peptides were quantified using commercial ELISA assays and cytokines by a validated immunoassay. ResultsSigns characterizing dogs with CCD were aimless wandering, staring into space, avoid getting...

  18. Dietary Patterns and Their Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants in 6- to 8-Year-Old Portuguese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Muc, M; Rodrigues, P R M; Pinto, A Mota; Padez, C

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to a healthier diet is declining, with children consuming more saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. Factors influencing this choice were studied using a cross-sectional study with children (6 to 8 years old) living in Coimbra. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors were obtained from the parents. Dietary patterns of 1,063 children were identified: Mediterranean (MedDiet), saturated fats (SFatDiet), and base of Portuguese diet (BPDiet). Their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioral determinants was analyzed. SES determined strongly the dietary choices with lower SES being associated with higher consumption of SFatDiet and higher SES with BPDiet. Worse diet quality was shown to coexist with other unhealthy behaviors. PMID:27398743

  19. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  20. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca;

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing...... to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood....... group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need...

  1. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  2. Pediatric renal transplantation in a highly sensitised child-8 years on.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2012-01-26

    Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.

  3. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B

    2013-08-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings. PMID:24765504

  4. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Eziuka Oladokun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings.

  5. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  6. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entwistle Vikki A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  7. Schooling, Values, Objective Life Conditions and Social Support: Their Predictive Power in the Reported Use of Coercive Behaviors by Mothers of 6- to 8-Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Camil

    This study was undertaken to identify the relative contribution of personal and environmental variables to the reported frequency of use of coercive control behaviors in a nonclinical sample of mothers. Seventy mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children participated; half were from single-parent families. Results of analysis of variance indicate that…

  8. Resin-modified and conventional glass ionomer restorations in primary teeth: 8-year results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, V.; Manscher, E.; Teglers, P.T.

    2004-01-01

    clinical trial, cariostatic effects, dental restorations, glass ionomer cement, long-term behaviour, pedodontics, resin-modified glass ionomer......clinical trial, cariostatic effects, dental restorations, glass ionomer cement, long-term behaviour, pedodontics, resin-modified glass ionomer...

  9. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  10. Clinical studies of IGFBP-2 by radioimmunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Horn, N; Kratzsch, J;

    1993-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for human IGFBP-2 was developed using a polyclonal antiserum directed against a partial sequence (hIGFBP-2(176-190)). The tracer was prepared by radioiodination of a [Tyr]o-hIGFBP-2(176-190) derivative. The assay was used to study IGFBP-2 levels in numerous clinical an...

  11. Good clinical practices in phase I studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousus, H; Perpoint, B; Mismetti, P; Ollagnier, M; Queneau, P

    1990-01-01

    In France, official guidelines for good clinical practices in clinical trials were issued in 1987. In December 1988, a law was passed that fixed the requirements for carrying out experiments in healthy subjects. It will be completed by official guidelines for the structures in which experiments on healthy subjects (and patients as well, when the investigation would not benefit the health of the patients) may be conducted. Hence a battery of recent legal instructions precisely state what good clinical practices are in the setting of phase I studies. Of particular importance are: subject recruitment and selection methods and procedures; specific competence of the investigator, in particular to interpret the pre-trial data; necessary and sufficient facilities to guarantee the subjects' safety; careful quality control to check all laboratory procedures; necessity of written standard operating procedures.

  12. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  13. A CLINICAL STUDY OF CHRONIC DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, S; Kumar, S.; Agarwal, A K

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurological status of chronic depressive states have not been resolved as yet. Recent classificatory systems ICD-X and DSM-III-R have included chronic depression under affective disorders and have done away with the category of neurotic depression. The present study was undertaken with the aims of (a) to study clinical variables associated with major subtypes of chronic depression (chronic major depression and dysthymia) and (b) to investigate personality characteristics and life eve...

  14. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.

  15. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the vagina in an 8 year old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lin Yin; Hwang, Wei Sek; Wong, Adelina; Chan, Mei Yoke; Chui, Chan Hon

    2007-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history. We present the first reported case of PEComa of the vagina diagnosed in an 8-year-old girl. This was initially diagnosed on biopsy as an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and the patient underwent 3 cycles of chemotherapy according to the Mesenchymal Malignant Tumour 1989 protocol. A repeat scan, however, revealed an increase in tumor size. Total resection was achieved via a transvaginal (vertical sleeve) partial vaginectomy. The resected tumor had the typical appearance of a PEComa. Immunostains showed positive staining of tumor cells for HMB45, neuron-specific enolase, and calponin but were negative for S100 protein, melaninA, chromogranin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, caldesmon, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1/3, and synaptophysin. Six months after surgery, she remains free of tumor and is on follow-up with regular local examinations under anesthesia and computed tomography scans. Our case highlights the importance of an accurate initial diagnosis, and we stress the importance of regular surveillance over a significant period. PMID:17336201

  16. Picturing Perspectives: Development of Perspective-Taking Abilities in 4- to 8-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eFrick

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the development of perspective taking has been well researched, there is no uniform methodology for assessing this ability across a wide age span when frames of reference conflict. To address this gap, we created scenes of toy photographers taking pictures of layouts of objects from different angles, and presented them to 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 80. Children were asked to choose which one of four pictures could have been taken from a specific viewpoint. Results showed that this new technique confirmed the classic pattern of developmental progress on this kind of spatial skill: (1 4-year-olds responded near chance level, regardless of layout complexity, (2 there was a growing ability to inhibit egocentric choices around age 6 with layouts of low complexity (one object, (3 performance increased and egocentric responses decreased dramatically around age 7, (4 even at age 8, children still showed considerable individual variability. This perspective-taking task can thus be used to address important questions about the supports for early spatial development and the structure of early intellect.

  17. Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be associated with time-dependent reductions in tuberculosis (TB incidence, the long-term impact of ART on incidence remains imprecisely defined due to limited duration of follow-up and incomplete CD4 cell count recovery in existing studies. We determined TB incidence in a South African ART cohort with up to 8 years of follow-up and stratified rates according to CD4 cell count recovery. We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART in a community-based cohort in Cape Town were analysed. 1544 patients with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR 2.4-5.8 were included in the analysis. 484 episodes of incident TB (73.6% culture-confirmed were diagnosed in 424 patients during 6506 person-years (PYs of follow-up. The TB incidence rate during the first year of ART was 12.4 (95% CI 10.8-14.4 cases/100PYs and decreased to 4.92 (95% CI 3.64-8.62 cases/100PYs between 5 and 8 years of ART. During person-time accrued within CD4 cell strata 0-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-700 and ≥700 cells/µL, TB incidence rates (95% CI were 25.5 (21.6-30.3, 11.2 (9.4-13.5, 7.9 (6.4-9.7, 5.0 (3.9-6.6, 5.1 (3.8-6.8, 4.1 (3.1-5.4 and 2.7 (1.7-4.5 cases/100PYs, respectively. Overall, 75% (95% CI 70.9-78.8 of TB episodes were recurrent cases. Updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were independently associated with long-term TB risk. TB rates during person-time accrued in the highest CD4 cell count stratum (>700 cells/µL were 4.4-fold higher that the rate in HIV uninfected individuals living in the same community (2.7 versus 0.62 cases/100PYs; 95%CI 0.58-0.65. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TB rates during long-term ART remained substantially greater than rates in the local HIV uninfected populations regardless of duration of ART or attainment of CD4

  18. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis.

  19. Clinical and histopathological study of palmoplantar keratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of palmo-plantar keratoderma in eighty-two cases showed that twenty different diseases, both hereditary and acquired were responsible for palmoplantar keratoderma. Maximum number of cases were of hereditary variety of palmoplantar keratoderma (Unna-Thost syndrome (28.05%. Whereas psoriasis was the leading cause among the acquired conditions (17.07%. Two histopathological types of Unna-Thost syndrome and their correlation with clinical features are reported.

  20. Nail disorders in children, a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Akbaş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aims of the study to investigate the frequency and the nature ofnail disorders in children significant clinical data is available. Nail disorders although common in children in some parts of our country. This study was carried out to document the clinical and demographic pattern of nail disorders in a dermatology outpatient clinic of a pediatric hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Material and Methods: All consecutive patients a total of 3000 children from age 0-16 were admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic of Ankara Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Education and Research Hospital during January 2011 to December 2011 were studied and retrospectively evaluated for age, gender, drug use, diseases, systemic or genetic disorders and demographic features. Diagnostic evaluation results were noted and patients were categorized for demographic features and diagnosis. Results: These 133 patients (M: F 58:75, %44 vs 56, respectively were under 16 years of age and have 17 different dermatological disorders related with nail symptoms. Fifty three of (39,8% these patient were under 2 years of age, 31 (23.3% were between 3-5 years, 30 (22.5% were between 6-11 years old, 19 of 133 (14%, 2 were between 11-16 years of age. Through all of ages and independent of gender the most etiologies of nail disorders were, onychomadesis, paronychia, onycholysis, onychomycosis and systemic nail presentation of systemic dermatosis. Conclusion: Nail disorders are different in children than in adults. In our study, the first 5 years of age was found in 53% of nail disorders. Nail disorders are uncommon but may be seen as a part of a systemic disease and may be associated with cosmetic and psychologic problem.

  1. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

  2. Trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease.

  3. Arctic Cloud Fraction and Microphysical Characteristics from 8-year Space-based Lidar and Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Yeo, H.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, M. H.; Son, S. W.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic clouds are a key factor in determining the energy budget both at the top of the atmosphere and at the suface by modulating the long-wave and short-wave radiative fluxes, which affect the surface temperature and may effect on the growth or retreat of sea ice extent and thickness. In this work, we exmine three-dimensional geometric and microphysical properties of Arctic clouds mainly from 8-year space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). Cloud Frations (CFs) from CALIOP-CPR and MODIS show similar seasonal and inter-annual variations, but shows significant different in CF over the opened sea area (i.e., Barents and Kara Sea) and over the sea ice. High occurrences of cloud top height are found below 2 km. But comparably high presences of mid- and high-level clouds are also found, especially in winter-time. This suggests that both low- and high-level clouds over the Arctic may influence on the long-wave radiation budget both at the surface and top of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the top height of winter-time clouds looks consistent with tropopause height. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) over the Arctic shows high in summer and low in winter, which would be contrary to the seasonal/monthly variations of CF. High COD during summer can be explained by enhanced level of liquid cloud droplet number concentrations. The number concentration and effective radius (in parenthesis) of liquid cloud droplet during summner was in the range of about 30 to 80 cm-3 (about 6 ~ 16 mm).

  4. Feelings of being disabled as a risk factor for mortality up to 8 years after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Vlugt, Maureen J; van Domburg, Ron T; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2005-01-01

    We examined the independent prognostic value of the four subscales of the Heart Patients Psychological Questionnaire (HPPQ) on mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors up to 8 years after the event.......We examined the independent prognostic value of the four subscales of the Heart Patients Psychological Questionnaire (HPPQ) on mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors up to 8 years after the event....

  5. Clinical study on osteoradionecrosis of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study osteoradionecrosis which had developed after radiotherapy for malignant tumor was studied clinically and therapeutically and the following results were obtained. 1. The subjects were 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 2 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma aged 38 to 72. The ratio of male: female was 3.3 : 1. The time of manifestation was 1 month-14 years after irradiation. The main symptoms were pain and exposed bone mainly in the region of mandibular molar tooth. 2. Osteoradionecrosis was observed in 10 cases supposed to be induced by tooth extraction but also in 5 edentulous cases. 3. When the osteoradionecrosis cases were classified into limited area type and wide range type on the basis of clinical findings. X-ray of the jaws showed the presence of bone resorption and induration together in many wide range type cases. 4. Scintigram of bone showed widespread accumulation of radiation even in clinically limited area type, and the picture of some loss of bone and the intensity of the accumulation were considered to be extremely useful as an index in making therapeutical plans and decisions on the prognosis of tumor of the jaws. 5. As the method of treatment, sequestrectomy was performed in 14 of 19 cases of the limited area type and 4 of 11 cases of the wide range type and excision of the jaws in 4 cases. 6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was carried out in 3 cases and had good effect. (J.P.N.)

  6. Clinical study on osteoradionecrosis of the jaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Atsuo; Kato, Joji

    1988-07-01

    In the present study osteoradionecrosis which had developed after radiotherapy for malignant tumor was studied clinically and therapeutically and the following results were obtained. 1. The subjects were 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 2 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma aged 38 to 72. The ratio of male: female was 3.3 : 1. The time of manifestation was 1 month-14 years after irradiation. The main symptoms were pain and exposed bone mainly in the region of mandibular molar tooth. 2. Osteoradionecrosis was observed in 10 cases supposed to be induced by tooth extraction but also in 5 edentulous cases. 3. When the osteoradionecrosis cases were classified into limited area type and wide range type on the basis of clinical findings. X-ray of the jaws showed the presence of bone resorption and induration together in many wide range type cases. 4. Scintigram of bone showed widespread accumulation of radiation even in clinically limited area type, and the picture of some loss of bone and the intensity of the accumulation were considered to be extremely useful as an index in making therapeutical plans and decisions on the prognosis of tumor of the jaws. 5. As the method of treatment, sequestrectomy was performed in 14 of 19 cases of the limited area type and 4 of 11 cases of the wide range type and excision of the jaws in 4 cases. 6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was carried out in 3 cases and had good effect. (J.P.N.).

  7. Robust diffusion imaging framework for clinical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maximov, Ivan I; Neuner, Irene; Shah, N Jon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diffusion imaging requires short acquisition times and good image quality to permit its use in various medical applications. In turn, these demands require the development of a robust and efficient post-processing framework in order to guarantee useful and reliable results. However, multiple artefacts abound in in vivo measurements; from either subject such as cardiac pulsation, bulk head motion, respiratory motion and involuntary tics and tremor, or imaging hardware related problems, such as table vibrations, etc. These artefacts can severely degrade the resulting images and render diffusion analysis difficult or impossible. In order to overcome these problems, we developed a robust and efficient framework enabling the use of initially corrupted images from a clinical study. At the heart of this framework is an improved least trimmed squares diffusion tensor estimation algorithm that works well with severely degraded datasets with low signal-to-noise ratio. This approach has been compared with other...

  8. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.

  9. Cryogenic Thermophysical Studies for Clinical Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华泽钊

    2002-01-01

    Cryogenic technology has been widely used in clinical medicine and in pharmaceutics, so thermophysical studies are extremely important to solve problems during freezing and thawing. This paper reports some recent research in clinical medicine, including cryo-injury, cryosurgery, and cryopreservation of some important cells and tissues. Microscopic images of the freezing process with a cryomicroscope system show that the dendritic ice growth is affected by the solution concentration, the cooling rate, and the number of embryos. An enthalpy method is used for the freeze-thaw analysis of the cryosurgery with a program developed to predict the temperature profile and the interface motion, which compares well with experimental results. A very rapid cooling technique is developed by quenching the samples into subcooled liquid nitrogen for vitrification of cells and tissues. An analytical method developed to prevent the fracture of arteries during freezing has been verified by the electronic microscopic investigation.

  10. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  11. EMPYEMA THORACIS IN CHILDREN: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Empyema thoracis is a disease that despite centuries of study still causes significant morbidity and mortality. AIMS To study the age-sex profile, clinical presentation, etiologic agents, management and the overall treatment outcome of empyema thoracis in children. METHODOLOGY A total of 25 patients of both the sexes aged 0-12 years diagnosed to have empyema thoracis and who underwent tube thoracostomy from March 2013 to February 2014 were studied. Detailed clinical history, physical examination, relevant routine and specific investigation were done. The pleural fluid was studied for gram staining, microscopy, cytology, pleural fluid culture and antibiotic sensitive pattern. All the patients were treated with tube thoracostomy and antibiotic therapy depending on the culture and sensitivity pattern. Complications were recorded. RESULTS Majority of patients (0.64% were seen in age group of 1-5 years. Fever (96%, breathlessness (92%, and cough (72% were the commonest presenting features. Bacteriological examination revealed staphylococcus aureus as the commonest etiologic agent (20% isolated from pleural fluid culture. Pyopneumothorax (16% was the commonest complication seen in these patients. All patients (92% were treated with antibiotics, and drainage of the empyema was effected by closed thoracostomy in (92% of the cases. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION Empyema is not rare in our practice. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of pneumonia prevent the development of empyema. Antibiotics and tube thoracostomy is an effective method of treating pyogenic empyema thoracis in children in resource poor settings.

  12. Physicochemical changes in sediments at Orplands Farm, Essex, UK following 8 years of managed realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K. L.; Cundy, A. B.; Davies-Hearn, S.; Hughes, R.; Turner, S.; MacLeod, C. L.

    2008-02-01

    Managed realignment (MR) is a 'soft' engineering technique that involves the deliberate landwards retreat of the existing line of coastal defence and subsequent tidal inundation of land. Managed realignment has been established worldwide for over 30 years and its goals may include habitat restoration, recovery of biodiversity and sustainable coastal defence. In southeast England in particular, an increasing number of MR sites (20-110 ha) have been commissioned in the last decade in response to increasing coastal habitat loss and sea-level rise. Following initial sea wall breaching and site flooding, monitoring of these sites is usually carried out for a period of 5 years and during this time changes in ecosystem structure can be easily observed. However, there is a poor understanding of the long-term effects of flooding on soil physicochemical parameters including sediment geochemistry and geochemical cycling, nutrient fluxes and soil maturation processes. Such physical and chemical changes may continue to take place over time-scales exceeding 5 years and therefore current monitoring practices may not be sufficient. This paper examines the changes in the physicochemical parameters of sediments in vertical core sections at the Orplands Farm MR site, Blackwater Estuary, Essex, 8 years after its flooding in 1995. Post-breach sediment accumulation rates at the site have been determined and a multi-proxy approach has been used to identify a pre-breach land surface. Soil development and the vertical distribution of saltmarsh plants following breaching have also been examined. The species saturation index approach has been used to provide an indication of the success of MR at this site. The pre-breach land surface was identified at 4-6 cm depth indicating a sediment accumulation rate ca. 0.75 cm a -1 since the site was breached in 1995. This sedimentation rate exceeds the regional sea-level rise of 0.1-0.3 cm a -1 and hence marsh development at the site is expected to

  13. Plantago ovata: Clinical study of overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Rukh-e-Nasreen; Saeed, Aftab; Nazar, Halima

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to undertake evidence-base study to evaluate clinical manifestation of the over-estimated use of herbal drug Plantago ovata and to compare it with placebo for the efficacy and adverse effects. The patients of both genders were included. Blood urea, creatinine, ALT, Serum B12, CP, ESR and liver function tests were performed. The data was statistically analyzed in both groups for differential symptomatology. In anorexia test verses control results showed that Plantago ovata husk and placebo showed the affected ratio as 81 percent and 50 percent, correspondingly. Whereas in clinical performance of heart burning, pain in epigastrium, low libido, body pain, dyspepsia, fever, burning sensation in palm and sole in test drug showed affected response as adverse effect 90%, 88% and as control drug, 36%, 29%, 22%, 25%, 38%, 30%, 33%, 57%, respectively. The results were highly marked in test drug i.e. in comparison with placebo. This is clearly evident from data analysis that effect observed in test arm is far more superior hence null hypothesis was rejected clearly. Similarly serological and biochemical reports study i.e. (ALT, Vit. B1 and Vit A) revealed that there is no hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effect found in both the drugs. PMID:27087080

  14. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  15. Osteosynthesis of medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children. 8-year follow-up of 33 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, P S; Ravn, Pernille; Hansen, L B;

    1994-01-01

    33 children with a mean age of 12 (7-15) years had open reduction and osteosynthesis for a displaced fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle. 8 (2-15) years after the operation a clinical and radiographic examination was performed. 22/33 had a prominent scar. No patients had symptoms from...

  16. Hirschsprung′s disease: 8 years experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Despite increased understanding of the disease and several techniques of treatment, significant complications continued to be associated with its management. Objective: To study the outcome of management of HD in the University Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of all children managed for HD between January 1998 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, modes of presentation, methods of diagnosis, age at colostomy formation, age and type of definitive operations were noted from patients′ records. Complications associated with colostomy, pre- and postoperative complications, final outcome and duration of follow-up were also noted. Results: Twenty-one patients (20 males, one female managed for HD were reviewed. Eight (38% were diagnosed in the neonatal period, the mean age at diagnosis being 22 months. Fourteen patients had completed the three stages of the operation, one is awaiting colostomy closure and two patients are waiting for definitive operations. Out of the 15 patients who had definitive surgery, nine had Swenson′s pull-through operations while six had Duhamel operations. At presentation, six patients had enterocolitis, one of whom had spontaneous colonic perforation, two patients had sepsis. Colostomy-related complications recorded included sixteen patients with dermatitis, nine with colostomy prolapse, one patient with colostomy diarrhea and one with enterocolitis and sepsis. Following definitive surgery, three patients had wound infection, one partial intestinal obstruction, one postDuhamel hemorrhage and two enterocolitis. Complications after colostomy closure included two wound infections and one severe enterocolitis. There were five deaths (23.8%-two from sepsis, two from enterocolitis and one from an adverse drug reaction. One of the children who had

  17. Measured Prenatal and Estimated Postnatal Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and ADHD-Related Behaviors in 8-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Marc-André; Hart, Jaime E; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Bellinger, David C.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies of postnatal PCB exposure and behavior have not reported consistent evidence of adverse associations, possibly because of challenges in exposure estimation. We previously developed a pharmacokinetic model to improve estimation of children’s PCB exposure. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether estimated serum PCB levels in infancy are associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)–related behaviors at 8 years of age among children whose cord s...

  18. Clinical studies of neuroinflammatory mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Crystal C; Andrews, Sarah Ramsay

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that appears to result from genetic and environmental factors. Although the dopamine hypothesis is the driving theory behind the majority of translation research in schizophrenia, emerging evidence suggests that aberrant immune mechanisms in the peripheral and central nervous system influence the etiology of schizophrenia and the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms that define the illness. The initial interest in inflammatory processes comes from epidemiological data and historical observations, dating back several decades. A growing body of research on developmental exposure to infection, stress-induced inflammatory response, glial cell signaling, structural and functional brain changes and therapeutic trials demonstrates the impact that inflammation has on the onset and progression of schizophrenia. Research in animal models of psychosis has helped to advance clinical and basic science investigations of the immune mechanisms disrupted in schizophrenia. However, they are limited by the inability to recapitulate the human experience of hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder that define psychosis. To date, translational studies of inflammatory mechanisms in human subjects have not been reviewed in great detail. Here, we critically review clinical studies that focus on inflammatory mechanisms in schizophrenia. Understanding the neuroinflammatory mechanisms involved in schizophrenia may be essential in identifying potential therapeutic targets to minimize the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenia by interrupting disease development. PMID:26235751

  19. Clinical and neuroradiological studies on internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 14 cases of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) were analysed. The correlation of clinical symptoms with localization of the responsible lesions was studied in these patients. The subjects included 9 patients with CVD, 2 with MS, 1 with Fisher's syndrome, 1 with cranial polyneuritis and one with unknown etiology. Nine patients with unilateral INO are all associated with brainstem infarction. The other 5 patients including 2 MS had bilateral INO. CT showed abnormal findings in brain stem in 7 out of 14 patients. As for MRI an abnormality was found in 5 out of the 8 patients examined. Two of the 7 patients without any abnormality on CT had abnormal signals on MRI. We divided INO into 3 groups based on the clinical symptoms: 1) anterior type in which convergence was involved concomitantly with adduction paralysis, 2) typical type in which dissociated nystagmus was more marked in the abducting eye, and convergence was preserved, 3) posterior type in which abduction is impaired without adduction disturbance. There were 5 cases of anterior type, 9 of typical type, and none of posterior type. On MRI two patients of anterior type had abnormalities in the dorsal midbrain, and one patient had an abnormality in the pons, and two patients of typical type had abnormalities in the upper or middle dorsal pons to the dorsal midbrain. CT failed to demontrate any responsible lesions in 2 patients in whom the responsible legions were clearly identified on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  20. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009 reveals distinct transmission patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Ederth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county. The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods: Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557 of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL was used to analyze trends over time. Results: The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38% and 3a (34%. Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered, while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered, possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion: We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions.

  1. Surgery for wrist ganglia: one-hundred and twenty-two patients reviewed 8 years after operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhjalmur Finsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrist ganglia give few symptoms, but are a common reason for referral to a hand surgeon. We studied patient long-term satisfaction after operation. We reviewed 122 patients, who were operated for dorsal (n=82 and volar (n=40 wrist ganglia 8 years before (range 3-11. Three radial arteries were injured during surgery for volar a ganglion. By the time of review 33 patients (27% had a recurrence or had been re-operated. Radical surgery did not reduce the recurrence rate significantly. Reported general complaints from the wrist improved from a mean visual analogue scores (VAS, 0=best; 100= worst of 56 before surgery to VAS 14 at review and unsightliness from VAS 50 to VAS 14. Patients were equally happy with transverse and longitudinal scars. Ten patients (8% stated that they would not have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that, in spite of a high recurrence rate, most patients are happy with the results of surgery.

  2. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  3. Erythema infectiosumin children: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prćić Šonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema infectiositm is a childhood illness characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and a blotchy or maculo-papular lacy rash on the cheeks (slapped - cheek spreading primarily to the extremities and trunk. The disease- is-caused by human parvovirus B19. Erythema infectiosum epidemics occur in a cyclic fashion, mostly during winter and spring months. The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum is usually based on the appearance and pattern of the rash. The aim of our study was to establish the frequency and clinical characteristics of erythema infectiosum in children, in the period between 2000 and 2004 at the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Novi Sad. There were 0.23% of children with a clinical picture of infectious erythema. There was an outbreak of erythema infectiosum from December 2001 to September 2002. The highest number of cases was detected in April and May of 2002. from 2003 to 2004, no cases with infekctious erythema were diagnosed. The average age of infected children was 7.38. Female children were affected slightly more often than male (56.41%:43.58%. Pruritus was detected in 10.26% of children. The most constant clinical sign was reticular exanthema on the limbs, present in 100% of cases, followed by 89.74% of cheek exanthema, while limb and trunk exanthema was present in 7.68% of children. Adenopathies and mild constitutional symptoms were present in 5.12% of children. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. .

  4. Evidence Based Studies in Clinical Transfusion Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Jansen (Gerard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAfter the introduction of blood component therapy in the 1960s, more and more attention is given to clinical transfusion medicine. Although blood transfusion is an important treatment in different clinical settings, there are still lack of much randomized clinical trials. Nowadays bloo

  5. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-08-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:24165457

  6. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  7. Seizures after stroke : a prospective clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanuka A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of epilepsy in elderly. However, there have been very few prospective studies to define the incidence, pattern and outcome of seizures in stroke. Most studies are based on retrospective analysis of hospital records. Hence, we planned this prospective study to see the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of seizures in stroke and their outcome, from a north Indian tertiary care centre. Over a span of approximately 6 years, 269 consecutive patients with stroke were studied and followed up. Thirty-five (13% of these developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, during mean follow up period of 15.9 months. Twenty of these had infarctions while 15 had haemorrhages. Involvement of the cortical region was seen in most of the patients with seizures. In these patients, 86% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas on CT scan of the brain. Twenty-seven (77% developed early seizures, two third of them had immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients with early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 50% of late onset seizures developed epilepsy. No specific EEG pattern was found in those who later developed epilepsy. In the present study, early onset seizures after stroke were rather common and did not affect outcome and did not recur even when not treated with anti-epileptics. Late onset seizures were less common but were associated with recurrent seizures.

  8. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree.

  9. Experimental and clinical studies with intraoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of normal tissue tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy were done upon 65 dogs subjected to laparotomy and 11 million electron volt electron irradiation in doses ranging from zero to 5,000 rads. Results of studies indicated that intact aorta and vena cava tolerate up to 5,000 rads without loss of structural integrity. Ureteral fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 3,000 rads or more. Arterial anastomoses heal after doses of 4,500 rads, but fibrosis can lead to occlusion. Intestinal suture lines heal after doses of 4,500 rads. Bile duct fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 2,000 rads or more. Biliary-enteric anastomoses fail to heal at any dose level. A clinical trial of intraoperative radiotherapy combined with radical surgery was performed upon 20 patients with advanced malignant tumors which were considered unlikely to be cured by conventional therapies and which included carcinomas of the stomach, carcinomas of the pancreas, carcinomas involving the hilus of the liver, retroperitoneal sarcomas and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. All patients underwent resection of gross tumor, followed by intraoperative irradiation of the tumor bed and regional nodal basins. Some patients received additional postoperative external beam radiotherapy. Treatment mortality for combined operation and radiotherapy occurred in four of 20 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in four of the 16 surviving patients. Local tumor control was achieved in 11 of the 16 surviving patients, with an over-all median follow-up period of 18 months. The clinical trial suggested that intraoperative radiotherapy is a feasible adjunct to resection in locally advanced tumors, that the resulting mortality and morbidity is similar to that expected from operation alone and that local tumor control may be improved

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR TRAUMA

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    Bharat Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM This study is designed to enumerate various causes of ocular trauma, clinical spectrum of presentation and to evaluate the visual outcome after appropriate management. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted on total of 136 patients from the places in and around Kakinada, East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed work up of all patients including slit lamp biomicroscopy, direct, indirect ophthalmoscopy and ultra sonography B scan was done. RESULTS Observations from the study were analyzed, discussed and compared with the existing studies in the literature. Mean age group of patients belong to young adults between 20-30 years (57.9%, males (81% affected more than females. Illiterates, Agricultural labourers, Industrial workers affected more. Road Traffic Accidents (25.73%, industrial injuries (22.05% and agricultural hazards (19.11% being the major cause of unilateral eye injury. Closed globe injuries (80.88% more common than Open globe injuries (19.12. CONCLUTIONS Ophthalmic injuries due to innumerable causes results in various types of ocular trauma, leading to untold misery, visual impairment and economic burden to the family, society and country as a whole. Health education regarding use of preventive measures, seeking early treatment and appropriate rehabilitation are very much recommended to reduce the burden of morbidity due to ocular trauma.

  11. Endovascular treatment paradigm of carotid blowout syndrome: Review of 8-years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Wing Suet, E-mail: wws351@ha.org.hk [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Lai, Vincent, E-mail: vincentlai@hkcr.org [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Lau, Hin Yue, E-mail: lhy460@ha.org.hk [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Wong, Yiu Chung, E-mail: wongyc6@ha.org.hk [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Poon, Wai Lun, E-mail: poonwl@ha.org.hk [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Tan, Chong Boon, E-mail: tancb@ha.org.hk [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Objectives: Endovascular treatment is effective in treating carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). We reviewed our experience in addressing CBS over eight years and presented an account of the treatment paradigm and management algorithm. Method: All cases of CBS from 2003 to 2010 with endovascular treatment performed in our center were reviewed. 15 CBS in 14 patients were recruited. Based on our management algorithm, treatment regimen was stratified into deconstructive or constructive methods. Their clinical presentations, angiographic features, angiographic and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results: 10 patients were treated with deconstructive method by means of permanent vessel occlusion (PVO) and 4 patients were treated with constructive method by means of placement of covered stent (n = 3) or flow diverting device (n = 1). Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all cases. 7 (50%) patients, in whom 5 treated with PVO and 2 with covered stent, had favorable outcomes and survived at a median follow-up period of 4 months (range: 1–84 months). Conclusion: Permanent vessel occlusion remains the gold standard of treatment and tends to show a favorable long-term outcome. Off-label use of covered stent and flow-diverting device can produce satisfactory results should balloon occlusion test fail, but long-term follow up would be required for definitive assessment.

  12. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found. - Highlights: • A methodology to select tissue equivalent materials for use in CT was proposed. • Physical properties of different materials were studied. • TLDs dose and dose distribution were calculated for original and proposed materials. • B-100 as bone, and water as soft tissue are best substitute materials at 80 kVp. • Mass attenuation coefficient is determinant for selecting best tissue substitutes

  13. Comparing the effectiveness of a clinical registry and a clinical data warehouse for supporting clinical trial recruitment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-11-13

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost.

  14. Uremic pruritus. Clinical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate clinical aspects of pruritus in maintenance hemodialysis patients and to evaluate factors of putative pathogenic importance. 60-65% of the patients in a maintenance hemodialysis program during a two-year period suffered from itching. Patients with pruritus tended to have been on dialysis treatment longer than those without pruritus (p = 0.05), otherwise there was no difference in clinical data or routine laboratory tests. Measurement of itch intensity continuously over one week in 28 patients using a computerized method showed that itching peaked at night after two days without dialysis, was relatively high during treatment and lowest during the day following dialysis. Our results suggest that the accumulation of pruritogens between dialysis sessions influences the intensity of itching. Most patients had "dry" skin. Recording of the stratum corneum water content by measurement of electrical capacitance, in 31 patients (19 with pruritus) and 12 controls, disclosed no significant difference between dialysis patients and controls, but a tendency that pruritic patients had a lower water content than the other subjects. In different body areas, there was a positive correlation in all groups between the clinical estimation of xerosis and hydration. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were significantly higher in dialysis patients with pruritus than in those without, but there was no correlation between the degree of symptoms and the PTH level. Indirect immunohistochemistry revealed no immunoreactivity for different parts of the PTH molecule in skin biopsies from uremic patients. Intradermal injections of PTH fragments did not evoke itching or other cutaneous reactions in patients or controls. Our results do not support PTH as a peripheral mediator of uremic itching. Flare reactions induced by intradermal histamine injections were significantly smaller in 26 dialysis patients (18 with pruritus) than in 9 healthy

  15. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. PMID:23327864

  16. Statistical Issues in TBI Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRapp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and longitudinal assessment of traumatic brain injury presents several challenges. Because these injuries can have subtle effects, efforts to find quantitative physiological measures that can be used to characterize traumatic brain injury are receiving increased attention. The results of this research must be considered with care. Six reasons for cautious assessment are outlined in this paper. None of the issues raised here are new. They are standard elements in the technical literature that describes the mathematical analysis of clinical data. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to these issues because they need to be considered when clinicians evaluate the usefulness of this research. In some instances these points are demonstrated by simulation studies of diagnostic processes. We take as an additional objective the explicit presentation of the mathematical methods used to reach these conclusions. This material is in the appendices. The following points are made:1. A statistically significant separation of a clinical population from a control population does not ensure a successful diagnostic procedure.2. Adding more variables to a diagnostic discrimination can, in some instances, actually reduce classification accuracy.3. A high sensitivity and specificity in a TBI versus control population classification does not ensure diagnostic successes when the method is applied in a more general neuropsychiatric population. 4. Evaluation of treatment effectiveness must recognize that high variability is a pronounced characteristic of an injured central nervous system and that results can be confounded by either disease progression or spontaneous recovery. A large pre-treatment versus post-treatment effect size does not, of itself, establish a successful treatment.5. A procedure for discriminating between treatment responders and nonresponders requires, minimally, a two phase investigation. This procedure must include a

  17. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in processing empathy stories in 4-8 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tila Tabea eBrink

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in childrenaged 4 to 8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development ofempathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’sinner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing and cognitiveempathy (Theory of Mind. We examined the hemodynamic responses of pre-schooland school children (N=48, while they processed verbal (auditory and non-verbal(cartoons empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional NearInfrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS. To control for the two types of empathy, childrenwere presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, orneutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities.By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected toobserve developmental changes in brain activations when children process storieseliciting empathy in either stimulus modality towards a greater involvement ofanterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of storieseliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateralorbitofrontal cortex (OFC activation. In contrast to what is known from studies usingadult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed,often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmentalchanges were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increasedactivation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, and theleft dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. Activations for the two modalities differonly little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact onempathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing thanthe verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing developsearlier in life

  18. Compliance with mandatory reporting of clinical trial results on ClinicalTrials.gov: cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Prayle, A.P.; Hurley, M.N.; Smyth, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine compliance with mandatory reporting of summary clinical trial results (within one year of completion of trial) on ClinicalTrials.gov for studies that fall under the recent Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) legislation. Design Registry based study of clinical trial summaries. Data sources ClinicalTrials.gov, searched on 19 January 2011, with cross referencing with Drugs@FDA to determine for which trials mandatory reporting was required within one...

  19. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  20. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. METHODOLOGY: To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF EARLY BREAST CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the breast is one of the commonest cancers occurring in female and accounts for 1/3rd of all the malignant diseases occurring in them. It is mainly a disease of the developed countries and accounts for 1,00,000 deaths annually. Breast carcinoma is classified as Early breast cancer, Locally advanced breast cancer and Metastatic breast cancer. By definition early stage breast cancer constitutes breast tumors of clinical stages I, IIa and T2N1M0. Early breast cancer is the one diagnosed by mammography. Women when approaches at this stage, they can go for breast conservation surgery. Not all women are candidates for this approach, and some require mastectomy as part of their treatment. AIM To observe the incidence of early breast carcinoma with particular reference to the time taken by the patients to seek medical advice after the symptoms have developed i.e. the average time taken by the patients to seek medical advice, their appropriate management and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 years from Oct-2012 to Oct-2014 in 30 female patients aged between 25-65 years who were presented with lump in breast of size ≤5cms with or without pain, with or without lymph nodes to the outpatient department. All the patients were thoroughly asked about history, examined clinically, investigated, staged and managed by surgery either Breast Conservation Surgery or Modified Radical Mastectomy. Postoperative complications were recorded and followed up regularly. RESULTS The incidence of early breast cancer in this study was 0.98% with peak age incidence between 40-60 years and duration of symptoms <6 months in 18 patients. Breast Conservation Surgery + axillary dissection + Radiotherapy was done in 23%. Prognosis was good in these patients with no local recurrence and death. CONCLUSION The prognosis of early stage breast carcinoma patients in this study was good. To have long term tumor free and

  2. CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary tuberculosis constitutes about 10% of all cases of tuberculosis, and cutaneous tuberculosis makes up only a small proportion of these cases. Despite prevention programs, tuberculosis is still progressing endemically in developing countries. Commonest clinical variant of cutaneous tuberculosis in our study was tuberculous verrucosa cutis (TBVC seen in 46.66% patients followed by Lupus vulgaris seen in 33.33% patients followed by scrofuloderma (13.33%, papulonecrotic tuberculide (6.66%. The commonest site of involvement was upper limbs seen in 46.66% patients followed by lower limb seen in 20% patients, face, neck, inguinal region, axilla, chest in 6.66% and generalized pappilary eruptions in 6.66% patients. Maximum percentage of patients (53.3% had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis between 1-3 years followed by 33.33% between 1-6 months, 6.66% had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis between 7-12 months, and rest 6.66% had duration between 4-6 years. The commonest histopathological feature in our study was tuberculoid granuloma with epithelioid and Langhans giant cells seen in 70% patients, hyperkeratosis was seen in 13.33% patients and AFB bacilli were seen in 6.66% patients.

  3. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Case Report: Self-Documented Over 8 Years with the Author's Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is an almost curable disease, but the results of management are still not encouraging owing to the deceptive nature of the disease and its sensitivity to treatment. This has made the management of the disease controversial. The following self-documented report clarifies this. I have reported my experience in a scientific manner so that my colleagues can understand thoroughly certain facts related to intracranial hypertension. Achieving the optimal adjustment of the valve is a real challenge. I describe in detail the adjustment criteria I discovered. I believe that the use of biofeedback waves are almost the best way to make a proper adjustment of the valve, that is, if waves come from this machine and show increased tension of the facial muscles (high spiky waves) the valve adjustment has to be reduced without risking overdrainage. I have been observing my symptoms in some detail, which led me to a better understanding of the clinical pictures related to cerebrospinal fluid changes. I hope that uncovering my story can help with further research and improve management in this important and interesting field. PMID:27165936

  4. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Case Report: Self-Documented Over 8 Years with the Author's Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is an almost curable disease, but the results of management are still not encouraging owing to the deceptive nature of the disease and its sensitivity to treatment. This has made the management of the disease controversial. The following self-documented report clarifies this. I have reported my experience in a scientific manner so that my colleagues can understand thoroughly certain facts related to intracranial hypertension. Achieving the optimal adjustment of the valve is a real challenge. I describe in detail the adjustment criteria I discovered. I believe that the use of biofeedback waves are almost the best way to make a proper adjustment of the valve, that is, if waves come from this machine and show increased tension of the facial muscles (high spiky waves) the valve adjustment has to be reduced without risking overdrainage. I have been observing my symptoms in some detail, which led me to a better understanding of the clinical pictures related to cerebrospinal fluid changes. I hope that uncovering my story can help with further research and improve management in this important and interesting field.

  5. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  6. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  7. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl2-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  8. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy and metabolic syndrome (MetS in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population, high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile, high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population, triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L. and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL, [odds ratios (OR = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029 with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life.

  9. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  10. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D.S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  11. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea. Clinical and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1994-12-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardiocirculatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:7653280

  13. Primary pontine hemorrhage. A clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Jun; Kagimoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masanobu; Soda, Takao [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Izumo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We studied the relationship between outcome and clinical symptoms or CT findings of 34 cases with primary pontine hemorrhage diagnosed by CT scan from April 1994 to March 1999. This series comprised 19 males and 15 females ranging in age from 45 to 89 years with a mean of 67.1 years. According to their outcome at discharge, the cases were divided into 6 groups. Sixteen cases died within 2 weeks after onset (group AD), 4 cases died with complication in the chronic phase (group D), 3 cases were severely disabled to bed-ridden state (group C), 2 cases recovered to a daily life with wheelchair (group B), 4 cases recovered to a daily life with partial assistance (group A), and 5 cases showed a full recovery (group J). The factors significantly correlated with bed outcome are as follows: young age, consciousness disturbance, respiratory disturbance, tachycardia over 90 beats per minute, hyperthermia over 39 deg C, abnormal pupils, loss of oculocephalic reflex, tetraplegia, decerebrate rigidity, bilateral extension or over 30 mm transverse diameter of the hematoma. (author)

  14. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case…

  15. CLINICAL STUDY OF FISTULA IN ANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fistula in Ano is a benign treatable lesion of the rectum and the anal canal. Cryptoglandular infection accounts for about 90% of these cases. Majority of the infections are Acute and a minority contributed by chronic low grade infection hence pointing to varying etiologies. The pathogenesis has been attributed to the bursting open of an acute or inadequately treated Anorectal abscess into the peri anal skin. Diagnosis of the condition can be made easily with a good source of light, a proctoscope and a meticulous digital examination. Establishing a cure in this condition is difficult owing to two reasons. Firstly, the site of the infection makes the patient reluctant to subject themselves to examination. Secondly, a significant percent of these diseases persist or recur when appropriate surgery is not done or when the post op care is inadequate. Mostly it affects the young and the middle age group thus affecting productive man hours and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of clinically diagnosed Fistulae-in-ano above the age of 12 years, admitted in various surgical units in K.R. Hospital (attached to Government Medical College, Mysore during the study period December 1, 2008 to May 31, 2010. REUSLTS: Age Incidence, Sex Incidence, Socio Economic Status, Modes of Presentation, No. of External Openings, Situation of External Openings, Level of Fistulae, Type of surgical treatment, Associated with Fissure in Ano, Postoperative complication and Results were studied. CONCLUSION: Commonest age of presentation in our series is 30-40 years – 40%. Males are more commonly affected. Ratio Male: Female::3:1, Disease is more commonly seen in people with lower socio economic status group. 80% High socio economic class 20%. Discharging sinus is the commonest mode of presentation 72% and pain 72% and 84% pass history of perianal abscess was the presenting symptoms.

  16. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  17. Ceftriaxone: in vitro studies and clinical evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gnann, J. W.; Goetter, W E; Elliott, A M; Cobbs, C G

    1982-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftriaxone against 437 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli was determined. Ceftriaxone was found to have high in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae, with the exception of Enterobacter cloacae. Ceftriaxone was only minimally active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and toxicity of ceftriaxone in 55 adult patients. Bacterial infection was confirmed by the isolation of etiological bacteria in...

  18. Changes in dental caries and oral hygiene among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren in different regions of Lithuania 1983-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulaitiene, Zivilė Kristina; Zemaitiene, Migle; Zemgulyte, Sandra; Milciuviene, Simona

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the changes of the dental caries prevalence and severity of 7 to 8 year old schoolchildren in six Lithuanian regions over the past 26 years (1983-2009) and to propose recommendations based on the results of the study. The study is based on the analysis of data, containing 576 cases of children examined in 1983 and comparison with data containing 531 cases added in 2009. The studies were conducted in the same six regions of Lithuania among the children from 7 to 8 years of age. For the study of children the WHO oral assessment methodology was used (WHO Basic methods 1997). Severity of dental caries was described by df-t and DMF-T index. The average of individual df-t and DMF-T indices was calculated for all subjects and sorted by gender. Oral hygiene status was evaluated by applying the simplified Green-Vermilion index-OHI-S (1964) The prevalence of primary dental caries among the children 7 to 8 years of age was 92.4% in 1983 and 88.7% (p=0.43) in 2009. The prevalence of permanent dental caries decreased from 49.6% in 1983 to 29.7% (pindex decreased from 1.1±1.7 in 1983 to 0.5±1.0 in 2009 (pOHI-S index was not significantly different during 1983-2009. In the period of last 26 years a tendency towards the decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries was observed. That could be related to the frequent using of the toothpastes with fluoride, as well as implementation of the caries prevention program with sealants among the children of that age. The poor oral hygiene and comparatively high caries prevalence in schoolchildren show that it is still necessary to improve preventive measures in Lithuania.

  19. Emotional self-regulation through music in 3-8-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Saarikallio, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored the role of music in children’s emotional self-regulation. Music is shown to be a common and effective way of self-regulating emotions in adolescence and adulthood. It is also widely known that parents use music to regulate the emotions of their babies, for instance in calming them down by lullabies. However, very little is known about how children themselves use music for emotional needs, and how the self-regulatory emotional engagement develops. A survey study was...

  20. Explaining Variability: Numerical Representations in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine relations between number representations and various sources of individual differences within early stages of development of number representations. The mental number line has been found to develop from a logarithmic to a more linear representation. Sources under investigation are counting skills and executive…

  1. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Roduit; S. Scholtens; J.C. de Jongste; A.H. Wijga; J. Gerritsen; D.S. Postma; B. Brunekreef; M.O. Hoekstra; R. Aalberse; H.A. Smit

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  2. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, J.C. de; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  3. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  4. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  5. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children’s dream reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piroska eSándor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be explored. However while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers’ dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of some more recent studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children’s dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70% in their mostly kinematic (82% dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70% and 7% of all dream characters respectively, and that social interactions, self-initiated actions and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers’ dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children.

  6. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  7. Fixed partial dentures in an up to 8-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci; Paulo Antônio da Rosa Rodolpho; Tatiana Pereira-Cenci; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Flávio Fernando Demarco

    2010-01-01

    Information on the longevity of fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures (inlay FPDs) should be considered in the selection of materials, operative techniques and patient instructions related to prognosis and long-term cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the long-term survival of fiber-reinforced, adhesively-bonded composite prostheses placed in posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients that received adhesively bonded polyethylene inlay FPDs in poste...

  8. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  9. Rural and suburban 5-8 year old children: Gun-injury risks and crisis responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has provided empirical support for counseling guidelines for pediatric gun safety and has demonstrated that some parental behaviors increase children's risk of gun injury. However, few data exist on patterns of gun-injury risks, especially for children younger than age 10, children from middle-class and non-urban families, and children of non-gun-owning vs. gun-owning parents. Part I of the study presents data on gun injury risks in a middle-SES sample of rural and suburban gu...

  10. [Changing surgical therapy because of clinical studies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Müller, J M

    2002-04-01

    The randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) is a powerful instrument to evaluate different therapeutic regimens. In a survey among 115 physicians visiting the 25th annual meeting of the Surgical Society of Berlin and Brandenburg, the RCT was judged to be very important when changes of therapeutic strategies are discussed. 90 % of all participants claimed to use data from RCTs in the clinical routine and 89 % would participate in such a trial. In official (e. g. discussions during coffee breaks at scientific meetings) or non-medical (e. g. non-scientific press or media) sources of information were assessed as irrelevant for decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. However, in contrast to this view laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced into clinical practice rapidly because patients informed by external (non-medical) sources preferred to be operated on with the "modern" technique. Clinical trials with a high level of evidence had no relevant influence on the rapid distribution of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Controversial discussions concerning the extent of lymphadenectomy with gastric resection for carcinoma demonstrate that the value of excellent clinical RCTs is low if their results challenge a stable paradigma of the surgical scientific society. To allow a rational judgement, new surgical technologies should undergo a scientific gradual evaluation in agreement with the principles of evidence based medicine. PMID:12085271

  11. [Changing surgical therapy because of clinical studies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Müller, J M

    2002-04-01

    The randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) is a powerful instrument to evaluate different therapeutic regimens. In a survey among 115 physicians visiting the 25th annual meeting of the Surgical Society of Berlin and Brandenburg, the RCT was judged to be very important when changes of therapeutic strategies are discussed. 90 % of all participants claimed to use data from RCTs in the clinical routine and 89 % would participate in such a trial. In official (e. g. discussions during coffee breaks at scientific meetings) or non-medical (e. g. non-scientific press or media) sources of information were assessed as irrelevant for decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. However, in contrast to this view laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced into clinical practice rapidly because patients informed by external (non-medical) sources preferred to be operated on with the "modern" technique. Clinical trials with a high level of evidence had no relevant influence on the rapid distribution of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Controversial discussions concerning the extent of lymphadenectomy with gastric resection for carcinoma demonstrate that the value of excellent clinical RCTs is low if their results challenge a stable paradigma of the surgical scientific society. To allow a rational judgement, new surgical technologies should undergo a scientific gradual evaluation in agreement with the principles of evidence based medicine.

  12. Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma of Skin Associated with Xeroderma Pigmentosum in an 8-year-old Child: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Tashnin Rahman; Sharma, Jagannath D; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Kataki, Amal C.

    2014-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light, due to defects in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with XP are at increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancy and are commonly associated with squamous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of 8-year-old child with XP along with basaloidsquamous carci...

  13. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a rare cause of long-lasting abdominal distension in an 8-year-old boy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷铃; 郎诗明; 胡廷泽; 钟麟; 李俊杰

    2002-01-01

    @@ Abdominal distension is a common complaint encountered in pediatric surgery. In most cases, Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause associated with abdominal distension in older children. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare disease which commonly presents with hemorrhage and anemia. We treated an 8-year-old boy with long lasting intractable abdominal distension associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Clinicopathologic features of this rare entity are discussed with emphasis on its pathogenesis and diagnosis.

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environment Oriented Behaviors for 7-8 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the risk, as a public problem, is rarely debated in Romania. In the world, the research related to the risk perception, especially the environment risk, started 59 years ago, on the grounds of the nuclear danger. The environment-risk perception at children depends on the prior perceptions acting as decoding filters, nonetheless it can be influenced by the targeted environment oriented education, correcting the false perceptions and aiding the children to form a set of perennial values and to digest healthy behaviours. The work presents the results of the study made on 446 pupils in the primary classes, in three schools from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with the purpose to encourage environmental friendly behaviours by combining previous strategies (modifying the attitudes and the values towards the environment with the consecutive strategies (of recompense for the pro-environment behaviours. The study demonstrates the role and the importance both of the school, and the parents’ level of instruction, in building and consolidating the environment consciousness at children.

  15. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P status in adult Danes-8-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Hollenbach, B.; Laurberg, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient important to human health. The main objective of this study is to describe serum selenium and selenoprotein P status in two samples of the Danish population. In addition, the influence of various factors potentially associated with selenium status was invest......Selenium is an essential micronutrient important to human health. The main objective of this study is to describe serum selenium and selenoprotein P status in two samples of the Danish population. In addition, the influence of various factors potentially associated with selenium status...... subjects had filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire with information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Mean serum selenium level was 98.7+/-19.8microg/L and median selenoprotein P level was 2.72 (2.18-3.49)mg/L. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P...... increased with age, and selenoprotein P was higher in men than in women. Serum selenium levels decreased by 5% on average from 1997-98 to 2004-05 (PP level increased (PP

  16. Impacts of curricular change: Implications from 8 years of data in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics classes at the University of Colorado Boulder were significantly transformed beginning in 2004. They now regularly include: interactive engagement using clickers in large lecture settings, Tutorials in Introductory Physics with use of undergraduate Learning Assistants in recitation sections, and a staffed help-room setting where students work on personalized CAPA homework. We compile and summarize conceptual (FMCE and BEMA) pre- and post-data from over 9,000 unique students after 16 semesters of both Physics 1 and 2. Within a single institution with stable pre-test scores, we reproduce results of Hake's 1998 study that demonstrate the positive impacts of interactive engagement on student performance. We link the degree of faculty's use of interactive engagement techniques and their experience levels on student outcomes, and argue for the role of such systematic data collection in sustained course and institutional transformations.

  17. [Clinical studies of pediatric malabsorption syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyamada, Takashi

    2006-11-01

    Multiple cases with various types of pediatric malabsorption syndromes were evaluated. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, pathophysiology, and histopathological descriptions of each patient were analyzed in an effort to clear the pathogenesis of the malabsorption syndromes and the treatments were undertaken. The cases studied, included one patient with cystic fibrosis, two with lactose intolerance with lactosuria (Durand type), one with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, two with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, one with Hartnup disease, one with congenital chroride diarrhea, one with acrodermatitis enteropathica, one with intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), five with intractable diarrhea of early infancy and four with glycogenosis type Ia. Each case description and outcome is described below: 1. A 15-year-old Japanese boy with cystic fibrosis presented with severe symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bronchiectasis, pneumothorax and hemoptysis. His prognosis was poor. Analysis of the CFTR genes of this patient revealed a homozygous large deletion from intron 16 to 17b. 2. In the sibling case of Durand type lactose intolerance, the subjects'disaccaridase activity of the small bowel, including lactase, were within normal limits. The results of per oral and per intraduodenal lactose tolerance tests confirmed lactosuria in both. These observations suggested, not only an abnormal gastric condition, but also duodenal and intestinal mucosal abnormal permeability of lactose. 3. In the case of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, the subject had a lymphedematous right arm and hand, a grossly coarsened mucosal pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (identified via radiologic examination) and the presence of lymphangiectasia (confirmed via duodenal mucosal biopsy). The major laboratory findings were hypoalbuminemia, decreased immunoglobulin levels and lymphopenia resulting from loss of lymph fluid and protein into the gastro

  18. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  19. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  20. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  1. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  2. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  3. Use of Antibiotics in Pediatrics: 8-Years Survey in Italian Hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Buccellato

    Full Text Available To evaluate antibiotic consumption in the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna Region, from 2004 to 2011, with a focus on the antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections, and to analyse the ADRs reported for antibiotics by the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna hospitals.Reference population was represented by all the patients (0-14 years old admitted to the pediatric wards of all the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Drug consumption was expressed as number of DDDs per 100 Bed-Days (BD and data were analysed by active substance, by therapeutic subgroups or by ward type. The time trends of antibiotic consumption were statistically analysed by linear regression. All the suspected ADR reports associated with antibiotics, reported between January 2004 and December 2011 were drawn by the Italian Spontaneous Reporting Database.Overall antibiotic consumption showed only a slight increase (p = 0.224. Among the pediatric wards, pediatric surgery showed the highest increase from 2004 to 2011 (p = 0.011. Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors was the first therapeutic group with a statistically significant increase over years (p = 0.038, whereas penicillins with extended spectrum presented a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.008. Moreover, only 5 drugs out of the 8 antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections were used. Pharmacovigilance data showed 27 spontaneous ADR reports associated to ATC J01 drugs. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had the highest number of ADR reports (n = 7.The steadily increasing consumption in penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors, in association with a considerable decrease of plain penicillins, raises a serious concern. Pharmacovigilance reports seem to suggest a safe use of antibiotics in the hospital setting of Emilia-Romagna. Further studies to investigate the reason for prescribing antibiotics in children inpatients are needed.

  4. Dental emergencies in a university pediatric dentistry clinic: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayah Qassem Shqair

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of children visit a dentist for the first time due to emergency situations. However, little is known regarding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment provided for children at emergency dental visits. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of children attending a dental school emergency clinic, the reasons for seeking dental care, and the treatment provided. Records of 270 patients who attended an emergency clinic during 2010 were analyzed, and 253 were selected. Demographic, diagnostic, and procedural information was collected. The mean child age was 7.8 years. For 208 children (82%, pain was the main reason for the emergency visit. Nearly 79% of the visits were due to caries, and the most frequently required treatment was endodontic intervention (31.22%. Of the decayed teeth, 61.70% were primary posterior teeth and 31.9% permanent posterior teeth. Pain caused by dental decay was the most frequent chief complaint. A large number of children were brought to the dentist with complaints that had started long before, for which over-the-counter medications had been used.

  5. A clinical study of Noonan syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharland, M; Burch, M; McKenna, W M; Paton, M A

    1992-01-01

    Clinical details are presented on 151 individuals with Noonan syndrome (83 males and 68 females, mean age 12.6 years). Polyhydramnios complicated 33% of affected pregnancies. The commonest cardiac lesions were pulmonary stenosis (62%), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (20%), with a normal echocardiogram present in only 12.5% of all cases. Significant feeding difficulties during infancy were present in 76% of the group. Although the children were short (50% with a height less than 3rd centile),...

  6. Celiac Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD is mandatory for celiac disease (CD but has poor compliance, justifying novel strategies. We found that wheat flour transamidation inhibited IFN-γ secretion by intestinal T cells from CD patients. Herein, the primary endpoint was to evaluate the ability of transamidated gluten to maintain GFD CD patients in clinical remission. Secondary endpoints were efficacy in prevention of the inflammatory response and safety at the kidney level, where reaction products are metabolized. In a randomized single blinded, controlled 90-day trial, 47 GFD CD patients received 3.7 g/day of gluten from nontransamidated (12 or transamidated (35 flour. On day 15, 75% and 37% of patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively, showed clinical relapse (=0.04 whereas intestinal permeability was mainly altered in the control group (50% versus 20%, =0.06. On day 90, 0 controls and 14 patients in the experimental group completed the challenge with no variation of antitransglutaminase IgA (=0.63, Marsh-Oberhuber grading (=0.08, or intestinal IFN-γ mRNA (>0.05. Creatinine clearance did not vary after 90 days of treatment (=0.46. In conclusion, transamidated gluten reduced the number of clinical relapses in challenged patients with no changes of baseline values for serological/mucosal CD markers and an unaltered kidney function.

  7. CLINICAL AND INVESTIGATIONAL STUDY OF DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical features and biochemical profile in DKA. To assess the response in the patients with standard treatment of DKA. Clinical descriptions of polyuric states resembling diabetes mellitus have been described in the Ebers papyrus of Egypt in 15th century BC . 1,2 A yurvedic literature from the times of Charaka and Sushrutha, the ancient Indian physicians identified two forms of “MadhuMeha” ( H oneyed Urine in 400 BC . 3 John Rolo of England in 1797 was one of 1st who coined the term diabetes mellitus. William Prout of E ngland described diabetic coma during 1810 – 20. In 1886, Dreschfeld8 described DKA and HHNS (Hyper osmolar Hyperglycemic Non - ketotic Syndrome. In 1922 Banting , Best, Collip and Macleod isolated and clinically used insulin and later won Nobel prize for that memorable invention. SETTING: Inpatients of king George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam . METHODS: Diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis was made according to the inclusion criteria. Hyperglycemia >250 mg/dl, acidosis with blood pH <7.3, serum bicarbonate <15 mEq/l, urine positive for ketones. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis; 84 had type 2 diabetes (84% and 16(16% were type I diabetes. Average age at the time of presentation was 42.9±12.9 years. Th e commonest precipitating factor was infection (56% followed by other factors (28% and irregular treatment (16%. The most common clinical features at the time of presentation were vomiting, abdominal pain, acidotic breathing and dehydration. The values for RBS, HCO3, and pH were 355.3±69.1, 14.9±3.4 and 7.2±0.1 respectively. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Most common precipitating factors are infection and omission of insulin or irregular treatment. Most common clinical features at the time of presentati on are vomiting, abdominal pain, dehydration, acidotic breathing and tachycardia. Mortality rate in diabetic

  8. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  9. Prospective Clinical Study of Precision Oncology in Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Davendra P S; Rini, Brian I; Khorana, Alok A; Dreicer, Robert; Abraham, Jame; Procop, Gary W; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Pennell, Nathan A; Stevenson, James P; Pelley, Robert; Estfan, Bassam; Shepard, Dale; Funchain, Pauline; Elson, Paul; Adelstein, David J; Bolwell, Brian J

    2016-03-01

    Systematic studies evaluating clinical benefit of tumor genomic profiling are lacking. We conducted a prospective study in 250 patients with select solid tumors at the Cleveland Clinic. Eligibility required histopathologic diagnosis, age of 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and written informed consent. Tumors were sequenced using FoundationOne (Cambridge, MA). Results were reviewed at the Cleveland Clinic Genomics Tumor Board. Outcomes included feasibility and clinical impact. Colorectal (25%), breast (18%), lung (13%), and pancreatobiliary (13%) cancers were the most common diagnoses. Median time from consent to result was 25 days (range = 3-140). Of 223 evaluable samples, 49% (n = 109) of patients were recommended a specific therapy, but only 11% (n = 24) received such therapy: 12 on clinical trials, nine off-label, three on-label. Lack of clinical trial access (n = 49) and clinical deterioration (n = 29) were the most common reasons for nonrecommendation/nonreceipt of genomics-driven therapy.

  10. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of skin associated with xeroderma pigmentosum in an 8-year-old child: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashnin Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV light, due to defects in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with XP are at increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancy and are commonly associated with squamous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of 8-year-old child with XP along with basaloidsquamous carcinoma of skin; and review of literature related to it.

  11. Congenital myopathies: clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaha, Fazil; Gayathri, N; Nalini, A

    2011-01-01

    Congenital myopathies (CMs), a group of relatively non-progressive disorders presents with weakness and hypotonia of varying severity, morphologically recognized by specific structural abnormalities within the myofiber. This report presents the clinical and Histopathological features of 40 patients with CMs. Centronuclear myopathy was the commonest (40%) followed by congenital fiber type disproportion (37.5%). Other less common CMs included: myotubular myopathy (5%), nemaline myopathy (5%), central core disease (5%), multicore disease (2.5%) and congenital myopathy with tubular aggregate (5%). Immunolabeling to desmin corresponded to morphological changes within the myofibers while vimentin was negative in all the patients. There is no combined role of these proteins in the disease process. PMID:22234203

  12. Frontotemporal dementia; clinical-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontotemporal dementia is the third most common degenerative condition (after Alzheimer Disease and Lewy Body Disease) of the brain. It occurs predominantly after the age of 40 and usually before the age of 65, with equal incidence in men and women. Unspecific behavioral symptoms often lead to misdiagnosis and FTD remains undetected. As in other degenerative dementias, there is no specific tissue marker; therefore, the diagnosis is established in vivo on the basis of clinical and radiological examinations. Structural and functional neuroimaging modalities are most useful in detection and differentiation of FTD as the findings are specific enough to be considered as criteria, based on which the diagnosis of this disorder can be established. (author)

  13. The clinical & neurophysiological study of leprosy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabalar, Murat; Yayla, Vildan; Ulutas, Samiye; Senadim, Songul; Oktar, Ayla Culha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate neurological and neurophysiological features of leprosy. Methods: Seventy seven hospitalized leprosy patients (52 male, 25 female) were examined neurological and neurophysiologically between 2010 and 2012. Standard procedures were performed for evaluating sensory and motor conduction studies to all patients. Motor studies were carried out on median, ulnar, tibial and common peroneal nerves. Sensory studies were carried out on median, ulnar and...

  14. Impact of changes in metabolic control on progression to photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema:a 20 year study of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, B.; Larsen, M.; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford;

    2013-01-01

    Center from 1988 to 2008, using the endpoint referral to first photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant diabetic macular oedema. The analysis included 1,878 patients (median observation, 8 years). Changes were defined as the inter-visit change; in the case of an event the last event...... model. A recent decrease of ≥0.5 percentage points or an increase in HbA1c of >0.5 percentage points per 6 months was associated with HRs of 3.04 and 1.28, respectively, compared with lesser changes in HbA1c. Conclusions/interpretation In this study, large recent...

  15. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani B More

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48% was more common than the retention type (15.52%. The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20% followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%. The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%, and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%. It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%, trauma (5.18% and numerous lesions (72.41%. Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common.

  16. Clinical Study on Treatment of Infantile Rotaviral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏连波; 李智军; 陈宝田; 栾图; 高云飞; 李吉来; 孙升云

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of guava leaf (GL) in treating infantile rotaviral enteritis.Methods: Sixty-two patients of rotaviral enteritis were randomly divided into the treated group treated with GL and the control group treated with Gegen Qinlian Decoction. The time for ceasing diarrhea, content of Na+ in blood, content of Na+ and glucose in stool, and the rate of negative conversion of human rotavirus antigen (HRVA) were observed.Results: The 3-day recovery rate in the treated group (87.1%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (58.1%, P<0.05). The time of ceasing diarrhea in the treated group (25.1±9.5 hrs) was significantly shorter than that in the control group (38.7±15.2 hrs, P<0.01). Moreover, content of Na+ and glucose in stool were reduced obviously in the treated group but not in the control group; and negative conversion rate of HRVA in the former group also got better than that in the latter group (87.1% vs 58.1%, P<0.05). Consequently, the effect of GL was superior to that of the control significantly.Conclusion: GL has good curative effect on infantile rotaviral enteritis.

  17. An Overview of Clinical Studies on Fiber Post Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Dikbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraradicular posts are useful adjuncts in the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. These systems have undergone a significant evolution in recent years, and fiber-reinforced systems have started to be incorporated into routine clinical care more frequently. Despite the high number of laboratory studies pertaining to the characteristics of fiber posts, clinical studies evaluating their general success rates are rather limited. Since clinical investigations are reliable means to achieve information about the general behavior pattern of materials or techniques, assessment of this data will be beneficial to have a better understanding of fiber-reinforced intraradicular post systems. The purpose of this paper was to make a summary of clinical studies regarding various fiber posts. A PubMed search was conducted and articles dating back to 1990 were retrieved. The paper provides an overview of clinical studies on fiber posts specifically in the last decade as well as commentary analysis.

  18. The administration of music therapy training clinics: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Elaine A

    2006-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to describe issues and administrative practices related to university and college affiliated music therapy training clinics. First, all 72 AMTA academic directors were surveyed in order to discover (a) which programs had a clinic, and (b) the reasons why other directors did not operate a clinic. Second, 12 survey respondents, who reported that they were involved with a training clinic, participated in in-depth interviews discussing: (a) their motivations for establishing a clinic, (b) the possible effects of a clinic on the community, (c) the individuals and groups involved in clinic operations, d) clinic space and equipment, (e) policy and procedure topics, (f) specific administrative practices related to clients and students, (g) finances, (h) research (i) quality assurance, (j) dual roles, and (k) liability issues. The administrative practices described by the interviewees varied greatly across clinics and provided a wealth of information that could be considered both useful and thought provoking for those interested in operating a music therapy clinic. PMID:16671838

  19. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  20. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  1. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON VASECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGuang-Hua

    1989-01-01

    In order to ascertain whether vasectomy presented any increased risk of diseases or long-term sequelae, we conducted from 1981 to 82 a large scale cross sectional prevalence study on coronary heart disease, hypertension and other diseases following

  2. Case Study: Learner Physiotherapists' Perceptions of Clinical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Duncan; Naylor, Sandra

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in the United Kingdom to discover what processes learner physiotherapists experience in clinical education and whether their experience is comparable to that of other students in medical professions. The need for feedback is addressed, and the role of the clinical educator is discussed. A form for student assessment is…

  3. Clinical rehabilitation of the amputee : A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, GM; Vos, LDW; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rehabilitation outcome of lower limb amputee patients after clinical rehabilitation. Altogether 183 amputee patients admitted for clinical rehabilitation in the years 1987-1991 were reviewed by retrospective analysis of medical record data. Three groups of

  4. Dutch transmural nurse clinics for chronic patients: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, D.; Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    2000-01-01

    'Transmural care' can be defined as patient-tailored care provided on the basis of close collaboration and joint responsibility between hospitals and home care organizations. One form of transmural care is transmural nurse clinics for chronically ill. This study describes 62 transmural nurse clinics

  5. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the treatmen

  6. Clinical and molecular studies on differentiated thyroid carcinoma management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulrahman Hareedy, Randa Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes clinical and fundamental studies addressing clinical challenges in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The diagnosis of DTC is hampered by the fact that although the incidence is low thyroid nodules are prevalent. In this thesis, the diagnostic value of a pote

  7. Stability of low back pain reporting over 8 years in a general population aged 40/41 years at base-line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kjær, Per;

    2013-01-01

    A recent review on the natural course of low back pain (LBP) in the general population indicated that the LBP reporting pattern is fairly constant over time. Furthermore, the LBP status at baseline (yes/no) seems to be predictive of the future course. When fluctuations occur, they seem most common...... between the nearest categories. However, in the majority of articles, non-responders were not taken into account in the analyses or interpretation of data, meaning that estimates may have been biased. Further, all reviewed studies included study participants of many different age groups. Data from three...... cross-sectional surveys over 8 years of the same cohort made it possible to answer the following questions: 1) Would the prevalence estimates of LBP be stable over time? 2) How would results change when taking into account non-responders? 3) Is the LBP reporting over the three survey periods stable...

  8. Comparative effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on primary dysmenorrhea: A triple-blind clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmalian, Hajar; Saghebi, Roshanak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Bijani, Ali; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Fereshte; Bekhradi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common medical problems in gynecology causing several problems in the personal and social life of women. This study was conducted to compare the effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea Methods: This clinical study was conducted on 84 students of Babol University of Medical Sciences with primary dysmenorrhea. The students were randomly assigned to three groups receiving thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo. In all three groups, with the beginning of pain, 200 mg capsules and 25 drops of essential oil were given every 6 hours for two consecutive cycles. Pain intensity used the visual scale before and one hour after each dose for 48 hour after starting medication. The data were collected and analyzed. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number ID: IRCT201101245683N1 Results: The mean age of participants was 20.5±1.8 years. Both thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen were effective to reduce the pain severity of dysmenorrhea. Before treatment, the mean pain intensity in thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo groups were 6.57±2.02, 5.30±2.23 and 6.18±1.78, respectively and after treatment decreased to 1.21±1.06, 1.48±1.62 and 3.54±2.26, respectively. Reduction of pain severity was not statistically significant between the two medications, however it was significant for each drug compared with placebo (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that thymus vulgaris as well as ibuprofen can be effective in reducing the severity of pain and spasm in primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24778782

  9. Recurrent unicystic mural type ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old boy, 8 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Sengüven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma is not a rare odontogenic tumor in the pediatric population. A significant care should be given to unicystic ameloblastoma if it has mural invasions due to its local aggressiveness, high recurrence rates and radical management options as in conventional ameloblastoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a rapid, non-traumatic diagnostic method that provides a required attention prior to surgery. We present an excisionsl biopsy proved FNA diagnosed mural type unicystic ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old child recurred as a solid ameloblastoma after 8 years. When distinctive features of ameloblastoma are known, an accurate diagnosis can be made by FNA cytology, in combination with clinicoradiological findings. This method gives benefit to the patients especially the younger ones both for the pre-operative surgical planning and the post-operative follow-up.

  10. [Process of perversion. Methodological and clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchais, P

    1975-07-01

    Studies in classical psychiatry and psychoanalysis have reduced perversions to pathological phenomena, by lessening the moral criterion progressively. The applying of a comprehensive method of study of acquired perversions incites to consider various levels of observation. Henceforth properties common to each of these levels appears permitting thus to isolate a general process of perversion. This process, which keeps undeniable links with mental pathology, must however be differentiated, for it is not necessarily to be assimilated or reduced to the latter. Besides, it entails notable consequences on the social and cultural level. PMID:1233902

  11. Long-term follow-up of an 8-year-old boy with insulinoma as the first manifestation of a familial form of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Helena Campos; Mello, Maricilda Palandi de; Soardi, Fernanda Caroline; Esquiaveto-Aun, Adriana Mangue; Oliveira, Daniel Minutti de; Denardi, Fernanda Canova; Moura-Neto, Arnaldo; Garmes, Heraldo Mendes; Baptista, Maria Tereza Matias; Matos, Patrícia Sabino de; Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente de; D'Souza-Li, Lilia Freire Rodrigues; Guerra-Júnior, Gil

    2010-11-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome characterized mostly by parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and anterior pituitary tumors. We present a case of an 8-year-old boy referred because of hypoglycemic attacks. His diagnosis was pancreatic insulinoma. Paternal grandmother died due to repeated gastroduodenal ulcerations and a paternal aunt presented similar manifestations. At a first evaluation, the father presented only gastric ulceration but subsequently developed hyperparathyroidism and lung carcinoid tumor. During almost 15 years of follow-up, three brothers and the index case presented hyperparathyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. Molecular study showed a G to A substitution in intron 4, at nine nucleotides upstream of the splicing acceptor site, causing a splicing mutation. All affected members of the family have the same mutation. Paternal grandmother and aunt were not studied and the mother does not carry any mutation. MEN1 is a rare condition that requires permanent medical assistance. Early clinical and genetic identification of affected individuals is essential for their own surveillance and also for genetic counseling. PMID:21340165

  12. Melanocytic nevi in children: A clinical study

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    Senthilkumar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi show different presentations in children which have not much studied in India. PURPOSES: To document the incidence and pattern of melanocytic nevi in children. METHODS: A total of 4,256 paediatric cases attending the dermatology OPD, JIPMER during the study period from August 2002 to August 2004 were screened for melanocytic nevi. FINDINGS: Out of these, 41 (0.96% cases were found to have melanocytic nevi. The mean age of these cases was 1.4 years (range of 3 days to 14 years. Fourteen (34.1% of them were males and 27 (65.9% were females with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Majority of these cases (32 cases, 78% were in the age group of 0-1 year. Thirty-seven (90.2% cases had single lesion and 4 (9.8% cases had multiple lesions. The size of the nevi varied from 1.5 cm to 20 cm in 40 (97.6% cases and more than 20 cm in 1 (2.4% case. The most common site of involvement was the back (32 cases, 78% followed by head and neck (6 cases, 14.6%. Out of the total of 41 cases, 30 (73.2% were Mongolian spots, 8 (19.5% were congenital melanocytic nevi, one case (2.4% each had giant congenital melanocytic nevus, nevus spilus and nevus of Ota. Four cases had other associated cutaneous disorders. These included ashleaf macules in 2 cases, epidermolysis bullosa simplex in 1 case and a solitary case had both cafι-au-lait macule and mixed hemangioma. The systemic associations included seizures (suspected neurocutaneous melanosis in a solitary case of congenital melanocytic nevi. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of melanocytic nevi seen in children in this study partially differs from this of abroad studies. LIMITATION: Unicentre hospital-based study which cannot be generalized.

  13. Emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with KPC-type carbapenemase in a teaching hospital: an 8-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment.

  14. Obesity and periodontitis: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Lalit Kumar; Manohar, Balaji; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Pandya, Dhara

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 subjects aged 20 years and above suffering from generalized periodontitis were recruited from Department of Periodontics, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur. Periodontal status of the subjects was recorded. Body mass index and waist circumference were used as measure to assess obesity. Other variables like age, gender, oral hygiene index were als...

  15. CLINICAL STUDY OF LABOUR IN TWIN PREGNANCY

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    Amudha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to analyse the incidence of preterm labour, intrapartum complications, incidence of operative delivery both vaginal and cesarean and indications for such interventions. METHODOLOGY: A total of 150 cases of twin pregnancy were analyzed between the period of September 2012 to February 2014. These cases were stud ied with respect to period of gestation at the onset of labour, fetal presentations at the onset of labour, route and mode of delivery, indications in cases of cesarean delivery, intrapartum complications and delivery interval between twins. OBSERVATIONS A ND RESULTS: In the present study there was increased incidence of preterm labour (52.6%, fetal malpresentations (43.3%, operative vaginal delivery (29.5%, cesarean delivery (17.3%. CONCLUSION: In this study it is observed that above mentioned labour ev ents and complications double up in the event of a twin pregnancy. Regular antenatal visits, planned delivery and anticipation and identification of complications will help for better pregnancy outcome.

  16. Clinical cosmobiology: The Lithuanian study 1990 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu; Petrauskiene, Jadviga; Kalediene, Ramune; Abramson, Evgeny; Sulkes, Jacqueline

    1995-12-01

    The numbers of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), all accidents except vehicular, vehicular accidents and suicide (overall total, totals for men and women) per month for 36 months (1990 1992) in Lithuania were analysed in relation to: (1) month of the year (1 12); (2) geomagnetic activity; and (3) solar activity. A total of 122227 deaths (64490 men and 57737 women) was studied, and the results compared with those obtained in an earlier study in Israel, differing geographically and climatically from Lithuania. It was shown that the time of year, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity were related to the monthly death distribution, especially regarding death from IHD and suicide. Age and gender differences were apparent in the relationship between death distribution and physical environmental factors. At age >70 years, many of these relationships change. The monthly distribution of deaths from IHD and suicide are adversely correlated with solar activity and with each other. Differences are presumed in serotoninergic effects as caused by environmental influences.

  17. Ambiguous genitalia: a clinical and chromosomal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anantha Kumari

    2015-12-01

    Methods: The study is undertaken with forty cases with ages ranging from new borne to 20 yrs. Out of these 40 cases eight cases are below one year. In these cases physical examination is correlated with ultrasonography and chromosomal analysis. Results: In chromosomal analysis three persons out of forty cases were mosaics with 45, XO/46, twenty one cases who showed the chromosomal pattern as 46, XY mostly showed with no mullarian reminents. On examination palpable gonads were found in labio-scrotal sacs in seventeen cases. One of these cases was reared as girl found cytogenetically as 46, XY with the ultrasonographic impression as small uterus with no ovaries. Nineteen cases who with ambiguous genitalia showed the chromosomal pattern as 46, XX one out of these cases showed enlargement of the breast, and on examination of external genitalia found enlarged clitoris with labiamajora and minora. The child was brought up as male. Genitogram showed the absence of uterus. Conclusions: Chromosomal studies with ultrasonography can help in rearing a child male or female in young generation by surgical and Hormonal therapy. This prevents many problems in later life. This fact should be advertised openly in the public so that illiterate people should be alert. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3743-3748

  18. Information transfer across the scales of climate variability: The effect of the 7-8 year cycle on the annual and interannual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Milan; Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios

    2016-04-01

    Complexity of the climate system stems not only from the fact that it is variable over a huge range of spatial and temporal scales, but also from the nonlinear character of the climate system that leads to interactions of dynamics across scales. The dynamical processes on large time scales influence variability on shorter time scales. This nonlinear phenomenon of cross-scale causal interactions can be observed due to the recently introduced methodology [1] which starts with a wavelet decomposition of a multi-scale signal into quasi-oscillatory modes of a limited bandwidth, described using their instantaneous phases and amplitudes. Then their statistical associations are tested in order to search for interactions across time scales. An information-theoretic formulation of the generalized, nonlinear Granger causality [2] uncovers causal influence and information transfer from large-scale modes of climate variability with characteristic time scales from years to almost a decade to regional temperature variability on short time scales. In analyses of air temperature records from various European locations, a quasioscillatory phenomenon with the period around 7-8 years has been identified as the factor influencing variability of surface air temperature (SAT) on shorter time scales. Its influence on the amplitude of the SAT annual cycle was estimated in the range 0.7-1.4 °C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7 °C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect of the 7-8 year cycle was observed in the winter SATA means where it reaches 4-5 °C in central European station and reanalysis data [3]. This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) [2] M. Palus, M. Vejmelka, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056211 (2007) [3] N. Jajcay, J. Hlinka, S. Kravtsov, A. A. Tsonis, M. Palus, Time

  19. A multichannel time-domain brain oximeter for clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    We developed and optimized a multichannel dual-wavelength time-domain brain oximeter for functional studies in the clinical environment. The system, mounted on a 19"-rack, is interfaced with instrumentation for monitoring physiological parameters and for stimuli presentation.

  20. Chronic urticaria. Clinical and pathogenetic studies in 141 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeglas, Hendrik Maarten George

    1975-01-01

    This study describes a combined clinical, laboratory and experimental approach of the problems of 141 patients with chronic urticaria, collected over a three-year period in a Dermatology department. ... Zie: Summary

  1. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H;

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  2. A Clinical Study of aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Gupta,Annil Mahajan,Ajay Gupta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thc present prospectiYe study 01'56 cases ofAlwniniwn Phosphide (ALP poisoning in Gov!. MedicalCollcge Hospital Jammu. found out the prevalence of Deliberate self-poisoning self (DSP andaccidental ingestion in young population in age group of 16-30 years. Male-female ratio ",as 1.03: 1.00;ha' ing marital discord and family quarrels as prominent predisposing factors. The majority of patientshad gastrointestinal (GIT symptoms (73.2%, cardiac arrthymias (62.5% and shock (53.3%. Thccommoncst clectrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities were tachycardia (96%, atrial fibrillation(58% and venticular-ectopic (VE beats (59%. The management was supportive in the fonn ofstomach wash, intra"enous (IN fluids. dopamine, hydrocortisone, sodabicarbonate and assisted"entilation in intensiYe care unit (lCU setting

  3. A clinical study of annular cyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita Michael Moschos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Marilita Michael Moschos1, Yan Guex-Crosier2, Ioannis Margetis1, Leonidas Zografos21Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Greece; 2Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, SwitzerlandPurpose: To investigate six cases of annular cyclitis.Methods: All patients with impairment of visual acuity underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, laboratory tests and fluorescein angiography. Indocyanine green (ICG angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were also performed in three cases in order to diagnose the disease.Results: All patients presented a unilateral or bilateral granulomatous uveitis, associated with inflammatory annular cyclitis. They had a shallow anterior chamber, a mildly elevated intraocular pressure (under 25 mm Hg and an annular serous retinal detachment. A resolution was observed after specific therapy associated with systemic prednisolone therapy and antiglaucomatous drops.Conclusion: This is the first description of an observational study of six patients with inflammatory annular cyclitis.Keywords: cyclitis, uveitis, malignant glaucoma

  4. TRACHEOSTOMY IN CHILDREN: A CLINICAL STUDY

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    Shankar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : A trachestomy is a small, surgical opening from the skin to the anterior wall of the trachea, pediatric patients for whom tracheostomy is more hazardous than adults, consideration have different anatomy, medical conditions, and prognoses than adults, even the tracheostomy tubes are different in size, the indications for tracheostomy in children include, bypassing airway obstruction (Laryngo- tracheobronchitis, epiglottitis, providing access for prolong ventilation, and facilitating tracheo-bronchial toilet, to day prime indication for pediatrics tracheostomy is subglottic stenosis. We have reviewed experience with 84 tracheostomies under 13 years of age in our hospital. We are here discussing the common indications and complications, difficulty in decannulation in pediatric patients, in our study the common indication is the foreign body bronchus followed by other conditions.

  5. Hyperkeratosis of palms and soles : clinical study

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    Chopra A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical lesions of hyperkeratosis of palms and soles do not create any problem but when slight variation is there it becomes difficult to diagnose and that changes the line of treatment. For that we have studied 300 fresh cases of hyperkeratosis of palms and soles which included 110 cases of hyperkeratotic eczema. 42 cases of hyperkeratotic tinea, 64 cases of psoriasis of palms and soles and 84 cases of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP. To reach the final diagnosis alongwith the detailed history, general physical examination and routine investigations, help was taken of special investigations like pus for culture and sensitivity, KOH smear examination of skin scrapings and nail cutting and culture on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar medium.

  6. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. A...

  7. Case Study: Caregiver Perception of Pediatric Multidisciplinary Feeding Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Fisher PhD, OT, FAOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception of satisfaction of caregivers who attended a feeding clinic at a large pediatric hospital in the midwest. The clinic is designed for a multidisciplinary team to meet with the child and the caregiver. Thirty-five participants were involved in the study. Results indicated that most participants were satisfied with the clinic experience. However, there were areas of care not covered by the members of the feeding team, which indicates a need. It is suggested that this need could be filled by occupational therapists.

  8. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  9. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E.; Neal, Charles R.; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinica...

  10. Turning guidelines into clinical practice : Findings from an implementation study

    OpenAIRE

    Forsner, Tord

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The general aim of this thesis is to describe factors of importance when implementing clinical guidelines in psychiatry, and more specifically contribute to a better understanding of the implementation process. The specific aims are: Study I, to investigate a tailored implementation programme for implementing clinical guidelines for depression and suicidal patients, and to evaluate the compliance to guidelines after 6 months. In Study II, to further investigate complian...

  11. A clinical study of psoriatic arthropathy

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    Prasad PVS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of uncomplicated psoriasis is 1-3% in the general population. Arthritis is found in increased frequency in psoriatic patients and its incidence is estimated to be 5-7%. Aim: To assess the prevalence of arthritis in psoriatic patients. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-two psoriatic patients were enrolled in the study out of which 40 patients had (psoriatic arthropathy (PsA. Severity of psoriasis was assessed by the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. Routine blood investigations were carried out along with radiological investigations. Results: Forty percent of the 40 PsA patients were in the age group of 51-60 years. Seven patients out of the 40 (17.5% psoriatic arthropathic (PsA patients had a family history of psoriasis. Nail involvement was observed in 37 cases (92.5%. Rheumatoid factor was present in five out of the 40 (12.5% PsA patients. Serum uric acid levels were above normal in eighteen out of the 40 (45% PsA patients. Asymmetric oligoarthropathy was the most commonly observed feature in 42.5% of the 40 PsA patients. Narrowing of joint spaces and erosions were observed in 62.5% and 45% of the 40 PsA patients. Conclusion: There is an association between the duration of skin lesions and duration of arthropathy. Similarly the PASI score is also directly related with arthropathy.

  12. Clinical and echocardiographic assessment of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis: the Scandinavian multicentre, prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaverstad, Rune; Vitale, Nicola; Karevold, Asbjørn;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is the prospective, multicentre evaluation of clinical results and haemodynamic performance of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis. METHODS: From April 2001 to June 2003, 166 patients (male:female 125:41; mean (SD) age 61.8 (11.8) years) received an a...... echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic performance and early clinical results of Medtronic advantage in the aortic position were satisfactory and comparable with those of other bileaflet valves in current clinical use.......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is the prospective, multicentre evaluation of clinical results and haemodynamic performance of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis. METHODS: From April 2001 to June 2003, 166 patients (male:female 125:41; mean (SD) age 61.8 (11.8) years) received...... an aortic advantage valve prosthesis. Complete cumulative follow-up was 242.7 patient-years (maximum 3.2; mean 1.6 years). Postoperatively, patients underwent early (within 30 days) and 1 year transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: 30 day mortality was 2.4% (n = 4). Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from...

  13. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  14. Clinical And Mycological Study Of Superficial Mycoses In Amritsar

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal Aruna; Arora Usha; Khanna Saroj

    2002-01-01

    A clinical and mycological study of 500 cases of superficial mycoses was conducted. Two hundred fifty two samples from various sites, viz., skin, nail and hair were positive on culture. The most prevalent clinical type was tinea corporis (36.2%) and the most prevalent aetiological agent was Trichophyton rubrum (62.3%). Nondermatophytic filamentous fungi and candida species were also isolated in 17 (6.74%) cases. It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatoph...

  15. Primary gout in Shantou: a clinical and epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆馀; 王庆文; 陈韧; 肖征宇; 黄少弼; 许敬才

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of primary gout in the Shantou area, China, and to understand its clinical features. Methods Samples from three surveys of the Chenghai across ten years were studied. Clinical, laboratory and radiology data of 419 cases of primary gout were collected and analyzed. Conclusions The prevalence of primary gout in Shantou area has been increasing in the last ten years. Changes in diet and lifestyle may be responsible for this rapid increase.

  16. Preclinical and clinical safety studies on DNA vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, Johanna A C; Mooi, Frits R.; Berbers, Guy A M; Aerts, Leon A G J M van; Ovelgönne, Hans; Kimman, Tjeerd G.

    2007-01-01

    DNA vaccines are based on the transfer of genetic material, encoding an antigen, to the cells of the vaccine recipient. Despite high expectations of DNA vaccines as a result of promising preclinical data their clinical utility remains unproven. However, much data is gathered in preclinical and clinical studies about the safety of DNA vaccines. Here we review current knowledge about the safety of DNA vaccines. Safety concerns of DNA vaccines relate to genetic, immunologic, toxic, and environme...

  17. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  18. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  19. Growing up with Asperger’s syndrome: developmental trajectory of autobiographical memory (a clinical case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia eBon; Jean-Marc eBaleyte; Pascale ePiolino; Béatrice eDesgranges; Francis eEustache; Bérengère eGuillery-Girard

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory and social cognition share common properties and both are affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). So far, most of the scant research in ASD has concerned adults, systematically reporting impairment of the episodic component. The only study to be conducted with children concluded that they have poorer personal semantic knowledge than typical developing children. The present study explores the development of both components of autobiographical memory in an 8-year-ol...

  20. The Role and Interpretation of Pilot Studies in Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Andrew C.; Davis, Lori L.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies represent a fundamental phase of the research process. The purpose of conducting a pilot study is to examine the feasibility of an approach that is intended to be used in a larger scale study. The roles and limitations of pilot studies are described here using a clinical trial as an example. A pilot study can be used to evaluate the feasibility of recruitment, randomization, retention, assessment procedures, new methods, and implementation of the novel intervention.

  1. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  2. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  3. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable d

  4. Preclinical studies of sex differences: a clinical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Voskuhl, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    The new policy from the National Institutes of Health to encourage grant applicants to consider studying both females and males in preclinical biological experiments has been met with support and opposition. Here, we will discuss implications of preclinical studies of sex differences on clinical research.

  5. Can estrogen keep you smart? Evidence from clinical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwin, B B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and critically analyze the biological plausibility of and the clinical empirical evidence concerning a link between estrogen levels and memory in women. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search of the literature published from 1980 to 1998. Studies published between 1952 and 1980 that were known to the author were also included. STUDY SELECTION: Sixteen prospective, placebo-controlled studies in humans. DATA SYNTHESIS: Most of the studies that used neuropsychological tests with known...

  6. Clinical skills development in student-run free clinic volunteers: a multi-trait, multi-measure study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Mio; Altshuler, David; Binienda, Juliann

    2014-01-01

    Background At Wayne State University School of Medicine (WSU SOM), the Robert R. Frank Student Run Free Clinic (SRFC) is one place preclinical students can gain clinical experience. There have been no published studies to date measuring the impact of student-run free clinic (SRFC) volunteerism on clinical skills development in preclinical medical students. Methods Surveys were given to first year medical students at WSU SOM at the beginning and end of Year 1 to assess perception of clinical s...

  7. Muscle pain: animal and human experimental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, P

    1993-10-01

    The search for the identification of the sensory apparatus encoding muscle pain sensation in humans is recounted. Basic neurophysiologic animal studies, leading to a description of slowly conducting afferent from muscle and definition of high threshold polymodal muscle nociceptors, and pioneer psychophysic human studies together with recent microneurographic experiments in humans are described. The phenomena of muscle pain broad localization and distant referral are discussed, and clinical implications are extrapolated to interpret muscle pain as a localizing sign of mononeuropathy or radiculopathy. The identification of human muscle nociceptors has defined the scientific standard to test emerging clinical descriptions having muscle pain as a symptom.

  8. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient's admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  9. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  10. Study designs in dermatology: A review for the clinical dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A working knowledge of common research study designs and their advantages and disadvantages is necessary for critical reading of the literature by clinicians. However, understanding study designs and related statistical methodologies may be perceived as being complex and difficult to execute. This review aims to provide a practical foundation for basic study designs and to help physicians identify pitfalls that commonly occur in clinical studies and their level of evidence. Topics covered include the pros and cons of observational versus prospectively controlled studies, case-control, cohort, randomized controlled studies, adaptive controlled trials and metaanalyses, and the role of matching in studies. PMID:26475532

  11. The Emerging Microbe Project: Developing Clinical Care Plans Based on Pathogen Identification and Clinical Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Perry, Michael W; Doup, Dane't R

    2015-12-01

    For many students in the health sciences, including doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, basic and clinical sciences often appear detached from each other. In the infectious disease field, PharmD students additionally struggle with mastering the diversity of microorganisms and the corresponding therapies. The objective of this study was to design an interdisciplinary project that integrates fundamental microbiology with clinical research and decision-making skills. The Emerging Microbe Project guided students through the identification of a microorganism via genetic sequence analysis. The unknown microbe provided the basis for a patient case that asked the student to design a therapeutic treatment strategy for an infected patient. Outside of lecture, students had two weeks to identify the pathogen using nucleotide sequences, compose a microbiology report on the pathogen, and recommend an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan for the corresponding clinical case. We hypothesized that the students would develop a better understanding of the interplay between basic microbiology and infectious disease clinical practice, and that they would gain confidence and skill in independently selecting appropriate antimicrobial therapies for a new disease state. The exercise was conducted with PharmD students in their second professional year of pharmacy school in a required infectious disease course. Here, we demonstrate that the Emerging Microbe Project significantly improved student learning through two assessment strategies (assignment grades and exam questions), and increased student confidence in clinical infectious disease practice. This exercise could be modified for other health sciences students or undergraduates depending upon the level of clinical focus required of the course.

  12. A qualitative study of constructive clinical learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hem-Stokroos, H H; Daelmans, H E M; van der Vleuten, C P M; Haarman, H J Th M; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of clinical education. A more educational structure is considered to be potentially beneficial. The following structured components were added to a surgical clerkship: logbooks, an observed student-patient encounter, individual appraisals, feedback on patient notes, and (case) presentations by students. The authors organized two focus-group sessions in which 19 students participated to explore their perceptions about effective clinical learning experiences and the newly introduced structured components. The analysis of the transcripts showed that observation and constructive feedback are key features of clinical training. The structured activities were appreciated and the results show the direction to be taken for further improvement. Learning experiences depended vastly on individual clinicians' educational qualities. Students experienced being on call, assisting in theatre and time for self-study as instructive elements. Recommended clerkship components are: active involvement of students, direct observation, selection of teachers, a positive learning environment and time for self-study. PMID:12745517

  13. A clinical study of skin changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari Rashmi; Jaisankar T; Thappa Devinder

    2007-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy profound immunologic, metabolic, endocrine and vascular changes occur, that are responsible for the changes of the skin and its appendages, both physiologic and pathologic. Aims: We undertook a clinical study to find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women. Methods: All consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Results: A total of 607 pregnant women were included in this study. Of these, 303(49.9%) pregnant women ...

  14. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Giriraja; Pavitra,; Bindumathi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 1...

  15. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Grassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE cohort and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life.

  16. Inter-annual variability in flowering of orchids: lessons learned from 8 years of monitoring in a Mediterranean region of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Vogt-Schilb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the loss of biodiversity caused by global changes. In the case of orchids, it is still unclear how long the monitoring duration should be chosen in order to achieve a good compromise between the reliability of the orchid dynamics recorded and sampling duration (e.g. years of monitoring. This study aims to propose a method of monitoring orchids. Using a large database, we investigated the inter-annual variability in flowering of orchids in a French Mediterranean region. The database includes an 8-year-long study (2006–2013 of 47 species at 26 locations in three different types of habitats. The number of individual plants that flowered per species varied significantly between years, but not the number of species. Depending on habitat, two to four years were needed to observe the total number of species per location. Therefore, in Mediterranean regions a one-year-study seems to be insufficient to produce reliable results.

  17. CORRELATION OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY ASPIRIN RESISTANCE: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT C K,SUDHA,MURALIDHAR, LAXMINARAYANA,ANNAMMA KURIEN,ASHWIN KAMATH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin resistance may be biochemical or clinical. Data related to the presence of aspirinresistance in the Indian population is scarce. We conducted a cross sectional study toaddress the issue of clinical aspirin non responsiveness and to assess the associationbetween inhibition of platelet aggregation, clinical risk factors and occurrence of vascularevents. We studied platelet aggregation by optical aggregometry in 20 patients on aspirin.No patient was found to be aspirin-resistant on the basis of previously defined criteria.This led us to relook at the current cut offs for resistance, and an analysis of 60 normalpatients showed lower cut off values suggesting ethnic variability. The data wasreanalyzed using these cutoffs. An association between poor clinical aspirin response,older age, male sex, smoking and dyslipidemia was found, suggesting a trend, though notsignificant. 25% of patients had vascular events on aspirin suggesting clinical aspirinresistance. A lower cut off value for aspirin resistance in normal Indians may be neededto detect true prevalence of this entity. In patients with multiple atherothrombotic riskfactors lab detection of resistance may be useful in identifying patients with high risk forrecurrent vascular events. This may help to modify antiplatelet therapy to preventvascular events.

  18. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs. PMID:25707959

  19. Clinical study on IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis(IgG4-related AIP). Methods A prospective cohort study on IgG4 related disease(IgG4-RD) was carried out in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during December 2010 to June

  20. Clinical Teaching by Video-Enhanced Study Club Discussion Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Douglass B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's "study club" method of teaching operative dentistry involves a four-hour clinical operating session and an hour-long discussion immediately following. Videotape recordings of the operative procedures are used successfully in the discussion period to enhance observation and recall. (MSE)

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCIES IN RURAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical profile of patients with hypertensive emergencies presenting to rural hospitals in a developing country like ours is unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the modes of presentations, clinical profile and spectrum of target organ damage in patients with hypertensive emergencies. METHOD: This observational study was done at SRI ADICHUNCHANGIRI INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES AND REASEARCH CENTER over a period of one and a half years. The study population included patients admitted to this hospital with severely elevated blood pressure with clinical or laboratory evidence of acute target organ damage. The clinical and laboratory profile of 50 patients were evaluated. RESULTS: Males had higher chances of developing a hypertensive emergency compared to females, male: female ratio 2.57:1. The commonest presenting symptoms were neurological deficit (50%, dyspnea (30%, followed by chest pain (24%. Majority of the patients were known hypertensive (70%. Higher levels of blood pressure at presentation were associated with an adverse outcome. Laboratory abnormalities noticed in these patients included hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Acute intracerebral hemorrhage was the commonest mode of target organ damage. An in hospital mortality of 24% was observed in the present study.

  2. The UK clinical aptitude test and clinical course performance at Nottingham: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Janet; James, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was introduced in 2006 as an additional tool for the selection of medical students. It tests mental ability in four distinct domains (Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, and Decision Analysis), and the results are available to students and admission panels in advance of the selection process. Our first study showed little evidence of any predictive validity for performance in the first two years of the Nottingham un...

  3. Clinical And Mycological Study Of Superficial Mycoses In Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aruna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical and mycological study of 500 cases of superficial mycoses was conducted. Two hundred fifty two samples from various sites, viz., skin, nail and hair were positive on culture. The most prevalent clinical type was tinea corporis (36.2% and the most prevalent aetiological agent was Trichophyton rubrum (62.3%. Nondermatophytic filamentous fungi and candida species were also isolated in 17 (6.74% cases. It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatophytic fungi are also emerging as important causes of superficial mycoses.

  4. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THE DRUG STRUCTUM IN OSTEOARTHRITIS THERAPY (results of multicenlral clinical study in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Nassonova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of Structum in pts with gonarthritis and coxarthritis during 6 months therapy. Material. Open multicentral study included off -patients of both sexes with osteoarthritis (ОЛ of knee and hip joints with obvious pain syndrome - pain in walking 30 mm and more on visual analog scale, functional Lesquene index more or equal to 4 and less or equal toll, regular NSAIDs taking for 30 days for the last 3 months, radiological I-II-III OA stage according Kellgren-Lawrence and consent of the patient for the study. Total number of pts included was 555 and 192 out of them were experimental group and 363 - controls. Pts from experimental group had Structum - three capsules in the morning and 3 capsules in the evening during meals (one capsule - 250 mg for 3 weeks, then 2 capsules in the morning and 2 in the evening for 21 weeks. Clinical examination of pts was done after the third and sixth month of the treatment. Results. During Structum therapy reliable lessening of pain syndrome in knee and hip joints, improvement of articular function, decrease of NSAIDs dosage or their full cancellation were demonstrated. It was noticed that the assessment of clinical Structum efficacy and tolerability bu physician and patient coincided. Conclusion. Structum (chondroitin sulfate is a new effective drug for treatment of osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints with high clinical efficacy and good tolerability

  5. Actual issues of clinical radiobiology and their experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information being collector for some tens years in frame of clinical study of radiation effects in man in broad range of dose and exposure variant has been summarised and systematized. It has been formulated the questions which could be answered under only clinical observation with many difficulties: diagnostical and prognostical criteria for evaluation of therapy efficiency in non-bonemarrow syndrome of acute radiation disease choice and confirmaty of methods of bonemarrow syndrome therapy in overlethal range of dose; improving of preclinical examination of means and methods of acute radiation syndrome prophylaxis and treatment; comparative analysis of the role of various radiation factory in development of oncological and severe somatic disease and possibility of these effects modification. Some limitations in extrapolation of experimental data onto clinical practice has been discussed and optimal forms of cooperation are shown

  6. Musculoskeletal demands on flamenco dancers: a clinical and biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, F J; Halpern, N; Pio, A; Dominguez, R; Voloshin, A; Frankel, V H

    1988-04-01

    The flamenco dancer acts on the floor like a drummer. The percussive footwork and vibration patterns created during dancing impose unusual demands on the musculoskeletal system. This study investigated the clinical and biomechanical aspects of this task. Using the electrodynogram and skin-mounted accelerometers, foot pressures as well as hip and knee vibrations were recorded in 10 female dancers after a thorough clinical evaluation. A health questionnaire was also distributed to 29 dancers. Foot pressures and acceleration data reveal the percussive nature of the dance. Some clinical findings, like calluses, are related to pressure distribution. Urogenital disorders, as well as back and neck pain, may be related to the vibrations generated by the flamenco dance form. The hip joint seems to absorb most of the impacts. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as a useful tool for evaluating a dancer's biomechanical behavior, as well as the effect of floors and footwear on this behavior. PMID:3366430

  7. An 8-year evaluation of sintered ceramic and glass ceramic inlays processed by the Cerec CAD/CAM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Dijken van, J.W.V.

    2000-01-01

    of a glass ceramic (Dicor MGC) block. The inlays were luted with a dual resin composite and evaluated clinically using modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 8 months, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8 yr, and indirectly using models. At baseline, 84% of the inlays were estimated as optimal and 16% as acceptable. Postoperative...

  8. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health S

  9. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  10. PHARMACEUTICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES ON COMPOUND AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, SARASWATA CHURNA

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari Radheyshyam; Reddy K.R.C; Gupta Sanjay; Tripathi J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Saraswata Churna is a unique combination of Ayurvedic herbal drugs, containing mainly Medhya Rasayana drugs, like Vacha, Shankhpushpi, Aswagandha, Bramhi, etc. For the first time Saraswata churna is mentioned in Bhavaprakash Unmadadhikar and formula given in the same, selected for present study. The drug is prepared in the Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University and was selected for the management of Geriatric Depression. In the clinical study a series of 5...

  11. Clinical profile of forefoot eczema: A study of 42 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Brar Kamal; Shenoi S; Balachandran C; Mehta Vandana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Forefoot eczema (FE) is characterized by dry fissured dermatitis of the plantar surface of the feet. AIM : To study the clinical profile of FE and the possible etiological factors. METHODS : Forty-two patients with FE were included in the study. A detailed history was recorded and examination done. Fungal scrapings and patch test with Indian Standard Series (ISS) were performed in all patients. RESULTS : The most common site affected was the plantar surface of the great toe in...

  12. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  13. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. PMID:27203569

  14. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.

  15. Human transcriptome array for high-throughput clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Jiang, Hui; Wilhelmy, Julie; Clark, Tyson A.; Kapur, Karen; Xing, Yi; Faham, Malek; Storey, John D.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Maier, Ronald V.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Wong, Wing Hung; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Toner, Mehmet; Warren, H. Shaw; Schoenfeld, David A.; Rahme, Laurence; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Hayden, Douglas; Mason, Philip; Fagan, Shawn; Yu, Yong-Ming; Cobb, J. Perren; Remick, Daniel G.; Mannick, John A.; Lederer, James A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; West, Michael A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Smith, Richard; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun; Tibshirani, Rob; Lowry, Stephen; Calvano, Steven; Chaudry, Irshad; Cohen, Mitchell; Moore, Ernest E.; Johnson, Jeffrey; Baker, Henry V.; Efron, Philip A.; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Sperry, Jason L.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.; De, Asit K.; Bankey, Paul E.; Herndon, David N.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Minei, Joseph P.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Hunt, John L.; Horton, Jureta; Cobb, J. Perren; Brownstein, Bernard; Freeman, Bradley; Nathens, Avery B.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; O'Keefe, Grant

    2011-01-01

    A 6.9 million-feature oligonucleotide array of the human transcriptome [Glue Grant human transcriptome (GG-H array)] has been developed for high-throughput and cost-effective analyses in clinical studies. This array allows comprehensive examination of gene expression and genome-wide identification of alternative splicing as well as detection of coding SNPs and noncoding transcripts. The performance of the array was examined and compared with mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) results over multiple independent replicates of liver and muscle samples. Compared with RNA-Seq of 46 million uniquely mappable reads per replicate, the GG-H array is highly reproducible in estimating gene and exon abundance. Although both platforms detect similar expression changes at the gene level, the GG-H array is more sensitive at the exon level. Deeper sequencing is required to adequately cover low-abundance transcripts. The array has been implemented in a multicenter clinical program and has generated high-quality, reproducible data. Considering the clinical trial requirements of cost, sample availability, and throughput, the GG-H array has a wide range of applications. An emerging approach for large-scale clinical genomic studies is to first use RNA-Seq to the sufficient depth for the discovery of transcriptome elements relevant to the disease process followed by high-throughput and reliable screening of these elements on thousands of patient samples using custom-designed arrays. PMID:21317363

  16. Human transcriptome array for high-throughput clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N; Schweitzer, Anthony C; Jiang, Hui; Wilhelmy, Julie; Clark, Tyson A; Kapur, Karen; Xing, Yi; Faham, Malek; Storey, John D; Moldawer, Lyle L; Maier, Ronald V; Tompkins, Ronald G; Wong, Wing Hung; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2011-03-01

    A 6.9 million-feature oligonucleotide array of the human transcriptome [Glue Grant human transcriptome (GG-H array)] has been developed for high-throughput and cost-effective analyses in clinical studies. This array allows comprehensive examination of gene expression and genome-wide identification of alternative splicing as well as detection of coding SNPs and noncoding transcripts. The performance of the array was examined and compared with mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) results over multiple independent replicates of liver and muscle samples. Compared with RNA-Seq of 46 million uniquely mappable reads per replicate, the GG-H array is highly reproducible in estimating gene and exon abundance. Although both platforms detect similar expression changes at the gene level, the GG-H array is more sensitive at the exon level. Deeper sequencing is required to adequately cover low-abundance transcripts. The array has been implemented in a multicenter clinical program and has generated high-quality, reproducible data. Considering the clinical trial requirements of cost, sample availability, and throughput, the GG-H array has a wide range of applications. An emerging approach for large-scale clinical genomic studies is to first use RNA-Seq to the sufficient depth for the discovery of transcriptome elements relevant to the disease process followed by high-throughput and reliable screening of these elements on thousands of patient samples using custom-designed arrays.

  17. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  18. Clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia: a comparative clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Karakaya, Jale; Sener, Emin Cumhur; Sanac, Ali Sefik

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare a group of patients with consecutive exotropia with patients who had ≤10 prism diopters (PD) esotropia or no deviation postoperatively in terms of probable clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia. METHODS The study recruited fourteen patients who developed consecutive exodeviation during follow-up period after the correction of esotropia who were categorized as group 1 and thirty-one patients who had still ≤10 PD esotropia or no deviation at the final visit that were considered as group 2. Clinical risk factors leading the development of consecutive deviation were analyzed as the main outcome measures. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 4.57±3.11y in group 1 and 5.10±3.52y in group 2 (P=0.634). There was no significant difference of preoperative near and distant deviations among two groups (P=0.835, 0.928 respectively). The mean amount of medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection was similar in both groups (P=0.412, 0.648 respectively). Convergence insufficiency and neurological diseases were more frequent in group 1 (P=0.007, 0.045). Accompanying neurological disease was found to be as a significant factor increasing the risk of the development of consecutive exotropia significantly [odds ratios (OR): 5.75 (1.04-31.93)]. CONCLUSION Accompanying neurological disease appears to be a significant clinical risk factor for the development of consecutive exodeviation during postoperative follow-up after the correction of esotropia. However, larger studies are needed in order to interpret the results to the clinical practice and to ascertain other concurrent risk factors. PMID:27366693

  19. Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome in an 8-year-old Boy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiya Saleh Adnan Al Mosawi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome is an immune complex-mediated disease of unknown etiology. The clinical course is characterized by urticaria, conjunctivitis, joint pain, and hypocomplementemia. We here report a case of a child with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome that progressed to nephritis. Renal biopsy was consistent with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse subendothelial immune deposits. He responded well to a combination of steroid and mofetil micofenolate.

  20. Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome in an 8-year-old Boy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiya Saleh Adnan Al Mosawi; Badriya Ebrahim Ahmed Al Hermi

    2013-01-01

    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome is an immune complex-mediated disease of unknown etiology. The clinical course is characterized by urticaria, conjunctivitis, joint pain, and hypocomplementemia. We here report a case of a child with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome that progressed to nephritis. Renal biopsy was consistent with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse subendothelial immune deposits. He responded well to a combination of steroid an...

  1. Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome in an 8-year-old Boy: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosawi, Zakiya Saleh Adnan; Al Hermi, Badriya Ebrahim Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome is an immune complex-mediated disease of unknown etiology. The clinical course is characterized by urticaria, conjunctivitis, joint pain, and hypocomplementemia. We here report a case of a child with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome that progressed to nephritis. Renal biopsy was consistent with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse subendothelial immune deposits. He responded well to a combination of steroid and mofetil micofenolate. PMID:23904922

  2. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis. PMID:25734315

  3. Clinical, radiological and imunogenectical study in patients with Reiter's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study puspose was to investigate the clinical, radiological and immunogenetical parameters from a brazilian Reiter's Syndrome population. Twenty Reiter's Syndrome patients from ''Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo'' were prospectivelly studied in their demographical (sex, race, age at study, age at disease onset and disease duration), epidemiological (family history), clinical (general, articular, mucocutaneous, genitourinary, ocular and intestinal manifestations besides functional capacity at study), radiological (sacro-iliitis, spondylitis and calcaneal spur) and immunogenetical (HLA loci A, B and DR typing). The technique employed in the 61 aloantigens from loci HLA A (17), B (34) and DR (10) typing was Terasaki microlymphocitotoxicity modified by Danilovs, had being performed in the ''Laboratorio de Imunogenetica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo''. We concluded that the clinical, radiological and immunogenetical Reiter's Syndrome expression in the brazilian population is similar to the others north american or european already studied populations and that the probability of one brazilian HLA B27 positie individual to develop Reiter's Syndrome is 19 fold larger when compared to one brazilian HLA B27 negative individual. (author)

  4. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garvin

    Full Text Available The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma.To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up.428 men and 438 women, aged 45-69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein.53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033. Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low.Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events.

  5. Clinical Utility of Combinatorial Pharmacogenomics-Guided Antidepressant Therapy: Evidence from Three Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altar, C Anthony; Carhart, Joseph; Allen, Josiah D; Hall-Flavin, Daniel; Winner, Joel; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    DNA of 258 patients with treatment-resistant depression was collected in three 8-10 week, two-arm, prospective clinical trials. Forty-four allelic variations were measured in genes for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6, CYPC19, and CYP1A2, the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), and the 5-HT2A receptor (HTR2A). The combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx™) GeneSight test results were provided to clinicians to support medication changes from baseline (guided arm), or they were provided at the end of each study to clinicians of unguided patients who were treated as usual (TAU). TAU subjects who at baseline were prescribed medications genetically discordant for them showed only a 12% symptom improvement, far less than the 32.5% or 28.5% improvements of the TAU subjects on yellow-category ('use with caution'; p = 0.002) or green-category medications ('use as recommended'; p = 0.02), respectively. The odds of a clinical response were increased 2.3-fold among all GeneSight-guided compared to all TAU subjects (p = 0.004), and overall, the guided group had a 53% greater improvement in depressive symptoms (p = 0.0002), a 1.7-fold relative improvement in response (p = 0.01), and a number needed to treat for one clinical response above that seen in the TAU group of 6.07. PMID:27606312

  6. Influence of the training loading on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading is considered on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years. The aim of experiment was an exposure of dynamics of development of motive internalss of young tennis players during three years (6-8 years under the influence of the training loading on the program of children sport school. In experiment took part the group of initial preparation in an amount 25 children (boys. Research was conducted within the framework of the operative (employments, current (mezocycle and stage (annual planning of training process.

  7. Tinea Capitis In Assuit Governorate (A Clinical and Mycological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Abu El ­ Enin *, Mohamed Khedr** and Alaa Abu El-Ata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a common condition seen by clinician in all setting through out the world. Several investigations of the various superficial mycosewere carried out in Egypt, but they were mainly confined to urban areas. In the present work, the predominant species causing dermatophtosis in Assuit Governorate were investigated, this is represented in rural and partially suburban communities. A clinical and mycological study was done for hundred patients attending the Dermatology Out-patient Clinic in Al- Azhar University Hospital in Assuit City. The ages of patient ranged from 3 to 20 years . 60% of cases were between 6-10 years of ages. Males were affected more than females in a ratio of 3: 1 60% of cases were from rural areas. Positive history of contact with animals was present in 40%. The most common clinical variety was scaly type 55% followed by black dot 22%, kerion 20%, and lastly favus 3%. Direct microscopic examination was + ve in 80% of cases. Positive culture results were obtained in 90% of cases. The results indicated that Zoophilic dermatophytes was the predominant causative species in these regions. Five dermatophytes were identified namely: M.canis was the most frequently isolated organism from the clinical varieties of dermatophytosis (55% . followed by T. violaceum (20%. T. rubrum 12.8% , M. gypseum (10% and lastly T.soudanense (2.2%.

  8. Digital breast tomosynthesis versus digital mammography: a clinical performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, Gisella; Baldan, Enrica; Bezzon, Elisabetta; Polico, Ilaria; Proietti, Alessandro; Toffoli, Aida [Venetian Oncological Institute (IOV), IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Padua (Italy); Toledano, Alicia [Statistics Collaborative Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Di Maggio, Cosimo [Padua University, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, Padua (Italy); La Grassa, Manuela [Aviano Oncological Reference Center (CRO), IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Aviano (Pordenone) (Italy); Pescarini, Luigi [Venetian Oncological Institute (IOV), IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Padua (Italy); Padua University, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, Padua (Italy); Muzzio, Pier Carlo [Venetian Oncological Institute (IOV), IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Padua (Italy); Padua University, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Padua (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    To compare the clinical performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with that of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a diagnostic population. The study enrolled 200 consenting women who had at least one breast lesion discovered by mammography and/or ultrasound classified as doubtful or suspicious or probably malignant. They underwent tomosynthesis in one view [mediolateral oblique (MLO)] of both breasts at a dose comparable to that of standard screen-film mammography in two views [craniocaudal (CC) and MLO]. Images were rated by six breast radiologists using the BIRADS score. Ratings were compared with the truth established according to the standard of care and a multiple-reader multiple-case (MRMC) receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Clinical performance of DBT compared with that of FFDM was evaluated in terms of the difference between areas under ROC curves (AUCs) for BIRADS scores. Overall clinical performance with DBT and FFDM for malignant versus all other cases was not significantly different (AUCs 0.851 vs 0.836, p = 0.645). The lower limit of the 95% CI or the difference between DBT and FFDM AUCs was -4.9%. Clinical performance of tomosynthesis in one view at the same total dose as standard screen-film mammography is not inferior to digital mammography in two views. (orig.)

  9. Chronic actinic dermatitis - A study of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD, one of the immune mediated photo-dermatoses, comprises a spectrum of conditions including persistent light reactivity, photosensitive eczema and actinic reticuloid. Diagnostic criteria were laid down about 20 years back, but clinical features are the mainstay in diagnosis. In addition to extreme sensitivity to UVB, UVA and/or visible light, about three quarters of patients exhibit contact sensitivity to several allergens, which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CAD. This study was undertaken to examine the clinical features of CAD in India and to evaluate the relevance of patch testing and photo-aggravation testing in the diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The clinical data of nine patients with CAD were analyzed. Histopathology, patch testing and photo-aggravation testing were also performed. Results: All the patients were males. The average age of onset was 57 years. The first episode was usually noticed in the beginning of summer. Later the disease gradually tended to be perennial, without any seasonal variations. The areas affected were mainly the photo-exposed areas in all patients, and the back in three patients. Erythroderma was the presenting feature in two patients. The palms and soles were involved in five patients. Patch testing was positive in seven of nine patients. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CAD mainly depended upon the history and clinical features. The incidence of erythroderma and palmoplantar eczema was high in our series. Occupation seems to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of CAD.

  10. A STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMOURS : CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  11. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Nicky; Smeets, Eric E; Julu, Peter; Witt-Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype-phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well-defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype-phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non-invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence-based management in RTT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354166

  12. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors ...

  13. Human transcriptome array for high-throughput clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weihong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Jiang, Hui; WILHELMY, JULIE; Clark, Tyson A.; Kapur, Karen; Xing, Yi; Faham, Malek; Storey, John D.; Moldawer, Lyle L; Ronald V Maier; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Wong, Wing Hung

    2011-01-01

    A 6.9 million-feature oligonucleotide array of the human transcriptome [Glue Grant human transcriptome (GG-H array)] has been developed for high-throughput and cost-effective analyses in clinical studies. This array allows comprehensive examination of gene expression and genome-wide identification of alternative splicing as well as detection of coding SNPs and noncoding transcripts. The performance of the array was examined and compared with mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) results over multiple ind...

  14. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Nicky; Smeets, Eric E; Julu, Peter; Witt-Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype-phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well-defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype-phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non-invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence-based management in RTT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Exploring autistic traits in anorexia: a clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tchanturia, Kate; Smith, Emma; Weineck, Felicitas; Fidanboylu, Eliz; Kern, Nikola; Treasure, Janet; Baron Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to explore associations between autistic traits and self-reported clinical symptoms in a population with anorexia nervosa (AN). Experimental and self-report evidence reveals similarities between AN and autism spectrum condition (ASC) populations in socio-emotional and cognitive domains; this includes difficulties with empathy, set-shifting and global processing. Focusing on these similarities may lead to better tailored interventions for both condi...

  16. Erythropoietin in Myocardial Infarction: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Stein; Ilka Ott

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin produced mainly in the kidney is the main regulator of erythropoiesis. Experimental studies identified additional, non-haematopoietic, protective effects during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion due to inhibition of apoptosis, stimulation of vasculogenesis and progenitor cell mobilisation. Based on these findings, five prospective, randomised, clinical trials have been performed. A short term regimen of erythropoietin was applied during PCI in patients with STEMI up to a cumu...

  17. Biotinidase deficiency: clinical and genetic studies of 38 Brazilian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Borsatto, Taciane; Sperb-Ludwig, Fernanda; Pinto, Louise LC; De Luca, Gisele R; Carvalho, Francisca L; De Souza, Carolina FM; De Medeiros, Paula FV; Charles M. Lourenço; Filho, Reinaldo LO; Neto, Eurico C.; Bernardi, Pricila; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Schwartz, Ida VD

    2014-01-01

    Background Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an inborn error of metabolism in which some genetic variants correlate with the level of enzyme activity. Biotinidase activity, however, may be artifactually low due to enzyme lability, premature birth, and jaundice; this hinders both phenotypic classification and the decision to implement therapy. This study sought to characterize the clinical and genetic profile of a sample of Brazilian patients exhibiting reduced biotinidase activity. Methods This ...

  18. OSSIFIED CARTILAGO THYREOIDEA AND ITS CLINICAL INSIGHT: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi*, Nelluri Venumadhav and Huban Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The three major cartilages of the larynx - thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids are all hyaline cartilage. They may undergo calcification or endochondral ossification (or both), such calcified or ossified cartilage may compress the neuro vascular structures around it. Accordingly the present study was undertaken to observe the incidence of the ossified thyroid cartilages (Cartilago Thyreoidea) in the human cadavers, discuss its clinical implications and to review the literature regarding these an...

  19. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  20. Physiologic endpoints for clinical studies for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Ratjen, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) drug development pipeline promises many exciting new treatments for patients with CF, all which will require clinical studies to prove their benefits on CF lung disease. Historically many pivotal CF studies have used the Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s (FEV1) as the primary outcome measure, and after demonstrating significant improvements in the treatment group relative to placebo have led to regulatory approval of therapies for routine clinical care. Widespread implementation of these therapies has subsequently led to significant improvements in outcomes for patients with CF. While preserving lung function has obvious benefits to CF patients, as more patients maintain FEV1 in the normal range, it has become increasingly difficult to conduct clinical trials using FEV1 as the primary outcome measure. With multiple concurrent trials competing to enroll from the same pool of patients, there is a need for novel approaches to study end points as well as new physiological outcomes for CF therapeutic trials. In this review we will discuss some of the limitations of FEV1 in the current era of CF care, describe alternative physiological endpoints and outline areas for further research. PMID:27316663

  1. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of LY 195448.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J; Lewis, C; Adams, L; Setanoians, A; Bayssas, M; Boder, G G; Rankin, E M; Kaye, S B

    1989-01-01

    LY 195448 is a phenethanolamine that has shown anti-tumour activity in a range of murine tumour models, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Pre-clinical studies have indicated the absence of "standard" side effects such as myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity. The present phase I trial was carried out in nine patients at doses ranging up to 133 mg/m2. The major toxicities up to that dose were mild, reversible hypotension, tachycardia and tremor. No haematological or biochemical toxicity was observed. Murine pharmacokinetics were assessed at a dose level that was effective in experimental tumours and compared with human pharmacokinetic parameters derived from this study. The results indicated the clinical possibility of reaching peak drug levels associated with experimental activity. However, no responses were seen at the doses used. This study was terminated prior to its completion due to an unexplained loss of activity against murine tumours since September 1987. No significant loss of the in vitro anti-mitotic activity originally reported by Boder et al. [3] was observed. Possible reasons for the apparent loss of in vivo activity have been intensively investigated, but no cause has been determined. Therefore, clinical trials with LY 195448 have been discontinued.

  2. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

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    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  3. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review

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    Majorek Magdalena

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. Results We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study, and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Conclusion Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended.

  4. Genetic studies in chronic kidney disease: interpretation and clinical applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witasp, Anna; Nordfors, Louise; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Luttropp, Karin; Lindholm, Bengt; Schalling, Martin; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The tools of modern molecular biology are evolving rapidly, resulting in vastly more efficient approaches to illuminating human genetic variations and their effects on common multifactorial disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, candidate gene association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have generated novel genetic variants in previously unrecognized biological pathways, highlighting disease mechanisms with a potential role in CKD etiology, morbidity and mortality. Nephrologists now need to find ways to make use of these advancements and meet the increasingly stringent requirements for valid study design, data handling and interpretation of genetic studies. Adding to our prior article in this journal, which introduced the basics of genotype-phenotype association studies in CKD, this second article focuses on how to ascertain robust and reproducible findings by applying adequate methodological and statistical approaches to genotype-phenotype studies in CKD populations. Moreover, this review will briefly discuss genotype-based risk prediction, pharmacotherapy, drug target identification and individualized treatment solutions, specifically highlighting potentially important findings in CKD patients. This increased knowledge will hopefully facilitate the exciting transition from conventional clinical medicine to gene-based medicine. However, before this can be accomplished, unsolved issues regarding the complex human genetic architecture as well technical and clinically oriented obstacles will have to be overcome. Additionally, new policies and standardized risk evaluations for genetic testing in the clinical setting will have to be established to guarantee that CKD patients are provided with high-quality genotype-guided counseling that will help to improve their poor outcomes.

  5. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Goomany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

  6. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomany, Anand; Timothy, Jake; Robson, Craig; Rao, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach. PMID:26933363

  7. Cancer therapy with phytochemicals: evidence from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the major causes of mortality in both developing and developed countries. At this time, in spite of intensive interventions, a large number of patients have poor prognosis. Therefore, the effort for finding new anticancer agents with better efficacy and lesser side effects has continued. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous medicinal plants have been reported to have anticancer effect. Also antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of several phytochemicals have been shown with in vitro experiments or animal studies. However, only a small number of them were tested in cancerous patients and limited evidence exists on their clinical effectiveness. Also, regarding some phytochemicals, only beneficial effects on cancer-related symptoms or on quality of life have been reported and no positive results exist on their antitumor actions. In this review we focus on phytochemicals that their beneficial effects on various types of cancer are supported by clinical trials. Based our literature search, curcumin, green tea, resveratrol and Viscum album had satisfactory instances of clinical evidence for supporting their anticancer effects. The main findings on these phytochemicals are summarized and discussed.

  8. Multiplex component-based allergen microarray in recent clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Borres, M P; Kober, A; Berthold, M

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades component-resolved diagnostics either as singleplex or multiplex measurements has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing important information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate clinical applications of the multiplex microarray technique in the diagnosis and risk assessment of allergic patients, and its usefulness in studies of allergic diseases. The usefulness of ImmunoCAP ISAC has been validated in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy and anaphylaxis. ISAC provides a broad picture of a patient's sensitization profile from a single test, and provides information on specific and cross-reactive sensitizations that facilitate diagnosis, risk assessment, and disease management. Furthermore, it can reveal unexpected sensitizations which may explain anaphylaxis previously categorized as idiopathic and also display for the moment clinically non-relevant sensitizations. ISAC can facilitate a better selection of relevant allergens for immunotherapy compared with extract testing. Microarray technique can visualize the allergic march and molecular spreading in the preclinical stages of allergic diseases, and may indicate that the likelihood of developing symptomatic allergy is associated with specific profiles of sensitization to allergen components. ISAC is shown to be a useful tool in routine allergy diagnostics due to its ability to improve risk assessment, to better select relevant allergens for immunotherapy as well as detecting unknown sensitization. Multiplex component testing is especially suitable for patients with complex symptomatology. PMID:27196983

  9. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  10. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  11. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  12. Clinical studies on kalmegh (andrographis paniculata nees) in infective hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chturvedi, G N; Tomar, G S; Tiwari, S K; Singh, K P

    1983-04-01

    Infective hepatitis ia an acute inflamatory condition of liver. It is usually manifested in the form of Jaundice. In this clinical study Kalmegh(Andrographis paniculata Nees) was given in the decoction form to the patients of infective hepitis. The results were assessed on the basis of clinical and biochemical parameters. A marked symptomatic improvement in majority of the cases was observed. A statistically highly significant decrease was noted in various liver function tests viz., serum bilirubin, thymol turbidity, alkaline phosphatase, S.G.O.T.; S.G.P.T. and serum globulin fraction of protein. Moreover it increased significantly total serum globulin fraction of protien. Moreover it increased significantly total serum protein level along with albumin fraction. On the total assessment 80% cases of this series were cured and 20% patients were relieved. Therefore, Kalmegh appears to be a useful remedy for the treatment of infective hepatitis.

  13. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  14. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  15. Chronic liver disease in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, M V; Zawawi, M M

    1990-08-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical spectrum of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, and others with portal hypertension) in Kuala Lumpur. Eighty patients were diagnosed over a 6-year period. Twenty-two had biopsy proven cirrhosis while 58 others had portal hypertension with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. The commonest aetiology was alcohol (36%), followed by the idiopathic variety and hepatitis B. The male to female ratio was 4.4:1. Indians had a high prevalence of alcohol-associated chronic liver disease. Overall, ascites was the commonest presentation. Eight patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 13% of patients undergoing abdominal paracentesis. Gallstones were detected in 37% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer disease were noted in 22% and 31% of patients respectively.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  17. The Development of Norm-Based Coding and Race-Specific Face Prototypes: An Examination of 5- and 8-Year-Olds' Face Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Lindsey A.; Hatry, Alexandra J.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of…

  18. CLINICAL STUDY OF HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS & ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnaiah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is a well-known clinical condition affecting the thyroid gland predominantly in women during 4 th decade & is often under diagnosed due its wide spectrum of clinical features. It could present as a multinodular goitre, diffuse goitre, or as a solitary nodule with features of Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroid state. AIMS 1. To detect HT by FNAC, Antibody titers finally by Histopathology of excised Thyroid gland. 2. To know its various clinical features. 3. To study Sex ratio & Age it affects. 4. Management i.e. by conservative or surgical. 5. Complications & malignant transformation including Lymphomas. MATERIALS & METHODS 60 patients were taken for 2 years’ period from March 2014 to Feb 2016 attending Government General Hospital-Nizamabad; Telangana State. OBSERVATIONS  56 case are females, 4 cases are males; common age is 30-39 yrs., >50 yrs.-2 cases.  All cases presented with swelling in front of neck, only 5 had toxicity, 2 had obstructive symptoms. None had voice change.  36 Cases- 60% had MNG, 18 Cases- 30% diffuse goitre and 6 cases- 10%- solitary nodule.  The Hypothyroid, Euthyroid & Hyperthyroid state here are 48%, 44% & 8% comparative to Fenn et al -44%, 47% and 7%,  FNAC- was positive 90% here where as Lakshman Rao et al study has 77%.  We had 80% Anti Thyroid Antibodies positivity, others shown 63% and 84%. MANAGEMENT All are put on Hormone-Thyroxine replacement or suppression therapy and all patients found to be clinically Euthyroid during follow up. All patients showed decrease in size of gland except those with MNG. 8 patients underwent surgery- Subtotal Thyroidectomy. Of these 6 were Colloid goiters, later on diagnosed as HT by final HPE. One case was operated for cosmetic reason and the other for obstructive symptoms which was noticed to be lymphoma after HPE.

  19. Clinical studies in orthodontics--an overview of NIDR-sponsored clinical orthodontic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    A number of clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) use rigorous methods of data acquisition and analysis previously developed in fundamental biology and the physical sciences. The naive expectation that these trials would lead relatively rapidly to definitive answers concerning the therapeutic strategies and techniques under study is dispelled. This presentation focuses on delineating differences between the study of central tendencies and individual variation, more specifically on the strategy to study this variation: measure additional sources of variance within each patient at more timepoints and perhaps with greater precision. As rigorous orthodontic research is still in its infancy, the problem of defining the proper mix between prospective and retrospective trials is discussed. In view of the high costs of prospective clinical trials, many of the questions germane to orthodontics can be answered by well-conducted retrospective trials, assuming that properly randomized sampling procedures are employed. Definitive clinical trials are likely to require better theoretical constructs, better instrumentation, and better measures than now available. Reasons for concern are the restricted resources available and the fact that current mensurational approaches may not detect many of the individual differences. The task of constructing sharable databases and record bases stored in digital form and available either remotely from servers, or locally from CD-ROMs or optical disks, is crucial to the optimization of future investigations.

  20. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam P; Babu GKL; Sunny R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop...

  1. Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome with Precocious Puberty in an 8-Year-Old Boy due to a Large Unilateral Adrenal Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad Rajib; Alam, Md. Mashiul; Nabi, Junaid; Kibria, Mahzabin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease which is a component of the McCune-Albright syndrome is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a boy with Cushing's syndrome who presented with obesity and growth retardation. The child was hypertensive. The biochemical evaluation revealed that his serum cortisol levels were 25.80 μg/dL, with a concomitant plasma ACTH level of 10.0 pg/mL and nonsuppressed serum cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) to be 20.38 μg/dL. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a 8 × 6 × 5 cm left adrenal mass with internal calcifications. Following preoperative stabilization, laparotomy was carried out which revealed a lobulated left adrenal mass with intact capsule weighing 120 grams. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cortical neoplastic lesion, suggestive of adrenal adenoma; composed of large polygonal cells with centrally placed nuclei and prominent nucleoli without capsular and vascular invasion. On the seventh postoperative day, cortisol levels were within normal range indicating biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. On followup after three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement and had lost moderate amount of weight and adrenal imaging was found to be normal. PMID:23533838

  2. Safety of amisulpride (Solian): a review of 11 clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulouvrat, C; Dondey-Nouvel, L

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the overall safety profile of amisulpride based on the results from 11 clinical studies performed in patients suffering from schizophrenia with predominance of positive or negative symptoms. A total of 1933 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with amisulpride (n = 1247) or haloperidol (n = 309), risperidone (n = 113), flupentixol (n = 62) and placebo (n = 202). Safety data collection was performed using open reporting, UKU scales or specific extrapyramidal side-effect scales; electrocardiogram recording and vital signs examination; laboratory data collection. Amisulpride demonstrated a satisfactory global safety profile in the range of doses usually prescribed. The number of patients having at least one extrapyramidal side-effect was higher in haloperidol patients compared with both amisulpride and risperidone patients (50% versus 30% in the two latter groups). For endocrine events, a similar rate was observed between amisulpride and risperidone groups (4% versus 6%, respectively) versus 1% in the haloperidol group. Electrocardiogram results were satisfactory, confirmed by the absence of cardiovascular events. The overall laboratory safety profile of amisulpride did not show clinically relevant abnormalities in liver function tests nor haematological abnormalities. Our extensive clinical data confirm the satisfactory safety profile of amisulpride which is superior to standard reference compounds.

  3. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

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    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  4. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  5. Efficiency of Calatonia on clinical parameters in the immediate post-surgery period: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira Lasaponari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of the Calatonia technique about clinical parameters and pain in the immediate post-surgical phase. METHOD: a randomised study was carried out with 116 patients subjected to a cholecystectomy, by laparoscopy, divided into an experimental group (58 patients and a placebo group (58 patients. The experimental group received the Calatonia technique, while the placebo was only subjected to non-intentional touches. RESULTS: The placebo group and the experimental group were considered homogeneous in terms of the variables: sex, age, physical status classification, duration of surgical procedures and also the time spent recovering in the Post-Anaesthetic Recovery Room. The only variable to show a statistically significant difference was the axillary temperature of the body. In relation to pain, the experimental group showed significant results, and hence it is possible to deduce that the relaxation caused by the Calatonia technique brought some relief of the general situation of pain. CONCLUSION: The application of Calatonia can take up the function of a resource complementary to assistance in the period immediately after surgery. Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, UTN U1111-1129-9629.

  6. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  7. Nasal polyps. A clinical radiological histopathological and mycological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with nasal polyposis were studied. This study included clinical, haematological and mycological aspects. There were 24 females (60% of patients) and 16 males (40%). We found that all patients presented with nasal obstruction and nasal tone and the majority of them had allergic nasal symptoms such as sneezing and watery discharge. Thirty five percent of the patients were recurrent cases, being operated before for nasal polyps. Radiological investigations showed high of sinusitis and that 10% of the patients had complicated disease with orbital or intracranial extensions. Mycological studies revealed the presence of fungal infection in 4 patient (10%) and it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Histological studies identified the allergic nature of the polyps in all patients. Surgical treatment was carried out in all patients and operations varied from simple intranasal polypectomy, intranasal ethmiodectomy, external ethmoidectomy to Caldwell-Luc operation for patients with antrochanal polyps.(Author)

  8. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

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    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 18 to 65 yrs reporting in Neurology OPD in Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. The study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014. RESULTS Triptans was found to be more efficacious than ergotamine in curing an attack of migraine and its associated symptoms, but looking into the contraindications, side effects and cost of the triptans, there has been limitations in its prescriptions as well as use. CONCLUSION Ergotamine is more effective in sustained pain relief with less recurrence rate, less adverse effects and more economical compared to sumatriptan.

  9. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ALOPECIA AREATA IN CHILDREN

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    Vishwanath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA is an immunologically mediated disorder characterized by focal to diffuse hair loss. It accounts for roughly 2% of new dermatological outpatients. The incidence is higher in children with slightly higher incidence among female children. Onset peaks between 6 and 10 years of age. It has serious implication on a growing child’s psychological well-being at a critical time of development. AIMS: To study the epidemiology of AA, its clinical presentation, association with history of atopy, family history, and rate of recurrence among children below the age of sixteen years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty consecutively clinically diagnosed cases of AA in children less than sixteen years were enrolled in the study. A detailed clinical examination and history pertained to the aim of the study was recorded. Later the data was entered to MS Excel Spread-sheet and analyzed using SSPS software. RESULTS: Female to male sex ratio was 1.17:1, while the overall incidence in pediatric population was little over 1%. The most common presenting age group was 7-10 years. It was also noted that large majority of patients reported acute loss of hair over the patches. AA appeared earlier among the atopics than in non atopics but the patches were smaller among atopics compared to non-atopics. Almost 1 in 10 patients had significant family history. Nail changes and recurrence were positive in more than 10% of patients. CONCLUSION: Though AA is not a life threatening illness, the cosmetic disfigurement can be bear enormous amount of psychological impact on children of school going age. Most of the therapies only hasten what ultimately would be a spontaneous remission. Treatment may not be successful in many cases; here children will have to be tactfully managed with counseling.

  10. Clinical Study of 224 Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Zhang; Fei Li; Ya-Min Zhen; Ang Li; Yu Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Hypertriglyceridenia (HTG) is the most common etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) after alcohol and gallstone-induced disease.Elevation of serum triglyceride (TG) levels to ≥ 1000 mg/dl in a patient with AP strongly indicates HTG as the cause.The absolute risk of pancreatitis based on serum TG ≤1000 mg/dl has not been clearly defined.The aims of this study were to address the role of elevated TG levels between 500 and 1000 mg/dl in the clinical course of HTG pancreatitis (HTGP);and assess the relationship between the level of serum TG and disease severity.Methods:A total of 224 HTGP patients between 2007 and 2011 were divided into two subgroups.Totally,122 patients in Group A had serum TG >1000 mg/dl;102 patients in Group B had maximal TG levels between 500 and 1000 mg/dl accompanied by lactescent serum;100 patients with biliary AP and 99 patients with alcoholic AP hospitalized during the study period were enrolled as controls.The clinical and biochemical data were analyzed.Results:The clinical presentation ofHTG-induced pancreatitis was similar to other causes.Severe form of AP in Group A was higher than Group B (x2 =4.002,P =0.045).The severity with HTGP was significantly higher as compared to biliaryAP (x2 =33.533,P =0.000) and alcoholic AP (x2 =7.179,P =0.007).Systemic complications with HTGP were significantly higher than biliary AP (x2 =58.763,P =0.000).Conclusions:The study demonstrated that TG level ≥500 mg/dl should raise a high degree of suspicion,especially if no other etiology of AP is apparent.The severity of HTGP seems to correlate directly with TG level.HTGP seems be more severe than other causes of AP.

  11. A study on the perception of students in the radiologic technology study on the clinical practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ryul; Kim, Hyun Gil; Yoon, Myeong Kwan; Lee, Gi Jong; Cha, Sang Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The clinical practices provide the students with a good opportunity to study the practical experiences in their field through the clinical training education in hospital. Now, in this study, comparing the perceptions of the clinic teachers with those of students at the clinical site. The study was conducted to the students attending universities located in Seoul and who finished the clinical practices in 2013. The questionnaires were distributed to the student and collected from them. The study were conducted to 275 questionnaires with frequency analysis, crosstabs, chi-square test and McNemar test. The major motivation was of the select radiography course was high employment rate(44.0%) and the satisfaction of radiography course was general(53.1%). 51.3% of the study answered 8 weeks current duration of clinical practices is proper. The 3-year course students answered that the period of clinical practices would be proper if it is performed in the winter vacation in their second year in college(47.3%). The 4-year course students answered that the first semester in their third years is proper for clinical practices(27.7%). The students answered that they felt the lack in their knowledge on the professional field(32.4%) during the clinical practices and some of the practical training is different from the education performed at school(68.4%). Most of answered that they were satisfied with the clinical practices and among them they recognized the importance of the clinical practices (3.94 ± 0.89). After the clinical practices, their desire for getting job as a radiography has changed from 84.1% to 82.9%. The reason why they want the job related to the radiation is because the job is stable (changed from 49.0% to 46.0% after the clinical practice) while the reason why they do not want be a radigrapher because that job is not proper for them (changed from 37.0% to 40.7% after the clinical practice) The effort should be made to enhance the position of radiation

  12. A study on the perception of students in the radiologic technology study on the clinical practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical practices provide the students with a good opportunity to study the practical experiences in their field through the clinical training education in hospital. Now, in this study, comparing the perceptions of the clinic teachers with those of students at the clinical site. The study was conducted to the students attending universities located in Seoul and who finished the clinical practices in 2013. The questionnaires were distributed to the student and collected from them. The study were conducted to 275 questionnaires with frequency analysis, crosstabs, chi-square test and McNemar test. The major motivation was of the select radiography course was high employment rate(44.0%) and the satisfaction of radiography course was general(53.1%). 51.3% of the study answered 8 weeks current duration of clinical practices is proper. The 3-year course students answered that the period of clinical practices would be proper if it is performed in the winter vacation in their second year in college(47.3%). The 4-year course students answered that the first semester in their third years is proper for clinical practices(27.7%). The students answered that they felt the lack in their knowledge on the professional field(32.4%) during the clinical practices and some of the practical training is different from the education performed at school(68.4%). Most of answered that they were satisfied with the clinical practices and among them they recognized the importance of the clinical practices (3.94 ± 0.89). After the clinical practices, their desire for getting job as a radiography has changed from 84.1% to 82.9%. The reason why they want the job related to the radiation is because the job is stable (changed from 49.0% to 46.0% after the clinical practice) while the reason why they do not want be a radigrapher because that job is not proper for them (changed from 37.0% to 40.7% after the clinical practice) The effort should be made to enhance the position of radiation

  13. Study on the Clinical Effectiveness of Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANTiecheng; YANHua; ZHANGNi; PANYouming; TANGYingxiong; WENXiang; SONGDingwei; HUMing; LIULigang; LIUZixiong; YANGMingshan; XUJinzhi; PUBitao; GAOBoting

    2002-01-01

    Objectiv:To investigate the theoretical basis and clinical significance of thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods:Analyze the changes in the contents of serum AchRab and sIL-2R, lymphocyte subtypes in Peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after thymectomy in 69 patients. Results:In the study group significant changes were found in serum contents of AchRab and sIL-2R before and after operation and there was also remarkable change in the number and constitution of peripheral blood lymphocyte subtypes. Conclusion:Thymectomy is an effective therapy for MG.

  14. MRI Diagnosis of Intracranial Hemorrhage : Experimental and Clinical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage with MRI, and add knowledge about the newer sequences increasing in use to depict intra parenchymal bleeds, especially T2*-w GE sequences. We also compared the effect of magnetic field strengths. The sequences and field strengths were tested in animals. Then, the most effective technique was applied to patients with hematomas of different ages and with hematoma residuals. Occurrence of residuals of earlier, clinically silent, haemorrhages in patients with acute spontaneous hematoma or with suspected ischemic stroke were compared. Experimental studies: The MR detectability of small experimental haematomas in the brain and of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces of 30 rabbits was evaluated. MRI examinations were performed at determined intervals using different pulse sequences at two field strengths. The last MR images were compared to the formalin fixed brain sections and, in 16 rabbits, also to the histological findings. T2*-weighted GE sequences revealed all the intra parenchymal haematomas at 1.5 T: they were strongly hypointense. Their sizes became smaller but the signal patterns remained unchanged during the follow-up. The haematoma sizes and shapes corresponded well to gross pathology at acute and subacute stages. At chronic stage, the signal changes were larger than iron deposits. Blood in the CSF spaces was best detected at 1.5T with T2*-weighted GE sequences during the first 2 days. The FLAIR sequence often revealed blood in CSF spaces but not in the brain. SE sequences were rather insensitive. Imaging at 0.5 T was less effective than at 1.5 T. Clinical studies: All MR examinations on patients were performed at 1.5T, including T1- and T2-w SE, FLAIR, T2*-w GE sequences, and, occasionally, diffusion-w sequences. Sixty-six intra parenchymal hematomas were examined in the first clinical study. The hematomas were of different sizes and the ages varied from 8 hours to 3

  15. MRI Diagnosis of Intracranial Hemorrhage : Experimental and Clinical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemany Ripoll, Montserrat

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage with MRI, and add knowledge about the newer sequences increasing in use to depict intra parenchymal bleeds, especially T2*-w GE sequences. We also compared the effect of magnetic field strengths. The sequences and field strengths were tested in animals. Then, the most effective technique was applied to patients with hematomas of different ages and with hematoma residuals. Occurrence of residuals of earlier, clinically silent, haemorrhages in patients with acute spontaneous hematoma or with suspected ischemic stroke were compared. Experimental studies: The MR detectability of small experimental haematomas in the brain and of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces of 30 rabbits was evaluated. MRI examinations were performed at determined intervals using different pulse sequences at two field strengths. The last MR images were compared to the formalin fixed brain sections and, in 16 rabbits, also to the histological findings. T2*-weighted GE sequences revealed all the intra parenchymal haematomas at 1.5 T: they were strongly hypointense. Their sizes became smaller but the signal patterns remained unchanged during the follow-up. The haematoma sizes and shapes corresponded well to gross pathology at acute and subacute stages. At chronic stage, the signal changes were larger than iron deposits. Blood in the CSF spaces was best detected at 1.5T with T2*-weighted GE sequences during the first 2 days. The FLAIR sequence often revealed blood in CSF spaces but not in the brain. SE sequences were rather insensitive. Imaging at 0.5 T was less effective than at 1.5 T. Clinical studies: All MR examinations on patients were performed at 1.5T, including T1- and T2-w SE, FLAIR, T2*-w GE sequences, and, occasionally, diffusion-w sequences. Sixty-six intra parenchymal hematomas were examined in the first clinical study. The hematomas were of different sizes and the ages varied from 8 hours to 3

  16. Insights into restrictive cardiomyopathy from clinical and animal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre-Yves Jean-Charles; Yue-Jin Li; Chang-Long Nan; Xu-Pei Huang

    2011-01-01

    Catdiomyopathies are diseases that primarily affect the myocardium,leading to serious cardiac dysfimction and heart failure.Out of the three major categories of candiomyopathies(hypertrophic,dilated and restrictive),restrictive cardiomyopathy(RCM)is less common and also the least studied However,the prognosis for RCM is poor as some patients dying in their childhood The molecular mechanisms behind the disease development and progression are not very clear and the treatment of RCM is very difficult and often ineffective.In this article,we reviewed the recent progress in RCM research from the clinical studies and the translational studies done on diseased transgenic animal models.This will help for a better understanding of tare mechanisms underlying the etiology and development of RCM and for the design of better treatments for the disease.

  17. Clinical study of CT discography for the lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tadashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to introduce technique for correct positioning of the needle into the center of the disc for discography by means of CT analysis and also to clarify usefulness of CT discography for diagnosis of the lumbar disc herniation. We have taken CT analysis in order to determine correct place and the angle of inserting the needle. This measurement provides easy needle insertion. Unless the needle tip places center of disc, discogram false positive or negative will occur as a result. The materials of this study are 222 discs of 105 cases with the lumbar disc herniation. Comparative study of the findings among myelography, discography and CT discography was investigated. The results indicated that CT discography demonstrates the most clear findings and is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, especially in obtaining detailed observation of herniated discs. (author).

  18. [Pantethine, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Clinical study of 1045 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, C; Bertieri, R S; Barbi, G

    1989-03-31

    After a review of the clinical studies on the treatment of diabetic patients with pantethine, the authors discuss the results obtained in a postmarketing surveillance (PMS) study on 1045 hyperlipidemic patients receiving pantethine (900 mg/day on average). Of these patients, 57 were insulin-dependent (Type I) and 241 were non insulin-dependent (Type II) diabetics. Beyond the epidemiological considerations made possible by a PMS study, the authors show that pantethine brought about a statistically significant and comparable improvement of lipid metabolism in the three groups of patients, with very good tolerability. Pantethine should therefore be considered for the treatment of lipid abnormalities also in patients at risk such as those with diabetes mellitus. PMID:2524328

  19. Development of the clinical learning evaluation questionnaire for undergraduate clinical education: Factor structure, validity, and reliability study

    OpenAIRE

    AlHaqwi, Ali I; Kuntze, Jeroen; van der Molen, Henk

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Teaching and learning of clinical skills for undergraduate medical students usually takes place during the clinical clerkship. Therefore, it is of vital importance to ensure the effectiveness of the rotations within this clerkship. The aims of this study were to develop an instrument that measures the effectiveness of the clinical learning environment, to determine its factor structure, and to find first evidence for the reliability and validity of the total scale and ...

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF LOCALLY ADVANCED CARCINOMA OF BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinalini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : In India it is observed that most of the patients of breast cancer clinically present in late stage due to their ignorance of disease despite so much advancement in its detection and management. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC accounts for 30 - 35% of all cases of breast cancers in India. This study aims to evaluate C linical features, Investigations, various Treatment modalities and the Clinico - pathological correlation & outcome of various treatment modalities of LABC, with special emphasis on Neo - adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT in Indian setting. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This was a non - randomised prospective observational study. We analyzed 57 patients of LABC Stage IIIB & IIIC presenting at Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, a tertiary care C entre from September 2012 to November 2014. RESULTS : Stage IIIB comprised 84.21% patients while remaining 15.79% were having Stage IIIC disease. Skin involvement was observed in 91.23% patients. 15.79% showed supraclavicular lymph node involvement. 32 patients received NACT (2 to 6 cycles. Out of these 32, complete clinical response (cCR was 12.5%, partial response (cPR was 68.75% and pathological CR (pCR was 6.25% with Total Objective response (cCR+cPR 81.25%. Feasibility of Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS was observed in 12.5% patients. 25 patients underwent primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Modified Radical Mastectomy was performed in 89.48% patients. CONCLUSIONS : With overall clinical response of 81.25%, n eoadjuvant chemotherapy is the best treatment option for patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with added advantage of in vivo testing the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents, early management of micrometastasis and down staging the primary tumour with feasibility of BCS. Patients presenting LABC constitute a diverse group for whic h a variety of treatment modalities should be instituted with co o rdinated treatment planning among surgeons

  1. Incidence and clinical outcome of renal amyloidosis: A retrospective study

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    Emad Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are affected in almost all patients with amyloid A in secondary amyloidosis (AA amyloidosis but less frequently in immunoglobulin light chains in primary systemic amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis. In this study, we present the incidence, etiology, clinical manifestations, biochemical features and clinical course of renal amyloidosis. We conducted a retrospective study on a group of 40 cases with renal biopsy-proven amyloidosis. They constituted 2.5% of the total cases of renal biopsies performed in the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt, during the period from February 2003 to May 2009. The mean age (30 males, ten females was 36.51 ± 10.32 years. Thirty-two of the cases had secondary AA amyloidosis and eight cases had primary AL amyloidosis. The causes of secondary amyloidosis were as follows: 12 (30% familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, eight (20% pulmonary tuberculosis, four (10% chronic osteomyelitis, four (10% bronchiectasis, three (7% rheumatoid arthritis and one (2% rheumatic heart disease. The eight cases of primary AL amyloidosis comprised of five cases that were associated with myloma (13% and three (8% cases that were idiopathic. Among the 23 patients with AA amyloidosis, after six months of treatment with colchicine, the proteinuria improved, serum albumin level increased and edema disappeared in 13 patients. In four cases of AA amyloidosis who were clinically and biochemically normal after cholchicine therapy, a second renal biopsy disclosed decreased amyloid deposition compared with the first biopsy. In the three renal transplanted patients who had amyloidosis secondary to FMF and were treated with colchicines, AA amyloidosis did not recur in the transplanted kidney. It might be possible that in AL amyloidosis, treatment with methotrexate, melphalan and prednisolone may improve survival. The incidence of renal amyloidosis is increasing and colchicine can be used in secondary amyloidosis as it may have an effect

  2. Does the declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori unmask patients with idiopathic peptic ulcer disease? Trends over an 8 year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NLA; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies have suggested that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with ulcer disease who were not using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been overestimated. The decreasing prevalence of H. pylori could lead to a relative increase in the numbe

  3. The Art of Teaching Children the Arts: Music, Dance and Poetry with Children Aged 2-8 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Olsson, Bengt; Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy is presented as a tool in studying and developing children's knowing within the arts. The domains of art focused on are music, poetry and dance/aesthetic movement. Through empirical examples from a large-scale research project, we illustrate the tools of developmental pedagogy…

  4. Reading and Writing Performances of Children 7-8 Years of Age with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children.…

  5. Herpes zoster: A clinical study in 205 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Abdul Latheef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though herpes zoster is a common condition its incidence and pattern of occurrence in the era of HIV disease is significant. Aim: To analyze the incidence, pattern of occurrence and evolution of herpes zoster with special attention to provocative factors if any. Materials and Method s: This was an analytical study conducted for 2 years based on a preformed proforma containing preliminary information, a detailed clinical evaluation regarding the segment of involvement, morphology, pattern of lesions, complications, disseminations etc. and investigations to establish provocative factors if any. Results: Incidence of herpes zoster was mainly in the fourth and third decades of life. A definite history of chicken pox was present in only 63.4% cases. In the majority (70% herpes zoster occurred spontaneously. In 30% cases, immunosuppression due to chemotherapy, malignancy, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus were observed. The commonest segment affected was thoracic (42.4% followed by cranial (28.2% and cervical (12.1%. Majority resolved in 7-14 days except immunosuppressed. 34.6% of the patients had complications such as secondary bacterial infection, post herpetic neuralgia, and motor weakness. Ten patients had HIV infection as a provocative factor. Conclusion: The results of incidence and clinical pattern of herpes zoster is almost parallel to the previous studies. Any factors of immunosuppression should be checked, especially HIV, particularly in disseminated and long-lasting cases.

  6. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

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    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  7. Retroperitoneal and pelvic hemangiopericytomas: A clinical, radiologic, pathologic correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemangiopericytoma (HP) is an aggressive neoplasm consisting of proliferation of endothelial-lined capillaries with intact reticulum sheaths surrounded by the pericyte. Approximately a fifth of these lesions occur in the retroperitoneum. This is the first large clinical, radiologic, pathologic study of retroperitoneal HP (17 cases). Significant clinical findings included a palpable mass (64%) and hypoglycemia in one. Approximately 40% were located in the true anatomic pelvis or near the cecum along the pelvic psoas muscle. Radiographically, a mass may be seen on plain film, IVP, or barium studies which might displace, compress, or rarely invade an adjacent organ. Most significant was the angiographic findings of an extremely vascular tumor with extensive collateralization, hypertrophy of vessels, and venous engorgement. On CT, HP appeared as a large, bulky well-defined enhancing tumor occasionally with areas of low density in a swirled or marbled pattern. Although by no means diagnostic, HP can be considered when a hypervascular retroperitoneal tumor is encountered on angiography or a large, enhancing mass with several low-density areas is recognized on CT

  8. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  9. A clinical study of temporomandibular joint disorders by using arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to prove the relationship between arthrographic and clinical features in temporomandibular joint disorders. In order to carry out this study, ninety-eight arthrographic examinations of temporomandibular joints were performed in eighty-two patients who had the temporomandibular joint disorders. As the arthrographic examination, the cases were classified in three groups, disk displacement with reduction, disk displacement without reduction, within normal limit. After this, the cases were clinically examined, and the results were compared and analyzed in each other group. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. As the classification by arthrographic examination, three groups (disc displacement with reduction, disc displacement without reduction, within normal limit) were 41%, 54%, 5% of total cases in this study, respectively. 2. The third decade (65%) was most frequent in this study. The average age of each group (disc displacement with reduction, disc displacement without reduction, within normal limit) was 24, 28, 21, and disc displacement without reduction group was higher than any other group. 3. In the chief complaint, pain was the most frequent in all three groups. Joint sound was also frequent in disc displacement with reduction group, but in disc displacement without reduction group, limitation of mouth opening was more frequent. 4. Of the various pain, the movement pain was most frequent (61%) in this study. In joint sound, click (63%) was the most frequent in disc displacement with reduction group, but sound history (42%) and no sound (31%) were more frequent in disc displacement without reduction group. 5. The average maximum opening of each group (disc displacement with reduction, disc displacement without reduction, within normal limit) was 44 mm, 32.9 mm, 44 mm, and disc displacement without reduction group was less than any other group. 6. The masticatory disturbance of each group (disc displacement with reduction, disc

  10. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  11. Tree mortality, fire scar formation and regeneration 8 years after low-intensity fire in managed Pinus sylvestris stands

    OpenAIRE

    Piha, Aura

    2011-01-01

    Fire is an important driver of the boreal forest ecosystem, and a useful tool for the restoration of degraded forests. However, we lack knowledge on the ecological processes initiated by prescribed fires, and whether they bring about the desired restoration effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of low-intensity experimental prescribed fires on four ecological processes in young commercial Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands eight years after the burning. The proce...

  12. Low Blood Lead Levels and educational achievement in 7-8 year old children in the Community of Madrid (Spain

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    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead affects the behavioral and cognitive functions of children. The current lead safety level for avoiding these adverse effects is still controversial.Methods of study: A cross-sectional study included 511 children from 23 primary schools within the Comunidad de Madrid (the Madrid Region –including the city of Madrid and the large urban-industrial conurbation of satellite towns surrounding it, Spain. The children’s blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, the teachers completed an eight-item questionnaire about the children’s behavior and academic achievement. Parents filled in a self-completion survey about the sociodemographic variables of the children and the family.Results: The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL of the children was 4.1 μg/dL SD 1.6 μg/dL (log transformed 3.8 μg/dL SD 0.2 μg/dL. Multivariate analysis controlling for relevant sociodemographic cofactors (among others, sex, age and educational level of the parents showed a negative association, but this was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Despite the low blood lead levels found in the children of the Comunidad de Madrid (Spain and the design limitations of the study, the results obtained suggest the existence of a harmful, but not statistically significant, effect of blood lead on the behavior and academic achievement of children.

  13. A prospective clinical study of patients with hypernatraemic dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, F; Nte, A

    1996-09-01

    In a clinical prospective 3-year study of 158 children aged 2 weeks to 14 years with hypernatraemic dehydration (serum sodium 150 mmol/l or more), infants predominated (61.4%). The 158 children with hypernatraemia accounted for 13.7% of all children admitted with gastroenteritis over the same period, and significant aetiological factors included the use of artificial feeds, differences between the children with hypernatraemia and those with normo- or hyponatraemia, P dehydration P dehydrated. There was also a significant difference between the presence of neurological features in hyper- and normonatraemic patients P Hypernatraemic dehydration remains an important and serious complication of childhood gastroenteritis in our area of study. The use of artificial milk feeds is contributory, and well-nourished babies appear more at risk. We recommend more liberal water intake during gastroenteritis and the public should also be educated on and made more aware of this condition.

  14. A STUDY ON THORACIC VERTEBRAL SYNOSTOSIS & ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

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    Md. Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral anomalies are of interest not only to anatomist, but also to orthopedician, neurologist & neurosurgeons. Various vertebral anomalies of anatomic interest have been reported namely; occipitalisation, sacralisation, lumbarisation, absence of posterior elements of vertebral arch & vertebral s ynostosis. The fusion of vertebral column is rare anomalies usually congenital in origin. The fusion of thoracic vertebrae can present many clinical sign including congenital scoliosis. A study on 594 dry adult human vertebrae of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The study was done over a period of 6 months (July to December 2014 during routine osteology classes for 1 year MBBS, we found the fusion of typical thoracic vertebrae between T 3 & T 4 . The cause could be failure of re - segmentation of somitomeres or acquired.

  15. Peer influence in clinical workplace learning : A study of medical students’ use of social comparison in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate students in clinical workplace frequently compare their own experiences with those of peers. The research reported in this thesis shows that these so called social comparisons are vital to the process of learning in clinical practice. The first study confirms students’ tendency to comp

  16. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

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    Gauri Gontiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL® as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm. Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week. At 4 th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6 th and 12 th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant.

  17. Friedreich's ataxia: clinical and molecular study of 25 Brazilian cases

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    Albano Lilian M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical diagnostic criteria for typical cases basically include: a early age of onset (< 20 or 25 years, b autosomal recessive inheritance, c progressive ataxia of limbs and gait, and d absence of lower limb tendon reflexes. METHODS: We studied the frequency and the size of expanded GAA and their influence on neurologic findings, age at onset, and disease progression in 25 Brazilian patients with clinical diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia - 19 typical and 6 atypical - using a long-range PCR test. RESULTS: Abnormalities in cerebellar signs, in electrocardiography, and pes cavus occurred more frequently in typical cases; however, plantar response and speech were more frequently normal in this group when the both typical and atypical cases were compared. Homozygous GAA expansion repeats were detected in 17 cases (68% - all typical cases. In 8 patients (32% (6 atypical and 2 typical, no expansion was observed, ruling out the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia. In cases with GAA expansions, foot deformity, cardiac abnormalities, and some neurologic findings occurred more frequently; however, abnormalities in cranial nerves and in tomographic findings were detected less frequently than in patients without GAA expansions. DISCUSSION: Molecular analysis was imperative for the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia, not only for typical cases but also for atypical ones. There was no genotype-phenotype correlation. Diagnosis based only on clinical findings is limited; however, it aids in better screening for suspected cases that should be tested. Evaluation for vitamin E deficiency is recommended, especially in cases without GAA expansion.

  18. Urticarial vasculitis in northern Spain: clinical study of 21 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loricera, Javier; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Mata, Cristina; Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; González-López, Marcos A; Alvarez, Lino; González-Vela, M Carmen; Armesto, Susana; Fernández-Llaca, Héctor; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A; Blanco, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a subset of cutaneous vasculitis (CV), characterized clinically by urticarial skin lesions of more than 24 hours' duration and histologically by leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We assessed the frequency, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of a series of patients with UV. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with UV included in a large series of unselected patients with CV from a university hospital. Of 766 patients with CV, UV was diagnosed in 21 (2.7%; 9 male and 12 female patients; median age, 35 yr; range, 1-78 yr; interquartile range, 5-54 yr). Eight of the 21 cases were aged younger than 20 years old. Potential precipitating factors were upper respiratory tract infections and drugs (penicillin) (n = 4; in all cases in patients aged urticarial lesions, other features such as palpable purpura (n = 7), arthralgia and/or arthritis (n = 13), abdominal pain (n = 2), nephropathy (n = 2), and peripheral neuropathy (n = 1) were observed. Hypocomplementemia (low C4) with low C1q was disclosed in 2 patients. Other abnormal laboratory findings were leukocytosis (n = 7), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 6), anemia (n = 4), and antinuclear antibody positivity (n = 2). Treatment included corticosteroids (n = 12), antihistaminic drugs (n = 6), chloroquine (n = 4), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (n = 3), colchicine (n = 2), and azathioprine (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 10 months (interquartile range, 2-38 mo) recurrences were observed in 4 patients. Apart from 1 patient who died because of an underlying malignancy, the outcome was good with full recovery in the remaining patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that UV is rare but not exceptional. In children UV is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Urticarial lesions and joint manifestations are the most frequent clinical manifestation. Low complement serum levels are observed in a minority of cases. The prognosis is generally good

  19. Clinical Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Barrett's Esophagus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Martinez, Jessica A; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Trowers, Eugene; Gibson, Blake A; Della'Zanna, Gary; Richmond, Ellen; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2016-07-01

    Prior research strongly implicates gastric acid and bile acids, two major components of the gastroesophageal refluxate, in the development of Barrett's esophagus and its pathogenesis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to protect esophageal cells against oxidative stress induced by cytotoxic bile acids. We conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the clinical activity of UDCA in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Twenty-nine patients with Barrett's esophagus received UDCA treatment at a daily dose of 13 to 15 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The clinical activity of UDCA was assessed by evaluating changes in gastric bile acid composition and markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), cell proliferation (Ki67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in Barrett's esophagus epithelium. The bile acid concentrations in gastric fluid were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. At baseline, UDCA (sum of unchanged and glycine/taurine conjugates) accounted for 18.2% of total gastric bile acids. After UDCA intervention, UDCA increased significantly to account for 93.4% of total gastric bile acids (P < 0.0001). The expression of markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was assessed in the Barrett's esophagus biopsies by IHC. The selected tissue biomarkers were unchanged after 6 months of UDCA intervention. We conclude that high-dose UDCA supplementation for 6 months resulted in favorable changes in gastric bile acid composition but did not modulate selected markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the Barrett's esophagus epithelium. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 528-33. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Brian J. Reid, p. 512. PMID:26908564

  20. Non-compacted cardiomyopathy: clinical-echocardiographic study

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    Castellanos Luis Muñóz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and echocardiographic findings of ventricular noncompaction in adult patients. Fifty-three patients underwent complete clinical history, electrocardiogram, Holter and transthoracic echocardiogram. Forty patients (75% were in class I/II of the New York Heart Association, and 13 (25% in class III/IV. Ventricular and supraventricular escape beats were found in 40% and 26.4%, respectively. Holter showed premature ventricular contractions in 32% and sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.5%. Ventricular noncompaction was an isolated finding in 74% of cases and was associated with other congenital heart disease in 26%. Noncompacted ventricular myocardium involved only left ventricle in 62% of the patients and both ventricles in 38%. The mean ratio of noncompacted to compacted myocardial layers at the site of maximal wall thickness was 3.4 ± 0.87 mm (range 2.2–7.5. The presence of ventricular noncompaction in more than three segments was associated with a functional class greater than II and ventricular arrhythmia with demonstrable statistical significance by χ2(p Conclusion a Noncompacted cardiomyopathy is a congenital pathological entity that can occur in isolated form or associated with other heart disease and often involves both ventricles. b A ratio of noncompacted to compacted myocardium greater than 3 and involvement of three or more segments are indicators of poor prognosis. c Since the clinical manifestations are not sufficient to establish diagnosis, echocardiography is the diagnostic tool that makes it possible to document ventricular noncompaction and establish prognostic factors.

  1. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  2. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  3. Statistical Use in Clinical Studies: Is There Evidence of a Methodological Shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Dali; Ma, Dihui; Li, Gaoming; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Qin; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Hongru; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Yi, Dong; Liu, Ling; Wu, Yazhou

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies indicate that the statistical education model and level in medical training fails to meet the demands of clinicians, especially when they want to understand published clinical research. We investigated how study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies have changed in the last twenty years, and we identified the current trends in study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies. Methods We reviewed 838 eligible clinical study articles that were p...

  4. The development of norm-based coding and race-specific face prototypes: an examination of 5- and 8-year-olds' face space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Lindsey A; Hatry, Alexandra J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2011-02-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of expanded, compressed, and undistorted Caucasian and Chinese faces. The method was validated with adults and then refined to test 8- and 5-year-olds. The 5-year-olds were also tested in a simple aftereffects paradigm. The current research provides the first evidence for simple attractiveness aftereffects in 5-year-olds and for race-contingent aftereffects in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Evidence that adults and 5-year-olds may possess only a weak prototype for Chinese children's faces suggests that Caucasian adults' prototype for Chinese adult faces does not generalize to child faces and that children's face space undergoes a period of increasing differentiation between 5 and 8 years of age.

  5. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  6. Study on waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok

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    Suwannee Adsavakulchai

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation depends on numerous factors such as established waste management methods, type of hospital establishment, hospital specialization, proportion of reusable items employed in hospital, and proportion of patients treated on a day-care basis. This study surveyed the waste from hospital and clinics in Phitsanulok and found the average daily waste generated as general, medical and hazardous waste from all hospitals in Phitsanulok Province at 1.751, 0.284 and 0.013 kg/bed respectively and at 0.323, 0.041 and 0.002 kg/bed respectively from all clinics in Phitsanulok Province. Medical waste from all hospitals consisted of needles, gloves, drain tubes, cottons and gauze, napkins, plastic syringes, swap and body parts with total daily generation at 0.452, 0.480, 0.390, 0.404, 0.018, 0.355, 0.004 and 0.382 kg/bed respectively. Information about proper waste management process is needed to improve hospital waste management. Hospital waste management is an important and necessary component of environmental health protection.

  7. Clinical and electrophysiological study of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦绍森; 玛依努尔; 王湘

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and electrophysiological features of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) . Methods The clinical symptoms and signs of 11 patients with CIDP were studied, motor conduction velocity( MCV), sensory con-duction velocity (SCV) and Electromyography (EMG) were also respectively carried out on 54 motor nerves, 28 sensory nerves and 21 musclesof these 11 cases. The amplitudes of compound muscle action potential(CAMP) obtained from distal and proximal ends were compared to as-certain the presence of conduction block (CB) by stimulating the segments starting from the distal ends. Results More than 3 nerves werefound involved in 10 out of 11 cases, slow MCV were found in 52%, prolongation of the distal latency in 64%, reduction of the amplitudes ofCAMP in 68%, CB in 26%, slow SCV in 85. 7%. EMG revealed neurogenic damage in 81%. Conclusion CIDP is a peripheral de- myelinating neuropathy involving not only the prox imal and distal segments but also the sensory and motor nerves. If there were no conditionsto perform nerve biopsy, testing of protein in CSF and electrophysiology mightbe of important diagnostic value for CIDP.

  8. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE STROKE

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    Tomar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available `INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. In India Community Surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate for hemiplegia 200 per 1, 00, 000 population. It accounts for nearly 1.5% of all urban admissions, 4.5 % of all medical and about 20% of neurological cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Identification of risk factors and evaluation of clinical profile of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Cases of acute stoke admitted in SGMH hospital were selected for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Brain injury cases, infective, neoplastic cases producing stroke were excluded. RESULTS: Stroke was more common in male, 58 % patients were male and 42% patients were female. It was more common in 5th and 6th decade. Most common etiology was infarction. Most common risk factor was hypertension followed by smoking. In addition to limb weakness, headache and vomiting were most common presenting symptoms followed by convulsion. These symptoms were more common in hemorrhagic stroke. Right sided hemiplegia was more common than left sided. Middle cerebral artery was involved in majority of cases in atherothrombotic stroke whereas basal ganglion was most common site of bleed in hemorrhagic stroke. Coma and mortality were more in hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: The risk factors and clinical profile of acute stroke in India are similar to that of Western countries. Common risk factors are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

  9. Onchomycosis – a clinical and mycological study of 75 cases

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    Neerja Puri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the nails is a common disease, especially in older persons. A mycological study of onchomycosis was undertaken in 75 patients. The nails were judged to be infected by their clinical appearance. There were a total of 75 suspected cases of onychomycosis. Of these 75 cases 22.6% were positive by direct microscopy and 33.3% were culture positive. Of these 75 cases, 18 were males (24% and 57 (76 % were females, male to female ratio being. The commonest age group was 31-40 years followed by 21-30 years. The finger nails were more frequently involved. i.e. 45 (60 %, followed by toe nails 30 (40 % and both in 18 (24% cases. Ratio of finger nail to toe nail infection was 1.5:1. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO was the commonest clinical pattern (76% followed by total dystrophic onychomycosis (18.66% and then superficial white onychomycosis (4% and proximal subungual onychomycosis (1.33%. The most common fungal isolates were dermatophytes of which 44% were Trytophyton rubrum, 4% were Trytophyton mentagrophytes. Non dermatophyte moulds constituted 16% of the fungus isolates. Onychomycosis was found to be the commonest in housewives (52%, followed by serviceman / businessman (32% followed by farmers (8% and labourer and student 4% each.

  10. Clinical study of cerebral infarction in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in patients undergoing chronic dialysis. However, few clinical studies have so far examined stroke, especially brain infarction, under such conditions. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features and risk factors for brain infarction in 33 patients undergoing hemodialysis (hemodialysis, 29 patients; continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, 4 patients; male:female ratio, 25:8) between May 2003 and August 2006. The mean age was 68.5±10.9 (mean±standard deviation (SD)) years. The basal renal diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis (n=16), diabetes mellitus (n=10) and other diseases (n=7). The mean duration of maintenance dialysis before the onset of stroke was 5.6±5.2 years. All 33 patients developed brain infarction, including the atherothrombotic (n=13), lacunar (n=9) and cardioembolic (n=11) types. The complications included a high frequency of hypertension (79%) in all groups, diabetes mellitus (36%) and atrial fibrillation (21%). Four of the patients, 2 with lacunar and 2 with atherothrombotic infarction, developed brain infarction within 3 hours after hemodialysis. Hemodynamic changes might have caused the infarction in these patients. The proportion of patients with a modified Rankin Scale grade of 4-6 at discharge was 42%, and the mortality rate was high (15%). The prognosis of brain infarction was poorer in patients with hemodialysis than in those without. (author)

  11. Bedside Teaching in Australian Clinical Schools: A National Study

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    Praveen L. Indraratna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bedside teaching (BST of medical students has become less common in recent years; however, there have been strong recommendations made in the literature to continue this teaching modality for the valued benefits it provides. The purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of bedside teaching among senior Australian medical students. Methods. Medical students at Australian universities were surveyed by means of an electronic questionnaire. The results were collected and analysed. Results. A total of 517 responses were received from students at 15 universities and 94 different clinical sites. The percentage of students who identified BST as very important ranged from 62.5% in psychiatry to 90.4% in internal medicine. The optimal class size was nominated as 3-4 students, and students favoured a style where one individual performs a complete examination, with the remainder allowed to elicit the key sign afterwards. Students felt 3-4 hours of BST per week to be ideal. Advantages identified to BST included provision of feedback and elicitation of clinical signs. Disadvantages included time constraints and excessive class sizes. Conclusions. The unique benefits of BST result in its high demand by students, regardless of the discipline being taught.

  12. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

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    Thomas eHabekost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: The visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a neglect and simultanagnosia, (b reading disturbances, (c aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  13. Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases

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    Rajashekhar, Nadiga; Gejje, Somashekar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses. Aims: To study the epidemiological aspects like age distribution, sex distribution, the dermatoses affecting the palms & soles and the frequency of involvement of palms, soles or both palms & soles, in patient with palmoplantar dermatoses. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology between October 2011 to September 2013. First 300 cases attending the department of dermatology primarily with complaints pertaining to palms and soles were enrolled in the study. After taking consent a detailed history and clinical examination pertaining to the aim of the study was recorded and analysed, which included inspection of morphology and distribution of lesions and palpation of any swelling. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings, wet mounted with 10% potassium hydroxide was done for cases with scaly lesions. Those who had a pustule, gram staining was done. Patch testing using Indian Standard Battery Series was done for those cases of eczema. A sample for biopsy was taken when diagnosis could not be arrived clinically, and subjected to histopathological examination. Results In our study of 300 patients with palmoplantar dermatoses, 164 were females and 136 were males, the ratio observed being 1.2:1. The peak incidence was found in the age group 21-30 years, with 41 females (25%) and 35 males (25.7%). Most frequently affected individuals in this study were housewives (30%). The most common five diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses were palmoplantar psoriasis (20.7%), moniliasis (19%), palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (7%), keratolysis exfoliativa (6%) and pitted keratolysis (6%). Majority of patients had involvement of both palms and

  14. Clinical, chromosomal and endocrine studies for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation together with the chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, for hormonal and chromosomal workup. The age ranged from eight months to 19 years with mean age of 3.18 years. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Severe salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilisation was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The sex of rearing was female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was 46,XX in all cases, the diagnosed correct sex was delayed in six cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), delta, 4-androstenedione (D4A), testosterone (T) and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated as compared to controls. It was found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, D4A and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilising patients. However, this difference was statistically non-significant. The present study demonstrates that the clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for the early detection and treatment of these cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents

  15. Clinical, Chromosomal and Endocrine Studies for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study is to throw light on the clinical presentation together with chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from the Diabetic Endocrine Metabolic Pediatric Unit [DEMPU], Children's Hospital, Cairo University for hormonal and chromosomal workup. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Sever salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilization was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The mean age was 3.18 years, ranging from eight months to 19 years. The sex of rearing was Female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was (46,XX) in all cases, the correct sex diagnosis was delayed in 6 cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P); Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); Delta,4-androstenedione (D 4 A); Testosterone and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated in relation to controls. We found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, delta 4A, and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilizing patients. However, this difference was not of statistical significance. The present study demonstrates that clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for early detection and treatment of hese cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents.

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY OF BENIGN LESIONS OF PINNA

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    Srirangaprasad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To study the clinical aspects of benign lesions of pinna and to evaluate aetiopathological factors, prevalence and management options. METHODS The study included 115 patients during the period from January 2013 to December 2013. The selection criteria included patients presenting with swellings of pinna which included keloids, seromas, sebaceous cyst, preauricular sinus, haemangioma, dermoid and neurofibroma. A detailed clinical history regarding onset, predisposing factors and associated conditions was documented and analysed. RESULTS Of total 115 cases in our study, 66 cases (57% presented with keloid followed by 33 cases (29% of pseudocyst of auricle, sebaceous cyst were seen in 10 cases, i.e. 9% and only 1 case of Neurofibroma, Haemangioma and Dermoid was diagnosed (<1%; 94 percent of patients presenting with Keloid were females; 88% of them had unilateral and just 12% had bilateral disease. Trauma was the factor in causation of pseudocyst of auricle in 11 cases (34%, diabetes also was seen in 3 cases (9%. Of all 33 cases of pseudocyst of auricle, 27 cases (82% were managed by window procedure and 6 cases (18% were managed with aspiration. CONCLUSION Trauma is the most important factor in causation of number of benign lesions of pinna. Other factors being high ear piercing through the cartilage. Diabetes mellitus plays a significant role and should be controlled simultaneously. Wide bore needle aspiration can be done for some of the cases of seroma patients who have recurrence and other cases can be managed by window procedure. Other lesions like keloid, sebaceous cyst, haemangioma and dermoid can be managed by complete surgical excision. A firm pressure bandage should be applied in most of the cases after surgery. Neurofibroma can be managed conservatively.

  17. Clinical analysis of hypertension in children: An urban Indian study

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    Sunil K Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in children, although an uncommon entity, is associated with end-organ damage. We tried to study the clinical profile of hypertension in children presented to our hospital. The medical records from January 1990 to December 2010 of all children aged 18 years and younger with hypertension were studied. The patients were divided into four age groups (infants, pre-school age, school age and adolescents Presenting symptoms and other clinical parameters were thoroughly evaluated. The results were compared with previous studies on hypertension in children. A total of 135 patients were selected (male:female 103:32, with mean age of 0.4 ± 2.1 years (range: six months to 17 years. The most common age group affected was the adolescents group (42.9%. The most common clinical feature at presentation was dizziness (30.3%, followed by headache and chest discomfort (22.9%. Transient hypertension was detected in 34 patients (25.2%, and was most common in the adolescent age group, whereas sustained hypertension was noticed in 101 patients (74.8% and was the most common in the school age group (36/45, 80%. Forty-two patients (31.1% presented with hypertensive crisis. Nine patients were considered to have essential hypertension. The chief causes included chronic glomerulonephritis in 56 (41.5%, endocrine disorders in 21 (15.5%, obstructive uropathy in 16 (11.8%, reflux nephropathy in 12 (8.8% and renovascular disease in 5 (3.7%. Takayasu′s disease was the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. Coarctation of aorta was the most common cause of hypertension in infancy, being present in 40% of the cases. Hypertension in children may be easily underestimated but is a potentially life-threatening problem. Most of them are asymptomatic and a large chunk has an underlying etiology. Primary care clinicians should promptly identify patients with hypertension and treat them immediately and appropriately to prevent damage to the cardiovascular organs.

  18. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  19. A clinical study of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, A; Günhan, O; Alkan, A; Otan, F

    2003-01-01

    We present 13 cases of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and review the literature. The cases were retrieved from the archives of Ondokuz Mayis University and Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Turkey, between 1997 and 2002. Inclusion criteria were clinical findings of oral MMP verified by histological and immunofluorescent examination. Thirteen patients (two males and 11 females), aged 16-72 years, were identified. Involvement was confined to the mouth in all cases except one, in which the conjunctiva was also affected. Two individuals in the study were < 20 years old, an age group rarely affected. The oral mucosa is often the initial site of MMP lesions, so it is important that dentists as well as physicians are aware of the symptoms and signs. A swift diagnosis, made in consultation with other specialists such as ophthalmologists and dermatologists, is needed in order to prevent a delay in treatment. PMID:12964512

  20. Clinical studies of lung cancer of atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study was made on complications of lung cancer in 188 A-bomb survivors (group 1) and 327 non-exposed patients (group 2) treated from 1972 through 1982. The incidence of complications was higher in group 1 (32 %) than in group 2 (20 %). Complications occurred most frequently in the respiratory system, followed by those in the circulatory system and diabetes mellitus in both groups. Patients with complications in the respiratory, circulatory, or nervous system tended to be inoperable. For patients with clinical stage I or II developing complications, the prognosis was worse as compared with those without complications. Long-term survival can be achieved in two patients with early stage lung cancer in whom surgical treatment was impossible because of the association of severe complications. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF OTOMYCOSIS : OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Venugopal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Otomycosis is fungal infection of external auditory canal, which is common throughout the world. Otomycosis may be refractory to treatment prescribed and hence challenges the clinician. AIM: To identify the organism causing otomycosis and to explore speci fic predisposing factors and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study of cases of otomycosis attending ENT outpatient department of Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram which were evaluated clinically and microbiologically for one year. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The commonest predisposing factor for otomycosis is trauma due to self - cleaning and water entering the ear. Common in females. Common presentation is itching of ear and ear ache. Commonest organism isolated is Aspergillus Nige r. Usually respond to treatment with topical antifungal agent especially clotrimazole. Most of the cases responded satisfactorily with topical clotrimazole.

  2. The Clinical Study of Telomerase Activity in Gastric Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Weihong; NI Xiaoqian; SHEN Yuqin; HUANG Qinmei

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase activity was detected with both telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) - silver stain and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - enzyme linked immuno - sorbent assay (ELISA). We have studied the telomerase activity in the 68 gastric tumors and their neighboring tissues,25 gastric ulcer, and 3 tumor cell colonies. The positive rate of telomerase activity in gastric tumors was 86.8% (59/68) and which was obviously higher than 7.3% (5/68) in the normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and 4% (1/25) in gastric ulcer. The telomerase activity was 100% (3/3) in the tumor colonies. It allowed to be seen that higher telomerase activity was associated with the origin and development of the gastric tumor. We believe that telomerase activity may be a useful clinical diagnostic marker for the gastric tumor.

  3. Studies in the radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis and their clinical significance

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    Marx, R.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    The radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis is a complex of cellular death and cellular functional impairments from radiation energy transfers. Four studies of irradiated patients and a data base from 536 patients with osteoradionecrosis revealed separate pathophysiologic conditions for osteoradionecrosis induced by early trauma, osteoradionecrosis induced by late trauma, and spontaneous osteoradionecrosis. A large body of data suggested useful clinical guidelines for the management of irradiated patients. The guidelines, in part, include a recommendation for deferring radiation treatment for 21 days after tissue wounding, if possible; a relative contraindication to wounding tissue during a radiation course; a recommendation for the use of hyperbaric oxygen before wounding; and a strong recommendation to provide comprehensive dental care to the irradiated patient.

  4. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available1. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and potential aerosol diurnal cycle. In situ and remotely sensed

  5. Prioritization strategies in clinical practice guidelines development: a pilot study

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    Torres Marcela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few methodological studies address the prioritization of clinical topics for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for Priority Determination of Topics (PDT of CPGs. Methods and results Firstly, we developed an instrument for PDT with 41 criteria that were grouped under 10 domains, based on a comprehensive systematic search. Secondly, we performed a survey of stakeholders involved in CPGs development, and end users of guidelines, using the instrument. Thirdly, a pilot testing of the PDT procedure was performed in order to choose 10 guideline topics among 34 proposed projects; using a multi-criteria analysis approach, we validated a mechanism that followed five stages: determination of the composition of groups, item/domain scoring, weights determination, quality of the information used to support judgments, and finally, topic selection. Participants first scored the importance of each domain, after which four different weighting procedures were calculated (including the survey results. The process of weighting was determined by correlating the data between them. We also reported the quality of evidence used for PDT. Finally, we provided a qualitative analysis of the process. The main domains used to support judgement, having higher quality scores and weightings, were feasibility, disease burden, implementation and information needs. Other important domains such as user preferences, adverse events, potential for health promotion, social effects, and economic impact had lower relevance for clinicians. Criteria for prioritization were mainly judged through professional experience, while good quality information was only used in 15% of cases. Conclusion The main advantages of the proposed methodology are supported by the use of a systematic approach to identify, score and weight guideline topics selection, limiting or exposing the influence of personal biases

  6. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  7. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

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    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  8. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Results: Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. Conclusions: CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators

  9. A clinical study of intestinal stomas: its indications and complications

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    Zeeshanuddin Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal stoma is an opening for fecal diversion. The purpose of the present study was to identify indications for commonly performed intestinal stomas and to study complications related to it. Methods: This is a prospective study was carried out in a surgical unit of Hamidia Hospital, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal from January, 2012 to December,2012. Data was collected by meticulous history taking including age, gender, indication, type of stoma, type of surgery, careful clinical examination, appropriate operative findings and follow up of the cases. The results were collected, analyzed and compared with other studies. Results: A total of 100 patients were evaluated age ranged between 12- 85 years (50.5 ± 29.01 years Male to female ratio was 7:3. Of the 100 patients 97 were admitted in emergency while 3 in out-patient department. The most common type of stoma made was loop ileostomy (64% followed by sigmoid colostomy (11% and transverse loop colostomy (9%. Main indication for a stoma formation was enteric perforation (38% followed by Koch’s abdomen (18%. Of the various complications encountered with intestinal stoma, peristomal skin irritation (36% was the most consistent complication followed by laparotomy wound infection (13%. Conclusions: Inspite of vast exposure of general surgeons towards stoma formation the complications are inevitable. Early detection of complication and its timely management is the keystone. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 536-540

  10. A CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENINGEAL TUMORS

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    Channappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The meninges surround and protect the central nervous system. They are composed of connective tissue proper and comprise three membranes the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. These membranes are composed of collagen fibres, a small number of elastic fires and endothelial cells. The incidence of intracranial tumors depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim is to study the most common signs that the patient presents in the clinic and to study the epidemiology of the disease. The material used in this study was obtained from 100 cases of intracranial tumours in various colleges of South of India, which I have worked. The sample was obtained over a period of 5 years from May 2007 to May 2012. The most common symptoms that were found in the present study was consistent headache and projectile vomiting. There were 9 grade 1 meningiomas, out of which 5 were meningothelial, microscopically composed of meningothelial cells with ovoid large pale nuclei with vacuoles of cytoplasmic invagination and inconspicuous cytoplasmic borders, the cells are arranged concentrically around calcified blood vessels or connective tissue.

  11. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  12. A clinical study of skin changes in pregnancy

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    Kumari Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During pregnancy profound immunologic, metabolic, endocrine and vascular changes occur, that are responsible for the changes of the skin and its appendages, both physiologic and pathologic. Aims: We undertook a clinical study to find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women. Methods: All consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Results: A total of 607 pregnant women were included in this study. Of these, 303(49.9% pregnant women were primigravida and 304(51.1% were multigravida. Skin changes grouped into: physiological changes (all cases, specific dermatoses (22 cases and other dermatoses affected by pregnancy (125 cases. Most common physiological changes were pigmentary alterations seen in 555 (91.4% followed by striae seen in 484(79.7% cases. Of the various specific dermatoses of pregnancy, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP was the most common disorder (14 cases followed by pruritus gravidarum (5 cases. The most common dermatoses affected by pregnancy were candidal vaginitis (17 cases, acne vulgaris (15 cases, skin tags (15 cases, eczemas (14 cases. Conclusion: This study brings into focus various skin changes during pregnancy in south India.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of the Premature Ejaculation Sufferers in Aegean Region of the Turkey: A Multicentre, Observational Study

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    Ahmet Cihan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of the intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in male subjects and its clinical expressions among couples in the Aegean region of the Turkey. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited to the study from six different urologic centers in the Aegean region. During the enrollment period subjects were recruited in to two group according to presence of premature ejaculation (PE. PE diagnosis was made according to DSM-4 definition. Subjects and their partners were evaluated with patient reported outcome measures (PRO related to the ejaculation-based questionnaire (Premature ejaculation patient profile questionnaire -PEPQ. Stopwatch measurements were also asked from each couple to record intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT. Couples who completed two clinical visits with 4 wk interval were recruited to the data analysis. Results Among 141 eligible subjects, mean age was 36.5±9.7 years and mean partner age was 32.9±9.8 years. Following the initial evaluation 80 subjects recruited to group 1(PE and 41 subjects recruited to the group 2 (non-PE. Geometric mean IELT of the subjects was significantly differed between PE and non- PE group (64.7±66.8 vs. 521.5±414.7 seconds, p<0.001. All of the PEPQ domain scores were also differed between groups. Subjects in the PE group gave poor ratings than non-PE subjects. Partner responses were similar pattern. Correlation analyses of the PEPQ scores demonstrated significant positive correlations between “perceived control over ejaculation” and “satisfaction with sexual intercourse” domains of the PEPQ and with IELT. Conclusion Geographic distribution of IELT and its impacts among couples by the several subjective aspects of PRO measures should be assessed during PE investigation

  14. Peer influence in clinical workplace learning: A study of medical students’ use of social comparison in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Raat, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate students in clinical workplace frequently compare their own experiences with those of peers. The research reported in this thesis shows that these so called social comparisons are vital to the process of learning in clinical practice. The first study confirms students’ tendency to compare themselves with peers and shows that their responses to the comparisons are more often stimulating for learning than discouraging. After that, an experimental study demonstrates how students’ e...

  15. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients

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    Seyyed Hassan TONEKABONI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Tonekaboni SH, Tousi P, Ebrahimi A, Ahmadabadi F, keyhanidoust Z, Zamani Gh, Rezvani M, Amirsalari S, Tavassoli A, Rounagh A, Rezayi A. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 25-31.ObjectiveMigraine is a disabling illness that causes absence from school andaffects the quality of life. It has been stated that headache may representan epileptic event. EEG abnormality is a prominent finding in childrenwith migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG abnormalitiesin children with migraine.Materials & MethodsTwo-hundred twenty-eight children were enrolled into the study.Evaluation and following of cases was performed by one physician,paraclinical tests were used to increase the accuracy. The study wasconducted under the supervision of pediatric neurology masters and theselected cases were from different parts of the country.ResultsComparing EEG abnormalities in different types of migraine revealedthat there is an association between them. There was also a significantdifference between EEG abnormalities in different types of aura. Migrainetype was associated with the patient’s age. Sleep disorders were morecommon in patients with a positive family history of seizure.ConclusionOur study dosclosed migraine as a common problem in children withabnormalities present in approximately 20% of the patients. Migraineand abnormal EEG findings are significantly associated.RefrencesBundey S, Evans K. Tuberous sclerosis: a genetic study. J Neurol Neurosurg. Psychiatry 1969 Dec;32(6:591-603.Staley BA, Vail EA, Thiele EA. Tuberous sclerosis complex: diagnostic challenges, presenting symptoms,and commonly missed signs. Pediatrics 2011 Jan;127(1:e117-25.Thiele EA, Korf BR. Phakomatoses and allied conditions.In: Swaiman KF, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM. Swaimans pediatric neurology. 5th ed. China: Elsevier Saunders;2012. p. 504

  16. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee will be held on January 13, 2011, at The...

  17. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

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    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. All the patients and the controls had undergone physical examinations. Laboratory investigations were done for the newly operated patients and their controls. The most important characteristics of breast cancer patients were breast mass as the main presenting symptom (92.1% and treated by modified radical mastectomy (77.2%. Low means level of serum vitamin D and high levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride were found more among the patients. Age at first full term pregnancy 30 years, age at menopause 45 years, pregnancy termination and/or abortion and never married were important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors (OR=4.44, 3.14, 2.84 and 2.67, respectively. Also, exposure to radiation and/or environmental factors, history of benign breast disease and alcohol use were important associated risk factors (OR=5.05, 4.63 and 4.10, respectively. Moreover, the sister as the nearest female relative with breast cancer, total number of female relatives with breast cancer 2 and relative(s age at diagnosis <50 years were important family history risk factors (OR=9.19, 8.84 and 7.91, respectively. Lastly, high consumption of canned foods, fat rich foods and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables were important dietary risk factors (OR=3.39, 1.76 and 1.51, respectively.

  18. Nosocomial infections at Clinical Centre in Kragujevac: Prevalence study

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    Ilić Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nosocomial infections (NIs are a serious health problem in hospitals worldwide and are followed by a series of consequences, medical, judicial, ethical and economic. Objective The main aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of NIs at the Clinical Centre in Kragujevac. Methods A prevalence study of nosocomial infections was conducted from 16th till 20th May, 2005, within Second National Prevalence Study of Niš in the Republic of Serbia. Results The study included 866 patients. 40 patients had a NI, thus the prevalence of patients with NIs and prevalence of NIs was the same, 4.6%. Among NIs, the most frequent were urinary infections (45.0% followed by surgical-site infections (17.5%, skin and soft tissue infections (15% and pneumonia (12.5%. The rate of NIs was highest at departments of orthopaedics and traumatological surgery (12.0%, followed by intensive care units (8.0%. Overall, 67.5% (27/40 NIs were culture-proved; the leading pathogens were Escherichia coli (40.0%, followed by gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas species, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacteriaceae with equal frequency of 8.0%. Nosocomial infections were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥65 years (p<0.05, with longer hospitalization ≥8 days (p<0.00, in intensive care patients (p<0.05, patients with an intravenous catheter (p<0.00, urinary catheter (p<0.00, and those under antibiotic therapy (p<0.00. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of nosocomial infections in our hospital is similar to the prevalence in the developed countries. The study of prevalence provides a prompt insight into basic epidemiological and ethiological characteristics of nosocomial infections, hence identification of hospital priorities and the need to undertake appropriate prevention measures. .

  19. Indium-111 labelled platelets: experimental and clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present study became to develop a method of effective and gentle isolation and 111-In labelling of human platelets, as well as to employ these platelets in human clinical studies with the object of elucidating a number of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and processes in which platelets take part. 111-In-oxine presents obvious advantages over 51-Cr-sodium chromate; a high labelling efficiency, and more advantageous physical properties (a half life of 68 hours (against the half life of 28 days for 51-Cr) and considerably more effective gamma emission), making external registration by means of a gamma camera possible. Considering the role played by platelets in the development of atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications, in the early phases of deep venous thrombosis, and in graft rejection, it is natural that attempts have been made to use 111-In-labelled platelets for scintigraphic and kinetic evaluation of thromboembolic processes. Accumulation of 111-In-labelled platelets at sites of vessel wall injury, on pulmonary emboli (presumably on deep vein thrombi as well), and on catheter material has been demonstrated. Beyond this, the number of publications concerning the use of 111-In-labelled platelets for visualization of atherosclerosis, venous thromboembolism, arterial grafts, intracardiac thrombi, aortic aneurysms, renal allograft rejection, and other situations in which platelet thromboembolism takes place, provides evidence that a tool has finally been found for the study of their nature and response to therapeutic intervention. (eg)

  20. CLINICAL STUDY OF MYCOTIC KERATITIS HUBLI, IN NORTH KARNATAKA.

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    Jyothi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine, the epidemiological characte ristics and risk factors predisposing to fungal keratitis in Hubli, south In dia. To know the importance of KOH wet mount for rapid detection of fungal keratitis for institu tion of antifungal therapy as earliest possible. To know the statistical significance regarding the com mon type of fungi that involves the cornea and prognosis with regard to the available mode of ther apy and their results. METHOD: In one year period, out of 112 patients presented with corneal ulcer, 48 (42.85% were clinically suspected as having mycotic keratitis. Sensitivity of KOH wet mo unt preparation in our study is 96.25% in our study. Fusarium (53.84% was most commonly isolated fungus. In our study all 48 cases were treated with Monotherapy, in that 28 cases patients deep stromal involvement were treated with combined therapy. About 15 patients received surgic al treatment. 17(35.41% cases had only HM positive and one case (2.08% with only perception of light. and 2(6.25% cases with no perception and rest had fairly good vision. CONCLUSION: These findings have important public health implications for the early diagnosis in suspected c ases of mycotic keratitis and institution of specif ic therapy at earliest to avoid hazardous effects on c ornea.

  1. A CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF ABDOMINAL INJURIES

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    Sreenidhi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 1. to evaluate the impact of blunt abdominal trauma on the Solid abdominal viscera’s, hollow viscera’s, mesentery and Retroperitoneal structures and various modes of presentation in early diagnosis. 2. To evaluate various modalities of management and complications. BACKGROUND DATA: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the most common injuries caused mainly by road traffic accidents. They are usually not obvious. Hence, often missed unless, strong suspicion. In view of increasing number of motor vehicles and consequently road traffic accidents, this study has been chosen to study the cases of injury to solid organs in blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of blunt injury abdomen during the period from September 2010 to September 2013. Number of cases studied is 100. Data were collected from the Patients by their clinical history, examination and appropriate investigations. Post-operative follow-up was done to note for complications. Documentation of patients, which included, identification, history, clinical findings, diagnostic test, operative findings, operative procedures, complications during the stay in the hospital and during subsequent follow-up period, were all recorded on a proforma specially prepared. The decision for operative or non-operative management depended on the outcome of the Hemodynamic status and Computed Tomography. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to 11 to 20 years age group, followed by 21-30 years age group. 91 cases were males, with females accounting for only about 9 cases. 74 patients were operated and 26 patients were subjected for non- operative management. Road traffic accident was responsible for 62% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, while fall from heights accounted for 27% of cases and blow with blunt object was responsible for 11% of injuries. Majority of the patients presented with abdominal pain (90% and abdominal tenderness (82%. Average latent

  2. Clinical study of inhaled aerosols total deposition in healthy adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation is the first step towards respiratory tract intake of chemical and radioactive toxics. Particle deposition in human airways has been described by several authors as showing large individual variations. This study intends to contribute to assess this variability limits especially with reference to age. The method used is basically a measurement of retention, by difference between inhaled and exhaled air concentrations, of inert monodispersed aerosols, during controlled breathing. Particles of 1, 2, 3 μm MMAD (polystyrene latex) are measured in size and concentration by laser velocimetry. A Fleish pneumotachograph is used for controlling respiratory parameters. Healthy subjects, male and female, undergo the test at various tidal volumes, frequencies and flow rates, simulated resting and exercising ventilation; their respiratory function is also explored in a very complete way. 20 adults between 23 and 54 years have been tested in order to assess the laboratory reference values. 25 children, 8 under the age of 8 years, and 17 between 8 and 15 years, have been tested in a similar way. Compared to adults, children, especially under 8 years, have different total deposition mean values, higher for spontaneous and quiet controlled breathing, lower for exercising controlled breathing. Total deposition is dependent on particle size, higher for 2 than for 1 μm MMAD, but also, on lung volume, V.C., T.L.C., F.R.C., to which it is inversely proportional

  3. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

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    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  4. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

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    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with a history of topical steroid use on face for more than 1 month were studied clinically and various treatments tried. Results: The duration of topical corticosteroid use varied from 1 month to 20 years with an average of 19.76 months. Majority of patients were using potent (class II topical steroids for trivial facial dermatoses. The common adverse effects were erythema, telangiectasia, xerosis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity, and rebound phenomenon. No significant change in laboratory investigations was seen. Conclusion: A combination of oral antibiotics and topical tacrolimus is the treatment of choice for steroid-induced rosacea.

  5. Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Edit; Vigh, Eva; Molnár, Valéria; Kenyeres, Péter; Fehér, Gergely; Késmárky, Gábor; Tóth, Kálmán; Garai, János

    2011-05-01

    The protective effects of plant polyphenol intake on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are widely acknowledged. Caffeine-free chicory coffee is a rich source of plant phenolics, including caffeic acid, which inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation, and also phenylpyruvate tautomerase enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). To assess whether chicory coffee consumption might confer cardiovascular benefits a clinical intervention study was performed with 27 healthy volunteers, who consumed 300 mL chicory coffee every day for 1 week. The dietary intervention produced variable effects on platelet aggregation, depending on the inducer used for the aggregation test. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were both significantly decreased, along with serum MIF levels, after 1 week of chicory coffee consumption. Moreover, significant improvements were seen in red blood cell deformability. No changes in hematocrit, fibrinogen level or red blood cell counts were detected. The full spectrum of these effects is unlikely to be attributable to a single compound present in chicory coffee, nevertheless, the phenolics, including caffeic acid, are expected to play a substantial role. In conclusion, our study offers an encouraging starting-point to delineate the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds found in chicory coffee.

  6. Clinical study of a new approach to thoracolumbar surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; ZHAO Jian-ning; Akira Dezawa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The conventional approaches for treatment of thoracolumbar diseases require extensive surgical exposure, often leading to postoperative pain and morbidity. Thoracoscopic-assisted surgery in these regions usually requires an extended recovery period due to the placement of drainage. We developed an innovative retro-peritoneal-extrapleural approach to thoracolumbar involvement by an extra-diaphragmatic technique using dedicated instruments. Neither incision nor reconstruction of the diaphragm was necessary. Exposure to the lateral part of the thoracolumbar vertebrae could be achieved without crus resection. This study is aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of this new surgical procedure. Methods: A total of 9 cases (5 cases of thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation, 1 each of spinal infection, tumor, thoracolumbar scoliosis and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament) were subjected to the study. The average of the patients was 52.3 years. The results were com pared with the control group consisting of thoracoscopic surgery subgroup (5 patients, mean age 52.1 years) and conventional surgery subgroup (12 patients, mean age 61.3 years). Results: Compared with the control group, the average period of bed confinement and mean intra- and post-operative blood loss decreased significantly. Pulmonary complications were avoided in all cases. The surgical time was shortened, postoperative pain was reduced, and early postoperative ambulation became possible. Conclusion: The diaphragm-preserving retroperito-neal-extrapleural approach that we developed is a valid minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of thora-columbar diseases.

  7. The Clinical and Neuroelectrophysiological Study of Corticobasal Degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Mei Fengjun; Liu Mingshun; Kaoru Matsunaga

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical and neuroelectrophysiological features of patients with corticobasal degeneration(CBD). BACKGRUND: To date, there is no systematic presentation of patients diagnosed as CBD in our country. METHODS: 29 patients with CBD were examined symptoms, signs, CT/MRI, SPECT and electrophysiologic studies in detail. RESULTS: The results demonstrated asymitrical Parkinsonian manifestations were present in all, cortical dysfunction in 86%. other movement disorders in 75%, 21 cases showed asymmetrical atrophy in CT/MRI and 25 in SPECT were hypoperfused on the fronto-parital regions contralateral to the affected limbs 19 cases in EEG showed asymitrical slow waves; Surface EMG showed .that myoclonus in 15 occurred on the action; SEPs revealed c-reflexes enhanced and without giant SEP; patients had no pre-myoclonus spike on JLA. 29 patients showed normal CMCT in MEPs. DISCUSSION: The most common manifestation of CBD was asymmetric Parkinsonian features, followed by cortical dysfunction and other movement disorders. Brain imaging showed fronto-parietal abnormalities contralateral to the affected side. The study of electrophysiology showed enhanced cortical excitability and pyramidal tract intact. CONCLUSION: CBD is characterazed by a slowly progressive disease with both cortical and basal ganglionic dysfunction.

  8. PHARMACEUTICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES ON COMPOUND AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, SARASWATA CHURNA

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    Tiwari Radheyshyam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saraswata Churna is a unique combination of Ayurvedic herbal drugs, containing mainly Medhya Rasayana drugs, like Vacha, Shankhpushpi, Aswagandha, Bramhi, etc. For the first time Saraswata churna is mentioned in Bhavaprakash Unmadadhikar and formula given in the same, selected for present study. The drug is prepared in the Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University and was selected for the management of Geriatric Depression. In the clinical study a series of 50 patients of Geriatric Depression were recruited randomly, based on the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria of depression along with their screening for the level of depression using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30. Out of 50, 30 patients were put on Saraswata Churna (Group-A, and 20 patients were on control group, Citalopram (Group-B. The total duration of therapeutic trial was three months. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS has been used to evaluate the response of the drugs. Certain basic biochemical and hematological investigations were also measured before and after the trial. The results have been found to be encouraging with significant relief in the patients belonging to ‘group A’ with no side effects.

  9. CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF INCISIONAL HERNIAS: OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Narayanaswamy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia, by definition represents a breakdown or loss of continuity of a fascial closure. Surgical management of incision al hernias has evolved over the last century. This study was performed to review clinical profile and management of incisional hernia in our institute. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze the etiopathogenesis of incisional hernia with respect to patient variab le factors, types of surgical intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This a prospective study conducted at our institute between February 2009 and January 2011(24 months. 100 patients were included and followed up for immediate post - operative complications. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: Incisional hernia was found to occur more often in 31 - 40yr age group,and mostly in females. Most commonly occurred following gynecological operations, lower abdominal incisions, post operative wound infection. Most patients notic ed the incisional hernia only 1 to 5 years after the index surgery. Laparoscopic hernioplasty was the most commonly performed surgery. CONCLUSION: In Incisional hernias the choice of operative technique is crucial Incisional hernias occur more often in fem ales as they are more likely to undergo lower abdominal surgeries. Mesh repair is considered superior to anatomical repair alone and we recommend Laparoscopic Hernioplasty as the first line of treatment. KEYWORDS : Incisional hernia, ventral hernia, post op erative hernia, mesh repair,Laparoscopic Hernioplasty

  10. Clinical profile of forefoot eczema: A study of 42 cases

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    Brar Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Forefoot eczema (FE is characterized by dry fissured dermatitis of the plantar surface of the feet. AIM : To study the clinical profile of FE and the possible etiological factors. METHODS : Forty-two patients with FE were included in the study. A detailed history was recorded and examination done. Fungal scrapings and patch test with Indian Standard Series (ISS were performed in all patients. RESULTS : The most common site affected was the plantar surface of the great toe in 16 (38.09% patients. Hand involvement, with fissuring and soreness of the fingertips and palm, was seen in four patients (9.5%. Seven patients (16.6% had a personal history of atopy whereas family history of atopy was present in six (14.2%. Seven patients (16.6% reported aggravation of itching with plastic, rubber or leather footwear, and 13 (30.9%, with detergents and prolonged contact with water. Negative fungal scrapings in all patients ruled out a dermatophyte infection. Patch testing with ISS was performed in 19 patients and was positive in five. CONCLUSIONS : FE is a distinctive dermatosis of the second and third decade, predominantly in females, with a multifactorial etiology, possible factors being chronic irritation, atopy, footwear and seasonal influence.

  11. The human studies database project: federating human studies design data using the ontology of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson; Wynden, Rob; Pollock, Brad H; Mollah, Shamim A; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K; Scheuermann, Richard H; Lehmann, Harold P; Wittkowski, Knut M; Nahm, Meredith; Bakken, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Human studies, encompassing interventional and observational studies, are the most important source of evidence for advancing our understanding of health, disease, and treatment options. To promote discovery, the design and results of these studies should be made machine-readable for large-scale data mining, synthesis, and re-analysis. The Human Studies Database Project aims to define and implement an informatics infrastructure for institutions to share the design of their human studies. We have developed the Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) to model study features such as design type, interventions, and outcomes to support scientific query and analysis. We are using OCRe as the reference semantics for federated data sharing of human studies over caGrid, and are piloting this implementation with several Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions. PMID:21347149

  12. Perceptions of postgraduate trainees on the impact of objective structured clinical examinations on their study behavior and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opoka RO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Opoka,1 Sarah Kiguli,1 Andrew S Ssemata,2 Marjan Govaerts,3 Erik W Driessen3 1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is a commonly used method of assessing clinical competence at various levels, including at the postgraduate level. How the OSCE impacts on learning in higher education is poorly described. In this study, we evaluated the perceptions of postgraduate trainees regarding the impact of the OSCE on their study and clinical behavior. Methods: We employed an explorative qualitative research design by conducting focus group discussions with 41 pediatric postgraduate trainees at the College of Health Science, Makerere University. A semi-structured tool was used to obtain the views and experiences of the trainees. Transcripts from the discussion were analyzed in an iterative manner using thematic content analysis. Results: The trainees reported the OSCEs as a fair and appropriate tool for assessing clinical competency at the postgraduate level. However, they noted that whereas OSCEs assess a broad range of skills and competencies relevant to their training, there were areas that they did not adequately assess. In particular, OSCEs did not adequately assess in-depth clinical knowledge or detailed history-taking skills. Overall, the majority of the trainees reported that the OSCEs inspired them to study widely and improve their procedural and communication skills. Conclusion: OSCEs are a useful tool for assessing clinical competencies in postgraduate education. However, the perceived limitations in their ability to assess complex skills raises concerns about their use as a standalone mode of assessment at the postgraduate level. Future studies should evaluate how use of OSCEs in

  13. Phase I study of intravenous iododeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with locally advanced (19 patients) or metastatic (5 patients) tumors were treated in a Phase I study combining constant intravenous infusions of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and hyperfractionated radiation therapy. IUdR was given as a constant infusion for 12 hours/day for two separate 14-day infusion periods in most patients. The dose of IUdR was escalated from 250 to 1200 mg/m2/12-hour infusion in this study. The initial tumor volume was treated to 45 Gy/1.5 Gy BID/3 weeks followed by a cone-down boost to 20-25 Gy/1.25 Gy BID/2 weeks after a planned 2-week break. THe IUdR infusion preceded the initial and cone-down irradiation by 1 week. Local acute toxicity (within the radiation volume) was uncommon and few patients required an alteration of the planned treatment schedule. Two patients developed late local toxicity with one patient showing clinical signs of radiation hepatitis and another patient developing a large bowel obstruction that required surgical bypass. Dose-limiting systemic toxicity was confined to the bone marrow with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia developing on Day 10-14 of infusions at 1200 mg/m2/12 hours. Mild stomatitis and partial alopecia occurred in some patients at this dose level. No systemic skin toxicity was seen. Pharmacology studies revealed steady-state arterial plasma levels of IUdR of 1 to 8 X 10(-6) M over the dose range used. In vivo IUdR incorporation into tumors was studied in three patients with high-grade sarcomas using an anti-IUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry and demonstrated incorporation in up to 50-70% of tumor cells. The preliminary treatment results, particularly in patients with unresectable sarcomas, are encouraging

  14. Phase I study of intravenous iododeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

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    Kinsella, T.J.; Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Collins, J.M.; Rowland, J.; Wright, D.; Glatstein, E.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty-four patients with locally advanced (19 patients) or metastatic (5 patients) tumors were treated in a Phase I study combining constant intravenous infusions of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and hyperfractionated radiation therapy. IUdR was given as a constant infusion for 12 hours/day for two separate 14-day infusion periods in most patients. The dose of IUdR was escalated from 250 to 1200 mg/m2/12-hour infusion in this study. The initial tumor volume was treated to 45 Gy/1.5 Gy BID/3 weeks followed by a cone-down boost to 20-25 Gy/1.25 Gy BID/2 weeks after a planned 2-week break. THe IUdR infusion preceded the initial and cone-down irradiation by 1 week. Local acute toxicity (within the radiation volume) was uncommon and few patients required an alteration of the planned treatment schedule. Two patients developed late local toxicity with one patient showing clinical signs of radiation hepatitis and another patient developing a large bowel obstruction that required surgical bypass. Dose-limiting systemic toxicity was confined to the bone marrow with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia developing on Day 10-14 of infusions at 1200 mg/m2/12 hours. Mild stomatitis and partial alopecia occurred in some patients at this dose level. No systemic skin toxicity was seen. Pharmacology studies revealed steady-state arterial plasma levels of IUdR of 1 to 8 X 10(-6) M over the dose range used. In vivo IUdR incorporation into tumors was studied in three patients with high-grade sarcomas using an anti-IUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry and demonstrated incorporation in up to 50-70% of tumor cells. The preliminary treatment results, particularly in patients with unresectable sarcomas, are encouraging.

  15. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Jiao Li; Da-Yong Wang; Hong-Yang Wang; Li Wang; Feng-Bo Yang; Lan Lan; Jing Guan

    2016-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing.However,the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood.This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL.Methods:One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study.These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics,audiological characteristics,laboratory examinations,and prognostic factors.Results:Among the 136 patients (151 ears),121 patients (121 ears,80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL,and 15 patients (30 ears,19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL.The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%,and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%.We found that initial degree of hearing loss,onset of treatment,tinnitus,the ascending type audiogram,gender,side of hearing loss,the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR),and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance.Age,ear fullness,and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery.Furthermore,the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts,22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels,65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP),33.8% had high IgE antibody levels,and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies.Conclusions:CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss.Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery,while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus,gender,the ascending type audiogram,early treatment,identifiable ABR waves,and DPOAEs.Age,vertigo,and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery.Some serologic indicators,including the level of WBC

  16. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF PREGNANCY

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    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period of profound immunologic, endocr ine, metabolic and vascular changes which are tolerated by the body for a relatively short time. Almost all pregnant women (90% may develop both physiologic and pathologic changes in the skin, nails, and hair which should be recognized and appropriately m anaged 1 . Moreover, pregnancy modifies the course of a number of pre - existing dermatological conditions. AIMS: To find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women i.e. physiological skin changes, dermatoses modified by pregnancy and spec ific dermatoses of pregnancy . DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted in wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at tertiary care centre between June 20 11 and November 2012 were studied. Patients not willing to give informed consent were only excluded. . Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: In our study age distribution of pregnancy, was in range of 16 - 30 years. Most of the cases belonged to 2 nd and 3 rd trimester (93%. Pigmentary changes were the most common non specific pregnancy dermatosis, seen in almost all cases. Of these linea nigra (87% being the commonest. Overall 54 cases showed specific dermatos es of pregnancy. Of these the most common was prurigo of pregnancy (12% followed by pruritus of pregnancy (4%, PUPPP (2%. Among the other dermatological conditions, scabies (16% was the commonest. Fungal infections were seen in 14%, viral infections in 8% and bacterial infections in 5%. CONCLUSION: Majority of the dermatoses associated with pregnancy were observed in third trimester and among multigravidas. Pigmentary changes was the commonest physiological change observed. Prurigo of pregnancy was the commonest specific dermatosis of pregnancy. There were no cases of dermatoses modified during pregnancy

  17. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

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    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  18. Long-term Clinical Course of Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Shigellosis: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lim, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A limited number of studies are available regarding the long-term natural history of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). We aimed to investigate the long-term clinical course of PI-IBS. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from a 2001 shigellosis outbreak in a Korean hospital with about 2000 employees. A cohort of 124 hospital employees who were infected by Shigella sonnei due to contaminated food in the cafeteria, and 105 sex- and age-matched, non-infected, controls were serially followed for their bowel symptoms by questionnaire surveys for 10 years. Results The Shigella-infected cohort showed significantly higher odds ratio for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at 1-year (11.90; 95% CI, 1.49–95.58) and 3-year (3.93; 95% CI, 1.20–12.86) follow-up, compared to their controls. However, corresponding odds ratio for PI-IBS was not significantly increased at 5-year (1.88; 95% CI, 0.64–5.54) and 8-year (1.87; 95% CI, 0.62–5.19) follow-up. At 10-year follow-up survey, the prevalence of IBS was similar for the Shigella-infected cohort and their controls (23.3% versus 19.7%, P = 0.703). Risk factors which were independently associated with PI-IBS among the Shigella-infected cohort included younger age, previous history of functional bowel disorder, and longer duration of diarrhea at baseline. Conclusions Patients who were infected by Shigella sonnei experienced significantly increased risk of IBS until 3 years after shigellosis, and modestly increased risk until 8 years, but showed similar risk of IBS with uninfected controls at 10 years post-infection. PI-IBS is quite a chronic disorder, and follows a long-term natural course. PMID:26908484

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY ON PATIENTS WITH DUODENAL ULCER PERFORATION

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    Kishore Babu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Perforated duodenal ulcer, the most catastrophic complication was Associated with high mortality in the past due to late presentation of the patients, delay in surgery and lack of antibiotics. Various authors state that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and perforation has been declining for the past 3 decades. Because of advances in the medical therapy of peptic ulcer with a wide range of drugs the management of peptic ulcer disease has been changing and the role of surgery has been declining. Perforation is usually seen in 3rd and 4th decades with a male preponderance and the epidemiological trend is not the same worldwide. Incidence is slightly declining in western countries. The present study has been done during the period between 2013 and 2014 in S. V. R. R. Government general hospital Tirupati. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study is to analyze the probable factors for increase in incidence of duodenal ulcer perforation, with particular emphasis on assessment of impact of H2 receptor antagonists and Proton Pump inhibitors on the incidence of perforation. STUDY SETTING S. V. Medical College, Department of General Surgery, Tirupati. STUDY PERIOD Patients attending S. V. Medical College, Department of General Surgery with perforation during the period from November 2013 to October 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients between age group of more than 14 years presenting with pain abdomen and who are diagnosed to have peritonitis due to duodenal ulcer perforation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patients with peritonitis due causes other than duodenal ulcer. STUDY METHOD Prospective Observational study among the selected patients. Total numbers of peptic ulcer cases that were admitted in this hospital and treated either medically or surgically were noted. The details of their clinical history and findings, investigation reports, operative findings, post-operative complications were recorded. Simple closure was performed for all the

  20. National study of continuity clinic satisfaction in pediatric fellowship training

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    Gangat M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Gangat,1 Genna W Klein,1 Hillel W Cohen,2 Rubina A Heptulla1 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: A national online survey was conducted to evaluate pediatric subspecialty fellow satisfaction regarding continuity clinic experience. Methods: An anonymous online survey (SurveyMonkey™ was developed to evaluate demographics of the program, clinic organization, and patient and preceptor characteristics, and to compare fellow satisfaction when fellows were the primary providers with faculty supervision versus attending-run clinics assisted by fellows or a combination of the two models. Pediatric subspecialty fellows in a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited program in the United States (excluding emergency medicine, neonatology, and critical care were invited to participate. Results: There were 644 respondents and nearly half (54% of these had fellow-run clinics. Eighty-six percent of fellows responded that they would prefer to have their own continuity clinics. Higher satisfaction ratings on maintaining continuity of care, being perceived as the primary provider, and feeling that they had greater autonomy in patient management were associated with being part of a fellow-run clinic experience (all P < 0.001. Additionally, fellow-run clinics were associated with a feeling of increased involvement in designing a treatment plan based on their differential diagnosis (P < 0.001. There were no significant associations with patient or preceptor characteristics. Conclusion: Fellow-run continuity clinics provide fellows with a greater sense of satisfaction and independence in management plans. Keywords: resident education/training, workforce, pediatric, patient-provider relationship, pediatric outpatient clinic