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Sample records for 8-mop mas uva

  1. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  2. Establishment of Mus Skin Photo-damage Model by 8-MOP plus UVA Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong; LI Jiawen; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    To establish a simple and reliable animal model of skin photo-damage, 20 mice were treated with 8-MOP and exposed to UVA (UVA 320-400 nm) for 24 h. After irradiation, the structure of the epidermis and dermis, collagen fibers, elastic fibers were observed by using HE staining and Weigert technique and compared with the normal controls. The acanthosis and epidemis proliferation with accompanying hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were observed. Inflammatory infiltration was noted in the dermis. The elastic fibers became coarse, irregularly arranged and clustered, with their number increased. The collagen fibers showed obvious degeneration and some amorphous materials could also be observed. The blood vessels were irregularly dilated and vascular walls were thickened, with infiltration of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that murine photodamage model can be quickly, conveniently and reliably established by means of 8-MOP/UVA.

  3. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs

  4. A comparison of systemic photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP and with trimethylpsoralen (TMP in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaske Vandana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral 8-MOP and TMP were compared in the PUVA therapy for vitiligo. Group A (25 cases was initiated on 0.3 mg/kg of 8-MOP with 1/2 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1/2 Joule/ cm2 and Group B was started on 0.6 mg/kg of TMP with 1 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1 Joule/cm2. Therapy was given thrice a week. Repigmentation was evaluated by using a 0-6 scale. At the end of 60 sittings, on acceptable cosmetic response was seen over the face, neck and upper extremities in both groups, while trunk and lower extremities showed lesser response. 8-MOP gave earlier response, needing a lower cumulative UVA dose i.e. 75 J/cm2 as compared to TMP i.e. 106 J/cm2. Phototoxicity was seen more often with 8-MOP. In conclusion, in Indians, 8-MOP is the drug of choice in PUVA therapy of vitiligo provided precautions against phototoxicity are adequate.

  5. Effect of 8-MOP plus treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts. (author)

  6. Influence of 8 MOP and monochromatic or polychromatic UV light on phagocytosis of neutrophil granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of granulocyte phagocytosis by 8-MOP and monochromatic or polychromatic UV light was investigated. After application of 8-MOP and UV there was an additional inactivation compared with UV alone, as expected from studies on other cell species. This additional inhibition of phagocytosis was found to be increasing with 8-MOP level. The action spectra of granulocyte inactivation by 8-MOP and UV involves the investigated UVB range (until 300 nm). A marked inactivation of granulocytes was seen after erythemogenic fluences only. Therefore it is assumed that inactivation of granulocytes by direct UV action does not play an essential role in UV therapy in vivo. (author)

  7. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ''male'' 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ''male'' 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ''male'' 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ''male'' 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author)

  8. 8-MOP PUVA for psoriasis: a comparison of a minimal phototoxic dose-based regimen with a skin-type approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.; Wainwright, N.J.; Amorim, I.; Lakshmipathi, T.; Ferguson, J. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Two ultraviolet A (UVA) regimens for oral 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) photochemotherapy (PUVA) for moderate/severe chronic plaque psoriasis using a half-body study technique were compared. Each patient received both regimens. A higher-dose regimen based on minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) with percentage incremental increases was given to one-half of the body. The other half received a lower dose regimen based on skin type with fixed incremental UVA increases. Patients were treated twice weekly. Symmetrical plaques were scored to determine the rate of resolution with each regimen. In addition, the number of treatments, cumulative UVA dose and number of days in treatment to achieve overall clearance were recorded. Patients were reviewed monthly for one year to record remission data. Thirty-three patients completed the study. Both regimens were effective and well tolerated. With the MPD-based approach, number of exposures was significantly less for patients with skin types I and II but not III. Although the cumulative UVA dose was higher with the MPD regimen for all skin types studied, the reduced number of exposures required for clearance for skin types I and II but not III, combined with the security of individualized MPD testing, has practical attractions. MPD testing also identified five patients who required an increased psoralen dose and six patients who required a reduction of the initial UVA dose with the skin type regimen. Forty-two percent were still clear 1 year after treatment and there was no significant difference in the number of days in remission between the regimens for those whose psoriasis had recurred. The reduction in the number of exposures required for clearance with the MPD-based regimen may be safer and more cost effective in the long term. (author).

  9. Distribution of 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites in rat organs after a single oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, H.C.; Andreasen, M.P.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrations of 3H-8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), its lipid- and water soluble metabolites and tritiated water have been measured in rat serum, liver, kidney, and skin, using liquid scintillation, thin-layer chromatography and other techniques. Radioactivity in whole blood, plasma, ovary, adrenals, and pancreas has also been measured. The radioactivty has been measured up to 1 week after medication, while 3H-8-MOP and metabolite concentrations have been measured from 10 min to 24 h after medication with a single dose of 1 mg 3H-8-MOP in solution/kg bodyweight. Maximum 8-MOP concentrations were seen from 10 to 30 min after dosing. The concentrations in microgram/kg 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h after medication were as follows: serum--686, 57, 2.1; liver--489, 45, 3.3; kidney--1708, 139, 4.3; and skin--55, 16, 3.8. The concentrations of water soluble metabolites were very high in the liver and only slightly lower in the kidney. The concentrations of these metabolites might accumulate after doses repeated 4 times a week. 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites would not show similar accumulation. Most of the radioactivity present after 1 week is due to trititated water.

  10. 8-MOP的光敏反应对DNA特定位置的致损伤作用%Photosensitive reaction of 8-MOP induce objective DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鸿燕; 王思雄; 胡小兵; 徐斌; 陈惠孙

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨末端标记8-甲氧基补骨脂素(8-MOP)的三螺旋结构寡核苷酸(TFO)对鸭乙肝病毒(DHBV)-DNA X/C区一目标基因的特异结合及定位损伤作用.材料方法:在一定条件下,将人工合成的3'末端标记有8-MOP的TFO与目标双链基因片断反应,用电泳转移杂交印迹和PCR法观察设计的复合物(TFo-P)对目标基因的结合以及在长波紫外线(UVA)的照射下8-MOP所致DNA交联及引起的PCR扩增阻止效应.结果:所设计合成的TFO-P能与细胞外DHBV-DNA的目标基因双链直接结合,随TFO-P含量的增加,TFO-P与目标双链形成的三聚体分子的产量明显增加;TFO-P与目标基因的反应物经一定剂量的320~380nmUVA照射后,目标序列的PCR扩增出现阻断现象.结论TFO-P能直接与目标DNA特异结合,形成三聚体产物,在UVA的进一步作用下,TFO-P能在目标序列的设定位置发生光敏反应,使DNA形成共价交联结构.

  11. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adducts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ('hot spots'). (author)

  12. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba; Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles; Kövér, Katalin E; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2016-08-01

    A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5J/cm(2)) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ-34+UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and -8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ-34+UVA causes DNA damage and caspase-mediated cell death independently of PARP-1 inhibition. PMID:27427773

  13. Studies of DNA and chromosome damage in skin fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes from psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, A.; Lambert, B.; Lindblad, A.; Swanbeck, G.; Wennersten, G.

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of human lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts in vitro to a single, clinically used dose of PUVA, i.e., 0.1 micrograms/ml of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 0.9-4 J/cm2 of longwave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), lead to the formation of DNA damage as determined by alkaline elution, and to chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). When lymphocyte-enriched plasma was obtained from psoriasis patients 2 h after oral intake of 8-MOP and then UVA irradiated (1.8-3.6 J/cm2) in vitro, an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and SCE was observed. Normal levels of chromosome aberrations and SCE were found in lymphocytes of psoriasis patients after 3-30 weeks of PUVA treatment in vivo. A small but statistically significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in the lymphocytes of psoriasis patients treated for 1-6 years with PUVA (mean 18.0 SCE/cell) as compared with before PUVA (mean 15.8, p less than 0.05). Skin fibroblasts of psoriasis patients analyzed 5 years after the start of PUVA treatment showed a normal number of SCE but a high fraction of filter-retained DNA in the alkaline elution assay, suggesting the presence of cross-linked DNA.

  14. Preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad mutants after induction of interstrand cross-links by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniel, V; Magaña-Schwencke, N; Averbeck, D

    1995-11-01

    The gene specific induction and the incision step of the removal of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA-induced interstrand cross-links (ICL) was measured in repair mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Events were examined at the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci in mutants deficient in the repair of ICL, namely rad1, rad2 delta, rad52, pso2 and the rad16 mutant which is impaired in the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent HML alpha locus. Previously, we observed in a wild-type strain (K107) preferential repair concerning the incision of 8-MOP photo-induced ICL. The present study indicates that the two mutants rad1 and rad2 delta show no repair in either locus, due presumably to their deficiency in the incision step of ICL repair. The rad52 mutant which is defective in recombination, is proficient in the preferential incision of ICL at the MAT alpha locus versus the HML alpha locus. The same is true for the pso2 mutant which also lacks the ability to perform complete repair of ICL. The rad16 mutant is unable to repair ICL in the silent locus HML alpha but is proficient in repair (i.e. the incision of ICL) in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus.

  15. 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen photochemistry: the effect of concentration and UVA fluence on photoadduct formation in poly(dA-dT) and calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroskar, A.; Peak, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Olack, G.; Gasparro, F.P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Dermatology

    1994-12-01

    The photochemistry of 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) with poly(dA-dT) and calf thymus DNA was studied. The extent of photoadduct formation and the distribution of photoadducts (3,4-and 4`,5`-monoadducts and crosslinks) were determined by liquid scintillation analysis and HPLC, respectively. The adducts were characterized on the basis of their UV absorption spectra and mass spectral analysis. The high DNA binding constant for AMT (1.5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}) led to a high fraction of intercalated molecules, which contributed to the high level of AMT photoadduct formation, as many as 102 adducts per kilobase pair. In addition, there is a distinct difference in the adduct distribution compared to the previously studied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). Under the conditions employed for the photochemical studies, virtually all of the AMT molecules in solution are intercalated, occupying 25% of the base pair sites. Under similar conditions, 8-MOP molecules occupied 10 times fewer sites. Thus, for AMT, DNA base pair sites other than 5`TA, the well-characterized strong binding for psoralens in general, are an additional target for photomodification, which results in the formation of a higher percentage of monoadducts. The proportion of photoadducts formed was virtually independent of AMT concentration and UVA (320-400 nm radiation) fluence. (author).

  16. Main: 1UVA [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1UVA イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. Nonspecific Lipid-Transfer Protein 1 Precursor Oryza S...4 Da MARAQLVLVALVAALLLAAPHAAVAITCGQVNSAVGPCLTYARGGAGPSAACCSGVRSLFAAASTTADRRTACNCLKNAARGIKGLNAGNAASIPSKCGVSVPYTISASIDCSRVS rice_1UVA.jpg ...

  17. Photopheresis with UV-A light and 8-methoxypsoralen leads to cell death and to release of blebs with anti-inflammatory phenotype in activated and non-activated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, K. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Frey, B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Munoz, L.E.; Finzel, S.; Rech, J. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Hueber, A. [Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gaipl, U.S., E-mail: udo.gaipl@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis is a therapy for treatment of autoimmune diseases, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, organ graft rejection as well as graft-versus-host diseases. The exact mechanism how the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen plus UV-A irradiation (PUVA) acts is still unclear. We investigated the cell death of activated and non-activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment as well as the rate of released blebs and their antigen composition. Results: In presence of 8-MOP, UV-A light highly significantly increased the cell death of activated lymphocytes. The same was observed to a lesser extent in non-activated cells. Blebs derived from activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment showed the highest surface exposition of phosphatidylserine. These blebs also displayed a high exposure of the antigens CD5 and CD8 as well as a low exposure of CD28 and CD86. Conclusion: PUVA treatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inducing apoptosis and apoptotic cell-derived blebs with immune suppressive surface composition.

  18. Influence of solar UVA on erythemal irradiances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Turnbull, D J; Kimlin, M G

    2006-06-21

    Many materials in everyday use such as window glass in homes and offices, glass in sunrooms and greenhouses, vehicle glass and some brands of sunscreens act as a barrier to the shorter UVB wavelengths while transmitting some of the longer UVA wavelengths. This paper reports on the erythemal exposures due to the UVA waveband encountered over a 12-month period for a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 4 degrees to 80 degrees and the resulting times required for an erythemal exposure of one standard erythemal dose (SED) due to the erythemal exposures to the UVA wavelengths. The minimum time for an exposure of one SED due to the UVA wavelengths in winter is approximately double that what it is in summer. The time period of 40 to 60 min was the most frequent length of time for an exposure of one SED with 60 to 80 min the next frequent length of time required for a one SED exposure. PMID:16757874

  19. Influence of solar UVA on erythemal irradiances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, A V [Centre for Rural and Remote Area Health, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Turnbull, D J [Centre for Rural and Remote Area Health, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Kimlin, M G [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld (Australia)

    2006-06-21

    Many materials in everyday use such as window glass in homes and offices, glass in sunrooms and greenhouses, vehicle glass and some brands of sunscreens act as a barrier to the shorter UVB wavelengths while transmitting some of the longer UVA wavelengths. This paper reports on the erythemal exposures due to the UVA waveband encountered over a 12-month period for a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 4{sup 0} to 80{sup 0} and the resulting times required for an erythemal exposure of one standard erythemal dose (SED) due to the erythemal exposures to the UVA wavelengths. The minimum time for an exposure of one SED due to the UVA wavelengths in winter is approximately double that what it is in summer. The time period of 40 to 60 min was the most frequent length of time for an exposure of one SED with 60 to 80 min the next frequent length of time required for a one SED exposure.

  20. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  1. In vitro UV-A protection factor (PF-UVA) of organic and inorganic sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; El-Boury, S; Paparis, E; Sébille-Rivain, V; Coiffard, L J M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of various sunscreen agents incorporated into an O/W emulsion. Within the scope of this study only an in vitro method was used. According to selected filter UVA, we can obtain more or less effective creams. With the seven available filters, we can cover a range of values between 2 and 12. In addition to these seven filters absorbing in UVA range, variously coated titanium dioxide and zinc oxide were tested as well. So it appears that the best organic UVA filter is anisotriazine at 10% (PF-UVA = 11.82). Its effectiveness is comparable with that of the titanium dioxide forms used at 25%. Photostability in Suntest showed that the more photostable UVA-filters are the benzophenones. PMID:19630696

  2. [Riboflavin UVA cross-linking for keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P; Reinhard, T

    2013-09-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive, ectatic disease of the cornea leading to thinning and highly irregular astigmatism. Until recently all treatment options, such as prescription of glasses or contact lenses were symptomatic and neither keratoplasty nor the implantation of intracorneal rings can heal the disease. Riboflavin ultraviolet A (UVA) collagen cross-linking (CXL) cannot heal keratoconus either but promises to halt the progression. The therapeutic principle is a photochemical reaction of riboflavin and UVA light leading to free oxygen radicals in the corneal stroma that induce covalent linking of the collagen fibrils. This stiffening effect should stop the progression. After the first reports at the end of the 1990s the treatment was widely used and many case series show that CXL can be effective in stopping disease progression in some patients. However, randomized, controlled multicenter trials showing high evidence of the treatment effectiveness are rare. This report includes a review of the literature regarding treatment effectiveness, indications and new developments. PMID:23760423

  3. Utilising polyphenylene oxide for high exposure solar UVA dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Turnbull

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A personal UV dosimeter that can quantitatively assess high exposure solar UVA exposures has been developed. The chemical polyphenylene oxide has been previously reported on its ability to measure high UVB exposures. This current research has found that polyphenylene oxide, cast in thin film form, is responsive to both the UVA and UVB parts of the solar spectrum. Further to this, the UVB wavelengths were filtered out with the use of mylar. This combined system responded to the UVA wavelengths only and underwent a change in optical absorbance as a result of UVA exposure. Preliminary results indicate that this UVA dosimeter saturates steadily when exposed to sunlight and can measure exposures of more than 20 MJ/m2 of solar UVA radiation with an uncertainty level of no more than ±5%.

  4. Utilising polyphenylene oxide for high exposure solar UVA dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Turnbull

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the University of Southern Queensland have developed a personal UV dosimeter that can quantitatively assess high exposure solar UVA exposures. The chemical polyphenylene oxide has been previously reported on its ability to measure high UVB exposures. This current research has found that polyphenylene oxide, cast in thin film form, is responsive to both the UVA and UVB parts of the solar spectrum. Further to this, the UVB wavelengths were filtered out with the use of mylar. This combined system responded to the UVA wavelengths only and underwent a change in optical absorbance as a result of UVA exposure. Preliminary results indicate that this UVA dosimeter saturates steadily when exposed to sunlight and can measure exposures of more than 20 MJ/m2 of solar UVA radiation with an uncertainty level of no more than ±5%.

  5. Toxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on lymphocyte division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, H.C.; Wettermark, G.

    1977-12-12

    Cultured human leucocytes have been used to examine the toxicity and phototoxicity of 8-methoxy psoralen (8-MOP). It has been shown that 8-MOP depresses cell turnover at concentrations of 10(--10) M or above. In black light (UVA), 8-MOP inhibition begins at concentrations of 10(--14) M. Patients treated for psoriasis with 8-MOP show concentrations of 10(--6(-10(--7) M. The inhibition of cell turnover observed with the present technique is at this concentration 40 percent for 8-MOP alone and 70 percent for 8-MOP and black light. These results can be related to the micronuclei and chromosome abnormalities seen in dividing cells.

  6. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Han; Changhong Wang; Guoxing Yi

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiagent system (MAS) has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coo...

  7. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599

  8. UVA Phototransduction Drives Early Melanin Synthesis in Human Melanocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine L Wicks; Chan, Jason W.; Najera, Julia A.; Ciriello, Jonathan M.; Oancea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful carcinogen [1] comprising ~95% UVA and ~5% UVB at the Earth’s surface, promotes melanin synthesis in epidermal melanocytes [2, 3], which protects skin from DNA damage [4, 5]. UVB causes DNA lesions [6] that lead to transcriptional activation of melanin-producing enzymes, resulting in delayed skin pigmentation within days [7]. In contrast, UVA causes primarily oxidative damage [8] and leads to immediate pigment darkening (...

  9. Albedo Measurement System for UVA and the Visible Wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument system to measure the UVA and visible albedo from the snow capped mountain ranges has been built. Albedo is the ratio between the incoming radiation and the reflected radiation for a given location. Measuring albedo of the UVA and the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) wavelength range involves measuring the global irradiance and the reflections from the slopes around the measuring location. This system can be installed in any mountain peak to measure the reflectivity around the snow covered slopes. Global irradiance is measured by a standard global sensor using a Gigahertz UVA head and a home built UVA head. The UVA reflection is measured by an 1 deg. telescope fitted with a home built UVA head. The home built UVA detector systems have been built using Hamamatsu silicon UV diodes and temperature stabilized using Peltier elements driven by a closed loop feedback control system. Two such similar systems have been built and used for directional and global measurements for direct comparison. PAR reflection is measured by a standard area CCD camera fitted with a wide angle lens and an optical filter. Global PAR is measured by using LI-COR Quantum sensors. The telescope and the CCD camera have been mounted on an Alta-Azimuth mount for scanning the surface around the peak to measure the reflectivity. A set of reflection standards along with the global PAR sensor has been mounted on a boom and fixed with the azimuth table. These reflection standards are visible in the field of view of the CCD camera. This provides the reference pixels in every CCD image that can be used to calibrate the rest of the CCD pixels. This system has been used to make the albedo images at the Zugspitze for the CUVRA (Characteristic of Ultra Violet Radiation in the Alps) project. Preliminary results are shown here. (author)

  10. Comparison of UVA induced cytotoxicity by iodoHoechst isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Isomers of the DNA minor groove binding ligand, iodoHoechst, have been shown to sensitise DNA to cleavage by ultraviolet type A (UVA). The DNA damage has been attributed to formation of a carbon-centred radical upon UVA induced dehalogenation of the drugs. Comparison of the efficacy of the ligands in inducing DNA single strand breaks in plasmid DNA has indicated that the ortho isomer is more efficient than the para- and meta-isomers, mainly due to a greater cross-section for dehalogenation, and to some extent from increased efficiency of DNA damage per dehalogenation event. In the present study, the efficiency of dehalogenation and cytotoxicity of the three iodoHoechst isomers has been compared in human erythroleukemic, K562 cells. The uptake of the iodoHoechst compounds in K562 nuclei has been measured, and the photoefficiency of the cellular associated dehalogenation by UVA has been established for the three isomers. The results indicate that the sensitivity to UVA mediated dehalogenation is much higher for the ortho analogue compared to the para and meta-analogues. Values of the UVA D37 doses for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 49 ± 2, 327 ± 29 and 251 ± 32 J/m2 , respectively. Clonogenic survival assays have been used to compare the efficiency of sensitisation of cells to UVA irradiation by the analogues. The ortho analogue exhibits higher efficiency compared to the meta and para analogues. The numbers of dehalogenation events required for cell kill have been calculated from the clonogenic survival at various levels of drug uptake, and the results for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 1.2x104 , 3.9x104 and 11.6x104 , respectively. These results indicate that the ortho analogue is the most efficient isomer in sensitising cell kill by UVA irradiation due to both the high quantum yield for dehalogenation and the higher cytotoxic efficiency of dehalogenation events

  11. Effects of arsenite and UVA-1 radiation on calcineurin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musson, Ruben E.A., E-mail: rm@ream.nl [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon H.F. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Smit, Nico P.M. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Calcineurin is a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase and the target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin and tacrolimus, which are used in transplant recipients to prevent rejection. Unfortunately, the therapeutic use of this drugs is complicated by a high incidence of skin malignancy, which has set off a number of studies into the role of calcineurin signaling in skin, particularly with respect to cell cycle control and DNA repair. Both UVA1 radiation and arsenic species are known to promote skin cancer development via production of reactive oxygen species. In light of the well-documented sensitivity of calcineurin to oxidative stress, we examined and compared the effects of UVA1 and arsenite on calcineurin signaling. In this paper, we show that physiologically relevant doses of UVA1 radiation and low micromolar concentrations of arsenite strongly inhibit calcineurin phosphatase activity in Jurkat and skin cells and decrease NFAT nuclear translocation in Jurkat cells. The effects on calcineurin signaling could be partly prevented by inhibition of NADPH oxidase in Jurkat cells or increased dismutation of superoxide in Jurkat and skin cells. In addition, both UVA1 and arsenite decreased NF-{kappa}B activity, although at lower concentrations, arsenite enhanced NF-{kappa}B activity. These data indicate that UVA1 and arsenite affect a signal transduction route of growingly acknowledged importance in skin and that calcineurin may serve as a potential link between ROS exposure and impaired tumor suppression.

  12. Enhancement of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions by a single exposure to UV-A or PUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of irradiation with UV-A and PUVA (8-methoxy-psoralen and UV-A) on delayed hypersensitivity reactions to microbial antigens was studied in healthy human individuals. Skin reactions to Candida albicans antigen and PPD were enhanced by UV-A als well as by PUVA compared with nonirradiated tests. A statistically significant difference was reached with UV-A for both antigens. For PUVA, erythemogenic doses to Candida tests produced a significant increase of response. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2016-03-01

    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  14. Impactos socioambientais e de segurança do alimento na gestão da produção integrada de uvas finas de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procurou identificar e analisar os impactos socioambientais e de Segurança do
    Alimento do processo de certificação da produção de uvas finas de mesa no programa de
    Produção Integrada de Uva (PI-UVA recentemente implantado na região do Submédio do
    Vale do rio São Francisco, no município de Petrolina. A metodologia adotada baseou-se em
    um estudo de caso, analisando-se o processo de certificação vivenciado por uma média
    empresa da região. Os resultados obtidos apontam que a certificação não é só
    compensadora em termos de abertura e manutenção de importantes fatias do mercado
    externo, mas, mesmo internamente apresenta vantagens ao nível do controle operacional e
    satisfação no trabalho entre seus funcionários

  15. Efeito da safra vitícola na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os fatores que interferem na composição e na qualidade do vinho, destaca-se a safra vitícola, com suas variações climáticas. Com este objetivo, avaliou-se o efeito das safras de 1999, 2000 e 2001 na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha. Nesse sentido, foram selecionados vinte e dois produtores de uva Isabel de onze municípios dessa região. Por ocasião da maturação, para as avaliações da uva e do mosto e a elaboração das microvinificações, foram colhidos 60kg de uva de cada viticultor. A safra vitícola interferiu significativamente no peso do cacho e da baga, mas não alterou a relação peso da ráquis/peso do cacho. No mosto, observaram-se diferenças em todas as variáveis, exceto para a relação degreesBrix/acidez total. No vinho, teve efeito na maior parte das variáveis avaliadas, com exceção aos cátions K, Mn, Cu e Rb. Em geral, a safra de 1999 foi a melhor, pois apresentou parâmetros mais adequados de acidez total, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, alcalinidade das cinzas, taninos, antocianinas e glicerol, variáveis essas que determinam a estrutura e a cor dos vinhos, importantes fatores para sua qualidade.

  16. Interlamellar cohesion after corneal crosslinking using riboflavin and UVA

    OpenAIRE

    Wollensak, Gregor; Spörl, Eberhard; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Kalinski, Thomas; Sel, Saadettin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT Aims: Collagen crosslinking (CXL) treatment of progressive keratoconus using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light of 370 nm wavelength has been shown to increase significantly the tensile strength of corneal collagen by about 300%. In keratoconus, interlamellar and interfibrillar slippage have been proposed as pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of CXL on the interlamellar cohesive force. Methods: 72 po...

  17. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress.

  18. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by Fe(III)/UVA and Fe(III)/polycarboxylate/UVA photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; Fernández, G; Beltrán, F J

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) under UVA irradiation in the presence of Fe(III) or Fe(III)-polycarboxylate systems was studied. The effect of Fe(III) concentration, aqueous pH and the presence of four carboxylic acids (oxalic, malic, tartaric and citric) were investigated. The Fe(III)/UVA system was able to effectively degrade BPA at pH 3 but failed at pH > 4. At any rate, no mineralization of BPA was achieved with the Fe(III)/UVA system. The presence of carboxylic acids greatly enhanced the BPA degradation rate because of the formation of photoactive Fe(III)-polycarboxylate complexes. Aqueous pH in the 3-7 range exerted a negative effect on the BPA degradation rate and TOC conversion in the presence of oxalic, malic and tartaric acids. Only slight effect of pH was observed in the presence of citric acid, being the BPA degradation rate significant even at pH 7.

  19. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  20. Effect of UVA Fluence Rate on Indicators of Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hoerter, Christopher S. Ward, Kyle D. Bale, Admasu N. Gizachew, Rachelle Graham, Jaclyn Reynolds, Melanie E. Ward, Chesca Choi, Jean-Leonard Kagabo, Michael Sauer, Tara Kuipers, Timothy Hotchkiss, Nate Banner, Renee A. Chellson, Theresa Ohaeri, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a day human skin is exposed to solar UV radiation that fluctuates in fluence rate within the UVA (290-315 nm and UVB (315-400 nm spectrum. Variables affecting the fluence rate reaching skin cells include differences in UVA and UVB penetrating ability, presence or absence of sunscreens, atmospheric conditions, and season and geographical location where the exposure occurs. Our study determined the effect of UVA fluence rate in solar-simulated (SSR and tanning-bed radiation (TBR on four indicators of oxidative stress---protein oxidation, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and reactive oxygen species--in human dermal fibroblasts after receiving equivalent UVA and UVB doses. Our results show that the higher UVA fluence rate in TBR increases the level of all four indicators of oxidative stress. In sequential exposures when cells are exposed first to SSR, the lower UVA fluence rate in SSR induces a protective response that protects against oxidative stress following a second exposure to a higher UVA fluence rate. Our studies underscore the important role of UVA fluence rate in determining how human skin cells respond to a given dose of radiation containing both UVA and UVB radiation.

  1. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  2. Period of remission after treatment with UVA-1 in sclerodermic skin diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, E.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sclerodermic skin diseases can cause severe morbidity and disability. UVA-1 has shown to be an effective therapy for sclerodermic skin diseases. However, the period of remission in these patients is not clear. In this study, the effect and remission period of UVA-1 phototherapy in variou

  3. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiation may change the chemical structure of vitamins that may change the role of such endogenous photosensitizers in UVA mediated mechanisms. Vitamins were irradiated in solution using monochromatic UVB (308 nm) or UVA (330, 355, or 370 nm) radiation. Singlet oxygen was directly detected and quantified by its luminescence at 1270 nm. All investigated molecules generated singlet oxygen with a quantum yield ranging from 0.007 (vitamin D3) to 0.64 (nicotinamide) independent of the excitation wavelength. Moreover, pre-irradiation of vitamins with UVB changed their absorption in the UVB and UVA spectral range. Subsequently, molecules such as vitamin E and vitamin K1, which normally exhibit no singlet oxygen generation in the UVA, now produce singlet oxygen when exposed to UVA at 355 nm. This interplay of different UV sources is inevitable when applying serial or parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in experiments in vitro. These results should be of particular importance for parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in vivo, e.g. when exposing the skin to solar radiation. PMID:24691875

  4. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  5. A Construction Way of MAS Based on Organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    With emphasizing that the integration of autonomy and coordination is the basis for constructing multi-agent systems (MAS), we analyze the organizational characters inherent with MAS and point out that it's a natural and essential way to construct MAS based on organization theory. We consider that the emphasis of the theory is the process of system analyzing. Then we present an analysis frame to expound the process, which includes the process of organization definition, the process of role definition, the process of organizational structure definition and the process of interaction protocol definition. Lastly, we discuss some issues associated with the processes of system design and implementation.

  6. Estudo cinético da secagem da uva Isabel para produção de uva passa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vitor Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura é um dos segmentos mais importantes na agricultura nacional, porém um grande problema enfrentado pelos fruticultores é a conservação dos frutos maduros. A falta de tecnologias adequadas para o melhor aproveitamento dos frutos tem resultado em um alto índice de desperdício, cerca de toneladas ano. A uva Isabel, é uma das principais variedades Vitis labrusca, que apresenta sabor característico e pigmentação bastante acentuada, destacando-se como uva de mesa comum, apresentando-se como uma variedade de grande aceitação pelo consumidor e pela indústria de alimentos. A desidratação de frutas vem sendo objeto de muitas pesquisas com o propósito de se obter técnicas que proporcionem, além de baixo custo de produção, a manutenção da qualidade dos produtos desidratados e a redução das perdas pós-colheita. Neste sentido o presente trabalho objetivou estudar a secagem da uva Isabel para obtenção de uva passa desidratada, visando obter informações sobre a qualidade do fruto in-natura e após processamento, realizando-se para isto à caracterização físico-química do fruto in-natura e desidratado. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável,  umidade, atividade de água e do teor de antocianinas nos Laboratórios de Tecnologia da UFERSA e UFCG. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os frutos desidratados apresentaram um incremento nos teores de sólidos solúveis (de 11,17 para 45° brix, da acidez titulável (de 0,73 para 1,34% e do teor de antocianina, que foi elevado de 117,83 mg/100g para 380,52 mg/100g de fruto desidratado, e redução quanto aos valores de umidade (de 85,65 para 21,75% e atividade de água (de 0,90 para 0,66, estes valores de nutrientes apresentaram-se próximos aos relatados na literatura demonstrando que a secagem solar é uma excelente alternativa para a conservação da uva Isabel, contribuindo assim para redução das perdas pós-colheita e com a

  7. Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, David J; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Willis, Gareth; Thornhill, Laurence; Weller, Richard B; James, Philip E; Easton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance exercise performance. Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A light also increases NO bioavailability and reduces BP. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of UV-A light alone and in combination with nitrate on the responses to sub-maximal steady-state exercise and time trial (TT) performance. Nine cyclists (VO2max 53.1 ± 4.4 ml/kg/min) completed five performance trials comprising 10 min submaximal steady-state cycling followed by a 16.1 km TT. Following a familiarization the final four trials were preceded, in random order, by either (1) Nitrate gels (NIT) + UV-A, (2) Placebo (PLA) + UV-A, (3) NIT + Sham light (SHAM) and (4) PLA + SHAM (control). The NIT gels (2 × 60 ml gels, ~8.1 mmol nitrate) or a low-nitrate PLA were ingested 2.5 h prior to the trial. The light exposure consisted of 20 J/cm(2) whole body irradiation with either UV-A or SHAM light. Plasma nitrite was measured pre- and post-irradiation and VO2 was measured continuously during steady-state exercise. Plasma nitrite was higher for NIT + SHAM (geometric mean (95% CI), 332 (292-377) nM; P = 0.029) and NIT + UV-A (456 (312-666) nM; P = 0.014) compared to PLA + SHAM (215 (167-277) nM). Differences between PLA + SHAM and PLA + UV-A (282 (248-356) nM) were small and non-significant. During steady-state exercise VO2 was reduced following NIT + UVA (P = 0.034) and tended to be lower in NIT + SHAM (P = 0.086) but not PLA + UV-A (P = 0.381) compared to PLA + SHAM. Performance in the TT was significantly faster following NIT + UV-A (mean ± SD 1447 ± 41 s P = 0.005; d = 0.47), but not PLA + UV-A (1450 ± 40 s; d = 0.41) or NIT + SHAM (1455 ± 47 s; d = 0.28) compared to PLA + SHAM (1469 ± 52 s). These findings demonstrate that exposure to UV-A light alone does not alter the physiological responses to exercise or improve

  8. Protective effect of UV-A radiation during acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to UV-B treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štroch, Michal; Materová, Zuzana; Vrábl, Daniel; Karlický, Václav; Šigut, Ladislav; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír

    2015-11-01

    We examined the acclimation response of the photosynthetic apparatus of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to a combination of UV-A and UV-B radiation (UVAB) and to UV-B radiation alone. Our aim was to evaluate whether UV-A radiation prevents UV-B-induced damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and whether UV-A pre-acclimation is required to mitigate the negative influence of UV-B radiation. Barley plants were grown from seeds under low photosynthetically active radiation (50 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) either in the absence or presence of UV-A radiation (UVA- and UVA+ plants, respectively). After 8 days of development, plants were exposed simultaneously to UV-A and UV-B radiation for the next 6 days. Additionally, UVA- plants were exposed to UV-B radiation alone. The UVA+ plants had a higher CO2 assimilation rate near the light-saturation region (A(N)) and a higher content of both total chlorophylls (Chls) and total carotenoids than the UVA- plants. Chls content, A(N), the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (F(V)/F(M)), the capacity of light-induced thermal energy dissipation and the efficiency of excitation energy transfer within PSII remained the same or even increased in both UVA+ and UVA- plants after UVAB treatment. On the contrary, exposure of UVA- plants to UV-B radiation itself led to a reduction in all these characteristics. We revealed that the presence of UV-A radiation during UVAB treatment not only mitigated but completely eliminated the negative effect of UV-B radiation on the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and that UV-A pre-acclimation was not crucial for development of this UV-A-induced resistance against UV-B irradiation. PMID:26233710

  9. Effects of long-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation on the growth of Anacystis Nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Anacystis nidulans cells which had been grown under visible light only (>390 nm) was suppressed by long-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-A, 320-390 nm) radiation. The growth resumed after 24 h. Cells grown under UV-A supplemented light contained less chlorophyll and phycocyanin and more carotenoid than control cells. The finding that UV-A radiation inhibited the rate of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthesis indicated that the decreases in the photosynthetic pigments were mainly due to the inhibition of their biosynthesis rather than to photodestruction of pigments by UV-A radiation. The primary cause of the inhibitory effects seems to be the inhibition of the photosynthetic process which can be measured as the rho-benzoquinone Hill reaction. Previous exposure to UV-A radiation conferred some resistance on the cells to this inhibitory radiation. Thus UV-A radiation itself may activate a system that repairs damage caused by UV-A radiation and/or protects against the radiation. (author)

  10. POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y PEROXIDASA DE PULPA DE UVA CAIMARONA (Pourouma cecropiifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Patricia Rivera Camelo; Patricia Restrepo; Carlos Eduardo Narvaez Cuenca

    2008-01-01

    Las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO) y peroxidasa (POD) fueron extraídas de la pulpa de uva caimarona (Pouroumacecropiifolia) y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para PFO se encontró un pH óptimo de 7,0, temperatura óptima de 45 °C y KM de 0,42 mM con L-Dopa como sustrato. Para POD se halló un pH óptimode 6,0, temperatura óptima de 37 °C y valores de KM de 2,0mMpara guayacol y 0,72 mM para H2O2. El perfil electroforéticomostró ci...

  11. Role of Pin1 in UVA-induced cell proliferation and malignant transformation in epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Pin1 expression is enhanced by low energy UVA irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. → UVA irradiation increases activator protein-1 activity and cyclin D1 in a Pin1-dependent manner. → UVA potentiates EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth of epidermal cells, and this is suppressed by Pin1 inhibition or by anti-oxidant. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation (λ = 320-400 nm) is considered a major cause of human skin cancer. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, is overexpressed in most types of cancer tissues and plays an important role in cell proliferation and transformation. Here, we demonstrated that Pin1 expression was enhanced by low energy UVA (300-900 mJ/cm2) irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. Exposure of epidermal cells to UVA radiation increased cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression, and these changes were blocked by Pin1 inhibition. UVA irradiation also increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) minimal reporter activity and nuclear levels of c-Jun, but not c-Fos, in a Pin1-dependent manner. The increases in Pin1 expression and in AP-1 reporter activity in response to UVA were abolished by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Finally, we found that pre-exposure of JB6 C141 cells to UVA potentiated EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth, and this effect was significantly suppressed by Pin1inhibition or by NAC.

  12. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...... with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on normal buttock skin (n=12), on UVB-irradiated buttock skin (n=21), on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 (n=12), and on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 and thereafter irradiated with UVB (n=22). Sensitization on UVB-irradiated skin reduced the immunization rate...

  13. A multifunctional, light-activated prochelator inhibits UVA-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Andrew T; Wang, Qin; Franz, Katherine J

    2015-11-01

    UVA radiation can damage cells and tissues by direct photodamage of biomolecules as well as by initiating metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. In order to alleviate both concerns simultaneously, we synthesized a multifunctional prochelator PC-HAPI (2-((E)-1-(2-isonicotinoylhydrazono)ethyl)phenyl (trans)-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate) that contains a trans-(o-hydroxy)cinnamate ester photocleavable protecting group that is cleaved upon UVA exposure to release a coumarin, umbelliferone, and an aroylhydrazone metal chelator, HAPI (N'-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyliden]isonicotinoylhydrazide). While the prochelator PC-HAPI exhibits negligible affinity for iron, it responds rapidly to UVA irradiation and converts to an iron-binding chelator that inhibits iron-catalyzed formation of reactive oxygen species and protects cells from UVA damage.

  14. EMPREGO DE EMBALAGENS PARA CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA DE UVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josalba Vidigal de Castro

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho avaliou-se o uso de filmes plásticos (polietileno de 0,05 e 0,08 mm de espessura, 'Everfreshbag' e sacolinhas sanfonadas, de caixas de madeira e de papelão ondulado na qualidade de uvas Itália, durante armazenamento refrigerado. Os cachos de uva foram avaliados semanalmente quanto a percentagem de perda de peso, a taxa de desgrana, a mudança de cor das bagas, a ocorrência de bagas deterioradas, ao aspecto do cacho e a qualidade do engaço. Considerando-se em conjunto os vários parâmetros de qualidade da uva avaliados, constatou-se que a embalagem sacolinha plástica demonstrou ser adequada para conservar uvas Itália por até seis semanas em refrigeração.

  15. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects

  16. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud [New York Blood Center, NY (United States); Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 {mu}g/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm{sup 2} UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; {>=} 5.5 log{sub 10}) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter ({<=} 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author).

  17. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  18. Modulation of cathepsin G expression in severe atopic dermatitis following medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy (50 J/cm2 has achieved great value within the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis (AD. The purpose of our study was to investigate to what extent UVA1 irradiation is able to modulate the status of protease activity by the use of a monoclonal antibody labeling cathepsin G. Methods In order to further elucidate the mechanisms by which medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to an improvement of skin status in patients with AD, biopsy specimens from 15 patients before and after treatment were analyzed immunohistochemically for proteolytic activation. Results Compared to lesional skin of patients with AD before UVA1 irradiation, the number of cells positive for cathepsin G within the dermal infiltrate decreased significantly after treatment. The decrease of cathepsin G+ cells was closely linked to a substantial clinical improvement in skin condition. Conclusions In summary, our findings demonstrated that medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to a modulation of the expression of cathepsin G in the dermal inflammatory infiltrate in patients with severe AD. Cathepsin G may attack laminin, proteoglycans, collagen I and insoluble fibronectin, to provoke proinflammatory events, to degrade the basement membrane, to destroy the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and to increase the endothelial permeability. Therefore, its down-regulation by UVA1 phototherapy may induce the reduction of skin inflammation as well as improvement of the skin condition.

  19. Effects of Narrowband UVB, UVA1 and PUVA Treatments on Dermoscopic Features of Melanocytic Nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Karaca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Ultraviolet (UV radiation can effect dermoscopic features of melanocytic nevi by inducing melanin synthesis or melanocyte proliferation. Although UV radiation has widespread usage in the treatment of several skin diseases, only few studies of its effect on dermoscopic features of melanocytic nevi have been performed to date. The present study was designed to determine the effects of narrowband UVB, UVA1 and psoralen and UVA (PUVA treatments on dermoscopic features of melanocytic nevi. Material and Method: A total 55 patients who referred to our phototherapy unit for the treatment of miscellaneous skin disorders were enrolled in this prospective study. 21 patients underwent narrowband UVB, 18 patients underwent UVA1 and 16 patients underwent PUVA treatment. Dermoscopic images of 233 nevi in narrowband UVB group, 233 nevi in UVA1 group and 229 nevi in PUVA group were evaluated for the alterations in dermoscopic structures at the end of three months. Total dermoscopic scores (TDS of melanocytic nevi were calculated according to ABCD rule. Results: The size of melanocytic nevi in all therapy groups did not show any statistically significant increase. Narrowband UVB, UVA1, PUVA cause statistically significant changes in dermoscopic structures of melanocytic nevi. In narrowband UVB therapy group de novo dot formation was documented (p=0,002. The mean TDS of nevi did not show any significant change. Conclusion: Narrowband UVB, UVA1 and PUVA therapies have significant effects on dermoscopic features of melanocytic nevi. Only in narrowband UVB group de novo dot formation was observed.

  20. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions. (paper)

  1. An MAS-Based ETL Approach for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Boussaïd, Omar; Darmont, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    In a data warehousing process, the phase of data integration is crucial. Many methods for data integration have been published in the literature. However, with the development of the Internet, the availability of various types of data (images, texts, sounds, videos, databases...) has increased, and structuring such data is a difficult task. We name these data, which may be structured or unstructured, "complex data". In this paper, we propose a new approach for complex data integration, based on a Multi-Agent System (MAS), in association to a data warehousing approach. Our objective is to take advantage of the MAS to perform the integration phase for complex data. We indeed consider the different tasks of the data integration process as services offered by agents. To validate this approach, we have actually developed an MAS for complex data integration.

  2. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  3. POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y PEROXIDASA DE PULPA DE UVA CAIMARONA (Pourouma cecropiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Rivera Camelo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y peroxidasa (POD fueron extraídas de la pulpa de uva caimarona (Pouroumacecropiifolia y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para PFO se encontró un pH óptimo de 7,0, temperatura óptima de 45 °C y KM de 0,42 mM con L-Dopa como sustrato. Para POD se halló un pH óptimode 6,0, temperatura óptima de 37 °C y valores de KM de 2,0mMpara guayacol y 0,72 mM para H2O2. El perfil electroforéticomostró cinco iso-PFO y tres iso- POD. POD fue más termorresistente que PFO. De cuatro inhibidores estudiados el ácido ascórbico fue el inhibidor más potente, seguido por el bisulfito de sodio, mientras que el ácido cítrico y el cloruro de sodio fueron los menos potentes.

  4. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India))

    1990-10-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of ({sup 14}C)glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D{sub 2}O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D{sub 2}O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation.

  5. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  6. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  7. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal;

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...

  8. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  9. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in UVA-irradiated human skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treina, G.; Scaletta, C.; Frenk, E.; Applegate, L.A. [University Hospital-CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Laboratory of Photobiology; Fourtanier, A.; Seite, S. [L`Oreal-Centre de Recherche Charles Zviak (France). Recherche Avancee Biologie

    1996-08-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation represents an important oxidative stress to human skin and certain forms of oxidative stress have been shown to modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important part in many immune reactions and the perturbations of this molecule by ultraviolet radiation could have implications in many inflammatory responses. An enhancement immunohistochemical method with avidin/biotin was used for analysing the early effects of UVA radiation on human cell cultures and human skin (340-400 nm). Both in vitro and in vivo data show that ICAM-1 staining in epidermal keratinocytes, which was expressed constitutively, decreased in a UVA dose-dependent manner. The decrease was most noted at 3-6 h following UVA radiation with some ICAM-1 staining returning by 48 h post-UVA. ICAM-1 positive staining in the dermis was specific for vascular structures and was increased 24 h after UVA radiation. Cultured dermal fibroblasts exhibited ICAM-1 staining which increased slightly within 6-48 h post-UVA radiation. As epidermal ICAM-1 expression is depleted following UVA radiation and dermal expression increases due to an increase in the vascular structures, ICAM-1 provides a valuable marker following UVA radiation in human skin that can be readily measured in situ. (author).

  10. Transglutaminase involvement in UV-A damage to the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, O; Dovrat, A

    1996-11-01

    Solar radiation is believed to be one of the major environmental factors involved in lens cataractogenesis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the mechanisms by which UV-A at 365 nm causes damage to the eye lens. Bovine lenses were placed in special culture cells for pre-incubation of 24 hr. The lenses were positioned so that the anterior surface faced the incident UV-A radiation source and were maintained in the cells during irradiation. After irradiation, lens optical quality was monitored throughout the culture period and lens epithelium, cortex and nuclear samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Transglutaminase activity in the lens was affected by the radiation. The activity of transglutaminase in lens epithelium cortex and nucleus increased as a result of the irradiation and then declined towards control levels during the culture period, as the lens recovered from the UV-A damage. Specific lens proteins, alpha B and beta B1 crystallins (the enzyme substrates) were analyzed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Seventy-two hours after irradiation of 44.8 J cm-2 UV-A, alpha B crystallins were affected as was shown by the appearance of aggregation and degradation products. Some protein changes seem to be reversible. It appears that transglutaminase may be involved in the mechanism by which UV-A causes damage to the eye lens.

  11. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs

  12. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, A. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]|[Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Graindorge

    Full Text Available UVA radiation (320-400 nm is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as singlet oxygen (1O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1 to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing. The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  14. UVA and UVB in sunlight, Optimal Utilization of UV rays in Sunlight for phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasaraswathy P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages of sunlight as the source of UVA for phototherapy include variation with time, place, season, and atmospheric conditions. In the present study at Coimbatore, India we measured the UVa and UVB irradiance for one year using PMA 2100 meter. UVB irradiance was mazimum between 12.00 noon- 1.00 p.m (19.50µw/cm2 to 40.2µw/cm2 and UVA between 12 noon-1.15 p.m. (4.70mw/cm2 tp 6.59mw/cm2. The ratio of UVA was 1:500 to 1:600 during early hours and late evening and 1:200 during mid-day. At peak time (11.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m., the exposure time for 1 June of UVA was 2 min. 32 sec. to 4 min. 31 sec and for 10mj of UVB it was from 4 min. 55 sec. to 11 min. 22 sec. We recommend the ideal time for UVB phototheraphy between 11.00 a.m. to 2.00 p.m. and for PUVASOL between 9.30 a.m. to 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. when incidental UVB and infrared rays responsible for heat are less.

  15. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK+/-) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 370C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author)

  16. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  17. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  18. Synergistic bactericidal effect by combined exposure to Ag nanoparticles and UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    Broad and strong antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) have been used for biomedical applications, water treatment, etc. In this study, a synergistic antibacterial effect between Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ultraviolet (UV) light was examined. AgNPs (< 0.1 μm) with subsequent exposure to UVA (320–400 nm) showed pronounced toxicity in Escherichia coli, but micro-sized Ag particles (> 1 μm) with UVA and AgNPs with UVB (280–325 nm) did not. As significant bactericidal activity was also exhibited by hydrogen peroxide-treated AgNPs, the surface oxidation of AgNPs caused by UVA irradiation was considered to contribute to the enhanced antibacterial effect. Although no difference in NP-incorporation rates was observed with or without the surface oxidation of AgNPs, a particle size of less than 0.1 μm was a factor for AgNPs uptake and an essential requirement for the antimicrobial function of Ag particles. Incorporated AgNPs oxidized by UVA irradiation released larger amounts of Ag ion inside cells than reduced AgNPs, which reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as glutathione. The synergistic use of AgNPs and UVA could become a powerful tool with broad antimicrobial applications. Highlights: • Combined treatment with AgNPs and UV achieved a remarkable antibacterial effect in E. coli. • For the antibacterial effect, it is necessary to satisfy the following requirements: • 1) Translocation of nano-sized Ag particles inside E. coli. • 2) Oxidation of AgNPs by UVA, and extensive and persistent release of Ag{sup +} inside E. coli. • Ag{sup +} released inside cells reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as GSH.

  19. SUCO DE UVA EM PÓ FORTIFICADO COM FERRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. GONÇALVES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente a defi ciência de ferro é um dos problemas nutricionais mais prevalentes no mundo, acometendo grande número de crianças e mulheres. Não existem dados que estimem a real prevalência da deficiência de ferro no Brasil, porém, tendo-se a anemia como indicadora indireta, estima-se que, nos países não industrializados, a maioria das crianças em idade pré-escolar e as gestantes, apresentem deficiência de ferro, sendo mais elevada em crianças. Estudos no Brasil mostram que cerca de 40% das crianças possuem prevalência de anemia, já entre as gestantes, este valor varia de acordo com o período de gestação, oscilando entre 12 e 55%. Os resultados desse estudo são significativos e sugerem a necessidade para o desenvolvimento de um produto enriquecido com ferro que seja de fácil preparo e acessível às populações de risco, permitindo-lhes suprir de forma efi ciente, as necessidades diárias individuais de ferro. Desta forma, desenvolveu-se um suco de uva em pó enriquecido com ferro para atender possivelmente esse desafi o. As análises realizadas mostraram ser um produto com elevado valor de ferro (6mg/200ml de suco o que representa 60% das necessidades de uma criança em idade pré-escolar, conforme a IDR. Este produto foi bem aceito pelo público infantil, e pode representar uma alternativa à prevenção da anemia e deficiência de ferro. Post-doc research – Department of Civil & Resource Engineering – Dalhousie University – Halifax – NS – Canadá

  20. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy volunte

  1. UVA-induced immune suppression in human skin: protective effect of vitamin E in human epidermal cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UVA (320-400 nm) radiation damage to membranes, proteins, DNA and other cellular targets is predominantly related to oxidative processes. In the present study, we demonstrated that cutaneous UVA-induced immunosuppression can be related, at least in part, to the appearance of these oxidative processes. The UVA-induced oxidative processes in freshly isolated epidermal cells were monitored by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an index of peroxidation. The in vitro immunosuppressive effects of UVA were demonstrated by measuring the allogenic lymphocyte proliferation induced by epidermal cells or purified Langerhans cells in the mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction (MECLR). In addition, the effects of a potent antioxidant (vitamin E) on these two UVA-induced processes were analysed. (author)

  2. Effects of UV-A Radiation on Desmodesmus armatus: Changes in Growth Rate, Pigment Content and Morphological Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálffy, Károly; Vörös, Lajos

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory cultures of Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chod.) Hegew. were grown under different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with 3.75 mW . cm-2 UV-A radiation. Growth rate was monitored daily, chlorophyl-a concentration, total carotenoid content, cell number and the relative abundance of different coenobial forms was determined at the end of each experiment. Exposure to UV-A radiation resulted in an increasing inhibition of growth towards higher PAR levels, reaching 100% at 400 μmol . m-2 . s-1. Cellular carotenoid content was higher in the presence of UV-A radiation, on the other hand no differences were observed in cellular chlorophyll-a concentration. UV-A radiation also induced changes in coenobium formation with a decreasing proportion of 4-celled coenobia and an increase in the abundance of 2-celled and teratologic coenobia, suggesting that high intensity UV-A radiation may influence cell cycle events or morphology development.

  3. Pilot Study for UVA-LED Disinfection of Escherichia coli in Water for Space and Earth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragolta, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    To test the efficacy of UVA-LED disinfection, a solution of Escherichia coli was pumped through a modified drip flow reactor at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment chamber to ensure that temperature did not cause disinfection. The reactor featured three wells with different treatments: UVA-LED irradiation, UVA-LEDs with Ti02, and UVA-LEDs with nanosilver. Samples from each well were taken throughout a 340 hour period, inactivated, assayed, and analyzed for E. coli disinfection. Results of the duplicate experiments indicated longer exposure times are needed for UVA-LED disinfection of E. coli in water. Further research would consider a longer sampling period and different test conditions, such as increased contact area and various flow rates.

  4. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range.

  5. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range. PMID:27130544

  6. MAS及其相关概念%MAS and Correlation Conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显毅; 董红斌

    2000-01-01

    The researching of MAS originates from distributed artificial intelligence ,because new theory framework is provided for solving some problems in complex and distributed environment ,MAS is valued increasingly by computer ,automatic control and management science.

  7. A general protocol for temperature calibration of MAS NMR probes at arbitrary spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xudong; Stark, Ruth E

    2010-01-01

    A protocol using (207)Pb NMR of solid lead nitrate was developed to determine the temperature of magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR probes over a range of nominal set temperatures and spinning speeds. Using BioMAS and FastMAS probes with typical sample spinning rates of 8 and 35 kHz, respectively, empirical equations were devised to predict the respective sample temperatures. These procedures provide a straightforward recipe for temperature calibration of any MAS probe. PMID:21036557

  8. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by cultur

  9. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schoonhoven

    2012-01-01

    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  10. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...

  11. Importance of UVA photoprotection as shown by genotoxic related endpoints: DNA damage and p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrot, Laurent [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France)]. E-mail: lmarrot@rd.loreal.com; Belaidi, Jean-Philippe [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France); Meunier, Jean-Roch [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France)

    2005-04-01

    In order to demonstrate the importance of photoprotection in the UVA range (320-400 nm), an in vitro approach where sun formulations are spread on a quartz slide, and placed over human keratinocytes in culture is proposed as a convenient test for photoprotection assessment at the DNA level. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage or drug-induced DNA breaks were assessed. Accumulation of p53 protein was also studied as a marker for UV-induced genotoxic stress. Such a method was used to compare two formulations with different photostability. Spectroradiometry showed that a photounstable formulation lost its effectiveness in UVA screening when pre-irradiated by simulated sunlight (UVB + UVA). As a consequence, it was also shown that this formulation was not as protective as the photostable one at the genomic level. These data demonstrate that the loss of absorbing efficiency within UVA wavelengths due to photounstability may have detrimental consequences leading to impairments implicated in genotoxic events.

  12. MAS-SCM for Auto Sector-The Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sindhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe in detail the development status of the innovative Multi -Agent based supply chain management (MAS-SCMAS for auto sector. This study was undertaken in view of the significance of improvement in efficiency of automobile sector and the development of a good multi-agent system framework to achieve that. The factors affecting the efficiency or OEE of the industry and the efficiency properties were identified. It was clearly revealed that the available model do not fulfill the needs in the supply chain management of automobile industry and there is a scope for evolving new model resulting in better efficiency.

  13. Optimization of MAS and MODIS Polar ocean cloud mask

    OpenAIRE

    Memmen, Sean P.

    2000-01-01

    With the reduction of funding for sea ice reconnaissance flights, the National/Naval Ice Center needs to capitalize on the improvements in satellite technology. Imaging sensors such as AVHRR, DMSP/OLS, SSM/I and RADARSAT have been used to detect the presence of sea ice, but with the exception of SSM/I and RADARSAT, clouds are a major obstacle to viewing the surface. With NASA's development of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), there i...

  14. Formalization of the Abstract Architecture of MAS Based on FIPA Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liwei(郑丽伟); Yu Xueli; Feng Xiufang

    2003-01-01

    The FIPA specification of MAS (multi-agent system)is accepted by most of the applications of MAS in the world, and has been used in many projects. This paper draws an abstract architecture from the FIPA based MAS, and gives formalization about it.

  15. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  16. Application of UVA-riboflavin crosslinking to enhance the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Coyle, Aron

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogels derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have become increasing popular in recent years, particularly for use in tissue engineering. One limitation with ECM hydrogels is that they tend to have poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues they are trying to replicate. To address this problem, a UVA (ultraviolet-A) riboflavin crosslinking technique was applied to ECM hydrogels to determine if it could be used to improve their elastic modulus. Hydrogels fabricated from corneal, cardiac and liver ECM were used in this study. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using a spherical indentation technique. The microstructure of the hydrogels and the cytotoxic effect of crosslinking on cell seeded hydrogels were also evaluated. The combination of UVA light and riboflavin solution led to a significant increase in elastic modulus from 6.8kPa to 24.7kPa, 1.4kPa to 6.9kPa and 0.9kPa to 1.6kPa for corneal, cardiac and liver ECM hydrogels respectively. The extent of this increase was dependent on a number of factors including the UVA exposure time and the initial hydrogel concentration. There were also a high percentage of viable cells within the cell seeded hydrogels with 94% of cells remaining viable after 90min exposure to UVA light. These results suggest that UVA-riboflavin crosslinking is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties of ECM hydrogels without resulting in a significant reduction of cell viability.

  17. UVA experimental and high energy physics. Final grant report 1992-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The period 1992--1997 was a mixture of frustrations and of accomplishments for the UVa HEP group. The experimental HEP group began this period with the completion of a truncated run of Experiment E771 at Fermilab in 1992. This experiment was designed to measure the cross section for beauty production in 800 GeV/c pN interactions. It succeeded in this goal as well as in obtaining one of the best limits on FCNC in charm decays by setting an upper limit on D0 -> μ+μ-. In addition, they were able to measure Ψ, Ψ, χ1,χ2 and upsilon production. Three UVa PhD theses have resulted from this experiment (as well as 12 other PhD's at other institutions). At the same time, the UVa experimental group was vigorously pursuing the goal of studying CP violation in B production. This took the form of a proposal to the SSC for a super fixed target facility, the SFT, which would focus on studies of B mesons. B. Cox was the spokesman of this experiment that had over thirty institutions. This proposal EOI-14 had a good reception by the SSC PAC. A R and D activity to prove the technique of crystal channeling was undertaken to prove the accelerator aspects of this proposal. This activity, known as E853 or CEX at Fermilab, resulted in proof of the crystal channeling technique as viable for the extraction of 20 TeV beam at the SSC. In addition to this activity, the UVa group investigated many other aspects of B physics at the SSC. They were among the leaders of the 1993 Snowmass meeting on B Physics at Hadronic Accelerators. The UVa HEP group worked vigorously on developing the ideas for B physics at the SSC, as evidenced by the many different studies listed in the publication list given, up to the very day the SSC was terminated by an act of Congress

  18. Milli-Arcsecond (MAS) Imaging of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; O'Neill, John; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2016-05-01

    Dissipation in the solar corona is believed to occur in extremely thin current sheets of order 1-100 km. Emission from these hot but thin current sheets should be visible in coronal EUV emission lines. However, this spatial scale is far below the resolution of existing imaging instruments, so these dissipation sites have never been observed individually. Conventional optics cannot be manufactured with sufficient surface figure accuracy to obtain the required spatial resolution in the extreme-ultraviolet where these hot plasmas radiate. A photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, can be manufactured to provide a few milli-arcsec (MAS) resolution, with much more readily achievable tolerances than with conventional imaging technology. Prototype photon sieve elements have been fabricated and tested in the laboratory. A full-scale ultra-high resolution instrument will require formation flying and computational image deconvolution. Significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges, and some recent results in these areas are discussed. A simple design for a sounding rocket concept demonstration payload is presented that obtains 80 MAS (0.080 arcsec) imaging with a 100 mm diameter photon sieve to image Fe XIV 334 and Fe XVI 335. These images will show the structure of the corona at a resolution never before obtained, and they will also allow a study of the temperature structure in the dissipation region.

  19. 基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.

  20. Activation of transcription factor AP-2 mediates UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-induced expression of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grether-Beck, S.; Olaizola-Horn, S.; Schmitt, H.; Grewe, M. [Clinical and Experimental Photodermatology, Duesseldorf (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-10

    UVA radiation is the major component of the UV solar spectrum that reaches the earth, and the therapeutic application of UVA radiation is increasing in medicine. Analysis of the cellular effects of UVA radiation has revealed that exposure of human cells to UVA radiation at physiological doses leads to increased gene expression and that this UVA response is primarily mediated through the generation of singlet oxygen. In this study, the mechanisms by which UVA radiation induces transcriptional activation of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were examined. UVA radiation was capable of inducing activation of the human ICAM-1 promoter and increasing OCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression. These UVA radiation effects were inhibited by singlet oxygen quenchers, augmented by enhancement of singlet oxygen life-time, and mimicked in unirradiated cells by a singlet oxygen-generating system. UVA radiation as well as singlet oxygen-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation required activation of the transcription factor AP-2. Accordingly, both stimuli activated AP-2, and deletion of the putative AP-2-binding site abrogated ICAM-1 promoter activation in this system. This study identified the AP-2 site as the UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-responsive element of the human ICAM-1 gene. The capacity of UVA radiation and/or singlet oxygen to induce human gene expression through activation of AP-2 indicates a previously unrecognized role of this transcription factor in the mammalian stress response. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Photobiological implications of melanin photoprotection after UVB-induced tanning of human skin but not UVA-induced tanning

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sergio G.; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Mahns, Andre; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive suberythemal UVA and/or UVB exposures were used to generate comparable UV-induced tans in human skin over the course of 2 weeks. In order to evaluate the potential photoprotective values of those UVA- and/or UVB- induced tans and to avoid the confounding issue of residual UV-induced DNA damage, we waited 1 week before challenging those areas with a 1.5 MED dose of UVA+UVB after which we measure DNA damage. The results show that the type of UV used to induce skin pigmentation affect...

  2. MODIS Airborne simulator (MAS) Final Report for CLASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Arnold; Steven Platnick

    2010-11-24

    The MAS was flown aboard the NASA ER-2 for the CLASIC field experiment, and for all data collected, provided calibrated and geolocated (Level-1B) radiance data for it’s 50 spectral bands (ranging in wavelength for 0.47 to 14.3 µm). From the Level-1B data, as directed in the Statement of Work, higher order (Level-2) data products were derived. The Level-2 products include: a) cloud optical thickness, b) cloud effective radius, c) cloud top height (temperature), d) cloud fraction, e) cloud phase products. Preliminary Level-1B and Level-2 products were provided during the field experiment (typically within one or two days of data collection). Final version data products were made available in December 2008 following considerable calibration analysis. Data collection, data processing (to Level-2), and discussion of the calibration work are summarized below.

  3. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  4. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  5. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Riva, Federica; Paulli, Marco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm) obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues. PMID:27525266

  6. UVA is the major contributor to the photodegradation of tretinoin and isotretinoin: implications for development of improved pharmaceutical formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tashtoush, Bassam M.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical stability of tretinoin (RA) and isotretinoin (13RA) in ethanol and dermatological cream preparations exposed to solar simulated light (SSL), UVA, and visible light has been studied. Photostability was monitored by an HPLC method that allowed simultaneous analysis of RA and 13RA, thus allowing photodegradation due to isomerization to other retinoids and photolysis to non-retinoid products to be monitored. Both retinoids undergo both isomerization and photolysis following SSL, UVA ...

  7. Obtención de taninos a partir de la pepita de uva

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua Paez, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha diseñado una planta piloto para la extracción de taninos a partir de pomada de uva (pepitas de uva, hollejos y tallos), con una capacidad de tratamiento de 18 kg/día de pomada, para obtener 6.7 kg/día de concentrado tánico del 14% en peso. La instalación consta de un extractor discontinuo de tanque agitado (50 L), una centrifuga de tazón tubular para separar el sólido agotado del extracto y una etapa final de concentración del licor tánico mediante memb...

  8. Activation of NF-{kappa}B in human skin fibroblasts by the oxidative stress generated by UVA radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vile, G.F.; Tanew-Iliitschew, Adrian; Tyrrell, R.M. [Institut Suisse de Recherches Experimentales sur le Cancer, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    We have examined the role of the nucleus and the membrane in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB by oxidant stress generated via the UVA (320-380 nm) component of solar radiation. Nuclear extracts from human skin fibroblasts that had been irradiated with UVA at doses that caused little DNA damage contained activated NF-{kappa}B that bound to its recognition sequence in DNA. The UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-{kappa}B in enucleated cells confirmed that the nucleus was not involved. On the other hand, UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-{kappa}B appeared to be correlated with membrane damage, and activation could be prevented by {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, agents that inhibited UVA radiation-dependent peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. The activation of NF-{kappa}B by the DNA damaging agents UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation also only occurred at doses where significant membrane damage was induced, and, overall, activation was not correlated with the relative levels of DNA damage induced by UVC/UVB and UVA radiations. We conclude that the oxidative modification of membrane components may be an important factor to consider in the UV radiation-dependent activation of NF-{kappa}B over all wavelength ranges examined. (Author).

  9. Avaliação da uva cv. Isabel para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZZON Luiz Antenor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Isabel, originária do Sul dos Estados Unidos, é uma das principais cultivares de Vitis labrusca. Atualmente é a cultivar mais difundida na Serra Gaúcha, representando aproximadamente 45% de toda a uva produzida nessa região. Além da elaboração de vinho tinto comum, a Isabel é utilizada para elaboração de vinho rosado e suco e comercializada como uva de mesa. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Isabel, para elaboração de vinho tinto comum. Para isso, avaliou-se a maturação da uva e realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto, nas safras de 1988 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a uva Isabel tem cacho pequeno, solto, formado por bagas e sementes grandes. O mosto apresenta cor rosada pouco intensa, tem bom teor de açúcar e baixo nível de ácido málico e acidez total. O vinho tem cor vermelha viva; o aroma é intenso e com acentuada tipicidade varietal; a análise sensorial evidencia que geralmente falta ao vinho equilíbrio e maciez.

  10. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiati...

  11. UVA light-assisted anticancer drugs - study on 4-thiothymidine and its analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X. H.; Wang, A L; Li, D. P.; Xu, Y.-Z.

    2010-01-01

    The article reviews the chemical methods for the preparation of DNA containing 4-thiothymine. 4-Thiothymine has several unique properties, such as easy alkylation, ready oxidation and strong absorption in UVA region. These chemical and physical properties are retained at its nucleoside and DNA levels and particularly useful for chemical manipulation and photo crossing of the thiothymine DNA with other biomolecules of interest. The ability to make DNA containing thiothymine or their functional...

  12. Protective effect of selenium and zinc on UV-A damage in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet A radiation participates in cytotoxicity and carcinogensis of the skin by a mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species. Endogenous antiradical defense systems utilize metalloenzymes including Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and Cu and Zn superoxide dismutase. The aim of the present work was to determine the protective effect of two trace elements, Se and Zn, on cultured human diploid fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation (broad-spectrum source with a maximum intensity at 375 nm). (Author)

  13. UVA and UVB irradiation differentially regulate microRNA expression in human primary keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kraemer

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2, which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

  14. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  15. Lactobacillus sakei lipoteichoic acid inhibits MMP-1 induced by UVA in normal dermal fibroblasts of human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ga-Eun; Jung, Bong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Rim; Kim, Han-Geun; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Chung, Dae-Kyun

    2013-10-28

    Human skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging. UVA increases the activity of MMP-1 in dermal fibroblasts through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, signaling. The irradiation of keratinocytes by UVA results in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the stimulation of MMP-1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of the cell wall of gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. of bacteria. LTA is well known as an anti-inflammation molecule. LTA of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum has an anti-photoaging effect, but the potential anti-photoaging effect of the other bacteria has not been examined to date. The current study showed that L. sakei LTA (sLTA) has an immune modulating effect in human monocyte cells. Our object was whether inhibitory effects of sLTA on MMP-1 are caused from reducing the MAPK signal in NHDFs. It inhibits MMP-1 and MAPK signaling induced by UVA in NHDFs. We also confirmed effects of sLTA suppressing TNF-α inducing MMP-1 in NHDFs. PMID:23851272

  16. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations. PMID:26815913

  17. MOS-2: A Two-Dimension Space for Positioning MAS Organizational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Hosny; Shaheen, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The increased complexity and dynamism of present and future Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) enforce the need for considering both of their static (design-time) and the dynamic (run-time) aspects. A type of balance between the two aspects can definitely give better results related to system stability and adaptivity. MAS organization is the research area that is concerned with these issues and it is currently a very active and interesting research area. Designing a MAS with an initial organization an...

  18. An HR-MAS MR Metabolomics Study on Breast Tissues Obtained with Core Needle Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    MuLan Li; Yonghyun Song; Nariya Cho; Jung Min Chang; Hye Ryoung Koo; Ann Yi; Hyeonjin Kim; Sunghyouk Park; Woo Kyung Moon

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much research has been devoted to the development of new breast cancer diagnostic measures, including those involving high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic techniques. Previous HR-MAS MR results have been obtained from post-surgery samples, which limits their direct clinical applicability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed HR-MAS MR spectroscopic studies on 31 breast tissue samples (13 cancer and 18 non...

  19. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  20. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi‐robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS‐MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS‐Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content‐FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM‐FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi‐robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi‐robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi‐robot collaboration.

  1. Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, Uraiwan; Kongtaphan, Kamolratana; Onkoksoong, Tassanee; Jaemsak, Kannika; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Thaworn, Athiwat; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is suggested to contribute to melanogenesis through promoting cellular oxidative stress and impairing antioxidant defenses. An overproduction of melanin can be associated with melanoma skin cancer and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, developing effective antimelanogenic agents is of importance. Alpinia galanga (AG) and Curcuma aromatica (CA) are traditional medicinal plants widely used for skin problems. Hence, this study investigated the antimelanogenic effects of AG and CA extracts (3.8-30 microg/ml) by assessing tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA levels, and melanin content in human melanoma cells (G361) exposed to UVA. The roles in protecting against melanogenesis were examined by evaluating their inhibitory effects on UVA-induced cellular oxidative stress and modulation of antioxidant defenses including antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In addition, possible active compounds accountable for biological activities of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric analysis. Our study demonstrated that UVA (8 J/cm(2)) induced both tyrosinase activity and mRNA levels and UVA (16 J/cm(2))-mediated melanin production were suppressed by the AG or CA extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations. Both extracts were able to protect against UVA-induced cellular oxidant formation and depletion of CAT and GPx activities and GSH content in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TLC-densitometric analysis detected the presence of eugenol and curcuminoids in AG and CA, respectively. This is the first report representing promising findings on AG and CA extract-derived antityrosinase properties correlated with their antioxidant potential. Inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defenses might be the mechanisms by which the extracts yield the protective effects on UVA-dependent melanogenesis.

  2. UVA1治疗皮肤病的现状%Ultraviolet A1 for the treatment of cutaneous diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利红; 郑捷

    2014-01-01

    在过去的30年中,UVA1因能进入皮肤深层诱导T细胞凋亡,下调多种细胞因子,激活内皮细胞并促进血管新生,逐渐被用于治疗各种皮肤疾病.目前有随机对照队列研究证据的疾病包括特应性皮炎、局限性硬皮病、系统性红斑狼疮,其他的适应证还有皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤、系统性硬皮病、胫前黏液性水肿、结节性痒疹等.相比其他光疗法,UVA1的近期不良反应相对较少,远期副作用目前尚无报道,仍需跟踪随访.%Since ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) can penetrate into deep layers of the skin,induce the apoptosis of T cells,down-regulate multiple cytokines,activate endothelial cells and promote neovascularization,it has been used to treat many dermatoses over the last three decades.There have been evidences from randomized control and cohort studies for the application of UVA1 phototherapy in atopic dermatitis,localized scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus.Other indications of UVA1 phototherapy are cutaneous T cell lymphoma,systemic scleroderma,pretibial myxedema,prurigo nodularis,etc.Compared with the other phototherapy regimens,UVA1 phototherapy shows less short-term side effects.However,little is known about long-term side effects of UVA1 phototherapy,and long-term follow-up studies are required.

  3. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS.

  4. Solar-UV-signature mutation prefers TCG to CCG: extrapolative consideration from UVA1-induced mutation spectra in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Kumagai, Jun; Ono, Tetsuya; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-08-01

    UVA1 exerts its genotoxicity on mammalian skin by producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA and preferentially inducing solar-UV-signature mutations, C → T base substitution mutations at methylated CpG-associated dipyrimidine (Py-mCpG) sites, as demonstrated previously using a 364 nm laser as a UVA1 source and lacZ-transgenic mice that utilize the transgene as a mutational reporter. In the present study, we confirmed that a broadband UVA1 source induced the same mutation profiles in mouse epidermis as the UVA1 laser, generalizing the previous result from a single 364 nm to a wider wavelength range of UVA1 (340-400 nm). Combined with our previous data on the mutation spectra induced in mouse epidermis by UVB, UVA2 and solar UVR, we proved that the solar-UV-signature mutation is commonly observed in the wavelength range from UVB to UVA, and found that UVA1 induces this mutation more preferentially than the other shorter wavelength ranges. This finding indicates that the solar-UV-signature mutation-causing CPDs, which are known to prefer Py-mCpG sites, could be produced with the energy provided by the longer wavelength region of UVR, suggesting a photochemical reaction through the excitation of pyrimidine bases to energy states that can be accomplished by absorption of even low-energy UVR. On the other hand, the lower proportions of solar-UV-signature mutations observed in the mutation spectra for UVB and solar UVR indicate that the direct photochemical reaction through excited singlet state of pyrimidine bases, which can be accomplished only by high-energy UVR, is also involved in the mutation induction at those shorter wavelengths of UVR. We also found that the solar-UV signature prefers 5'-TCG-3' to 5'-CCG-3' as mutational target sites, consistent with the fact that UVA induces CPDs selectively at thymine-containing dipyrimidine sites and that solar UVR induces them preferably at Py-mCpG sites. However, the mutation spectrum in human p53 gene from non

  5. The utility of MAS5 expression summary and detection call algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Claire L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used alone, the MAS5.0 algorithm for generating expression summaries has been criticized for high False Positive rates resulting from exaggerated variance at low intensities. Results Here we show, with replicated cell line data, that, when used alongside detection calls, MAS5 can be both selective and sensitive. A set of differentially expressed transcripts were identified that were found to be changing by MAS5, but unchanging by RMA and GCRMA. Subsequent analysis by real time PCR confirmed these changes. In addition, with the Latin square datasets often used to assess expression summary algorithms, filtered MAS5.0 was found to have performance approaching that of its peers. Conclusion When used alongside detection calls, MAS5 is a sensitive and selective algorithm for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  6. UVA Light-excited Kynurenines Oxidize Ascorbate and Modify Lens Proteins through the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Raghavan, Cibin T.; Johar, Kaid; Fan, Xingjun; Monnier, Vincent M.; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to lens protein pigmentation and cross-linking during aging and cataract formation. In vitro experiments have shown that ascorbate (ASC) oxidation products can form AGEs in proteins. However, the mechanisms of ASC oxidation and AGE formation in the human lens are poorly understood. Kynurenines are tryptophan oxidation products produced from the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-mediated kynurenine pathway and are present in the human lens. This study investigated the ability of UVA light-excited kynurenines to photooxidize ASC and to form AGEs in lens proteins. UVA light-excited kynurenines in both free and protein-bound forms rapidly oxidized ASC, and such oxidation occurred even in the absence of oxygen. High levels of GSH inhibited but did not completely block ASC oxidation. Upon UVA irradiation, pigmented proteins from human cataractous lenses also oxidized ASC. When exposed to UVA light (320–400 nm, 100 milliwatts/cm2, 45 min to 2 h), young human lenses (20–36 years), which contain high levels of free kynurenines, lost a significant portion of their ASC content and accumulated AGEs. A similar formation of AGEs was observed in UVA-irradiated lenses from human IDO/human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-2 mice, which contain high levels of kynurenines and ASC. Our data suggest that kynurenine-mediated ASC oxidation followed by AGE formation may be an important mechanism for lens aging and the development of senile cataracts in humans. PMID:24798334

  7. UVA is the major contributor to the photodegradation of tretinoin and isotretinoin: Implications for development of improved pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashtoush, Bassam M; Jacobson, Elaine L; Jacobson, Myron K

    2008-03-20

    The chemical stability of tretinoin (RA) and isotretinoin (13RA) in ethanol and dermatological cream preparations exposed to solar simulated light (SSL), UVA, and visible light has been studied. Photostability was monitored by an HPLC method that allowed simultaneous analysis of RA and 13RA, thus allowing photodegradation due to isomerization to other retinoids and photolysis to non-retinoid products to be monitored. Both retinoids undergo both isomerization and photolysis following SSL, UVA and visible light exposure but RA is more sensitive to photodegradation than 13RA. Degradation of both retinoids by photolysis is considerably greater in cream formulations than in ethanol and the photodegradation follows second order kinetics. Rate constants and half-lives for degradation of RA and 13RA in ethanol solution and cream preparations subjected to different light sources are reported. The UVA component of SSL is the major contributor to photodegradation. Since UVA penetrates deeply into skin, our results suggest that photodegradation of RA may contribute to the photosensitivity associated with RA therapy. Our studies suggest that development of improved formulations and the use of effective UVA sunscreens may reduce the side effects of RA therapy. PMID:18093761

  8. An ascorbic acid-enriched tomato genotype to fight UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Del Giudice, Rita; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Monti, Daria Maria

    2016-10-01

    UVA radiations contribute up to 95% of the total UV exposure and are known to induce cell damage, leading to apoptosis. Since the benefic effects of ascorbic acid on human health are well known, a new tomato genotype (named DHO4), highly rich in ascorbic acid, has been recently obtained. Here, we compared the effects of ascorbic acid and hydrophilic DHO4 extracts in protecting human keratinocytes exposed to UVA stress. Keratinocytes were pre-incubated with ascorbic acid or with extracts from the ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype and irradiated with UVA light. Then, ROS production, intracellular GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified. Western blots were carried out to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade, activation of caspase-3 and inflammation levels. We demonstrated that ROS, GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were not altered in cell exposed to UVA stress when cells were pre-treated with ascorbic acid or with tomato extracts. In addition, no evidence of apoptosis and inflammation were observed in irradiated pre-treated cells. Altogether, we demonstrated the ability of an ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype to counteract UVA-oxidative stress on human keratinocytes. This protective effect is due to the high concentration of vitamin C that acts as free radical scavenger. This novel tomato genotype may be used as genetic material in breeding schemes to produce improved varieties with higher antioxidant levels. PMID:27599115

  9. Effects of UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1照射对增生性瘢痕动物模型瘢痕形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响情况.方法 18只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成3组,每组6只兔,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻、1个月、2个月开始用不同剂量大功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组.各照射组又分为两个剂量照射组,兔耳分别每次照射UVA1 60 J/cm2、110 J/cm2,连续30次.结果 创伤建模1个月、2个月后开始照射UVA1组,与照射前比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处真表皮厚度(282.32±58.60;336.50±98.34)和真皮胶原含量(24.91±16.88;34.47±8.90)均显著降低(P<0.05);照射组与非照射组在UVA1照射前后差值的比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处表真皮厚度差值(-143.52±42.91;-142.44±49.96)和真皮胶原含量差值(-56.39±15.04;-48.35±10.44)的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各照射组UVA1对瘢痕皮肤厚度(811.68±79.03;659.08±178.98)和胶原含量(67.80±9.06;61.35±12.91)的影响均存在剂量依赖性(P<0.05).而创伤建模的同时照射UVA1组,两种剂量的UVA1照射后瘢痕处皮肤厚度和胶原含量较非照射耳均显著增加(P<0.05).结论 上皮化后开始UVA1照射可使瘢痕变软,皮肤变薄,胶原含量降低.创伤同时照射UVA1不仅不能阻止瘢痕模型的建立,反而加重瘢痕.%Objective To study the effects of different doses of UVA1 on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin. Methods A hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin (2 cm×5 cm) on the ventral surface of rabbit ears. A total of 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 equal groups to receive UVA1 radiation on the left ears immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after the excision, respectively, and every group were classified into two subgroups to be irradiated with 60 and 110 J/cm2 of UVA1, respectively

  10. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  11. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

  12. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

  13. The selects of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l. spreng. from natural populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Malinowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Five plants of bearberry selected from natural stands in Poland and one from a Botanical Garden were propagated by cuttings. The clonal plants were first kept under observation for two years planted on different substrates in containers and were afterwards field cultivated for three subsequent years. The existence of a significant differentiation within these Arctostaphylos uva-ursi clones was proved. Two selects of good ornamental features as well as with high concentration of medicinal substance - arbutin were chosen. Plants started fruiting in the fourth year of growth and the area covered by a single plant exceeded 2 m2 after five years of cultivation.

  14. A maturação fenólica em uvas tintas: comparação de metodologias

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Pedro Tiago Relvas

    2014-01-01

    A maturação fenólica em uvas tintas é uma importante ferramenta de ajuda na decisão de vindima. Com o presente trabalho pretende-se estudar uma nova metodologia de avaliação de parâmetros relacionados com a maturação fenólica das uvas tintas, em comparação com metodologias mais habituais. Neste contexto a maturação fenólica de uvas foi avaliada através de espectrofotometria de refletância difusa e através dos métodos de bancada e dos métodos baseados em espectrofotometria de infra vermelho...

  15. On the induction of protective responses in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002 by UVA (365 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to UVA (365 nm) led to growth delay, loss of viability and inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the cells of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 containing multiple copies of a plasmid pSK1002 carrying a umuC'-'lacZ fusion gene. Ultraviolet-A induced umu gene expression, as monitored by the estimation of β-galactosidase, in a linear fluence-dependent manner. The induction of umu gene expression increased with the increase of postirradiation incubation period of the cells in the LB-ampicillin (LBA) medium at 37oC and leveled off from 2 h onward. The induction of gene expression depended on concomitant protein synthesis and represented the induction of the SOS response in the particular S. typhimurium cells used. The exposure to low fluences (sublethal) of UVA also led to the induction of an adaptive response in the same bacterial cells, which made them resistant to subsequent challenge by a much higher fluence of the same radiation. The adaptive response, as monitored by the assays of viability and β-galactosidase units, increased with the period of exposure to sublethal fluences of UVA, attained a maximum at the UVA exposure of 4.5 kJ/m2 (15 min) and thereafter gradually decreased with further increase of UVA exposure period. Modulation studies involving D2O, LBA growth medium, different scavengers of free radicals and quenchers of activated oxygen species indicated the involvement of both hydroxyl free radicals and singlet oxygen in the UVA-induced umu gene expression. (author)

  16. Chronic exposure to Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract Lycogen™ prevents UVA-induced malondialdehyde accumulation and procollagen I down-regulation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Lin, Tsuey-Pin; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Kuan, Li-Chun; Liu, Chia-Chyuan

    2014-01-01

    UVA contributes to the pathogenesis of skin aging by downregulation of procollagen I content and induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-associated responses. Application of antioxidants such as lycopene has been demonstrated as a convenient way to achieve protection against skin aging. Lycogen™, derived from the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exerts several biological effects similar to that of lycopene whereas most of its anti-aging efficacy remains uncertain. In this study, we attempted to examine whether Lycogen™ could suppress malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and restore downregulated procollagen I expression induced by UVA exposure. In human dermal fibroblasts Hs68 cells, UVA repressed cell viability and decreased procollagen I protein content accompanied with the induction of MMP-1 and MDA accumulation. Remarkably, incubation with 50 µM Lycogen™ for 24 h ameliorated UVA-induced cell death and restored UVA-induced downregulation of procollagen in a dose-related manner. Lycogen™ treatment also prevented the UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation and intracellular MDA generation in Hs68 cells. Activation of NFκB levels, one of the downstream events induced by UVA irradiation and MMP-1 induction, were also prevented by Lycogen™ administration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Lycogen™ may be an alternative agent that prevents UVA-induced skin aging and could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24463291

  17. Monitorización molecular de la ecología levaduriforme de la uva al vino

    OpenAIRE

    López Enríquez, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    La calidad y singularidad de un vino están estrechamente relacionadas con las poblaciones de levaduras asociadas al proceso de transformación desde la uva al vino. El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el estudio de la sucesión natural de especies de levaduras propio de un proceso de vinificación, realizado mediante fermentación espontánea, a partir de uva de variedad Verdejo, recolectada de una parcela de orientación sur, localizada en la D. O. Rueda. Para ello, se ana...

  18. Ascorbic acid glycation of lens proteins produces UVA sensitizers similar to those in human lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble calf lens proteins were extensively glycated during a 4 week incubation with ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen. Amino acids analysis of the dialyzed proteins removed at weekly intervals showed an increasing loss of lysine, arginine and histidine, consistent with the extensive protein cross-linking observed. Irradiation of the dialyzed samples with UVA light (1.0 kJ/cm2 total illumination through a 338 nm cutoff filter) caused an increasing loss of tryptophan, an additional loss of histidine and the production of micromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. No alteration in amino acid content and no photolytic effects were seen in proteins incubated without ascorbic acid in proteins incubated with glucose for 4 weeks. The rate of hydrogen peroxide formation was linear with each glycated sample with a maximum production of 25 nmol/mg protein illuminated. The possibility that the sensitizer activity was due to an ascorbate-induced oxidation of tryptophan was eliminated by the presence of a heavy metal ion chelator during the incubation and by showing equivalent effects with ascorbate-incubated ribonuclease A, which is devoid of tryptophan. The ascorbate-incubated samples displayed increasing absorbance at wavelengths above 300 nm and increasing fluorescence (340/430) as glycation proceeded. The spectra of the 4 week glycated proteins were identical to those obtained with a solubilized water-insoluble fraction from human lens, which is known to have UVA sensitizer activity. (Author)

  19. Sensitivity of Xanthoria parietina to UV-A: role of metabolic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Malčovská, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) or 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) pre-treatments on the sensitivity of Xanthoria parietina exposed to UV-A were studied. UV decreased chlorophylls and stimulated increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide level. Accumulation of soluble phenols and flavonoids increased in response to UV treatment. Metabolic modulators had negligible impact on these UV-induced changes. Within free amino acids, AIP (-UV variant) and SA and MeJA (+UV variants) altered their accumulation. AIP had no effect on the amount of phenylalanine. Benzoic and cinnamic acids were elevated by UV and mainly MeJA influenced their accumulations. Among lichen specific metabolites, vulpinic acid and ergosterol increased while usnic acid and atranorin decreased after exposure to UV; accumulation of parietin was not affected. Applied modulators showed a different effect on these lichen metabolites but biosynthetic pathway-specific trend of alteration was visible. Overall, MeJA showed the most pronounced effect among studied parameters. Accumulation of selected phenolics in response to UV-A seems to be an important feature of Xanthoria tolerance. Present finding in the context of phenolic metabolism in non-vascular plants and with respect to limited data about effect of studied modulators on non-vascular plants are discussed.

  20. Suco de uva enriquecido com soro: elaboração e aceitabilidade sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm sido realizados em diversos países visando oferecer ao mercado novas formas de utilização do soro de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver suco de uva enriquecido com soro lácteo e avaliar a aceitação sensorial utilizando a escala hedônica facial e a técnica Mapa de Preferência. As diferentes formulações foram avaliadas por 111 crianças com idade entre 7 e 11 anos, no período de setembro a novembro de 2009, em uma escola pública do município de Rio Pomba, MG. Para o preparo da bebida foram adicionados 250 mL de suco de uva concentrado em 1750 mL da mistura de água e soro nas proporções de 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% de soro e 7% de açúcar. As amostras que continham 40% e 60% de soro na mistura de água e soro foram classificadas pelas crianças entre os termos hedônicos "gostei extremamente" e "gostei moderadamente", respectivamente, indicando a boa aceitação pela maioria dos consumidores. Entretanto, do total de provadores, 44 classificaram a amostra contendo 100% de soro na mistura entre os termos hedônicos "desgostei moderadamente" e "desgostei extremamente" indicando rejeição.

  1. Design of P-Type Cladding Layers for Tunnel-Injected UVA Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuewei; Akyol, Fatih; Allerman, Andrew A; Moseley, Michael W; Armstrong, Andrew M; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62% were achieved for tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be used to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs, and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.

  2. Sensitivity of Xanthoria parietina to UV-A: role of metabolic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Malčovská, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) or 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) pre-treatments on the sensitivity of Xanthoria parietina exposed to UV-A were studied. UV decreased chlorophylls and stimulated increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide level. Accumulation of soluble phenols and flavonoids increased in response to UV treatment. Metabolic modulators had negligible impact on these UV-induced changes. Within free amino acids, AIP (-UV variant) and SA and MeJA (+UV variants) altered their accumulation. AIP had no effect on the amount of phenylalanine. Benzoic and cinnamic acids were elevated by UV and mainly MeJA influenced their accumulations. Among lichen specific metabolites, vulpinic acid and ergosterol increased while usnic acid and atranorin decreased after exposure to UV; accumulation of parietin was not affected. Applied modulators showed a different effect on these lichen metabolites but biosynthetic pathway-specific trend of alteration was visible. Overall, MeJA showed the most pronounced effect among studied parameters. Accumulation of selected phenolics in response to UV-A seems to be an important feature of Xanthoria tolerance. Present finding in the context of phenolic metabolism in non-vascular plants and with respect to limited data about effect of studied modulators on non-vascular plants are discussed. PMID:21531571

  3. A New Algebraic Modelling Approach to Distributed Problem-Solving in MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅典勋; 邓志东

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a new algebraic modelling approach to distributed problem-solving in multi-agent systems (MAS), which is featured by a unified framework for describing and treating social behaviors, social dynamics and social intelligence. A conceptual architecture of algebraic modelling is presented. The algebraic modelling of typical social behaviors, social situation and social dynamics is discussed in the context of distributed problemsolving in MAS. The comparison and simulation on distributed task allocations and resource assignments in MAS show more advantages of the algebraic approach than other conventional methods.

  4. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  6. UVA radiation is highly mutagenic in cells that are unable to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, S; Slezak, G; Reynaud-Angelin, A; Elie, C; de Rycke, Y; Boiteux, S; Sage, E

    2005-09-20

    UVA (320-400 nm) radiation constitutes >90% of the environmentally relevant solar UV radiation, and it has been proposed to have a role in skin cancer and aging. Because of the popularity of UVA tanning beds and prolonged periods of sunbathing, the potential deleterious effect of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. Although generally accepted, the impact of DNA damage on the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of yeast mutants affected in the processing of DNA damage to the lethal and mutagenic effect of UVA radiation. The data show that none of the major DNA repair pathways, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, and postreplication repair, efficiently protect yeast from the lethal action of UVA radiation. In contrast, the results show that the Ogg1 DNA glycosylase efficiently prevents UVA-induced mutagenesis, suggesting the formation of oxidized guanine residues. Furthermore, sequence analysis of UVA-induced canavanine-resistant mutations reveals a bias in favor of GC-->TA events when compared with spontaneous or H(2)O(2)-, UVC-, and gamma-ray- induced canavanine-resistant mutations in the WT strain. Taken together, our data point out a major role of oxidative DNA damage, mostly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, in the genotoxicity of UVA radiation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the capacity of skin cells to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine may be a key parameter in the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation in humans.

  7. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  8. DYNAMO-MAS: a multi-agent system for ontology evolution from text

    OpenAIRE

    Sellami, Zied; Camps, Valérie; Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    International audience Manual ontology development and evolution are complex and time-consuming tasks, even when textual documents are used as knowledge sources in addition to human expertise or existing ontologies. Processing natural language in text produces huge amounts of linguistic data that need to be filtered out and structured. To support both of these tasks, we have developed DYNAMO-MAS, an interactive tool based on an adaptive multi-agent system (adaptive MAS or AMAS) that builds...

  9. Development of refractoriness of induced human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression to reinduction by UVA irradiation and hemin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Alexandre [Swiss Inst. for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Physical Carcinogenesis Unit, Epalinges (Switzerland); Tyrrell, R.M. [Bath Univ., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Bath (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    Using primary human fibroblasts we have observed the existence of an acquired refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to induction by a second dose of UVA (320-380 nm) radiation. We studied the kinetics of development of refractoriness over a time interval of up to 72 h between the first inducing event and the second (challenge) dose. Complete refractoriness was observed at 48 h. We also studied development of refractoriness after UVA, sodium arsenite and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment in all possible combinations and demonstrated that only UVA led to refractoriness. Ultraviolet radiation induced partial refractoriness to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induction but did not change the response of sodium arsenite. In an investigation of the mechanism of development of refractories we used the heme oxygenase inhibitor, tin-protoporphyrin IX and showed that induction of heme oxygenases enzymatic activity is a crucial step. However, the induction of ferritin, which is known to play a key role in protection against oxidative stress, did not appear to be involved. Damage to membranes is also probably not involved in the refractoriness mechanism. Because either hemin alone or UVA radiation are able to lead to a refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to reinduction by a second exposure to one or the other agent in human fibroblasts we conclude that heme, or an as yet unidentified heme derivative, is involved in the refractoriness response. (Author).

  10. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  11. The ideal table grapes for the Spanish market A uva de mesa ideal para o mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore a survey of consumers in Spain. The survey explores the attributes of quality that consumers are seeking and promotion of grapes via "quality" marks, which are indicators of possible ways to increase demand. The reason consumers are switching to other foods, such as dairy based snacks, is that grapes are not easy to eat, can be unreliable in terms of their quality attributes, and their price more variable. Consumers are also generally unaware of the marks quality currently used.Este trabalho busca explorar o mercado da uva de mesa na Espanha, do ponto de vista do consumidor. O estudo explora os atributos de qualidade que os consumidores estão buscando e a promoção da uva de mesa via marcas de "qualidade" com a possibilidade de incremento de demanda. A importância deste estudo reside na mudança que vem ocorrendo no hábito de consumo de alimentos, onde as frutas e verduras em geral, e a uva de mesa em particular têm perdido espaço para produtos prontos para o consumo, como os derivados lácteos , doces e sobremesas. Em contraste, a uva de mesa não se apresenta pronta para o consumo, possui qualidade de fruta e preços mais variáveis, e o conceito de marca comercial encontra-se ainda pouco estabelecido, ao contrário dos produtos industrializados.

  12. Development of refractoriness of induced human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression to reinduction by UVA irradiation and hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using primary human fibroblasts we have observed the existence of an acquired refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to induction by a second dose of UVA (320-380 nm) radiation. We studied the kinetics of development of refractoriness over a time interval of up to 72 h between the first inducing event and the second (challenge) dose. Complete refractoriness was observed at 48 h. We also studied development of refractoriness after UVA, sodium arsenite and H2O2 treatment in all possible combinations and demonstrated that only UVA led to refractoriness. Ultraviolet radiation induced partial refractoriness to H2O2 induction but did not change the response of sodium arsenite. In an investigation of the mechanism of development of refractories we used the heme oxygenase inhibitor, tin-protoporphyrin IX and showed that induction of heme oxygenases enzymatic activity is a crucial step. However, the induction of ferritin, which is known to play a key role in protection against oxidative stress, did not appear to be involved. Damage to membranes is also probably not involved in the refractoriness mechanism. Because either hemin alone or UVA radiation are able to lead to a refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to reinduction by a second exposure to one or the other agent in human fibroblasts we conclude that heme, or an as yet unidentified heme derivative, is involved in the refractoriness response. (Author)

  13. Topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus do not accelerate photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice after UVA or simulated solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2009-03-01

    Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are topical calcineurin inhibitors developed specifically for the treatment of atopic eczema. Experience with long-term use of topical calcineurin inhibitors is limited and the risk of rare but serious adverse events remains a concern. We have previously demonstrated the absence of carcinogenic effect of tacrolimus alone and in combination with simulated solar radiation (SSR) on hairless mice. The aim of this study is to determine whether pimecrolimus accelerates photocarcinogenesis in combination with SSR or pimecrolimus and tacrolimus accelerate photocarcinogenesis in combination with UVA. We used 11 groups of 25 hairless female C3.Cg/TifBomTac immunocompetent mice (n = 275). Pimecrolimus cream or tacrolimus ointment was applied on their dorsal skin three times weekly followed by SSR (2, 4, or 6 standard erythema doses, SED) or UVA (25 J/cm(2)) 3-4 h later. This was done up to 365 days in the SSR-treated groups and up to 500 days in the UVA-treated groups. Pimecrolimus did not accelerate the time for development of the first, second or third tumor in any of the groups. Median time to the first tumor was 240 days for the control-2SED group compared with pimecrolimus-2SED group (233 days), control-4SED group (156 days) compared with pimecrolimus-4SED group (163 days) and control-6SED group (162 days) compared with pimecrolimus-6SED group (170 days). Only one mouse in each of the three UVA groups developed a tumor. We conclude that pimecrolimus in combination with SSR and both pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in combination with UVA do not accelerate photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice. PMID:19183401

  14. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  15. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-01

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  16. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid upon skin photoreaction to UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Bahar; Fetil, Emel; Ilknur, Turna; Tahsin Güneş, Ali; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2005-01-01

    Various agents which can be used in combination can also interfere with phototherapy. In this study, the effects of topical petrolatum and 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum upon skin photoreaction to UVA were investigated, in an in vivo test. Minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) test was performed on 31 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thin 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum and sunscreen. The effect of each agent on MPD was investigated. MPD was increased with thin and thick applications of all agents. Also, MPD was increased with 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum when compared with pure petrolatum, in the same thickness. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid in petrolatum just before PUVA therapy is not recommended because of their blocking effects.

  17. UVA mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles in pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, M. Del P.; Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Olmos-López, M.; Salas, P.; Gutiérrez, Clara

    2013-09-01

    A photochemical-based method in which UVA light (λ=366 nm) is used for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is presented by irradiating gold (III) chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) in the presence of pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium (PGHEP) as a reducing and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Different HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratios were exposed to UVA for up to seven hours. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pH measurements. The synthesized AuNPs present spherical as well as anisotropic shapes, such as oval, triangular, hexagonal sheets, rods, and some other faceted forms, with dimensions ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm. All obtained products show good temporal stability in solution. Surface plasmons differ when varying HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio. The obtained samples exhibit two absorption peaks, one in the region between 500-600 nm, and another one in the near-IR between 900-1200 nm; both peaks shift to longer wavelengths and increase their absorption intensity as the HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio increase. TEM images show the change in nanoparticles yield as well as the shape and sizes change depending on HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio variation. Ph measurements suggest that acidic media promote anisotropic nanoparticle formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to find out which heparin sodium main groups attached to the nanoparticles surface, and in what amount. In summary, it is found that when modifying the reactants concentrations and keeping the UV exposition time as the only fixed parameter, different nanoparticles with distinctive characteristics can be attained.

  18. Synthesis and Photoirradiation of Isomeric Ethylchrysenes by UVA Light Leading to Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants. We have recently demonstrated that photoirradiation of PAHs leads to cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper we report the synthesis of all the six isomeric ethylchrysenes and the study of light-induced lipid peroxidation by these ethylchrysenes. 5-Ethylchrysene was synthesized by reaction of 5-keto-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrochrysene with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and dehydrogenation with DDQ in benzene. 1- and 4-Ethylchrysenes were similarly prepared by reaction of 1-keto-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydrochrysene and 4-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysenes, respectively with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration and dehydrogenation. Direct acetylation of chrysene followed by Wolff-Kishner or Clemmensen reduction resulted in the formation of 2-, 3-, and 6-ethylchrysenes in 4%, 16%, and 43% yields, respectively. Photoirradiation of these compounds with 7 and 21 J/cm2 UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate all resulted in lipid peroxidation. For comparison, photoirradiation of 4-methylchrysene and 5-methylchrysene was similarly conducted. For irradiation at a UVA light dose of 21 J/cm2, the level of induced lipid peroxidation is in the order 4-methylchrysene = 5-methylchrysene = 5-ethylchrysene = 4-ethylchrysene = chrysene > 1-ethylchrysene = 2-ethylchrysene > 3-ethylchrysene > 6-ethylchrysene. Compared with chrysene, these results indicate that the ethyl group at C4 or C5 position either slightly enhances or has no effect on the light-induced lipid peroxidation, while at C1-, C2-, C3-, or C6 position reduces light-induced lipid peroxidation.

  19. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  20. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  1. Response and Defense Mechanisms of Taxus chinensis Leaves Under UV-A Radiation are Revealed Using Comparative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Cui, Lei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-09-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a species endemic to south-eastern China and one of the natural sources for the anticancer medicine paclitaxel. To investigate the molecular response and defense mechanisms of T. chinensis leaves to enhanced ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, gel-free/label-free and gel-based proteomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The transmission electron microscopy results indicated damage to the chloroplast under UV-A radiation. Proteomics analyses in leaves and chloroplasts showed that photosynthesis-, glycolysis-, secondary metabolism-, stress-, and protein synthesis-, degradation- and activation-related systems were mainly changed under UV-A radiation. Forty-seven PSII proteins and six PSI proteins were identified as being changed in leaves and chloroplasts under UV-A treatment. This indicated that PSII was more sensitive to UV-A than PSI as the target of UV-A light. Enhanced glycolysis, with four glycolysis-related key enzymes increased, provided precursors for secondary metabolism. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase were identified as being significantly increased during UV-A radiation, which resulted in paclitaxel enhancement. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway indicated a down-regulation under UV-A irradiation and up-regulation in dark incubation. These results reveal that a short-term high dose of UV-A radiation could stimulate the plant stress defense system and paclitaxel production. PMID:27318281

  2. Tendências climáticas e produção de uva na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências nas séries climáticas e nos índices agroclimáticos para o cultivo da videira na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe, em Santa Catarina. A região apresenta clima mesotérmico úmido. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura máxima e mínima do ar, do período de 1924 a 2010, e de precipitação pluvial, de 1955 a 2010. O teste de Mann‑Kendall foi utilizado para avaliar a tendência nas séries, cuja magnitude foi estimada pela declividade mediana determinada pelo teste de Theil-Sen. Foi observada tendência de aumento nas séries de temperatura mínima do ar, em escala anual, bem como nas estações do ano. Quanto à temperatura máxima, somente houve tendência de aumento na série de verão. Em relação aos índices agrometeorológicos, foi observada tendência de diminuição do número de geadas, diminuição do período entre a brotação e a colheita, aumento da soma térmica e dos índices de Huglin e de frio. Foram evidenciadas tendências de aumento da precipitação pluvial total anual e da precipitação no período de crescimento da videira, bem como aumento do número de dias, com chuva igual ou superior a 20 mm, e aumento na temperatura mínima e noturna.

  3. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  4. A software framework for analysing solid-state MAS NMR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tim J; Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Higman, Victoria A; Eisenmenger, Frank; Bardiaux, Benjamin; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Laue, Ernest D

    2011-12-01

    Solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of proteins has undergone many rapid methodological developments in recent years, enabling detailed studies of protein structure, function and dynamics. Software development, however, has not kept pace with these advances and data analysis is mostly performed using tools developed for solution NMR which do not directly address solid-state specific issues. Here we present additions to the CcpNmr Analysis software package which enable easier identification of spinning side bands, straightforward analysis of double quantum spectra, automatic consideration of non-uniform labelling schemes, as well as extension of other existing features to the needs of solid-state MAS data. To underpin this, we have updated and extended the CCPN data model and experiment descriptions to include transfer types and nomenclature appropriate for solid-state NMR experiments, as well as a set of experiment prototypes covering the experiments commonly employed by solid-sate MAS protein NMR spectroscopists. This work not only improves solid-state MAS NMR data analysis but provides a platform for anyone who uses the CCPN data model for programming, data transfer, or data archival involving solid-state MAS NMR data. PMID:21953355

  5. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W;

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting.......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...

  6. Evidence for a systematic offset of $-$0.25~mas in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G

    2016-01-01

    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres (2016). We find a clear average offset of $-$0.25$\\pm$0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The documented Gaia systematic uncertainty is 0.3 mas, which the eclipsing binary sample corroborates. The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color, brightness, or spatial position. However, with a statistical significance of 99.7%, nearer stars possibly exhibit larger offsets according to $\\Delta\\pi \\approx -0.16 -0.02 \\times \\pi$ mas.

  7. Dibujo y pensamiento en la obra de Rafael Masó

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón González, Rafael Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Rafael Masó, arquitecto noucentista, es además, el artista adecuado para el análisis de una obra totalmente gráfica.Dibujos, escritos, gráficos y bocetos, son los elementos idóneos para que las ideas sobre la expresión gráfica, queden reflejados en esta Tesis Doctoral.Para conocer su obra gráfica, es necesario llegar a lo más profundo de sus pensamientos transmitidos por historiadores y la Familia Masó. Tanto su obra arquitectónica, como sus dibujos, son conocidos por expertos y estudiosos ...

  8. Learning by observing: information spillovers in the execution and valuation of commercial bank M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle DeLong; Robert DeYoung

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesize that banks become better able to manage acquisitions, and investors become better able to value those acquisitions, as these parties ‘learn-by-observing’ information that spills-over from previous bank M&As. We find evidence consistent with these hypotheses for 216 M&As of large, publicly traded U.S. commercial banks between 1987 and 1999. Our theory and our results are predicated on the idea that acquisitions of large and increasingly complex commercial banks were a relatively...

  9. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of mullites from different kaolinites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongping; Guo, Jiugao; Zhu, Jianxi; Yuan, Peng; Hu, Cheng

    2004-04-01

    Mullites synthesized from four kaolinites with different random defect densities have been studied by 27Al and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All these mullites show the same XRD pattern. However, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra reveal that the mullites derived from kaolinites with high defect densities, have a sillimanite-type Al/Si ordering scheme and are low in silica, whereas those mullites derived from kaolinites with low defect densities, consist of both sillimanite- and mullite-type Al/Si ordering schemes and are rich in silica. PMID:15084323

  10. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  11. Brazilian green propolis water extract up-regulates the early expression level of HO-1 and accelerates Nrf2 after UVA irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO,Yuichi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Ichihara, Kenji; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is the major cause of human skin aging. Suppression of UVA irradiation-induced skin fibroblast cell damage protects the skin against aging. An oxidative stress response transcription factor nuclear factor-(erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has an important role as a cytoprotective system against oxidative stress in the human skin and other organs. Propolis has been commonly used as a traditional medicine since ancient times. Th...

  12. The behaviour of the endocrinological parameters cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone and prolactin after UVA and UVB whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With two groups, each with 8 healthy subjects UV whole-body irradiation was carried out with uniformly 30 J/cm2 UVA or respectively UVB at the level of the individual minimal erythema dose. Every subject received serial irradiations once a day for four days. The determination of the serum hormone level was accomplished by means of radioimmunoassays. The results show a weakly significant decline of cortisol 4 and 24 hours after 2 serial UVB irradiations. 3,5 and 7 days after the end of the irradiation series the cortisol values have increased, but by the seventh day statistically only weakly significant. With UVA irradiation there was also a weakly significant increase in cortisol levels three days after the end of the irradiation series. The serum levels of the other hormones showed no statistically significant changes. (orig./MG)

  13. Studies on singlet oxygen formation and UVA light-mediated photobleaching of the yellow chromophores in human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwerth, Beryl J; Chemoganskiy, Vitaliy; Olesen, P R

    2002-02-01

    The protein-bound chromophores, which increase with aging in the human lens, act as UVA sensitizers, producing almost exclusively singlet oxygen in vitro. Direct irradiation of whole, aged human lenses with high intensity UVA light (200 mW cm(-2) for 24 hr), however, failed to produce singlet oxygen damage, as evidenced by the lack of either His or Trp photodestruction. Total homogenates of human lenses prepared in a cuvette under air did show destruction of His and Trp residues by UVA light, but no destruction was seen when equivalent homogenates were prepared under argon. These data are consistent with the idea that the low oxygen levels in the lens prevent singlet oxygen damage in vivo.UVA irradiation of aged human lenses in culture caused an extensive photobleaching of the yellow chromophores. A time course indicated that the photobleaching increased with time, with significant color loss apparent after 6 hr. Homogenization of the irradiated and dark control lenses in 6 M guanidine-HCl, followed by determination of the difference spectrum, showed approximately 50% bleaching of compounds with a lambda(max) at 355 nm. Similarly, fluorophores with a lambda(max) for excitation of 355 nm and for emission of 420 nm were 50% destroyed by the UVA light. Similar results were obtained in vitro by the anaerobic irradiation of a sonication-solubilized WI fraction from type II brunescent cataracts and from aged human lenses. In this system, there was an initial bleaching of 15% after 30 min of irradiation, followed by a slow increase over the next 6 hr to a final bleaching of 30%. The addition of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid, but not 1.0 m M glutathione (GSH), increased the photobleaching to 60% under argon, and the loss of ascorbate could be detected under these anaerobic conditions. In the presence of air, UVA light produced no photobleaching, but rather caused a three-fold increase in absorbance at 345 nm, which was prevented by the inclusion of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid and almost

  14. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress

  15. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  16. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  17. Apigenin inhibits UVA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prevents signs of skin aging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Youn, Jeungyeun; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; An, In-Sook; Kwon, Seungbin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-08-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin on skin and found that, in experiments using cells, apigenin restored the viability of normal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs), which had been decreased by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the UVA range. Using a senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal assay, we also demonstrate that apigenin protects against the UVA-induced senescence of nHDFs. Furthermore, we found that apigenin decreased the expression of the collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in UVA-irradiated nHDFs. UVA, which has been previously identified as a photoaging-inducing factor, has been shown to induce MMP-1 expression. The elevated expression of MMP-1 impairs the collagen matrix, leading to the loss of elasticity and skin dryness. Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of apigenin on aged skin, using an apigenin‑containing cream for clinical application. Specifically, we measured dermal density, skin elasticity and the length of fine wrinkles in subjects treated with apigenin cream or the control cream without apigenin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the apigenin-containing cream on skin texture, moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). From these experiments, we found that the apigenin‑containing cream increased dermal density and elasticity, and reduced fine wrinkle length. It also improved skin evenness, moisture content and TEWL. These results clearly demonstrate the biological effects of apigenin, demonstrating both its cellular and clinical efficacy, and suggest that this compound holds promise as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:27279007

  18. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO2. - Highlights: ► We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. ► UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. ► Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. ► Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  20. 'Black star': uma mutação somática natural da uva fina de mesa cv. Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A uva fina de mesa 'Black Star', originada de uma mutação somática da uva cv. Brasil em Marialva-PR, é descrita quanto às suas principais características físico-químicas e produtivas. Suas bagas, com sementes, apresentam formato elipsoide alongado com coloração vermelho-escura, tendendo ao preto durante a maturação plena. O ciclo, o desempenho produtivo e a suscetibilidade às doenças fúngicas assemelham-se aos da cv. Itália. Durante a maturação plena, apresenta teor médio de sólidos solúveis de 14ºBrix, 0,6% de ácido tartárico e índice de maturação de 21. Trata-se de nova cultivar de uva fina de mesa com potencial de cultivo no Brasil.

  1. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells.

  2. Treatment of crystallized-fruit wastewater by UV-A LED photo-Fenton and coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, Jorge; Amor, Carlos; Fernandes, José R; Tavares, Pedro B; Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the treatment of crystallized-fruit effluents, characterized by a very low biodegradability (BOD5/COD UV-A LED photo-Fenton process. Firstly, a Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology was applied to achieve the optimal conditions for the UV-A LED photo-Fenton process, trying to maximize the efficiency by saving chemicals and time. Under the optimal conditions ([H2O2] = 5459 mg/L; [Fe(3+)] = 286 mg/L; time >180 min), a COD removal of 45, 64 and 74% was achieved after 360 min, using an irradiance of 23, 70 and 85 W/m(2) respectively. Then a combination of UV-A LED photo-Fenton with coagulation-flocculation-decantation attained a higher COD removal (80%), as well as almost total removal of turbidity (99%) and total suspended solids (95%). Subsequent biodegradability of treated effluents increased, allowing the application of a biological treatment step after the photochemical/CFD with 85 W/m(2).

  3. The Multidimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS): Construction and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora; Vilchinsky, Noa; Werner, Shirli

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the development of a new instrument, the "Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities" (MAS). Based on the multidimensional approach, it posits that attitudes are composed of three dimensions: affect, cognition, and behavior. The scale was distributed to a sample of 132 people along with a self-esteem…

  4. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...

  5. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  6. Acceptance Test Report for the Modular Automation System (MAS) Manufactured by Honeywell Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details the performance of the acceptance test of the Honeywell MAS Control System for equipment to be installed in gloveboxes HA-20MB and HA-211 at a later date. Equipment that was anticipated included 6 stabilization furnaces, only three and their associated equipment were installed

  7. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y; Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Suochang; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M; Peden, Charles H F; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-09-11

    Here we present the design of reusable and perfectly sealed all-zirconia MAS rotors. The rotors are used to study AlPO4-5 molecular sieve crystallization under hydrothermal conditions, high temperature high pressure cyclohexanol dehydration reaction, and low temperature metabolomics of intact biological tissue. PMID:26171928

  8. Perencanaan Disain Deep Dig Arm pada Kapal Water Witch Untuk Pengerukan Sampah di Kali Mas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bambang Musriyadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kali Mas merupaka salah satu Sungai di Surabaya yang bermanfaat bagi hajat hidup penduduk Surabaya,Namun seiring berjalan waktu Kali Mas mengalami pendangkalan dan polusi sampah padat akibat pembuangan sampah sembarangan.Oleh karena itu penting untuk melakuakan pengerukan sendimen dan sampah yang efektif dan tepat agar tidak menggangu fungsi utama dari Kali Mas,maka perlu suatu alat untuk pengerukan,Backhoe dreger merupak alat yang tepat untuk pengerukan, akan tetapi harus disesuaikan lengan penerukannya agar efektif dalam beroperasi.Dalam pembuatan Tugas Akhir ini akan di disain Boom dan Arm dari Backhoe dreger untuk pengerukan di Kali mas di Surabaya.Sesuai dengan Kebutuhan dan aspek pertimbangan ukuran kapal telah ditentukan disain Boom dengan panjang 4.6m dan arm 2.1m dengan kapasitas Bucket 0.56 m3 .Dengan pemilihan matrial   Carbon Stell Sheet (SS 1023 dan ketebalan plat 10  mm,metode yang digunakan untuk analisa pembebanan adalah stress analisis pada Program Solid work,dan sebagai pertimbangan kelayakan

  9. An HR-MAS MR metabolomics study on breast tissues obtained with core needle biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuLan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much research has been devoted to the development of new breast cancer diagnostic measures, including those involving high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance (MR spectroscopic techniques. Previous HR-MAS MR results have been obtained from post-surgery samples, which limits their direct clinical applicability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed HR-MAS MR spectroscopic studies on 31 breast tissue samples (13 cancer and 18 non-cancer obtained by percutaneous core needle biopsy. We showed that cancer and non-cancer samples can be discriminated very well with Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA multivariate model on the MR spectra. A subsequent blind test showed 69% sensitivity and 94% specificity in the prediction of the cancer status. A spectral analysis showed that in cancer cells, taurine- and choline-containing compounds are elevated. Our approach, additionally, could predict the progesterone receptor statuses of the cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HR-MAS MR metabolomics on intact breast tissues obtained by core needle biopsy may have a potential to be used as a complement to the current diagnostic and prognostic measures for breast cancers.

  10. Low-flow transport models for conservative and sorbed solutes; Uvas Creek, near Morgan Hill, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Models describing low-flow transport of conservative (nonreactive) and reactive solutes, which adsorb on the streambed, are developed and tested. Temporary storage within the bed plays an important role in solute movement. Three different models of bed-storage processes are developed for conservative solutes. One model assumes the bed is a well-mixed, nondiffusing, nonreacting zone. Solute flux into the bed is then proportional to the difference between stream and bed-solute concentrations. A second model assumes that solute is transported within the bed by a vertical diffusion process. The bed-solute concentration, which matches the stream concentration at the interface, varies with depth in the bed according to Fick 's law. A third model assumes convection in the downstream direction occurs in certain parts of the bed, while the mechanism of the first model functions elsewhere. Storage of absorbing species is assumed to occur by equilibrium adsorption within streambed particles. Uptake rate is described by an intraparticle diffusion process. Model equations were solved using finite element numerical methods. Models were calibrated using data from a 24-hour injection of conservative chloride and adsorptive Sr ions at Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California. All models predict well except for some overestimation by the adsorption model during dieaway. (USGS)

  11. Temporal variation of erythemally effective UVB/UVA ratio at Chilton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, R J; Pearson, A J; O'Hagan, J B

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the temporal variation in the erythemally weighted UVB/UVA irradiance ratio using spectral data collected from a monitoring site in Chilton, UK (51°N) for the 5-y period from 2004 to 2008 is presented. The variation in the diurnal ratio was found to be bell-shaped, with minima on average 1 h after sunrise and before sunset. The minima were found to be indicative of the point at which UVB becomes undetectable by the spectroradiometer and therefore the outer boundary of useful data. A potential flaw entailed in the erythemal weighting of low-level spectral UV data is described. The peak daily ratio value was found to have a bell-shaped distribution over the course of a year with a maximum in July rather than at the summer solstice-a result explained by the ozone cycle. The peak daily ratio was found to vary by a factor of 4 over the course of the year; this range of variation was also found to occur over a single day in the summer.

  12. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min. PMID:26548918

  13. Phenylmercury degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis assisted by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cristian; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Zaror, Claudio; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenylmercury was studied using TiO2 in aqueous suspension assisted by UV-A irradiation. Reaction conditions, such as pH and amount of TiO2 were set using a factorial design of experiments resulting in a greater influence of pH on phenylmercury degradation. Hg (II) reduction and simultaneous oxidation of aromatic group was observed. Optimum reaction conditions were obtained under nitrogen atmosphere at pH 10 and 0.35 g/L(-1) TiO2. Under these conditions almost 100% reduction of mercury was reached after 30 min UV irradiation. Total mercury reduction was achieved after 40 min reaction under saturated oxygen. Furthermore, phenol and diphenylmercury were identified as intermediate products of oxidation. It was observed that a major fraction of the reduced mercury was removed as metallic vapor by gas stripping, whereas a minor fraction was adsorbed on the catalyst surface, probably as Hg(OH)2. Under optimal conditions obtained by multivariable analysis, total mineralization of organic matter was achieved after about 60-min irradiation. PMID:23947701

  14. Phenylmercury degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis assisted by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cristian; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Zaror, Claudio; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenylmercury was studied using TiO2 in aqueous suspension assisted by UV-A irradiation. Reaction conditions, such as pH and amount of TiO2 were set using a factorial design of experiments resulting in a greater influence of pH on phenylmercury degradation. Hg (II) reduction and simultaneous oxidation of aromatic group was observed. Optimum reaction conditions were obtained under nitrogen atmosphere at pH 10 and 0.35 g/L(-1) TiO2. Under these conditions almost 100% reduction of mercury was reached after 30 min UV irradiation. Total mercury reduction was achieved after 40 min reaction under saturated oxygen. Furthermore, phenol and diphenylmercury were identified as intermediate products of oxidation. It was observed that a major fraction of the reduced mercury was removed as metallic vapor by gas stripping, whereas a minor fraction was adsorbed on the catalyst surface, probably as Hg(OH)2. Under optimal conditions obtained by multivariable analysis, total mineralization of organic matter was achieved after about 60-min irradiation.

  15. A novel estrogenic compound transformed from fenthion under UV-A irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kenta, E-mail: p7404@mail.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Terasaki, Masanori, E-mail: terasaki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Makino, Masakazu, E-mail: makinom@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The photo-transformed products of fenthion well-known as one of the most photosensitive organophosphorus insecticides and their estrogenic activities were investigated using a yeast two-hybrid assay incorporating the human estrogen receptor {alpha} (hER{alpha}). We identified fenthion sulfoxide and 3-methyl-4-methylsulfinylphenol (MMS) as the major transformed products and 3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenol (MMP) as the minor product under UV-A irradiation. Further, significant estrogenic activity was observed in the solution irradiated for 160 min; this activity was evaluated as 18 pM converted to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) equivalent concentration. By using authentic standards, it was found that MMP possessed weak estrogenic activity; its activity was evaluated as 1.7 x 10{sup -6} times compared with that of E{sub 2}. However, it was also revealed that the activity due to MMP was only 13%. From high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, we newly identified a significant estrogenic compound transformed from fenthion, O,O-dimethyl S-[3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl]phosphorothioate, S-aryl fenthion.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  17. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min.

  18. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UVA irradiation of glass mounted dye-sensitized solar cells without UV filtration causes failure within 400 hours of light exposure. The failure mode is shown to relate to consumption of I3−, which is directly related to TiO2 photo-catalysis. The onset of failure is easily determined from electrochemical impedance data where the recombination resistance of the TiO2/electrolyte back reaction drops markedly prior to the onset of degradation. At the point of complete cell failure this impedance value then dramatically increases as there is no longer an interfacial reaction possible between the TiO2 and the I3− depleted electrolyte. Device failure is most rapid for cells under electrical load indicating that the degradation of the electrolyte is related to photogenerated hole production by excitation of the TiO2. Once depleted by UV exposure, the I3− can be regenerated by simple application of a reverse bias which can restore severely UV degraded devices to near original working conditions.

  19. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p. at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p. 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05, an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  20. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  1. A novel BN–MAS system composite ceramics with greatly improved mechanical properties prepared by low temperature hot-pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@hit.edu.cn; Duan, Xiaoming; Liang, Bin; Li, Qian; Jia, Dechang, E-mail: dcjia@hit.edu.cn; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel composite ceramics with excellent mechanical properties was fabricated by means of low temperature hot-pressing using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as raw materials. The influences of starting MAS content on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicate that the effective enhancement of relative density of composites has been achieved, which shows that MAS is an effective liquid-phase sintering aid during the hot-pressing. MAS also can improve the structural ordering of h-BN flakes. On the other hand, h-BN exhibits significant inhibiting effect on the crystallization of α-Cordierite. Furthermore, h-BN flakes with layered structure can play a role in strengthening the MAS matrix. So h-BN and MAS are considered to be co-enhanced by each other, resulting in better sintering ability and the mechanical properties of composite ceramics are better than that of both h-BN and MAS. Composite ceramics incorporated with 50 wt% MAS exhibits the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of 213±25 MPa and 2.49±0.35 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively.

  2. Angiotensin-(1-7 attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7 in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7 and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT and Mas-knockout (Mas KO mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7 immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7 prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7 increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  3. Heteromerization Between the Bradykinin B2 Receptor and the Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas Receptor: Functional Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Bruno D; Carretero, Oscar A; Janic, Brana; Grecco, Hernán E; Gironacci, Mariela M

    2016-10-01

    Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) and angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor (MasR)-mediated effects are physiologically interconnected. The molecular basis for such cross talk is unknown. It is hypothesized that the cross talk occurs at the receptor level. We investigated B2R-MasR heteromerization and the functional consequences of such interaction. B2R fused to the cyan fluorescent protein and MasR fused to the yellow fluorescent protein were transiently coexpressed in human embryonic kidney293T cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis showed that B2R and MasR formed a constitutive heteromer, which was not modified by their agonists. B2R or MasR antagonists decreased fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency, suggesting that the antagonist promoted heteromer dissociation. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced an 8-fold increase in the MasR ligand-binding affinity. On agonist stimulation, the heteromer was internalized into early endosomes with a slower sequestration rate from the plasma membrane, compared with single receptors. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced a greater increase in arachidonic acid release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation after angiotensin-(1-7) stimulation, and this effect was blocked by the B2R antagonist. Concerning serine/threonine kinase Akt activity, a significant bradykinin-promoted activation was detected in B2R-MasR but not in B2R-expressing cells. Angiotensin-(1-7) and bradykinin elicited antiproliferative effects only in cells expressing B2R-MasR heteromers, but not in cells expressing each receptor alone. Proximity ligation assay confirmed B2R-MasR interaction in human glomerular endothelial cells supporting the interaction between both receptors in vivo. Our findings provide an explanation for the cross talk between bradykinin B2R and angiotensin-(1-7) MasR-mediated effects. B2R-MasR heteromerization induces functional changes in the receptor that may lead to long-lasting protective properties. PMID

  4. Nivel de aceptabilidad para cinco variedades de uva de mesa en el mercado español Nivel de aceitabilidade para cinco variedades de uva de mesa no mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel de aceptabilidad con relación a distintas variedades de uva de mesa, la Unidad de Comercialización y Divulgación Agraria del Departamento de Economía y Ciencias Sociales Agrarias (E.T.S.I.Agrónomos, de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, realizó la presente investigación en julio de 1999. Se utilizó el análisis sensorial en Sala de Catas como herramienta para la evaluación del nivel de aceptabilidad de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Se puso énfasis en conocer las posibles diferencias de carácter sensorial entre las variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble, variedades que coinciden en su época de cosecha en España. En los análisis hechos, las variedades Cardinal y Superior Seedless fueron las más preferidas en comparación con Flame Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble. La variedad Superior Seedless fue muy valorada por su ausencia de semillas, además de su buen sabor, lo que la torna de gran potencial para el mercado español. El sabor, seguido de la jugosidad, fueron los elementos determinantes en el proceso de aceptación de la uva.Com o objetivo de avaliar o nível de aceitabilidade de distintas variedades de uva de mesa, a Unidade de Comercialização e Divulgação Agrária do Departamento de Economia y Ciências Sociales Agrárias (E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, da Universidade Politécnica de Madri, realizou o presente estudo em julho de 1999. Empregou-se a análise sensorial para a avaliação do nível de aceitabilidade de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Procurou-se determinar especial atenção em conhecer as possíveis diferenças de caráter sensorial entre as variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria e Redgloble. Nos pomares espanhóis, essas variedades atingem a maturação de colheita na mesma época. Nas análises realizadas, as variedades Cardinal e Superior Seedless foram as mais preferidas em comparação com Flame Seedless

  5. Treatment with topical khellin in combination with ultraviolet A or solar-simulated radiation is carcinogenic to lightly pigmented hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1996-01-01

    Khellin is used together with either UVA irradiation or sun exposure in the treatment of vitiligo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic effect of topically applied khellin together with UVA or solar simulated radiation (SSR) in lightly pigmented C3H/Tif mice. For comparison purposes a 0.1% 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) cream was also tested in combination with SSR. Fifty microliters of a 5% khellin cream, a 0.1% 8-MOP cream, or a cream without active substances were spread uniformly on the back of the mice 30 minutes before UVA or SSR irradiation. All mice were irradiated 3 times a week until age or skin tumor development necessitated killing. Treatment with topical khellin and UVA irradiation was carcinogenic to lightly pigmented hairless mice, time to 50% of the mice had developed one tumor (t50) was 507 days. This indicates that the combination of topical khellin and UVA radiation, formerly expected to be rather innocuous, is carcinogenic to mice. Also the combination of khellin and SSR (t50 = 268 days) enhanced skin tumor development significantly compared with control cream and SSR (t50 = 330 days), P < 0.05. In addition, the combination of khellin and SSR was found to have the same carcinogenic effect as treatment with 0.1% 8-MOP and SSR (t50 = 262 days). This study shows that topically applied khellin increases the carcinogenic effect of both UVA and sunlight. PMID:8738715

  6. Avaliação de mosto de uva fermentado Evaluation of fermented grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a concentração de compostos voláteis nos mostos de uva Chardonnay e Pinot Noir fermentados pela Pichia membranaefaciens, como também analisar as fases de crescimento da levedura durante a fermentação a 15 e 20 °C. Compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação como: etanol, acetato de etila, acetato de isoamila, acetaldeido, 1-propanol, isobutanol e álcool isoamílico foram isolados e quantificados pelo sistema de "Purge and Trap". A fermentação conduzida a 15 °C mostrou ser mais adequada na produção de acetato de etila, com valores inferiores a 200 mg.L-1 (131,3 e 147,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente, enquanto que a 20 °C a produção foi de 286,0 e 270,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente.The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of volatile compounds in Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape musts. The study also aims to analyze yeast growth phases during fermentation at 15 and 20 °C. Major volatile compounds of fermentation such as ethanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 3-methyl butanol and 2-methyl butanol were isolated and quantified using the Purge and Trap system. Fermentation carried out at 15 °C was more appropriate in the production of ethyl acetate (131.3 and 147.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts, respectively, whilst at 20 °C the production was of 286.0 and 270.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts respectively.

  7. Processamento mínimo de uvas de mesa sem semente Seedless table grapes minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Mattiuz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos qualitativos de uvas de mesa apirênicas (sem sementes quando submetidas ao processamento mínimo e armazenadas sob refrigeração. Para tanto, foram utilizadas uvas da cultivar BRS Morena e da Seleção Avançada nº 8, produzidas na Embrapa Uva e Vinho/Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical (da Embrapa de Jales. Os cachos, depois de higienizados, imersos em água clorada a 300 mg de cloro.L-1 por 5 min., foram mantidos em câmara fria, a 12ºC, por 12 h. Pessoas treinadas e com proteção adequada procederam à degrana dos cachos e ao posterior enxágüe das bagas com água clorada (20 mg.L-1 a 12ºC. Depois de escorrido o excesso de água, as bagas foram acondicionadas em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente com tampa e com capacidade para 500 mL. Cada unidade, contendo 200 g de bagas, foi armazenada a 2,5 ± 1ºC e 88% UR por at�� 36 dias. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa fresca, a evolução da aparência, a coloração e os teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, e de acidez titulável (AT. Nas condições do experimento, os produtos minimamente processados da cv. BRS Morena e da Seleção 8 apresentaram baixa perda acumulada de massa fresca (0,16%. O produto da cv. Morena apresentou-se mais escuro (L = 25,04 e mais arroxeado (h° = 332,88 que o da Seleção 8 (L = 29,86 e h° = 345,11, propiciando-lhe melhor qualidade visual. O suco da 'BRS Morena' apresentou maiores teores de SST (22,17 °Brix e menores para a AT (0,56 %, o que resultou em uma relação SST/AT maior e melhor (39,76 que o da Seleção 8 (18,81. A cv. BRS Morena também apresentou boa manutenção da aparência e, portanto, da qualidade comercial, por 33 dias a 2,5°C, superior ao obtido para a Seleção 8 (24 dias.This work evaluated the qualitative aspects of apirenic table grapes (seedless, cv. BRS Morena and Selection 8, when minimally processed and cold stored. Fruits were immersed in a

  8. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  9. Research on MAS-Based Supply Chain Resilience and Its Self-Organized Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Geng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building resilient supply chain is an effective way to deal with uncertain risks. First, by analyzing the self-organization of supply chain, the supply chain resilience is described as a macroscopic property that generates from self-organizing behavior of each enterprise on the microlevel. Second, a MAS-based supply chain resilience model is established and its local fitness function, neighborhood structure, and interaction rules that are applicable to supply chain system are designed through viewing the enterprise as an agent. Finally, with the help of a case, we find that there is an agglomeration effect and a SOC characteristic in supply chain and the evolution of supply chain is controlled by parameters of MAS. Managers can control the supply chain within the resilient range and choose a good balance between interest and risk by controlling enterprises’ behavior.

  10. Bibliotēku sistēmas klientu portāls

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Edgars

    2016-01-01

    „Bibliotēkas sistēmas klientu portāls” ir tīmeklī bāzēts portāls, kurš nodrošina uzņēmuma „Bibliotēkas Informācijas sistēmas ALISE” klientiem ērtu un drošu informācijas iegūšanu un ir viegli administrējams portāls. Projekts ir izstrādāts pēc spējas (agile) izstrādes metodes. Portāla izstrādē ir izmantota tīmekļa lietojumprogrammu sistēma MVC, kura pamatā izmanto ASP.NET tīmekļa vietņu programmēšanas valodu.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is (1) to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2) to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by quali...

  12. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  13. TANGGUNG JAWAB EKSPEDISI MUATAN KAPAL LAUT DALAM PENGIRIMAN BARANG MELALUI LAUT DI PELABUHAN TANJUNG MAS SEMARANG

    OpenAIRE

    PANDEIROTH, NOVRY NOLDY

    2015-01-01

    The title of this thesis is the, the responsibility of the expedition cargo marine through the ocean freight preformance in port Tanjung Mas Semarang. The problems of this study are : How is the responsibility of marine Cargo event of damage goods delivered and how the evidence and the process of compensation. This thesis is a type of empirical legal research,this approach is a focus of research conducted on the behavior of the legal community . Empirical legal research conducted through fiel...

  14. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Francik; Jadwiga Kryczyk; Mirosław Krośniak; Mehmet Berköz; Ilona Sanocka; Sławomir Francik

    2014-01-01

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease) or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet). This effect was studied by determining the f...

  15. Non-monotonic concentration-response relationship of TiO(2) nanoparticles in freshwater cladocerans under environmentally relevant UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Chul-min; Seo, Jihyun; Park, Yena; Kwon, Dongwook; Lee, Song-Hee; Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-03-01

    The effects of UV-A on the toxicity of TiO2 nano-particles (NPs) were evaluated using Moina macrocopa and Daphnia magna under environmentally relevant level of UV-A. The waterfleas were exposed to TiO2 NPs with different sizes of ~298nm, ~132nm, or ~72nm for up to 48h, with or without UV-A light. Whole body reactive oxygen species and transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes were measured, as well as the survival of the waterflea. In the presence of UV-A, the survival rates of M. macrocopa significantly decreased in concentration dependent way until ~1mg/L TiO2 NPs, but the survivals were reversed at greater concentrations. This peculiar non-monotonic trend of concentration-response relationship might be explained by changes of particle size under different light conditions. TiO2 NPs within a certain size range could be trapped in the filter apparatus and exert toxicity, and the NPs of greater size were subject to either precipitation or ingestion leading to no or little toxicity. Observed TiO2 toxicity was associated with oxidative stress in the filter apparatus. The results of this study showed that the size change due to UV-A irradiation should be considered in evaluation of ecological risks of TiO2 NP. PMID:24507152

  16. Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways Contribute to Porphyra-334-Mediated Inhibition of UVA-Induced Inflammation in Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-07-31

    In this study, we examined the protective effects of porphyra-334 against UVA-irradiated cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Porphyra-334 prevented UVA-induced cell death and exhibited scavenging activities against intracellular oxidative stress induced by UVA irradiation in skin fibroblasts. We found that porphyra-334 significantly reduced the secretion and expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, reduced nuclear expression of Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and sustained NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Further mechanism research revealed that porphyra-334 promoted the Nrf2 signaling pathway in UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of porphyra-334 is due to the direct scavenging of oxidative stress and its inhibitory effects on NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes, such as IL-6 and TNF-κ. Therefore, we hypothesize that boosting the Nrf2- NF-κB-dependent response to counteract environmental stress is a promising strategy for the prevention of UVA-related damage.

  17. Processing of CP MAS kinetics: Towards NMR crystallography for complex solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Laurynas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2016-09-01

    Variable temperature and high data point density measurements of 1H-31P cross-polarization kinetics in the powdered ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) have been carried out in the range of -40 °C to +90 °C upon 7 and 10 kHz MAS. The advanced route of processing CP MAS kinetic data has been developed. It is based on reducing the incoherent far range order spin couplings and extracting the CP oscillatory term with the sequent mathematical treatment. The proper replica has been found, which allowed to reduce the Fourier-Bessel (Hankel) transform calculating the angularly averaged and purely distance-depending spin distribution profile to the routine Fourier transform. The shortest 31P-1H distances determined by CP MAS kinetics get between the values obtained by neutron and X-ray diffraction, whereas those for more remote protons are slightly larger. The changes in P⋯H distances are hardly noticeable, though a certain trend to increase upon the heating can be deduced. The clearly pronounced effect was the increase of the spin-diffusion rate constant upon heating. It allows to state that the communication between interacting spins is the process extremely easy to activate.

  18. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asgharzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  19. MAS/MILS Arc/Info point coverage for the western U.S. (excluding Hawaii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has two international and one regional digital database that contains information on mineral properties. This report describes the conversion of selected data from one of the international databases - MAS/MILS (Mineral Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System) - into a spatial data product. The MAS/MILS database, obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) upon its closure, contains over 221,000 records of mineral properties and processing facilities throughout the world. However, the majority of the records in the database are of sites located in the western U.S. This is due to the extensive mineral activity that has occurred in the West, and the work done by mineral professionals in the Western, Alaska, and Intermountain Field Operations Centers of the USBM. The purpose of this project was to create a spatial coverage of the western U.S. containing mineral resource information. This coverage includes information for the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For this report, locations from MAS/MILS were converted to a point coverage using a geographic information system (GIS). All work was done using Arc/Info v. 7.0.4. There are 128,441 points in the coverage.

  20. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  1. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  2. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY4(1)4, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D (1)H/(1)H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY4(1)2, XY4(1)3, XY4(1)4, and XY8(1)4 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T(10)T(2,±2), T(1,±1)T(2,±1), etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY4(1)4 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp

  3. Evidence for preferential repair of 3-carbethoxypsoralen plus UVA induced DNA lesions in the active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the UvrABC assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méniel, V; Brouwer, J; Averbeck, D

    1993-09-01

    The occurrence of preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus was confirmed after 254 nm UV irradiation. Experiments carried out using the UvrABC excinuclease assay with the monofunctional furocoumarin 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) plus UVA radiation which induce mainly monoadducts in DNA demonstrated preferential repair of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus in a SIR+ strain. However, as after 254 nm UV irradiation, no difference in the rate of removal of 3-CPs plus UVA induced lesions was observed between the two loci in the sir-3 mutant in which both loci are active. Thus, it appears that 3-CPs plus UVA induced monoadducts as well as pyrimidine dimers are subject to preferential repair.

  4. Preferencias y disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la región del Maule, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Arcadio Alberto Cerda Urrutia; Leidy Yomary García Pérez; Johanna Carolina González Cancino; Ashley Ignacio Salvatierra Núñez

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las preferencias y disposición a pagar por consumo de uva de mesa orgánica. Específicamente, se buscó determinar la utilidad y jerarquizar los atributos más importantes que consideran los individuos al momento de la elección de uva de mesa y determinar la disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la Región del Maule, Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra probabilística y estratificada por niveles socioeconómico en los hogares en lo...

  5. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts. PMID:27428951

  6. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Liang Fang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM. Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1, Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  7. Enhancement of photoprotection potential of catechin loaded nanoemulsion gel against UVA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwansh, Ranjit K; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kar, Amit; Bahadur, Shiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, V

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a catechin (CA) loaded nanoemulsion based nano-gel for the protection of skin against ultraviolet radiation (UV) induced photo-damage and to ensure its enhanced skin permeability as well as bioavailability through transdermal route. The optimized nanoemulsion (CA-NE4) was prepared by spontaneous nano-emulsification method. It was composed of oil (ethyl oleate), Smix [surfactant (span 80) and co-surfactant (transcutol CG)] and aqueous system in an appropriate ratio of 15:62:23% w/w respectively. The CA-NE4 was characterized through assessment of droplet size, zeta potential, refractive index, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The average droplet size and zeta potential of CA-NE4 were found to be 98.6±1.01nm and -27.3±0.20mV respectively. The enhanced skin permeability was better with CA-NE4 based nano-gel (CA-NG4) [96.62%] compared to conventional gel (CA-CG) [53.01%] for a period of 24h. The enhanced % relative bioavailability (F) of CA (894.73), Cmax (93.79±6.19ngmL(-1)), AUC0-t∞ (2653.99±515.02nghmL(-1)) and Tmax (12.05±0.02h) was significantly obtained with CA-NG4 as compared to oral suspension for extended periods (72h). CA-NG4 could improve the level of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and reduce the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) against oxidative stress induced by UVA. Nano-gel formulation of CA showed sustained release profile and enhanced photoprotection potential due to its improved permeability as well as bioavailability (Pstrategy for decreasing UV-induced oxidative damage in the skin tissues. PMID:27167597

  8. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S M; Tyrrell, R M

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide...

  9. Características energéticas de combustibles densificados de residuos de la uva isabella (viti labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de densificación son utilizados para mejorar las características fisicoquímicas de biomasa, con la finalidad de que esta sea empleada como combustible. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de las características energéticas que presentan los residuos provenientes del cultivo (sarmientos y producción de jugo de uva (hollejos, escobajos y semillas, al ser densificados. Para evaluar las características energéticas, tanto los residuos como las briquetas se caracterizaron respecto a su análisis próximo, análisis último y se determinó el índice de reactividad por medio de la relación materia volátil/carbono fio (MV/CF. Se encontró no fue posible densificar las semillas por la presencia de aceite en su composición, pero es el residuo de mayor HHV. También se encontró que el proceso de densificación favorece la concentración de energía y se recomienda elaborar briquetas con la mezcla de los residuos tal cual se obtienen en el cultivo y procesamiento de la uva.

  10. The novel 10-item asthma prediction tool: external validation in the German MAS birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus B Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma.We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort.The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years.For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23 and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78. Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome 'physicians' diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89.The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings.

  11. Deuterium and lithium-6 MAS NMR studies of manganese oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Younkee

    Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used world wide as the cathode materials in both lithium and alkaline primary (non-rechargeable) batteries. We have developed deuterium and lithium MAS NMR techniques to study EMD and related manganese oxides and hydroxides, where diffraction techniques are of limited value due to a highly defective nature of the structures. Deuterons in EMD, manganite, groutite, and deuterium-intercalated pyrolusite and ramsdellite were detected by NMR, for the first time, and their locations and motions in the structures were analyzed by applying variable temperature NMR techniques. Discharge mechanisms of EMD in alkaline (aqueous) electrolytes were studied, in conjunction with step potential electrochemical spectroscopic (SPECS) method, and five distinctive discharge processes were proposed. EMD is usually heat-treated at about 300--400°C to remove water to be used in lithium batteries. Details of the effects of heat-treatment, such as structural and compositional changes as a function of heat-treatment temperature, were studied by a combination of MAS NMR, XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis. Lithium local environments in heat-treated EMD (HEMD) that were discharged in lithium cells, were described in terms of related environments found in model compounds pyrolusite and ramsdellite where specific Li + sites were detected by MAS NMR and the hyperfine shift scale method of Grey et al. Acid-leaching of Li2MnO3 represents an approach for synthesizing new or modified manganese oxide electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. Progressive removal of lithium from specific crystallographic sites, followed by a gradual change of the crystal structure, was monitored by a combination of NMR and XRD techniques.

  12. Design and implementation of a multi-axis precision movement machine based on MAS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MA; Linlin CI; Genyan GE

    2009-01-01

    A model construction of a multi-agent system (MAS) and the basic function of the agent are described.The precision control method using the multi-CPU of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is introduced,and a distributed method using multiple CPUs to control different motion machines is given.The test results indicate that in industrial control fields,the combination of using the credible PLC to control the motion machine and multi-CPU task distributing methods can solve multi-axis machine linkage and implication,providing a more credible method for multi-axis motion units.

  13. MAS: Malware Analysis System Based on Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyoung; Kim, Inhyuk; Min, Changwoo; Eom, Young Ik

    There are many analysis techniques in order to analyze malicious codes. However, recently malicious codes often evade detection using stealthy obfuscation techniques, and attack computing systems. We propose an enhanced dynamic binary instrumentation using hardware-assisted virtualization technology. As a machine-level analyzer, our system can be isolated from almost the whole threats of malware, and provides single step analysis environment. Proposed system also supports rapid system call analysis environment. We implement our malware analysis system (referred as MAS) on the KVM hypervisor with Intel VT-x virtualization support. Our experiments with benchmarks show that the proposed system provides efficient analysis environment with low overhead.

  14. MAS Equipped with Ant Colony Applied into Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kai; Zhang, Ren Feng; Yang, Yan Qing

    This paper presents a methodology adopting the new structure of MAS(multi-agent system) equipped with ACO(ant colony optimization) algorithm for a better schedule in dynamic job shop. In consideration of the dynamic events in the job shop arriving indefinitely schedules are generated based on tasks with ant colony algorithm. Meanwhile, the global objective is taken into account for the best solution in the actual manufacturing environment. The methodology is tested on a simulated job shop to determine the impact with the new structure.

  15. Exposure (mAs) optimisation of a multi-detector CT protocol for hepatic lesion detection: are thinner slices better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to determine the exposure-optimised slice thickness for hepatic lesion detection with CT. A phantom containing spheres (diameter 9.5, 4.8 and 2.4mm) with CT density 10 HU below the background (50 HU) was scanned at 125, 100, 75 and 50 mAs. Data were reconstructed at 5-, 3- and 1-mm slice thicknesses. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), area under the curve (AUC) as calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis and sensitivity representing lesion detection were calculated and compared. Compared with the 125 mAs/5mm slice thickness setting, significant reductions in AUC were found for 75 mAs (P<0.01) and 50 mAs (P<0.05) at 1- and 3-mm thicknesses, respectively; sensitivity for the 9.5-mm sphere was significantly reduced for 75 (P<0.05) and 50 mAs (P<0.01) at 1-mm thickness; sensitivity for the 4.8-mm sphere was significantly lower for 100, 75 and 50 mAs at all three slice thicknesses (P<0.05). The 2.4-mm sphere was rarely detected. At each slice thickness, noise at 100, 75 and 50 mAs exposures was approximately 10, 30 and 50% higher, respectively, than that at 125 mAs exposure. CNRs decreased in an irregular manner with reductions in exposure and slice thickness. This study demonstrated no advantage to using slices below 5mm thickness, and consequently thinner slices are not necessarily better.

  16. Pengaruh Inovasi Dan Jiwa Kewirausahaan Terhadap Keberhasilan Usaha (Studi Kasus: Pelaku UMKM Kuliner Chinatown Asia Mega Mas Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah, Nadia Inda

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the effect of innovation and entrepreneurs Spirit to business success (Case Study: SMEs Of Kuliner Chinatown Asia Mega Mas Medan). The research was conducted on SMEs in the Asia Mega Mas with a total sample of 35 businesses. The sampling method used in this research was saturated sampling by using descriptive analysis method, statistical analysis method whis consist of double linear regression analysis, simultaneous significance test (F-test), partial si...

  17. Production and characterization of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance produced by indigenous soil associated pseudomonas putida mas-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriocins have been the subject of extensive research globally due to wide range applications. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of bacteriocin(s) or bacteriocin like inhibitory substance(s) by Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 strain. The bacteriocin produced (Putidacin MAS-1) was found bioactive against clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis strains. Bioactivity was observed by stab and overlay assay and multiwell antagonistic activity assay. Putidacin MAS-1 was sensitive beyond 70 degree C but stable at wide pH range (3 to 8). Bioactivity of putidacin MAS-1 was lost after treatment with trypsin and protease while partially lost after Proteinase K treatment. Treatment with ethanol, methanol, chloroform, acetone Tween 20 and Tween 80 showed partial decrease in bioactivity. SDS had stimulatory effect on putidacin MAS-1 bioactivity. EDTA however, showed no effect on the bacteriocin bioactivity. It was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. SDS-PAGE showed that Putidacin MAS-1 had 15 kDa molecular weight. (author)

  18. “La iconografía masónica y sus fuentes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Sánchez Ferré

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El corpus iconográfico de la masonería es un elemento esencial en las prácticas rituales y un soporte privilegiado para transmitir sus doctrinas, su saber y su ciencia. Las imágenes y símbolos masónicos trascienden la experiencia estética para adentrarse en el terreno de lo iniciático, es decir, de lo espiritual; por lo tanto, el legado iconográfico que la Orden ha conservado es una representación del mundo sagrado a la que solamente se accede mediante su propio lenguaje: el simbólico, vehículo y fundamento de su sabiduría. Por ende, el objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar las fuentes en las que se ha inspirado el imaginario masónico a fin de comprender su significado primero y radical, su naturaleza original y los elementos que lo componen. Se intentará también poner de manifiesto el itinerario experimentado por este universo iconográfico desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad, lo cual revelará la naturaleza de la metamorfosis experimentada por la masonería moderna desde su fundación.

  19. Resource-Efficient Floating-Point Data Compression Using MAS in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher El Assi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a wide range of applications, large amounts of f loating-point data are generated by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This data is often transferred bet ween several sensor nodes, in a multi-hop fashion, before reaching its ultimate destination (the base station. It is well known that data communications is the most energy-consuming task in sensor nodes [1]. Thi s can be a great concern when the nodes are constrained in energy. Therefore, the amount of dat a to be transferred between nodes should be reduced to save energy. In this paper, we investigate data com pression for resource-constraint WSNs; we introduce MAS as a novel adaptive lossless floating-point dat a compression algorithm for WSNs. MAS exploits the disproportionality in energy consumption between da ta transmission and processing. Simulation results, obtained from OMNeT++ and Atmel Studio, show that M AS surpasses other tested compression algorithms in terms of compression ratio, compression speed, m emory requirements and most importantly energy savings.

  20. Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic studies of lead phosphate glasses containing thorium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (PbO)0.5(P2O5)0.5 glasses in which part of the PbO/ P2O5 was replaced by ThO2 up to 10 mol% have been prepared by conventional melt quench method and characterized by Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic studies. Raman studies of these samples clearly revealed the existence of PO4 structural units having two non bridging oxygen atoms attached to phosphorus (PO22-). The 31P MAS NMR studies indicated the presence of two types of phosphorus structural units in both PbO -P2O5 and PbO-P2O5-ThO2 glasses, namely Q2 and Q1 (PO4 structural units with 2 and 1 bridging oxygen atoms respectively). Increase in the concentration of ThO2 at the expense of both PbO/P2O5 has been found to result in the increased amount of Q1 structural units of phosphorus, indicating that ThO2 acts as only a network modifier. ThO2 has been found to form the glassy phase with PbO-P2O5 system only up to 10 mol%. (author)

  1. Structural analysis of molybdo-zinc-phosphate glasses: Neutron scattering, FTIR, Raman scattering, MAS NMR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, C.; Shinde, A. B.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-08-01

    Vitreous samples were prepared in the xMoO3-17ZnO-(83-x) NaPO3 with 35 ≥ x ≥ 55 glass forming system by energy efficient microwave heating method. Structural evolution of the vitreous network was monitored as a function of composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering, Magic Angle Spin Nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and Neutron scattering. Addition of MoO3 to the ZnO-NaPO3 glass leads to a pronounced increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) suggesting a significant increase in network connectivity and strength. In order to analyze FTIR and Raman scattering, a simple structural model is presented to rationalize the experimental observations. A number of structural units are formed due to network modification, and the resulting glass may be characterized by a network polyhedral with different numbers of unshared corners. 31P MAS NMR confirms a clear distinction between structural species having 3, 2, 1, 0 bridging oxygens (BOs). Further, Neutron scattering studies were used to probe the structure of these glasses. The result suggests that all the investigated glasses have structures based on chains of four coordinated phosphate and six coordinated molybdate units, besides, two different lengths of P-O bonds in tetrahedral phosphate units that are assigned to bonds of the P-atom with terminal and bridging oxygen atoms.

  2. Effect of Light Irradiation and Sex Hormones on Jurkat T Cells: 17β-Estradiol but Not Testosterone Enhances UVA-Induced Cytotoxicity in Jurkat Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Angel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern cultures, such as India, it is traditionally recommended that women but not men cover their heads while working in the scorching sun. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there was any scientific basis for this cultural tradition. We examined the differential cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet A light (UVA on an established T cell line treated with female and male sex hormones. CD4+ Jurkat T cells were plated in 96 well plates at 2 x 106 cells/ml and treated with 17β-estradiol (EST or testosterone (TE. These cells were irradiated by UVA light with an irradiance of 170 J/cm2 for 15min at a distance of 6 cm from the surface of the 96-well plate. Controls included cells not treated with hormones or UVA. The effects of EST and TE were investigated between 1 and 20 ng/mL. Cytotoxicity by fluorescein-diacetate staining and COMET assay generating single strand DNA cleavage, tail length and tail moment measurements were examined. The effect of estrogen (5ng/mL on apoptosis and its mediators was further studied using DNA laddering and western blotting for bcl-2 and p53. We found that EST alone, without UVA, enhanced Jurkat T cell survival. However, EST exhibited a dose-related cytotoxicity in the presence of UVA; up to 28% at 20 ng/ml. TE did not alter UVA-induced cytotoxicity. Since TE did not alter cell viability in the presence of UVA further damaging studies were not performed. COMET assay demonstrated the harmful effects of EST in the presence of UVA while EST without UVA had no significant effect on the nuclear damage. Apoptosis was not present as indicated by the absence of DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis at 5ng/ml EST or TE ± UVA. Western blot showed that estrogen down regulated bcl-2 independently of UVA radiation while p53 was down regulated in the presence of UVA treatment. EST and TE have differential effects on UVA-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat T-lymphocyte which suggested that women

  3. Spectral effects in activation of the human immunodeficiency virus promoter by psoralens plus ultraviolet A treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S A; Beer, J Z; Strickland, A G; Zmudzka, B Z

    The effects of PUVA treatment on HIV promoter activation and cell killing in HIV cat/HeLa cells were studied using two UV sources, a UVASUN sunlamp and a UVAR Photoactivation Chamber. A 4 to 5 times higher dose of ultraviolet radiation was required from the UVASUN lamp than from the UVAR lamps: 1) to activate the HIV promoter in the presence of 0.1 or 1.0 microgram/ml 8-MOP and 2) to reduce cell survival to a level of 10%, in the presence of 0.1 or 1.0 microgram/ml 8-MOP. In addition, exposures performed with a fixed dose of 20 kJ/m2 at varying concentrations of 8-MOP, required a 4.7 times higher combined PUVA dose from the UVASUN lamp than from the UVAR lamps. Two possible sources of these differences were analyzed: (1) the presence of UVB + UVA2 (280-340 nm) in the radiation emitted by the UVAR, but not the UVASUN lamp, and its potential biological activity independent of 8-MOP, and (2) the difference in the overlap of the emission spectra of the two lamps with the absorption spectrum of 8-MOP. The area of overlap was higher for the UVAR lamp than for the UVASUN lamp by a factor of 4.6, which is close to the difference between these two lamps in induction of the HIV promoter and killing HeLa cells. This indicates that the effectiveness of a particular UVA source used in combination with 8-MOP can be predicted by its congruence to the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizing drug. PMID:1343228

  4. Effects of UV-A exposures on longevity and reproduction in Helicoverpa armigera, and on the development of its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yu Zhang; Jian-Yu Meng; Xiao-Ping Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera adults display a conspicuous positive phototacdc behavior to light stimuli,and are especially sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light.The effects of UV-A (longwave) exposures on adult longevity and reproduction in H.armigera were investigated,as well as the development of the F1 generation.Paired adults were exposed to UV-A for various time periods (0,1,5 and 9 h/day),until the end of adult life.The results showed that adult longevity decreased with increasing exposure time for both sexes,and a significant decrease was observed after exposure for 5 and 9 h/day.Fecundity increased when adults were exposed for 1 and 5 h/day,and a significant difference was observed in the 5 h/day group.Oviposition rates of females in all treatments were significantly higher than in the control.Exposure to UV-A for longer periods (5 and 9 h/day) caused a decline in cumulative survival of F1 immature stages,but no significant differences were found in egg hatch,pupation and eclosion.The developmental periods of F1 larvae were significantly prolonged after exposure to UV-A for 5 and 9 h/day.UV-A radiation had no significant effects on F1 pupal period.

  5. Efecto del almacenamiento de la uva caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifola a diferentes temperaturas sobre la actividad de la polifenoloxidosa y la peroxidosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez Cuenca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La uva caimarona, uno de los frutos promisorios de la Región Amazónica, se destaca por su color, su sabor y por su corto tiempo de vida en anaquel, en el que el pardeamiento contribuye al rápido deterioro de este fruto.

  6. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  7. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-16

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank squamous cell carcinomas (+4 responses). AC-11 retarded, but did not stop, carcinogenesis progression. It is possible that if AC-11 was continuously applied tumors would not have in mice treated

  8. PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE DE UVAS DA CV. ISABEL (Vitis labrusca L. SUBMETIDAS À ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTÔNIO DALBÓ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Videiras ‘Isabel’ enxertadas em porta-enxerto ‘SO4’ e ‘IAC 766’, e em pé-franco plantadas sobre Nitossolo foram tratadas anualmente com doses crescentes de K2O, a 0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1, durante 5 safras vitícolas (2007/2008; 2008/2009; 2009/2010; 2010/2011; 2011/2012. O delineamento experimental foi em faixas, com cinco repetições, sendo seis plantas por repetição, e os tratamentos, dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x3, com 12 tratamentos, correspondentes às quatro doses de adubação potássica e aos três portaenxertos. No estádio de mudança de cor da casca das bagas, coletaram-se pecíolos para determinar o teor de nutrientes no tecido foliar das uvas. Na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliados comportamentos vegetativos e produtivos, como produtividade, peso de poda, índice de Ravaz e características químicas da polpa das bagas, como sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH. O aumento da adubação potássica não representa ganho na produtividade na cv. Isabel nem no acúmulo de sólidos solúveis totais nas uvas. K e Mg nos pecíolos de uvas são influenciados pela forma de cultivo (enxertada ou pé-franco. Videiras ‘Isabel’ cultivadas em pé-franco têm menor capacidade de acúmulo de K e maior acúmulo de Mg nos pecíolos. Nas condições do solo em que foi desenvolvido o trabalho, não se justifica a adubação potássica do vinhedo.

  9. Preferencias y disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la región del Maule, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Alberto Cerda Urrutia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las preferencias y disposición a pagar por consumo de uva de mesa orgánica. Específicamente, se buscó determinar la utilidad y jerarquizar los atributos más importantes que consideran los individuos al momento de la elección de uva de mesa y determinar la disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la Región del Maule, Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra probabilística y estratificada por niveles socioeconómico en los hogares en los principales centros urbanos de la región. Se utilizó el método de análisis conjunto a fin de determinar las preferencias de los individuos por los distintos atributos y el método de valoración contingente para determinar el monto medio de sobreprecio que una persona está dispuesta a pagar por un kilo de uva orgánica. Igualmente se calculó la disposición a pagar marginal vía el método de análisis conjunto. Se determinó que el atributo más importante a la hora de adquirir este bien es el precio, mientras que la mezcla de atributos que más tiene utilidad por orden de importancia es el sabor dulce, de producción orgánica, que no posea semillas y de piel delgada.Además, se estimó que las personas están dispuestas a pagar un sobreprecio por la uva de mesa orgánica, abriendo nuevas oportunidades de negocios para el sector frutícola.

  10. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  11. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  12. Influência de diferentes embalagens de atmosfera modificada sobre a aceitação de uvas finas de mesa var. Itália mantidas sob refrigeração Influence of different modified atmosphere packaging on overall acceptance of fine table grapes var. Italia stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio YAMASHITA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre o comportamento de uvas finas de mesa (Vitis vinifera L. var. Itália frente à armazenagem refrigerada e à utilização de embalagem, para aumentar a vida-de-prateleira. Cachos da uva no estádio verde maduro foram embalados individualmente em três diferentes filmes plásticos (Cryovac® PD-900; Cryovac® PD-955 e Cryovac® PD-961EZ de alta permeabilidade ao oxigênio e ao gás carbônico e armazenados a 1ºC (85-95% UR por 63 dias e a 25ºC (80-90% UR por 21 dias; frutas sem embalagem serviram de controle. Ao longo da armazenagem foram realizadas análises sensoriais de aceitação quanto ao sabor e aparência, utilizando escala hedônica não estruturada de 9cm e 30 provadores por sessão. Foram realizadas também análises do teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e vitamina C ao longo da armazenagem. As frutas embaladas apresentaram taxas de perda de massa 28 vezes menores que as controle, mas não foi observada diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre as diferentes embalagens. A combinação de armazenagem a 1°C com o filme PD-955 prolongou a vida de prateleira das uvas por 63 dias contra 11 a 21 dias do controle. Nas uvas embaladas, o fim da vida-de-prateleira foi determinado por deterioração microbiológica e no controle pela perda de massa, que causou o enrugamento, perda de turgidez das bagas e ressecamento dos engaços e pedicelos.Effects of refrigerated storage and packaging on postharvest behaviour of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. var. Italia were investigated with the objective of increasing shelf life. Bunches of grapes at mature green color stage were individually sealed in three different films (Cryovac® PD-900; Cryovac® PD-955 e Cryovac® PD-961EZ with high permeability to oxygen and carbon dioxide. They were stored for 63 days at 1ºC (85-95% RH and for 21 days at 25ºC (80-90% RH; non-sealed fruits served as control. During the storage period, sensory evaluation was carried out using a 9-cm

  13. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the

  14. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for 13C line widths and <0.5 ppm 15N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  15. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  16. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

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    Shadan Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  17. 1H MAS NMR spectra of hy- droxyl species on diatomite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High spinning speed 1H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) was used to detect surface hydroxyl groups of diatomite, which include isolated hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups, and water adsorbed on diatomite surface that include pore water and hydrogen-bonded water. The corresponding proton chemical shifts of above species are ca. 2.0, 6.0-7.1, 4.9 and 3.0 respectively. Accompanied by thermal treatment temperature ascending, the pore water and hydrogen-bonded water are desorbed successively. As a result, the relative intensities of the peaks assigned to protons of isolat-ed hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increase gradually and reach their maxima at 1000℃. After 1100℃ calcination, the hydroxyl groups that classified to strongly hydrogen-bonded ones and the isolated hydroxyl groups condense basically. But some weakly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups may still persist in the micropores.

  18. MAINTAINING THE EFFICIENCY OF MAS METHOD IN CEREALS WHILE REDUCING THE COSTS

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    Odile Moullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a powerful tool too rarely exploited in practical breeding applications mainly because of its prohibitive costs. A new manual protocol has been developed for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses which could increase the impact of this technology on the creation of new varieties. In this procedure, only the amount of DNA serving as template is extracted directly into PCR tubes. The method is reproducible (100 % and efficient (97.9 %. The overall cost is low in term of starting lab equipment (25000 €, chemicals and consumable materials (0.33 to 0.40 € per samples and labor (1500 sample analyses per person and per week.

  19. Study of Surface Modification Mechanism of Calcined Kaolin by MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 邓飞皇; 张蓓

    2002-01-01

    The 29Si and 27Al in modified and unmodified calcined kaolin were res earched and compared by using MAS NMR. The result shows that the chemical shift of -106×10-6 of 29Si almost keeps unchanged after being modifie d, but 27Al cha nges obviously. The chemical shift of 5.44×10-6 and 65.69×10-6 of 27Al are sep arately shifted to 3.8×10-6-4.4×10-6 and 54.6×10-6-59.9×1 0-6 after being mod ified. And the chemical modification of kaolin is completed by linking with Al o n the surface of it.

  20. Sensitivity enhancement using paramagnetic relaxation in MAS solid-state NMR of perdeuterated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linser, Rasmus; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Diehl, Anne; Reif, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Previously, Ishii et al., could show that chelated paramagnetic ions can be employed to significantly decrease the recycle delay of a MAS solid-state NMR experiment [N.P. Wickramasinghe, M. Kotecha, A. Samoson, J. Past, Y. Ishii, Sensitivity enhancement in C-13 solid-state NMR of protein microcrystals by use of paramagnetic metal ions for optimizing H-1 T-1 relaxation, J. Magn. Reson. 184 (2007) 350-356]. Application of the method is limited to very robust samples, for which sample stability is not compromised by RF induced heating. In addition, probe integrity might be perturbed in standard MAS PRE experiments due to the use of very short duty cycles. We show that these deleterious effects can be avoided if perdeuterated proteins are employed that have been re-crystallized from D 2O:H 2O = 9:1 containing buffer solutions. The experiments are demonstrated using the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin as a model system. The labeling scheme allows to record proton detected 1H, 15N correlation spectra with very high resolution in the absence of heteronuclear dipolar decoupling. Cu-edta as a doping reagent yields a reduction of the recycle delay by up to a factor of 15. In particular, we find that the 1H T1 for the bulk H N magnetization is reduced from 4.4 s to 0.3 s if the Cu-edta concentration is increased from 0 mM to 250 mM. Possible perturbations like chemical shift changes or line broadening due to the paramagnetic chelate complex are minimal. No degradation of our samples was observed in the course of the experiments.

  1. Badania jakości regeneratu ze zużytych mas ze spoiwem organicznym

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    R. Dańko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W publikacji przedstawiono uzupełniające metody badań oraz aparaturę do oceny jakości regeneratu i tych właściwości masformierskich ze spoiwami utwardzanymi chemicznie, przygotowywanych z regeneratem, które są istotne dla kompleksowej oceny procesurecyklingu osnowy. Nowoczesne systemy oceny mas formierskich wymagają bardziej wnikliwego podejścia do czynników decydującychzarówno o ich przydatności technologicznej jak również o wpływie na otaczające środowisko naturalne. W tym kontekście pełna ocenajakości zregenerowanej osnowy wykracza poza zwyczajowo stosowane metody instrumentalne i wymaga ich uzupełnienia o bardziejzaawansowane aparaturowo metody badawcze. Pozwala to szerzej spojrzeć na ocenę zregenerowanej osnowy, zarówno w aspekcie jejużycia do sporządzania mas formierskich, jako substytutu świeżego piasku, ale także pod kątem ochrony środowiska. Do takichnowoczesnych metod można zaliczyć między innymi analizę ziarnową regeneratu za pomocą dyfrakcji laserowej, a także ocenęgazotwórczości masy formierskiej oraz identyfikację rodzaju emitowanych gazów i zawartości w nich gazów z grupy BTEX, które sąszczególnie niebezpieczne z punktu widzenia BHP.

  2. Paramagnet induced signal quenching in MAS-DNP experiments in frozen homogeneous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzilius, Björn; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.; Ni, Qing Zhe; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of nuclear signal quenching induced by the presence of a paramagnetic polarizing agent are documented for conditions used in magic angle spinning (MAS)-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on homogeneous solutions. In particular, we present a detailed analysis of three time constants: (1) the longitudinal build-up time constant TB for 1H; (2) the rotating frame relaxation time constant T1ρ for 1H and 13C and (3) T2 of 13C, the transverse relaxation time constant in the laboratory frame. These relaxation times were measured during microwave irradiation at a magnetic field of 5 T (140 GHz) as a function of the concentration of four polarizing agents: TOTAPOL, 4-amino-TEMPO, trityl (OX063), and Gd-DOTA and are compared to those obtained for a sample lacking paramagnetic doping. We also report the EPR relaxation time constants T1S and T2S, the DNP enhancements, ε, and the parameter E, defined below, which measures the sensitivity enhancement for the four polarizing agents as a function of the electron concentration. We observe substantial intensity losses (paramagnetic quenching) with all of the polarizing agents due to broadening mechanisms and cross relaxation during MAS. In particular, the monoradical trityl and biradical TOTAPOL induce ∼40% and 50% loss of signal intensity. In contrast there is little suppression of signal intensity in static samples containing these paramagnetic species. Despite the losses due to quenching, we find that all of the polarizing agents provide substantial gains in signal intensity with DNP, and in particular that the net enhancement is optimal for biradicals that operate with the cross effect. We discuss the possibility that much of this polarization loss can be regained with the development of instrumentation and methods to perform electron decoupling.

  3. Low dose multi-detector CT of the chest (iLEAD Study): Visual ranking of different simulated mAs levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: julia.leyzaporozhan@gmail.com; Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Krummenauer, Frank [Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economy Unit, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Detailed evaluation of the lung parenchyma might be impaired by use of low dose CT as image noise increases and subsequently image quality decreases. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of visual perception of differences in image quality and noise at low dose chest CT. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients suffering from emphysema underwent CT (Aquilion-16, 120 kV, 150 mAs, 1 mm-collimation). Original raw data were used for simulation of 10 different mAs settings from 10 mAs to 100 mAs in 10 mAs increments. Three representative hard copy images (carina, 4 cm above, 5 cm below) were printed for evaluation of lung parenchyma (high-resolution kernel, lung window) and mediastinum (soft-kernel, soft tissue window). Ranking of expected low mAs level was performed for lung and soft tissue separately based on visual perception by three-blinded chest radiologist independently. Results were compared to the real simulated mAs. Results: The accuracy for correct ranking of the original 150 mAs scan was 89% for lung and 86% for soft tissue while it was 99% for the simulated 10 mAs for both windows. In comparison to the lowest mAs a significant error increase was found for the lung at 60-100 mAs (with error increase of 30-47%) for reader-I; 60-100 mAs for (33-64%) for reader-II and 70-100 mAs (38-57%) for reader-III. For the soft tissue: 60-150 mAs (with error increase of 28-63%) for reader-I; 50-100 mAs (35-56%) for reader-II and 50-90 mAs (35-40%) for reader-III. Conclusion: Simulated dose levels below 60 mAs (=42 mAs{sub eff}) were clearly differentiated from higher dose levels by all readers. Therefore, imaging doses could be lowered down to 60 mAs without a diagnostically relevant increase in noise impairing image quali0008.

  4. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  5. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsu, Mie (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40 % lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy.cm; P < 0.001) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9 % higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2 % greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40 % dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. (orig.)

  6. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7 MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Daniela Silveira

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+ and Mas knockout (Mas (-/- mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+ , but not in Mas (-/- mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  7. Rapid identification of osmolytes in tropical microalgae and cyanobacteria by (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Obando, Claudia; Linossier, Isabelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Zubia, Mayalen; Turquet, Jean; Faÿ, Fabienne; Rehel, Karine

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the chemical characterization of 47 tropical microalgae and cyanobacteria by HR-MAS. The generated data confirm the interest of HR-MAS as a rapid screening technique with the major advantage of its easiness. The sample is used as powder of freeze-dried microalgae without any extraction process before acquisition. The spectral fingerprints of strains are then tested as variables for a chemotaxonomy study to discriminate cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The individual factor map generated by PCA analysis succeeds in separating the two groups, essentially thanks to the presence of specific carbohydrates. Furthermore, more resolved signals enable to identify many osmolytes. More precisely the characteristics δ of 2-O-alpha-D-glucosylglycerol (GG) are observed in all 21 h-MAS spectra of tropical cyanobacteria. After specific extraction, complementary analysis by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopies validates the identification of this osmolyte. PMID:27130130

  8. Inventario de especies domésticas de un mas de la comarca de La Selva, Catalunya (1803-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbregas i Comadran, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Se comparan diacrónicamente los censos de las especies domésticas de un mas de la comarca de la Selva (Catalunya) mediante un inventario notarial de 1803, un informante oral de 1960 y los censos oficiales de 2013. Aunque es un mas pobre por estar situado en una finca de tamaño medio, pero de tipología forestal, la mayor variedad y cantidad de ganado censada corresponde a la década de 1960. Congreso Iberoamericano de Historia de la Veterinaria. Madrid, 10è : 2013

  9. RACIONALIZACIJA ČASA MENJAVE ORODIJ ZA BRIZGANJE PLASTIČNIH MAS V PODJETJU ISKRA MEHANIZMI D.D. LIPNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Oblak, Tomaž

    2010-01-01

    Spremembe, ki so stalnica današnjega časa, nastajajo zelo hitro. S tem se tudi okolje, v katerem živimo, nenehno in zelo intenzivno spreminja. Takšemu okolju se morajo hitro in nenehno prilagajati tudi podjetja, če si želijo zagotoviti svoj dolgoročni obstoj. V diplomski nalogi je predstavljeno nekaj osnov o brizganju plastičnih mas in preoblikovanje sistema menjav orodij na strojih za brizganje plastičnih mas s pomočjo uporabe metode SMED. V nalogi so predstavljene prednosti, ki jih met...

  10. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: Diffraction- Limited Broadband Visible Imaging and 20mas Fiber Array IFS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10\\{mu}m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, t...

  11. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-01

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (< 0.05%, w/w) but contains more than 8% carboxy alkyl esters (CAEs) as their active ingredients. Three groups of 10 outbred SK-1 hairless or SK-II hairless strains of mice each were treated with AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank

  12. Estudio de la maduración fenólica y antociánica en uvas tintas de bobal para diferentes condiciones agrológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Sánchez, José Vicente

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento agronómico de la variedad Bobal, a través del seguimiento de su maduración en diferentes condiciones agrológicas y con aportes hídricos diferenciados. También se han ensayado varios sistemas de evaluación del contenido antociánico y fenólico en uvas, y se han correlacionado los contenidos en las uvas con los contenidos finales de los vinos que se han elaborado. El máximo contenido antociánico se aprecia veinte días después del envero en t...

  13. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  14. Atributos sensoriais e aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Rio Branco Pontes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, incluindo questões sobre consumo e compra. Os resultados apontam que o suco integral apresentou cor e gosto amargo mais intensos; o suco concentrado (reconstituído apresentou baixa intensidade em todos os atributos; e o néctar de uva apresentou maior intensidade de gosto doce e sabor característico de uva. O teste de aceitação mostrou que o néctar de uva e o suco integral foram os mais aceitos. A maioria dos consumidores relatou consumir quatro ou mais copos suco de uva por mês. O suco integral recebeu maior intenção de compra e o néctar foi a bebida mais consumida. Concluiu-se que o consumidor aprecia o suco integral da uva, com equilibrada intensidade nos atributos sensoriais investigados, todavia, consume com maior frequência o néctar, bebida à qual são adicionadas água e sacarose.Grape juice contains phenolic compounds in considerable amounts, and it is fit for human consumption since it can increase the intake of natural antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensory attributes and to evaluate the acceptance of commercial grape juices. Three types of commercial grape juices were analyzed: pasteurized juice, concentrated juice, and sugar added pasteurized juice. A modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and an Acceptance Test with a structured nine-point hedonic scale were used including questions about consumption and purchase intention. The results indicated that the pasteurized

  15. Teores de antocianinas, fenóis totais, taninos e ácido ascórbico em uva 'bordô' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Suzana Vial Pozzan; Gilberto Costa Braga; Ariane Busch Salibe

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o conteúdo de antocianinas, fenóis totais, taninos e ácido ascórbico, em variedade de uva 'Bordô', cultivada sobre os porta-enxertos '420A', 'IAC-766' e 'Ripária-do-Traviú', em três períodos de colheita distintos. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo de uva 'Bordô', no município de Missal, no Oeste do Paraná, na safra 2007/2008. O efeito dos porta-enxertos foi avaliado em três períodos de colheita, a partir da época de floração: 90 dias, com bagas em...

  16. Reduction of 8-oxodGTP in the nucleotide pool by hMTH1 leads to reduction in mutations in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 exposed to UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouhi, Asal; Skioeld, Sara; Shakeri-Manesh, Sara; Osterman-Golkar, Siv; Wojcik, Andrzej; Jenssen, Dag; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: siamak.haghdoost@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    UVA has been suggested to play an important role in UV-induced mutagenesis. The mechanisms by which UVA induces mutations are still a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the protective capacity of hMTH1, a nucleotide pool sanitization enzyme with 8-oxodGTPase activity. Human B lymphoblastoid cells were stably transfected with shRNA directed against hMTH1. Clonogenic survival, mutations, intracellular and extracellular levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and dG in the nucleotide pool of UVA-irradiated transfected and non-transfected cells were investigated. Mutations were determined in the thymidine kinase locus. Intracellular 8-oxodG and dG were measured using a modified ELISA and HPLC, respectively, after extraction of the nucleotide pool and conversion of nucleotides to their corresponding nucleosides. 8-oxodG in the medium was measured using ELISA. UVA-induced mutations were significantly higher while the survival was slightly lower in transfected compared to non-transfected cells. The increased mutation rate in transfected cells at increased exposure correlated with enhanced levels of 8-oxodG in the nucleotide pool, and a somewhat reduced level of 8-oxodG in the medium. The results indicate that the nucleotide pool is a significant target for UVA-induced mutations and implicates that hMTH1 plays an important role in protecting cells from UVA-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Advanced microscopy techniques used for comparison of UVA- and γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage in the cell nucleus and nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixová, L; Hrušková, T; Sehnalová, P; Legartová, S; Svidenská, S; Kozubek, S; Bártová, E

    2014-01-01

    Every day, genomes are affected by genotoxic factors that create multiple DNA lesions. Several DNA repair systems have evolved to counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage. These systems include a set of DNA repair mechanisms, damage tolerance processes, and activation of cell-cycle checkpoints. This study describes selected confocal microscopy techniques that investigate DNA damage-related nuclear events after UVA- and γ-irradiation and compare the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by the two experimental approaches. In both cases, we observed induction of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and formation of localized double-strand breaks (DSBs). This was confirmed by analysis of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in the DNA lesions and by increased levels of γH2AX and 53BP1 proteins in the irradiated genome. DNA damage by UVA-lasers was potentiated by either BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-sensitization and compared to non-photosensitized cells. DSBs were also induced without BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-treatment. Interestingly, no cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were detected after 405 nm UVA laser micro-irradiation in non-photosensitized cells. The effects of UVA and γ-irradiation were also studied by silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). This experimental approach revealed changes in the morphology of nucleoli after genome injury. Additionally, to precisely characterize DDR in locally induced DNA lesions, we analysed the kinetics of the 53BP1 protein involved in DDR by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP).

  18. Avaliação sensorial de uvas de mesa produzidas no Vale do São Francisco e comercializadas em João Pessoa - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando-se como base o nível crescente de exigência do consumidor por frutas de mesa, as características de qualidade das uvas 'Itália', 'Festival' ('Superior Seedless', 'Benitaka' e 'Isabel', expostas à venda em três redes de supermercados, na cidade de João Pessoa - Paraíba - Brasil, foram avaliadas em dezembro de 2007. Inicialmente, foram selecionados e treinados julgadores que estabeleceram e definiram os seguintes atributos sensoriais de importância: tonalidade e uniformidade de cor, aroma, firmeza, presença de sementes, suculência, doçura, acidez, sabor e qualidade global. Os diâmetros, comprimentos e pesos das bagas estavam condizentes com os parâmetros comerciais ou varietais. Os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis (SS, com exceção da uva 'Benitaka', apresentaram-se em conformidade com os padrões comerciais. Apenas a cultivar Festival, com a menor acidez titulável (AT, apresentou relação SS/AT aceitável. Foram realizadas três sessões de análises descritivas quantitativas (ADQ, nas quais a uva 'Itália' foi a de melhor sabor e, em conjunto com a apirênica 'Festival', apresentou maiores doçuras e qualidade global. A cultivar Isabel apresentou a cor mais forte , enquanto a Festival foi a melhor no atributo semente. Aplicou-se o Teste de Preferência por Ordenação, no qual as uvas 'Itália' e 'Festival' foram as preferidas.

  19. Evolução da maturação da uva 'BRS Clara' sob cultivo protegido durante a safra fora de época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas para mesa vem passando por alguns desafios que demandam alterações nas tecnologias de produção, devido, principalmente, à intensa necessidade de controle de doenças fúngicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento da evolução da maturação da uva 'BRS Clara' enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 766 'Campinas', sob cultivo protegido produzida em safra fora de época. Os experimentos foram realizados em Uraí e Marialva (PR. Foram avaliadas semanalmente as características químicas das bagas, como teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, índice de maturação e pH, a partir do início da maturação até a colheita, em dois sistemas de cultivo protegido: cobertura plástica e sombrite. O delineamento experimental adotado em ambas as áreas foi o inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. A evolução da maturação nos dois sistemas de cultivo protegido foi comparada por meio da análise de regressão. Em ambas as áreas experimentais, a cobertura plástica possibilitou a antecipação da colheita das uvas em seis dias em relação ao sombrite, considerando o teor de sólidos solúveis. Não houve influência da cobertura plástica sobre o índice de maturação das uvas.

  20. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. A comparative study of phenolic compounds from leaf methanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Petrucci, Rita; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to get a rapid metabolic fingerprinting and to gain insight into the metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens H. B. K., a plant morphologically similar to Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry) but with a lower arbutin (Arb) content. According to the European Pharmacopoeia the Arb content in the dried leaf of A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. must be at least 7% (wt/wt) but other species, like A. pungens, are unintentionally or fraudulently marketed instead of it. Therefore, methanolic leaf extracts of nine A. uva-ursi and six A. pungens samples labeled and marketed as "bearberry leaf" have been analyzed. A five-minute gradient with a UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS on an Acquity BEH C18 (50×2.1 mm i.d.) 1.7 μm analytical column has been used for the purpose. A comprehensive assignment of secondary metabolites has been carried out in a comparative study of the two species. Among twenty-nine standards of natural compounds analyzed, fourteen have been identified, while other fifty-five metabolites have been tentatively assigned. Moreover, differences in both metabolic fingerprinting and profiling have been evidenced by statistical multivariate analysis. Specifically, main variations have been observed in the relative content for Arb, as expected, and for some galloyl derivative like tetra- and pentagalloylglucose more abundant in A. uva-ursi than in A. pungens. Furthermore, differences in flavonols profile, especially in myricetin and quercetin glycosilated derivatives, were observed. Based on principal component analysis myricetrin, together with a galloyl arbutin isomer and a disaccharide are herein proposed as distinctive metabolites for A. pungens. PMID:25702282

  1. Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory; Dead Sea Research Center, Neve Zohar (Israel); Lyubansky, V.; Ianetz, A. [Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan (Israel). Research Development Div.; Evseev, E.G. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    An inter-comparison of the clearness indices for the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing radiation data measured from January 1995 through December 2001 for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between the measurements, viz., any day for which a hourly value for one of the sites was missing is rejected and not included in the analysis for that particular radiation type. Beer Sheva is located ca. 65 km to the west and is approximately 700 m above Neve Zohar, which is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the lowest terrestrial point on the earth, approximately 400 m below mean sea level. The relative magnitudes of the global, UVB and UVA radiation intensities at the two sites can be attributed to the enhanced scattering at the Dead Sea due to the longer optical path length the solar radiation must traverse at the Dead Sea. The degree of attenuation due to scattering phenomena is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to some power and, consequently, it is greatest for UVB and very small for global radiation. The UVB and UVA solar constants were determined from the extraterrestrial radiation values tabulated by Froehlich and Wehrli [Spectral distribution of solar irradiance from 25000 nm to 250nm, in: M. Iqbal, An introduction to solar radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1981, Appendix C, pp. 380-381]. The clearness indices for global and UVA radiation were of similar magnitude, whereas those for UVB radiation were of two orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, the monthly average hourly UV Index at both sites has also been determined and an inter-comparison of the values has been performed for all available hourly values from January 1995 through August 2002 for both sites. It is observed that the monthly average hourly UV Index values at the Dead Sea are never in the extreme range. (author)

  2. 中国人头发纤维在 UVA 紫外光老化中的光谱学研究%Spectroscopic Investigation of Human Hair from Chinese Subjects During UVA Photoageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖; Gerald J.Smith

    2016-01-01

    生活中,日光中的紫外辐射是导致头发光老化/光损伤的重要环境因素。长时间光照可使染发和天然发出现包括颜色褪变在内的退行性变化。以中老年人的自然灰发为样本来源,通过分离和人工漂染处理,获得了包括自然发色、漂白和染黑的六种头发类型,经过 UVA (320~400 nm)紫外光老化,采用漫反射光谱、三维荧光光谱和衰减全反射傅里叶变换红外光谱对头发纤维的老化特征进行无损分析,结合头发中光产生过氧化氢的定量分析,探讨了不同发色和漂染处理对头发耐光性的影响。结果表明,UVA 辐照可通过Ⅱ型电子转移机制诱导头发中的光敏基团产生过氧化氢,导致纤维表面蛋白和色素分子的光氧化降解。自然发色与漂染发在光老化中的颜色变化不同:灰发和白发主要发生光黄化,人工染发和漂白发分别发生光褪色和光漂白。高湿度环境能加速头发的光降解。化学漂染处理会使头发中的光致过氧化氢水平升高,使纤维处于较高的氧化压力从而影响头发的光稳定性;而头发中的黑色素分子,包括天然黑色素和染发剂的人工黑色素,可能具有自由基产生与清除双重性。研究结果为建立中国人头发光损伤的光谱学评价方法和进一步研发针对国人发质的染护发产品提供了重要的实验基准数据。%Since ultraviolet radiation is one of the major environmental factors that cause photoageing /photodamage ,human hair , including both dyed and undyed hair ,are subject to color change following extended exposure to sunlight .In the work described in this paper ,six samples of human hair from Chinese volunteers that included untreated ,bleached and dyed were subjected to accelerated ageing by exposure to UVA (320 ~ 400 nm) radiation .Changes to their chemical compositions during photoageing were non‐destructively characterized by

  3. 1MAS NMR spectra of kao linite/formamide intercalation compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high spinning speed 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) technique was employed to distinguish the two groups of surface hydroxyls of kaolinite and investigate the intercalation mechanism of kaolinite/formamide compound. The proton chemical shifts of the inner hydroxyl and inner surface hydroxyl of kaolinte are in the range of δ-1.3-0.9 and δ 2.4-3.0 respectively. After formamide intercalation three proton peaks were detected. The proton peak of the inner surface hydroxyls of the intercalation compound shifts to high-field with δ 2.3-2.7, which is assigned to the formation of the hydrogen bond between the inner surface hydroxyl and formamide carbonyl group. Whereas, the proton peak of the inner hydroxyl shifts to δ-0.3 toward low-field, that is attributed to van der Waal's effect between the inner hydroxyl proton and the amino group proton of the formamide which may be keyed into the ditrigonal hole of the kaolinite. The third peak, additional proton peak, is in the range of δ5.4-5.6, that is ascribed to the hydrogen bond formation between the amino group proton of formimide and SiO4 tetrahedral oxygen of the kaolinite.

  4. MAS-based production scheduling system for manufacturing cell-based workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hong-yan; CAO Quan-jun; FEI Ren-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The task of production scheduling is to determine the detailed machining path,time,machine tool,etc.,for every work piece,according to the production objective and constraints.It is also an important part of the manufacturing system.In this paper,the manufacturing cell-based workshop is described and its scheduling system structure is established based on MAS (multi-agent system) technology.Through the negotiation and communication of each agent,the machining path is determined and the machining sequence and start time are calculated by GA (genetics algorithm).The communication among agents uses the CORBA (common object request broker architecture) technology of the OMG (Object Management Group).The CORBA-based architecture of the communication is designed and some interfaces for the communication are listed.For the genetics algorithm,chromosome coding,fitness function,parameters selection,and the basic genetics operation including selection,crossover and aberrance,are described.The scheduling system also can deal with some abnormal conditions,such as machine tool failure and urgent tasks.Finally,two scheduling examples are given.

  5. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  6. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO; 等

    1996-01-01

    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  7. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  8. Dynamic scheduling model of computing resource based on MAS cooperation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiJin; ZHANG LianMei; WANG Pu

    2009-01-01

    Allocation of grid resources aims at improving resource utility and grid application performance. Currently, the algorithms proposed for this purpose do not fit well the autonomic, dynamic, distributive and heterogeneous features of the grid environment. According to MAS (multi-agent system) cooperation mechanism and market bidding game rules, a model of allocating allocation of grid resources based on market economy is introduced to reveal the relationship between supply and demand. This model can make good use of the studying and negotiating ability of consumers' agent and takes full consideration of the consumer's behavior, thus rendering the application and allocation of resource of the consumers rational and valid. In the meantime, the utility function of consumer Is given; the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution are discussed. A dynamic game algorithm of allocating grid resources is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm diminishes effectively the unnecessary latency, improves significantly the smoothness of response time, the ratio of throughput and resource utility, thus rendering the supply and demand of the whole grid resource reasonable and the overall grid load balanceable.

  9. Identification of ancient Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. seeds by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Rolfo, Mario Federico; Leonardi, Donatella; Rickards, Olga; Canini, Antonella

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) provides archaeologists and anthropologists with innovative, scientific and accurate data to study and understand the past. In this work, ancient seeds, found in the "Mora Cavorso" archaeological site (Latium, Central Italy), were analyzed to increase information about Italian Neolithic populations (plant use, agriculture, diet, trades, customs and ecology). We performed morphological and genetic techniques to identify fossil botanical species. In particular, this study also suggests and emphasizes the use of DNA barcode method for ancient plant sample analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed seed compact structure and irregular surface but they did not permit a precise nor empirical classification: so, a molecular approach was necessary. DNA was extracted from ancient seeds and then it was used, as template, for PCR amplifications of standardized barcode genes. Although aDNA could be highly degraded by the time, successful PCR products were obtained, sequenced and compared to nucleotide sequence databases. Positive outcomes (supported by morphological comparison with modern seeds, geographical distribution and historical data) indicated that seeds could be identified as belonging to two plant species: Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. PMID:22847014

  10. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  11. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  12. 31P MAS-NMR of human erythrocytes: independence of cell volume from angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchel, P W; Bubb, W A; Ramadan, S; Chapman, B E; Philp, D J; Coen, M; Gready, J E; Harvey, P J; McLean, A J; Hook, J

    2004-09-01

    31P magic angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) spectra were obtained from suspensions of human red blood cells (RBCs) that contained the cell-volume-sensitive probe molecule, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). A mathematical representation of the spectral-peak shape, including the separation and width-at-half-height in the 31P NMR spectra, as a function of rotor speed, enabled us to explore the extent to which a change in cell volume would be reflected in the spectra if it occurred. We concluded that a fractional volume change in excess of 3% would have been detected by our experiments. Thus, the experiments indicated that the mean cell volume did not change by this amount even at the highest spinning rate of 7 kHz. The mean cell volume and intracellular 31P line-width were independent of the packing density of the cells and of the initial cell volume. The relationship of these conclusions to other non-NMR studies of pressure effects on cells is noted. PMID:15334588

  13. 27AI MAS-NMR study of inorganic polymer formation at ambient temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Wook AHN; Hee-Soo LEE; Wan-Hee YANG; Jung-Woo LEE; Young-Keun JEONG

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic polymers are a novel class of materials formed by the polymerization of silicon, aluminium and oxygen species to form an amorphous three-dimensional framework structure. The basis of this process is the alkaline solutions to induce a certain amount of Si and Al atoms to dissolve from a feedstock such as aluminosilicate. A study of 27Al MAS-NMR was carried out in an attempt to understand the reaction mechanism of the inorganic polymerization at ambient temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were also employed to establish the composition and microstructure of the inorganic polymerization. Specimens were prepared with different Al/Si mole ratios from the starting materials. The higher the Al content. the more sufficient the Al atoms that can combine with SiO4, and the longer the reaction time. the more the bonded Si-O-Al-O polymer structure, and then the higher the Al content, the fewer the octahedral Al with a uniform Si-O-Al-O structure in four directions, because four Al atoms are combined with SiO4, resulting in a uniform Si-O-Al-O structure in four directions. The results show that they have an amorphous microstructure.

  14. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is (1 to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2 to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by qualitative descriptive and SWOT. The result of this study is that Banjar Nyuh Kuning has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism on the basis of physical and non physical grounds. The perception of the community and tourists are in agreement to the developement of ecotourism activity which incorporate local community, nature oriented activity and has the potential to increase their income, thus resulting in a destination for leisure and recreation. There are a few results of alternative strategies such as; development strategies of ecotourism products, development strategies of human resources, development strategies of management and strategies in upgrading security. To make Banjar Nyuh Kuning as an attraction for ecotourism activity which is based on nature then the strategy for development has to be efficient and limited. Further study has to be taken for the marketing aspect and managing ecotourism object to further the developent in a comprehensive manner.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of cylindrospermopsin under UV-A, solar and visible light using TiO2. Mineralization and intermediate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are considered an important water quality problem, since several genera can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins that are harmful to human health. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid-like potent cyanotoxin that has been reported in water reservoirs and lakes worldwide. In this paper the removal of CYN from water by UV-A, solar and visible light photocatalysis was investigated. Two different commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts were used, i.e., Degussa P25 and Kronos-vlp7000. Complete degradation of CYN was achieved with both photocatalysts in 15 and 40 min under UV-A and 40 and 120 min under solar light irradiation, for Degussa P25 and Kronos vlp-7000 respectively. Experiments in the absence of photocatalysts showed that direct photolysis was negligible. Under visible light irradiation only the Kronos vlp-7000 which is a visible light activated catalyst was able to degrade CYN. A number of intermediates were identified and a complete degradation pathway is proposed, leading to the conclusion that hydroxyl radical attack is the main mechanism followed. TOC and inorganic ions (NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+) determinations suggested that complete mineralization of CYN was achieved under UV-A in the presence of Degussa P25.

  17. Effect of Ultraviolet-A (UV-A and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C Light on Mechanical Properties of Oyster Mushrooms during Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindibale L. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-A (UV-A and ultraviolet-C (UV-C light on the mechanical properties in oyster mushrooms during the growth. Experiments were carried out with irradiation of the mushrooms with UV-A (365 nm and UV-C (254 nm light during growth. The exposure time ranged from 10 minutes to 60 minutes at intervals of 10 minutes and irradiation was done for three days. The samples for experimental studies were cut into cylindrical shapes of diameter 12.50 mm and thickness 3.00 mm. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples and control samples were determined for both UV bands and there was a significant difference between the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples by both UV bands with reference to the control sample, P<0.05. UV-C light irradiated samples had higher loss modulus and loss factor but low storage modulus as temperature increased from 35 to 100°C with respect to the control sample while UV-A light irradiated samples had lower loss modulus, low loss factor, and higher storage modulus than UV-C irradiated samples.

  18. Solar ultraviolet radiation induces biological alterations in human skin in vitro: Relevance of a well-balanced UVA/UVB protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bernerd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous damages such as sunburn, pigmentation, and photoaging are known to be induced by acute as well as repetitive sun exposure. Not only for basic research, but also for the design of the most efficient photoprotection, it is crucial to understand and identify the early biological events occurring after ultraviolet (UV exposure. Reconstructed human skin models provide excellent and reliable in vitro tools to study the UV-induced alterations of the different skin cell types, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using different in vitro human skin models, the effects of UV light (UVB and UVA were investigated. UVB-induced damages are essentially epidermal, with the typical sunburn cells and DNA lesions, whereas UVA radiation-induced damages are mostly located within the dermal compartment. Pigmentation can also be obtained after solar simulated radiation exposure of pigmented reconstructed skin model. Those models are also highly adequate to assess the potential of sunscreens to protect the skin from UV-associated damage, sunburn reaction, photoaging, and pigmentation. The results showed that an effective photoprotection is provided by broad-spectrum sunscreens with a potent absorption in both UVB and UVA ranges.

  19. Larger yield of cyclobutane dimers than 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in the DNA of UVA-irradiated human skin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courdavault, Sophie [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA-Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Baudouin, Caroline [Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Toulouse (France); Charveron, Marie [Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Toulouse (France); Favier, Alain [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA-Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cadet, Jean [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA-Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Douki, Thierry [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA-Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: tdouki@cea.fr

    2004-11-22

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet light is the major cause of most skin cancers. While the genotoxic properties of UVB radiation are now well understood, the DNA damaging processes triggered by less energetic but more abundant UVA photons remain to be elucidated. Evidence has been provided for the induction of oxidative lesions to cellular DNA including strand breaks and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). Formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) has also been reported, mostly in rodent cells. In order to gain insights into the relevance of the latter photoproducts in UVA-mutagenesis of human skin, we quantified the level of 8-oxodGuo and CPDs within primary cultures of normal fibroblasts and keratinocytes using specific chromatographic assays. The yield of formation of CPDs was found to be higher than that of 8-oxodGuo in both cell types. In addition, CPDs were mostly TT derivatives, and neither (6-4) photoproducts nor Dewar valence isomers were detected. These observations are reminiscent of results obtained in rodent cells and suggest that a photosensitized triplet energy transfer occurs and that this reaction is more efficient than photooxidation of DNA components. The predominant formation of CPDs with respect to oxidative damage within normal human skin cells exposed to UVA radiation should be taken into account in photoprotection strategies.0.

  20. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues. PMID:27071265

  1. SiC nanowires reinforced MAS joint of SiC coated carbon/carbon composites to LAS glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic cross-section images of the samples with SiC nanowires and assembly sequence for the raw materials through the process of the hot-pressing method. Highlights: ► The SiC nanowires were firstly used as porous layer in the middle of the joint. ► The shear strength of the joint with SiC nanowires was largely improved. ► A new mode of fracture was proposed. - Abstract: In order to improve the shear strength of the joints of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites to lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass ceramics, SiC coating and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass ceramics were used as transition layer and middle layer, respectively, and high quality SiC nanowires were applied as the reinforcement materials in MAS. The SiC nanowires reinforced MAS joint of SiC coated C/C composites to LAS glass ceramics was prepared by a three-step technique of pack cementation, CVD and hot-pressing. The microstructures of the as-prepared joints were characterized by SEM and EDS, and the shear strength of the joints was also examined. The shear strength of the SiC–MAS joint increased from 24.0 ± 2.0 MPa to 35.5 ± 5.5 MPa after adding SiC nanowires in MAS. The load decreases in step-style but not perpendicularly after the maximum value, which demonstrates good toughness of the joint with SiC nanowire porous layer.

  2. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosav Palić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  3. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  4. 玉米秸秆木质素降解过程的CP/MAS13CNMR和SEM表征%CP/MAS13CNMR and SEM Characterization of Corn Stover Lignin Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张全; 孟雪松; 凌凤香

    2013-01-01

    利用黄孢原毛平革茵对玉米秸秆木质素进行降解处理,通过CP/MAS 13CNMR和SEM研究降解过程中木质素的结构变化.CP/MAS 13CNMR结果表明:玉米秸秆木质素降解过程中,作为木质素结构单元主要连接方式的β-O-4键基本上没有被降解;木质素单位苯环的甲氧基含量稍有增加;S/G值降低,推断反应过程中紫丁香基优先参与反应.SEM结果表明:降解后的木质素空穴增多且增大、颗粒物质减少,主要是由于酶解木质素中大量碳水化合物的降解(所)致;比木质素更容易降解的纤维素和半纤维素也存在于样品中.CP/MAS13CNMR为木质纤维原料结构的定性和初步定量提供了可能,是传统定量表征手段的有力补充,具有一定的研究意义.%The structure changes of corn stover lignin treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied by CP/MAS 13CNMR and SEM.CP/MAS 13CNMR Results showed that bond β-O-4 didn't be degraded,the content of-OCH3 increased after degradation,S/G value decreased,and syringyl structure was priority to take part in the reaction.SEM Results showed that the surface holes of corn stover lignin increased both in number and in volume,and the particle matters reduced,mainly due to the degradation caused by carbohydrate,there were cellulose and hemicellulose more easily degraded than lignin in the sample.CP/MAS 13CNMR Provides the possibility of qualitative and quantitative characterization for wood materials structure,which is a strong supplement to the traditional quantitative characterization methods,and has some research significance.

  5. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  6. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T. [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Kaloudis, T. [Organic Micropollutants Laboratory, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), WTP Aharnon, Menidi (Greece); Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P. [Laboratory of Photo-redox Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Hiskia, A., E-mail: hiskia@chem.demokritos.gr [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-TiO{sub 2} exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}, Kronos and reference TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} followed by N-TiO{sub 2} with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO{sub 2} nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO{sub 2} for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO{sub 2} displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  7. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA. (author)

  8. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BARLEY AND WHEAT LINES WITH REQUESTED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  9. LyMAS: Predicting Large-scale Lyα Forest Statistics from the Dark Matter Density Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirani, Sébastien; Weinberg, David H.; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    We describe Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Lyα forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the "Horizon-MareNostrum" simulation, a 50 h -1 Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(Fs |δ s ) of the transmitted flux Fs , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast δ s , smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length σ = 0.3 h -1 Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(Fs |δ s ) to convert DM skewers into Lyα forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h -1 Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping ("Fluctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation"), often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 10243 N-body simulations of a 300 h -1 Mpc and 1.0 h -1 Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful tool for interpreting 3D Lyα forest data, thereby transforming measurements from BOSS and

  10. LyMAS: Predicting large-scale Lyα forest statistics from the dark matter density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Lyα forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the 'Horizon-MareNostrum' simulation, a 50 h –1 Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(Fs |δ s) of the transmitted flux Fs , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast δ s, smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length σ = 0.3 h –1 Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(Fs |δ s) to convert DM skewers into Lyα forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h –1 Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping (Fluctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation), often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 10243 N-body simulations of a 300 h –1 Mpc and 1.0 h –1 Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful tool for interpreting 3D Lyα forest data, thereby transforming

  11. X-ray and MAS NMR characterization of the thermal transformation of Li(Na)-Y zeolite to lithium aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature thermal transformation of Li-exchanged Na-Y zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and /sup 29/Si MAS NMR studies. At 7000C, the zeolite was transformed into an amorphous phase and upon further heating to 8000C, formation of lithium aluminosilicate with high-quartz structure, in addition to an amorphous phase, was noted. When heated above 9000C, the high-quartz structure was transformed into a β-spodumene related solid solution. X-ray and MAS NMR studies indicate the β-spodumene solid solution formed has the composition close to (Li/sub 0.23/Na/sub 0.06/)A iota /sub 0.29/Si/sub 0.71/O/sub 2/, which is in agreement with chemical analysis

  12. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. PMID:23107685

  13. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR......) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration...... unexpected lack of intensity in the high β-glucan mutant lys5f at seed maturity, resulting in poor calibration to reference β-glucan content. We hypothesize that the lack of β-glucan signal in lys5f indicates partial immobilization of the β-glucan that appears to be either genotypic dependent or water...

  14. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mallard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3 of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: TCH (the CP time constant and T1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame. The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that TCH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of TCH and T1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices.

  15. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  16. Agent及Multi-Agent System的理论和应用%Theories and Application of Agent/MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东云; 郭素娜

    2006-01-01

    Agent和Multi-Agent System(MAS)是人工智能的主要研究方向之一.回顾了Agent及MAS的发展历史,总结了目前Agent及MAS的研究现状,探讨了Agent及MAS的理论与应用,提出了目前Agent和MAS发展所需要解决的问题.

  17. TRPA1 is required for histamine-independent, Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-mediated itch

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah R.; Kristin A Gerhold; Bifolck-Fisher, Amber; Liu, Qin; Patel, Kush N.; Dong, Xinzhong; Bautista, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. In many cases, pathological itch is insensitive to antihistamine treatment. Recent studies have identified members of the Mas-related GPCR (Mrgpr) family that are activated by mast cell mediators and promote histamine-independent itch. MrgprA3 and MrgprC11 act as receptors for the pruritogens chloroquine and BAM8–22, respectively. However, the signaling pathways and ...

  18. Studi Aplikasi Total Productive Maintenance Untuk Peningkatan Efisiensi Produksi Dengan Metode Overall Equipment Effectiveness Di PT. Rolimex Kimia Nusa Mas

    OpenAIRE

    Mupianda, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    PT. Rolimex Kimia Nusa Mas merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang memproduksi pupuk CIRP (Crismes Island Rock Phosphate) yang juga tidak terlepas dari masalah yang berkaitan dengan efektifitas mesin/peralatan yang diakibatkan oleh six big losses tersebut. Hal ini dapat terlihat dengan frekuensi kerusakan yang terjadi pada mesin/peralatan karena kerusakan tersebut target produksi tidak tercapai. Oleh karena itulah diperlukan langkah-langkah yang efektif dan efisien dalam pemeliharaan mesin/peralatan...

  19. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mancebo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  20. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef;

    2006-01-01

    /ml epidermal growth factor and 50µM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 30 µM or 100 µM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded...

  1. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Sturcova, Adriana; Brus, Jiri; Benes, Hynek; Skorepova, Eliska; Kratochvil, Bohumil; Cejka, Jan; Sedenkova, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianova, Olivia; Sturc, Antonin

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction data of trospium chloride (TCl) products crystallized from different mixtures of water-ethanol [φ(EtOH) = 0.5-1.0] at various temperatures (0°C, 20°C) and initial concentrations (saturated solution, 30%-50% excess of solvent) revealed extensive structural variability of TCl. Although (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated broad variety of structural phases arising from molecular disorder, temperature-modulated DSC identified presence of two distinct components in the products. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the hydrogen bonding network (ionic hydrogen bond formation), whereas the X-ray diffraction reflected unchanged unit cell parameters. These results were explained by a two-component character of TCl products in which a dominant polymorphic form is accompanied by partly separated nanocrystalline domains of a secondary phase that does not provide clear Bragg reflections. These phases slightly differ in the degree of molecular disorder, in the quality of crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding network. It is also demonstrated that, for the quality control of such complex products, (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis (FA) can satisfactorily be used for categorizing the individual samples: FA of (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra found clear relationships between the extent of molecular disorder and crystallization conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013.

  2. 15N Photo-CIDNP MAS NMR To Reveal Functional Heterogeneity in Electron Donor of Different Plant Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Geertje J.; Roy, Esha; Matysik, Jörg; Alia, A.

    2011-01-01

    In plants and cyanobacteria, two light-driven electron pumps, photosystems I and II (PSI, PSII), facilitate electron transfer from water to carbon dioxide with quantum efficiency close to unity. While similar in structure and function, the reaction centers of PSI and PSII operate at widely different potentials with PSI being the strongest reducing agent known in living nature. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) in magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic res...

  3. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time (13)C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio; Mele, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  4. 1H MAS NMR characterization of hydrogen over silica-supported rhodium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen species in both SiO2 and Rh/SiO2 catalysts pretreated indifferent atmospheres (H2, O2, helium or air) at different temperatures (773 or 973 K) were investigated by means of 1H MAS NMR. In SiO2 and O2-pretreated catalysts, a series of downfield signals at ~7.0, 3.8-4.0, 2.0 and 1.5-1.0 were detected. The first two signals can be attributed to strongly adsorbed and physisorbed water and the others to terminal silanol (SiOH) and SiOH under the screening of oxygen vacancies in SiO2 lattice, respectively. Besides the above signals, both upfield signal at ~-110 and downfield signals at 3.0 and 0.0 were also detected in H2-pretreated catalyst, respectively. The upfield signal at ~-110 originated from the dissociative adsorption of H2 over rhodium and was found to consist of both the contributions of reversible and irreversible hydrogen. There also probably existed another dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen over rhodium, which was known to be b hydrogen and in a unique form of "delocalized hydrogen". It was presumed that the b hydrogen had an upfield shift of ca. -20- -50, though its 1H NMR signals, which, having been masked by the spinning sidebands of Si-OH, failed to be directly detected out. The downfield signal at 3.0 was assigned to spillover hydrogen weakly bound by the bridge oxygen of SiO2. Another downfield signal at 0.0 was assigned to hydrogen held in the oxygen vacancies of SiO2 (Si-H species), suffering from the screening of trapped electrons. Both the spillover hydrogen and the Si-H resulted from the migration of the reversible hydrogen and the b hydrogen from rhodium to SiO2 in the close vicinity. It was proved that the above migration of hydrogen was preferred to occur at higher temperature than at lower temperature.

  5. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was the most stable characteristic in both test years (CV = 3.84 and 4.09% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The genotype SKC had highest contents of soluble matter (32.37%, total sugars (25.38% and reducing sugars (23.67%. Fruits of the genotype KC2 had highest contents of vitamin C (39.22 mg/100 g fruit and total acids (3.60%. Selection Apatinski rani had the highest content of anthocyanins (109.36 mg/100 g fruit. Depending on the genotype, protein content ranged from 1.43 to 2.71%, and tannin content from 0.65% to 1.31%.

  6. Correção do mosto da uva Isabel com diferentes produtos na Serra Gaúcha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Isabel da Serra Gaúcha geralmente não alcança teor de açúcar suficiente para produzir vinho equilibrado e, em determinados casos, para atingir 10% v/v de álcool, concentração mínima para vinho de mesa estabelecida pela legislação brasileira. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes produtos utilizados para correção do mosto na composição química do vinho Isabel. O experimento constou de seis tratamentos: testemunha (sem correção, sacarose, açúcar mascavo, mosto concentrado, álcool vínico e glicose de milho. Os vinhos foram elaborados em microvinificações, com seis repetições. As amostras foram avaliadas através das análises clássicas, efetuadas por métodos físico-químicos, e dos elementos minerais por absorção atômica. A sacarose foi o produto mais adequado para a correção do mosto, pois não incorporou componentes estranhos, não alterou a relação álcool em peso/extrato seco reduzido e apresentou elevado rendimento alcoólico. O álcool vínico pode ser utilizado desde que seja um produto genuíno de procedência garantida, preferencialmente obtido de vinho branco.

  7. Colour Changes on the Surface of the Rock Materials Due to UV-A and UV-B Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binal, Adil; Ayderman, Aykut; Sel, Aylin

    2015-04-01

    The colour of the rocks used in the current buildings, and historical monuments is an important parameter in architecture and engineering. In addition, engineering geologists use the colour in order to identify the weathering class of rock material. The main colour of the stone, especially, are affected by the mineral size, the colour of the primary minerals and matrix material, as well as the colour of the accessory minerals. Due to atmospheric effects, changes in the outer surface colour of the rocks used as siding materials occur with over time. Factors causing the colour change are carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), sulphate (SO2, SO3) and nitrate (NOx) from the atmosphere with aerosols as well as UV rays from the sun. There is no more work in the literature on colour changes caused by UV-A and UV-B rays. In this study, the effects of ultraviolet in the colour of the surfaces of basalt, limestone, ignimbrite, travertine and sandstone have been simulated with a new experimental device in the laboratory medium. Lutron colour analyser (RGB-1002) was used for the measurements of RGB colours. Colour differences between the beginning and end of tests were determined with the standard practice for calculation of colour tolerances and colour differences from instrumentally measured colour coordinates (ASTM D2244). As a result of the experiments performed, lighten that seem on dark-grey micritic limestone (colour change ratio, CCR: 17.06) and basalt samples (CCR: 8.24) become even visually noticeable. Black and red ignimbrite samples having high porosity were presented the lower rate of colour changes. Finally, colour darkening has been observed in the light-coloured travertine (CCR: 13.8) and sandstone samples (CCR: 20.99).

  8. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.

  9. Wykonywanie odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowych z ekologicznych mas formierskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł zawiera wyniki uzyskane podczas badań wykonywanych w ramach projektu celowego w odlewni Hardtop w Charsznicy.Celem badań było opracowanie technologii wykonania dobrej jakości odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego przy jednoczesnym zachowaniuskutecznych technik ochrony środowiska. Przedstawiono badania wykonywania odlewów o masie od 1 do 300 kg z żeliwa sferoidalnegogatunek 400-15, 500-7 z zastosowaniem form dwuwarstwowych, gdzie masę przymodelową i rdzeniową stanowi masa z alkalicznymspoiwem organicznym, a masę wypełniającą – masa ze spoiwem nieorganicznym - geopolimerowym.Zastosowano uproszczoną regenerację masy z możliwością wykorzystania odzyskanego regeneratu do masy wypełniającej.Przeprowadzono dobór metody sferoidyzacji i modyfikacji żeliwa odpowiednich dla warunków odlewni Hardtop. Wykonano serię próbnąodlewów i przeprowadzono badania poprawności konstrukcji układów zalewania i zasilania z zastosowaniem otulin egzotermicznych nanadlewy. Badania potwierdziły słuszność przyjętej koncepcji wykonywania odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowychprzy zachowaniu maksymalnie 15% udziału mas ze spoiwem organicznym.

  10. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: Diffraction- Limited Broadband Visible Imaging and 20mas Fiber Array IFS

    CERN Document Server

    Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared R; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10\\{mu}m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 \\{mu}m. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 \\{mu}m. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated...

  11. Antimicrobial effects of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, M.; Namura, S.; Akamatsu, H.; Horio, T. [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology

    1996-10-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effects of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in vivo and in vitro. First, Staphylococcus aureus samples were obtained using stamp agar medium from inflammatory lesions of 29 adult patients with atopic dermatitis before and after a single photochemotherapy. Therapy was oral PUVA (30 mg 8-methoxypsoralen, 8MOP plus 5 J/cm{sup 2}UVA), topical PUVA (0.3% 8MOP plus 200 mJ/cm{sup 2}UVA) or UVB (80 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation. The number of S. aureus on the lesions was significantly reduced, even after a single treatment with all therapies. Reductions (mean {+-} SD) were 69.3 {+-} 26.9%, 76.3 {+-} 31.3% and 83.8 {+-} 18.5%, respectively. Secondly, we investigated the effect of PUVA (0.001% 8MOP plus 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVA) and UVB (10, 30, 50, or 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation on the proliferation of S. aureus in vitro. PUVA and UVB treatment markedly inhibited the proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These results seem to indicate the possibility that the antimicrobial effect of UV radiation contributes to successful photochemotherapy in patients with atopic dermatitis. (Author).

  12. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  13. COMPARAÇÃO DO TEOR DE FENÓLICOS TOTAIS E DA AÇÃO ANTIOXIDANTE DE SUCOS INDUSTRIALIZADOS DE UVA E DE VINHOS TINTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Paula Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo diário de vinho tinto já são bem conhecidos e descritos, e incluem a diminuição da probabilidade de ocorrência de doenças coronárias e de complicações cardiovasculares. Atribui-se esta ação benéfica e “protetora” à presença de compostos flavonoides encontrados na casca da uva (Vitis vinifera, principalmente antocianidinas e do derivado fenólico resveratrol. Apesar disto, o vinho é caracterizado por apresentar entre 5 a 12% de álcool e o seu consumo diário pode trazer, juntamente aos benefícios cardíacos grandes prejuízos à saúde. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar se o consumo frequente de suco de uva tinto seria capaz de trazer os mesmos efeitos protetores do vinho tinto.  Observou-se nestas análises que a atividade antioxidante dos vinhos amostrados foi superior a dos sucos. Não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os teores de compostos fenólicos totais nas amostras de suco e de vinho. Uma vez que a atividade antioxidante está muito relacionada à proteção cardiovascular, conclui-se que o consumo do suco de uva tinto não é capaz de substituir o vinho em sua ação protetora

  14. Qualidade de uva 'Isabel' tratada com cloreto de cálcio em pós-colheita e armazenada sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Sousa da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Uvas 'Isabel' foram tratadas após a colheita com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e submetidas a atmosfera modificada para avaliação da manutenção de sua qualidade durante o armazenamento, a 12±1 ºC e 85±2% de UR. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 5, com 3 repetições, sendo cinco doses de CaCl2 (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0%, dois tipos de atmosfera [ambiente e modificada (AM] e cinco períodos, durante o armazenamento refrigerado. As avaliações foram acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, relação SS/AT, pH, ácido ascórbico, incidência de podridão, perda de massa, aparência do engaço e índice de degrana. A AM reduziu a perda de massa, a incidência de podridão e manteve a aparência verde do engaço, ampliando a vida útil de uva 'Isabel' em seis dias. Doses de CaCl2 entre 0,5 e 2,0% reduziram a incidência de podridão. A aplicação de CaCl2 associado à AM reduziu a degrana em uva 'Isabel' durante o armazenamento refrigerado.

  15. The hazard assessment of nanostructured CeO{sub 2}-based mixed oxides on the zebrafish Danio rerio under environmentally relevant UV-A exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Djinović, Petar; Črnivec, Ilja Gasan Osojnik; Pintar, Albin [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of nanomaterials on biota under realistic environmental conditions is an important question. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how different illumination conditions alter the toxicity of some photocatalytic nanomaterials. We have investigated how environmentally relevant UV-A exposure (intensity 8.50 ± 0.61 W/m{sup 2}, exposure dose 9.0 J/cm{sup 2}) affected the toxicity of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2})-based nanostructured materials to the early-life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Pure cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), copper–cerium (CuO–CeO{sub 2}) (with a nominal 10, 15 and 20 mol.% CuO content), cerium–zirconium (CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}) and nickel and cobalt (Ni–Co) deposited over CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} were tested. It was found that under both illumination regimes, none of the tested materials affected the normal development or induced mortality of zebrafish early-life stages up to 100 mg/L. Only in the case of CuO–CeO{sub 2}, the growth of larvae was decreased (96 h LOEC values for CuCe10, CuCe15 and CuCe20 were 50, 50 and 10 mg/L, respectively). To conclude, CeO{sub 2}-based nanostructured materials are not severely toxic to zebrafish and environmentally relevant UV-A exposure does not enhance their toxicity. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} nanomaterials and pure CeO{sub 2} (up to 100 mg/L) were not harmful to zebrafish. • Only CuO modified CeO{sub 2} affected the growth of zebrafish larvae. • UV-A radiation did not enhance the toxicity of tested nanomaterials.

  16. Detection of the pediocin gene pedA in strains from human faeces by real-time PCR and characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici UVA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cereghetti Tania

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as natural protective cultures. Among them, strains of the genus Pediococcus are particularly interesting for their ability to produce pediocin, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide with a strong antagonistic activity against the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in isolating new bacteriocin-producing strains of human intestinal origin that could be developed for probiotic effects and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. In this work, we typed a new strain, co-isolated from baby faeces together with a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain, and characterized its proteinaceous compound with strong antilisterial activity. Results The newly isolated strain UVA1 was identified as a Pediococcus acidilactici by carbohydrate fermentation profile, growth at 50°C and 16S rDNA sequencing. The partially purified bacteriocin was heat resistant up to 100°C, active over a wide range of pH (2 to 9 and susceptible to proteolytic enzymes. The molecular weight, estimated by SDS-PAGE, was similar to that of pediocin AcH/PA-1 (4.5 kDa. P. acidilactici UVA1 harboured a 9.5-kb plasmid that could be cured easily, which resulted in the loss of the antimicrobial activity. Southern hybridization using the DIG-labelled pedA-probe established that the bacteriocin gene was plasmid-borne as for all pediocin described so far. Nucleotide sequence of the whole operon (3.5 kb showed almost 100 % similarity to the pediocin AcH/PA-1 operon. The mRNA transcript for pedA could be detected in P. acidilactici UVA1 but not in the cured derivative, confirming the expression of the pedA-gene in UVA1. Using a new real-time PCR assay, eleven out of seventeen human faecal samples tested were found to contain pedA-DNA. Conclusion We identified and characterised the first pediocin produced by a human intestinal Pediococcus acidilactici isolate and

  17. INTRODUÇÃO DOS CULTIVARES DE UVA DE MESA "FANTASIA" E "RUIVA" NO BRASIL INTRODUCTION OF THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS "FANTASY SEEDLESS" AND "CRIMSON SEEDLESS" INTO BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Valdevino Pommer; Maurilo Monteiro Terra; Erasmo José Paioli Pires; Ilene Ribeiro Silva Passos; Fernando Picarelli Martins

    1999-01-01

    Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt) e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados...

  18. Disinfection of water and wastewater by UV-A and UV-C irradiation:application of real-time PCR method.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzisymeon, E.; Droumpali, A.; Mantzavinos, D.; Venieri, D.

    2011-01-01

    The disinfection efficiency of synthetic and real wastewater by means of UV-A and UV-C irradiation in the presence or absence of TiO(2) was investigated. A reference strain of Escherichia coli suspended in sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solution was used as a synthetic wastewater, while real wastewater samples were collected from the outlet of the secondary treatment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. E. coli inactivation was monitored both by the conventional culture technique and b...

  19. Efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de la baya y del vino, en la variedad de uva Cabernet sauvignon. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Rodríguez Fernández, Lucía; Peiro Gangoso, Emilio; García García, Elisa; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Existe una preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, especialmente en zonas cálidas y secas. Estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias tanto en la calidad de la uva como en el potencial de sus vinos. El objetivo del ensayo fue evaluar los efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de los vinos, ya que hoy en día resulta de carácter obligatorio mantener su intensidad y calidad constante, frente a la percepción del consumidor frente...

  20. Utilización de Uvas en la Elaboración de Mermeladas: Estudio de Estabilidad de Compuestos Fenólicos

    OpenAIRE

    Olachea Arce, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Se recoge en la bibliografía consultada diversos trabajos dónde se ha comprobado la presencia de compuestos con actividad beneficiosa para la salud humana en los residuos y subproductos del cultivo de la uva y del proceso de vinificación, concretamente compuestos de tipo fenólicos, carbohidratos y restos proteicos. Los restos de la vinificación representan un volumen importante de residuos/subproductos en el entorno enológico. En concreto, según estadísticas y datos del 2011, en España se ...

  1. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was

  2. Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Philips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives, through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally, III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.

  3. Efectos del extracto de semillas de uva sobre la cistopatia diabética inducida por estreptozotocina en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Arruzazabala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes por estreptozotocina (STZ en ratas se produce como consecuencia de la necrosis subtotal de los islotes pancreáticos y provoca hiperglicemia, hipoinsulinemia, disminución de la ganancia en peso y aumento del peso de la vejiga, así como hipercontractilidad al carbacol por sobreexpresión de los ARNm-receptores muscarínicos M2 y M3 del detrusor y el urotelio. El extracto de semillas de uva (ESU, rico en flavonoides, ha mostrado efectos antioxidantes y neuroprotectores en modelos experimentales. Por tanto, este estudio investigó si el tratamiento con ESU atenuaba la cistopatía inducida por STZ en ratas. Los animales se distribuyeron en tres grupos: un grupo control no diabético y dos grupos tratados con STZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal. Cuatro semanas después, tanto el grupo control negativo como uno de los tratados con STZ (control positivo recibió el vehículo por vía oral (p.o., mientras el tercer grupo recibió ESU (200 mg/(kg · d, p.o. durante cuatro semanas. Al concluir este período se cuantificó el peso corporal y las concentraciones séricas de glucosa y creatinina. La actividad funcional de la vejiga se investigó usando carbacol (10 -7- 10 -5 mol/L y KCl (100 mmol/L para inducir las contracciones en cada preparación aislada. Las ratas diabéticas por STZ mostraron disminución de la ganancia en peso corporal y aumento de las concentraciones de glucosa y creatinina, así como del peso de las vejigas con relación al grupo control negativo. Las contracciones máximas (Emáx. inducidas por el carbacol en vejigas aisladas fueron significativamente mayores (hiperreactividad en las ratas diabéticas que en los controles negativos. El tratamiento con ESU [200 mg/(kg · d] no modificó la reducción del aumento de peso corporal ni la hiperglicemia en ratas con diabetes inducida por STZ. Además, el ESU no afectó la hiperreactividad al carbacol (E máx. ni la respuesta contráctil del KCl 100 mmol/l de las preparaciones

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2(-/y) mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1-7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what's more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1-7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  5. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: diffraction-limited broadband visible imaging and 20mas fiber array IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10μm camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 μm. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 μm. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated advanced triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) and the design of our novel wide-field acquisition and active optics lens. The advanced ADC is designed to perform 58% better than conventional doublet ADCs and is one of the enabling technologies that will allow us to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0μm) diffraction limited imaging and wavefront sensing in the visible.

  6. Efeito do microclima na qualidade da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A 1105) cultivada sob cobertura plástica Effect of microclimate in the quality of 'Romana' (A 1105) table grape cultivated under plastic cover

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Lulu; Josalba Vidigal de Castro; Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2005-01-01

    A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo, e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A 1105) tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí (SP). No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking...

  7. In vivo activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat by UV type A (UV-A) light plus psoralen and UV-B light in the skin of transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrey, John D; Bourn, S M; Bunch, T.D.; Jackson, M K; Sidwell, R. W.; Barrows, L R; Daynes, R A; Rosen, C A

    1991-01-01

    UV irradiation has been shown to activate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) in cell culture; however, only limited studies have been described in vivo. UV light has been categorized as UV-A (400 to 315 nm), -B (315 to 280 nm), or -C (less than 280 nm); the longer wavelengths are less harmful but more penetrative. Highly penetrative UV-A radiation constitutes the vast majority of UV sunlight reaching the earth's surface but is normally harmless. UV-B ir...

  8. Influencia de la madurez de la uva y de ciertas prácticas vitivinícolas sobre el color, los compuestos fenólicos y los polisacáridos del vino tinto

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Cortiella, Mariona

    2013-01-01

    La madurez de la uva ejerce una gran influencia sobre la composición química del vino tinto, lo que a su vez condiciona severamente propiedades organolépticas como el color, la astringencia y el amargor. La enorme heterogeneidad de la uva, así como la variabilidad de los factores que condicionan el proceso de maduración y que pueden conducir a una madurez inadecuada, van en detrimento de la calidad de los vinos tintos de alta gama. Con el fin de paliar los efectos de dicha madurez inadecuada,...

  9. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Qinfei Li; Yong Ge; Guoqing Geng; Sungchul Bae; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on tricalcium silicate (C3S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination...

  10. Benito Juárez: ¿más que un Aprendiz de Masón?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Moreno, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    El estudio historiográfico muestra que es una idea ampliamente aceptada que Benito Juárez fue iniciado en la masonería en el Rito Nacional Mexicano; sin embargo, hay quien afirma que es improbable que Juárez haya recibido más allá del grado de Aprendiz de Masón, a causa de los movimientos bélicos que provocaron sus constantes viajes por la República Mexicana y el extranjero. El objetivo central del presente artículo es analizar algunas hipótesis para buscar dilucidar si Juárez pudo haber reci...

  11. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Leila; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Eilkhanizadeh, Behroz; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX)-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly), MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1), a...

  12. Improved quantification of alite and belite in anhydrous Portland cements by 29Si MAS NMR: Effects of paramagnetic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Kocaba, Vanessa; Le Saoût, Gwenn;

    2009-01-01

    The applicability, reliability, and repeatability of 29Si MAS NMR for determination of the quantities of alite (Ca3SiO5) and belite (Ca2SiO4) in anhydrous Portland cement was investigated in detail for 11 commercial Portland cements and the results compared with phase quantifications based...... on powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld analysis and with Taylor-Bogue calculations. The effects from paramagnetic ions (Fe3+) on the spinning sideband intensities, originating from dipolar couplings between 29Si and the spins of the paramagnetic electrons, were considered and analyzed in spectra...

  13. Preparation and characterization of p–n heterojunction CuBi2O4/CeO2 and its photocatalytic activities under UVA light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Elaziouti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CuBi2O4/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by the solid state method and were characterized by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated under UVA light and assessed using Congo red (CR dye as probe reaction. The efficiency of the coupled CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst was found to be related to the amount of added CuBi2O4 and to the pH medium. The CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst exhibited the high efficiency as a result of 83.05% of degradation of CR under UVA light for 100 min of irradiation time with 30 wt% of CuBi2O4 at 25 °C and pH 7, which is about 6 times higher than that of CeO2. The photodegradation reactions satisfactorily correlated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was explained by the heterojunction model.

  14. Comparing the effects of mitochondrial targeted and localized antioxidants with cellular antioxidants in human skin cells exposed to UVA and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, Anne O; Wilmot, Marie-Claire; Fowler, Mark; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer and aging are linked to increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly following exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in sunlight. As mitochondria are the main source of cellular ROS, this study compared the protective effects of mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (MitoQ and tiron, respectively) with cellular antioxidants against oxidative stress-induced [UVA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human dermal fibroblasts. With the use of a long quantitative PCR assay, tiron (EC50 10 mM) was found to confer complete (100%) protection (Pantioxidants investigated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway provides cellular protection against oxidative stress. An ELISA assay for the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and studies using Nrf2 small interfering RNA both indicated that tiron's mode of action was Nrf2 independent. The comet assay showed that tiron's protective effect against H2O2-induced nuclear DNA damage was greater than the cellular antioxidants and MitoQ (Pantioxidants.

  15. The influence of light spectra, UV-A, and growth regulators on the in vitro seed germination of Senecio cineraria DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of light spectra, additional UV-A, and different growth regulators on the in vitro germination of Senecio cineraria DC. Seeds were surface-sterilized and inoculated in MS medium to evaluate the following light spectra: white, white plus UV-A, blue, green, red or darkness. The maximum germinability was obtained using MS0 medium under white light (30% and MS + 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 in the absence of light (30.5%. S. cineraria seeds were indifferent to light. Blue and green lights inhibited germination. Different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.1; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 and indole-3-acetic acid IAA (0.1; 0.3 and 1.0 mg L-1 were evaluated under white light and darkness. No concentration of GA3 enhanced seed germination percentage under white light. However, when the seeds were maintained in darkness, GA3 improved germination responses in all tested concentrations, except at 1.0 mg L-1. Under white light, these concentrations also increased the germination time and reduced germination rate. Germination rate, under light or darkness, was lower using IAA compared with GA3.

  16. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min. PMID:27086271

  17. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to combined UVB (4-methylbenzylidene camphor/octyl methoxycinnamate) and UVA (benzophenone-3/butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane) absorber sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    1998-01-01

    In a 71-year-old male Caucasian patient with persistent eczema on light-exposed skin, photocontact allergy was demonstrated to the UV filter substances 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (UVB), octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB), benzophenone-3 (UVA) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (UVA) present in sunscreen products used by the patient over several years. A significantly reduced UVB sensitivity of 25 mJ/cm2 in this patient (normal minimal erythema dose in our laboratory = 70-130 mJ/cm2) was considered an early indication of a persistent light reaction. Topical anti-inflammatory treatment over 2 weeks together with consequent application of a sunscreen containing Mexoryl SX/titanium dioxide led to complete remission. Taking into account the widespread use of the above UV filter substances not only in sun protection products, but also in cosmetics such as antiaging lotions and day care products, the possible risk of allergy to these chemicals has to be taken seriously. The substitution of known photocontact sensitizers in UV filters by photostable compounds and detailed product information are the basis of preventive strategies. PMID:9621150

  18. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  19. Photodegradation kinetics of formaldehyde using light sources of UVA, UVC and UVLED in the presence of composed silver titanium oxide photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Lee, Chia-Hsiang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Chang, Chang-Tong; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2008-06-30

    This study investigated the surface modification of photocatalyst and photodecomposition of formaldehyde from indoor pollution source. This study explored the feasibility of the application of the ultraviolet light emitting diode (UVLED) instead of the traditional ultraviolet (UV) lamp to treat the formaldehyde. The photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde at various initial concentrations was elucidated according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The reaction rate constant (k) and adsorption equilibrium constant (K(L)) over 0.334 g silver titanium oxide photocatalyst (Ag/TiO2) coated on glass sticks with 254 nm ultraviolet lamp (UVC), 365 nm ultraviolet lamp (UVA), and UVLED are 650 ppmv min(-1) and 2 x 10(-4)ppmv(-1), 500 ppmv min(-1) and 1.04 x 10(-4)ppmv(-1), and 600 ppmv min(-1) and 2.52 x 10(-5)ppmv(-1), respectively. A comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data was also made, indicating good agreement. The magnitudes of energy effectiveness (E(e)) are in the order of UVLED (0.6942 mg kW(-1)h(-1))>UVA (0.007 mg kW(-1)h(-1))>UVC (0.0053 mg kW(-1)h(-1)). The E(e) of UVLED is 131 times larger than that of UVC. The UVLED can save a lot of energy in comparison with the traditional UV lamps. Thus, this study showed the feasible and potential use of UVLED in photocatalysis.

  20. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra

  1. Microscopic structural analysis of fractured silk fibers from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini using 13C CP/MAS NMR with a 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead

    KAUST Repository

    Yamauchi, Kazuo

    2010-07-01

    Conformational changes have been studied in silk fibers from the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori and a wild silkworm Samia cynthia ricini as a result of fractured by stretching. About 300 samples consisting of only the fractured regions of [1-13C]Ala or [1-13C]Gly labeled silk fibers were collected and observed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. The total amount of these fractured fibers is only about 1 mg and therefore we used a home-built 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead. A very small increase in the fraction of random coil was noted for the alanine regions of both silk fibroins and for the glycine region of B. mori silk fibroin. However, there is no difference in the spectra before and after fractured for the glycine region of S. c. ricini silk fibroin. Thus, the influence of fracture occurs exclusively at the Ala region for S. c. ricini. The relationship between sequence, fracture and structure is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Niagara Rosada' Modified atmosphere and cold storage for postharvest conservation of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita da uva 'Niagara Rosada' armazenada sob refrigeração, em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o acondicionamento de cachos nas seguintes embalagens: papelão ondulado (testemunha; tereftalato de polietileno (PET; cloreto de polivinila (PVC 17 μm; polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PELBD 25 μm; e PELBD 50 μm. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os sistemas de acondicionamento: sacolas de plástico abertas (testemunha; polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD 25 μm; PEBD 25 μm, com injeção de mistura gasosa (21% O2/5% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/10% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/20% CO2. Os cachos foram armazenados a 1±1°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR por 28 dias, seguido de armazenamento em condições do ambiente (25±2°C e 80±5% UR. Os cachos foram avaliados quanto à perda de massa de matéria fresca, firmeza, cor das bagas, esbagoamento, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, relação SST/AT e incidência de podridões. O filme PELBD 50 μm, a partir do 14º dia a 1°C, seguido por mais três dias a 25°C, causou a fermentação dos cachos. As embalagens PELBD 25 μm, com ou sem injeção de mistura gasosa, e PVC 17 μm reduzem a perda de massa de matéria fresca dos cachos, mas não reduzem o esbagoamento e a incidência de podridões.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the modified atmosphere, on the storage life of 'Niagara Rosada' Table grape kept under refrigeration in two experiments. In the first one, grape clusters stored in different package materials were evaluated: corrugated cardboard boxes, polyethylene tereftalate (PET; 17-μm polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 25-μm low density linear polyethylene film (PELDB; and 50-μm PELDB. On a second assay, different packaging systems were evaluated: opened plastic bags; 25-μm low density polyethylene film (PEBD; 25-μm PEBD, with

  3. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  4. 1H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication.

  5. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2014-04-22

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  6. LyMAS: Predicting Large-Scale Lyman-alpha Forest Statistics from the Dark Matter Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Peirani, Sébastien; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] We describe LyMAS (Ly-alpha Mass Association Scheme), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Ly-alpha forest on large scales from moderate resolution simulations of the dark matter distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the "Horizon MareNostrum" simulation, a 50 Mpc/h comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(F_s|delta_s) of the transmitted flux F_s, smoothed (1-dimensionally) over the spectral resolution scale, on the dark matter density contrast delta_s, smoothed (3-dimensionally) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III BOSS at z=2.5, and we find optimal results for a dark matter smoothing length sigma=0.3 Mpc/h (comoving). In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1-dimensional power spectrum and 1-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum ...

  7. Recognition of Membrane Sterols by Polyene Antifungals Amphotericin B and Natamycin, A (13)C MAS NMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Filip; Griffin, David C; Loraine, Jessica; Rittig, Michael; Delves-Broughton, Joss; Bonev, Boyan B

    2016-01-01

    The molecular action of polyene macrolides with antifungal activity, amphotericin B and natamycin, involves recognition of sterols in membranes. Physicochemical and functional studies have contributed details to understanding the interactions between amphotericin B and ergosterol and, to a lesser extent, with cholesterol. Fewer molecular details are available on interactions between natamycin with sterols. We use solid state (13)C MAS NMR to characterize the impact of amphotericin B and natamycin on mixed lipid membranes of DOPC/cholesterol or DOPC/ergosterol. In cholesterol-containing membranes, amphotericin B addition resulted in marked increase in both DOPC and cholesterol (13)C MAS NMR linewidth, reflecting membrane insertion and cooperative perturbation of the bilayer. By contrast, natamycin affects little either DOPC or cholesterol linewidth but attenuates cholesterol resonance intensity preferentially for sterol core with lesser impact on the chain. Ergosterol resonances, attenuated by amphotericin B, reveal specific interactions in the sterol core and chain base. Natamycin addition selectively augmented ergosterol resonances from sterol core ring one and, at the same time, from the end of the chain. This puts forward an interaction model similar to the head-to-tail model for amphotericin B/ergosterol pairing but with docking on opposite sterol faces. Low toxicity of natamycin is attributed to selective, non-cooperative sterol engagement compared to cooperative membrane perturbation by amphotericin B. PMID:27379235

  8. Surface Characterization of Some Novel Bonded Phase Packing Materials for HPLC Columns Using MAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Abia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and 13C nuclei. These packing materials were: Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica, hybrid packing materials XTerra MS C18, and XBridge Prep. C18. The spectra obtained using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS on the Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica show the surface to be densely populated with hydride groups (Si-H, with a relative surface coverage exceeding 80%. The hybrid packing materials XTerra and XBridge gave spectra that reveal the silicon atoms to be bonded to organic moieties embedded in the molecular structure of these materials with over 90% of the alkyl silicon atoms found within the completely condensed silicon environments. The hydrolytic stability of these materials were investigated in acidic aqueous solutions at pHs of 7.0 and 3.0, and it was found that while the samples of XTerra and XBridge were not affected by hydrolysis at this pH range, the sample of Cogent lost a significant proportion of its Si-H groups after five days of treatment in acidic aqueous solution.

  9. Transport Properties of Ibuprofen Encapsulated in Cyclodextrin Nanosponge Hydrogels: A Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Monica; Castiglione, Franca; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Panzeri, Walter; Rossi, Barbara; Trotta, Francesco; Mele, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The chemical cross-linking of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTA) led to branched polymers referred to as cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNSEDTA). Two different preparations are described with 1:4 and 1:8 CD-EDTA molar ratios. The corresponding cross-linked polymers were contacted with 0.27 M aqueous solution of ibuprofen sodium salt (IP) leading to homogeneous, colorless, drug loaded hydrogels. The systems were characterized by high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Pulsed field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the mean square displacement (MSD) of IP inside the polymeric gel at different observation times td. The data were further processed in order to study the time dependence of MSD: MSD = f(td). The proposed methodology is useful to characterize the different diffusion regimes that, in principle, the solute may experience inside the hydrogel, namely normal or anomalous diffusion. The full protocols including the polymer preparation and purification, the obtainment of drug-loaded hydrogels, the NMR sample preparation, the measurement of MSD by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the final data processing to achieve the time dependence of MSD are here reported and discussed. The presented experiments represent a paradigmatic case and the data are discussed in terms of innovative approach to the characterization of the transport properties of an encapsulated guest within a polymeric host of potential application for drug delivery. PMID:27585291

  10. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on tricalcium silicate (C3S hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H, which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C3S. Based on the Ca L3,2-edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C3S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl2 in hydrated C3S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups (Q2 and branch sites (Q3 in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.

  11. Designing MAS-based Modern Information Processing System: Ideas and Discussions%基于MAS设计现代信息处理系统:思路与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁力力; 胡可云; 陆玉昌; 石纯一

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideas for designing modern information processing system,in which we emphasize the observation about the advantages and disadvantages while designing large-scale open system using MAS theory. After brief review and analysis about the study situations or limitations of present information processing techniques and DAI/MAS,this paper discusses many problems in the combination between MAS and information processing. Finally,a brand new MAS organization structural model and new ideas for devising information processing systems are put forward with the consideration about the limitations of MAS' organization structure and the strong requirements of feasibility and efficiency.

  12. Grape juice suplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and oligofrutose / Suco de uva suplementado com Lactobacillus acidophilus e oligofrutose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Synbiotic foods containing probiotics and prebiotics are good for human health. The aim of this work was to develop a symbiotic grape juice, as alternative to dairy probiotic products, containing the probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and oligofrutose as prebiotic. To evaluate the best juice formulation, was realized a 22 factorial planning. The juice was kept under refrigeration for 8 days. The symbiotic juice pH (2.86-3.52 increased in comparison to the control (2.69. It was observed that the formulation containing 10% oligofrutose and 108 CFU/mL of L. acidophilus presented the lactic acid bacterial counting (1.25 x 107 CFU/mL according to the legislation for probiotic claim. This formulation was selected for sensorial evaluation. The triangular test showed a significant difference between symbiotic and control juice (p¡Ü0.001. In the other hand, in the affective test of preference (hedonic scale of 9 points, the scores given by the 18 painelists to the control (6.67±1.27 and symbiotic (5.56±2.56 juices were not statistically different (p>0.05.Alimentos simbióticos contendo probióticos e prebióticos são benéficos para a saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um suco de uva simbiótico, como alternativa a bebidas lácteas probióticas, contendo o probiótico Lactobacillus acidophilus e o prebiótico oligofrutose. Para avaliar a melhor formulação do suco, foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 22. O suco comercial pasteurizado foi inoculado com 10 e 15% de oligofrutose e 107 e 108 UFC/mL de L. acidophilus, mantido sob refrigeração por 8 dias. O pH dos sucos elaborados (2,86 – 3,52 aumentou em relação ao controle (2,69. Observou-se que a formulação contendo 10% de oligofrutose e 108 UFC/mL de L. acidophilus foi a que apresentou contagem de bactérias lácticas (1,25 x 107 UFC/mL dentro da legislação para utilização da alegação de produto probiótico. Assim, esta formulação foi escolhida para

  13. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xingyu, E-mail: luxingyu@udel.edu; Guo, Changmiao, E-mail: cmguo@udel.edu; Hou, Guangjin, E-mail: hou@udel.edu; Polenova, Tatyana, E-mail: tpolenov@udel.edu [University of Delaware, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35–40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD–RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD–RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD–RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD–RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD–RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD–RFDR experiment is beneficial in a

  14. Mecanismos moleculares de ação anti-inflamatória e antioxidante de polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto na aterosclerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Séfora-Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa investigar os possíveis mecanismos moleculares de ação dos polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto contra os processos oxidativos e inflamatórios envolvidos na aterosclerose. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão de literatura realizado por meio de buscas nas bases de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect utilizando os seguintes descritores: vinho tinto, uva, polifenóis, resveratrol, aterosclerose, LDL-oxidada, inflamação, estresse oxidativo, NF-kB, AP-1, Nrf2, SIRT-1, MicroRNA. Embora tais mecanismos ainda não estejam totalmente esclarecidos, os estudos indicam que compostos fenólicos presentes em uvas podem se complexar com metais (como ferro e cobre que provocam peroxidação dos lipídios, aumentam a atividade antioxidante do plasma, associam-se com a LDL-c aumentando sua resistência à oxidação, preservam a atividade da enzima paraoxonase, neutralizam radicais livres, e ativam fatores de transcrição como o Nrf2, que aumenta a expressão de genes que codificam proteínas importantes na defesa antioxidante, como a superóxido dismutase e a glutationa peroxidase. Além disso, os polifenóis inibem a fosforilação de MAP quinases, inibindo assim os fatores de transcrição NF-kB e AP-1 e, consequentemente, reduzindo a síntese do TNF-á, interleucinas, moléculas de adesão e quimiocinas. Também inibem a atividade das enzimas cicloxigenase e lipoxigenase. Outro mecanismo proposto é a ação do resveratrol sobre a atividade de deacetilases de histonas, como a SITR-1. Estas ações em conjunto reduzem a oxidação da LDL-c e o processo inflamatório, atenuando o processo aterogênico.

  15. Potencial climático para a produção de uvas em sistema de dupla poda anual no estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian da Silva Ricce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da videira tem potencial para produção contínua logo após pequeno período de descanso entre safras, porém os riscos climáticos podem limitar essa prática. O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial climático para o cultivo de duas safras anuais e a estimativa da severidade de míldio, em função de diferentes épocas de poda, e da exigência em graus-dia de diferentes genótipos de uvas (Vitis spp., no estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados os riscos de geada, o balanço hídrico climatológico normal e a severidade potencial de ocorrência de míldio utilizando dados de 21 estações meteorológicas do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. A ocorrência de geadas limita a época de cultivo da videira nas regiões centro, sul e leste. O excesso hídrico é observado em todo o estado. Genótipos que necessitam 1.800°C dia entre a poda e a colheita somente podem ser utilizados em sistema de dupla safra anual nas regiões mais quentes do estado. Não é possível a obtenção de duas safras anuais quando se utilizam genótipos de videiras que exigem mais de 2.000°C dia. Nas regiões mais frias, somente genótipos que necessitam 1.000 a 1.200°C dia podem ser utilizados. Em função do potencial de severidade do míldio, indica-se o cultivo de uvas rústicas ou americanas para as regiões centro, sul e leste, enquanto nas regiões sudoeste, oeste, norte e noroeste indica-se o cultivo das uvas finas ou europeias, porém sem descartar a necessidade de controle da doença nas fases fenológicas mais suscetíveis.

  16. Genetic diversity of table grape based on morphoagronomic traits Diversidade genética de acessos de uvas de mesa baseada em caracteres morfoagronômicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and characterization of grape (Vitis spp genetic resources in germplasm banks have been the basis of its use in breeding programs that result in development of new cultivars. There are at least 10,000 grape cultivars kept in germplasm collection. The genetic diversity in 136 table grape accessions from the state of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated. Continuous and discrete morphoagronomic traits were assessed. The clustering analysis by the Tocher otimization method resulted in 30 clusters (considering continuous morphoagronomic traits, and 9 clusters (taking into consideration multicategorical traits. There was no agreement between clusters obtained by both, continuous or discrete phenotypic descriptors, independent of the cluster method analysis used. A satisfactory genetic variability among the table grape accessions was observed.A conservação e caracterização dos recursos genéticos de videira (Vitis spp. em bancos de germoplasma tem sido a base para a sua utilização nos programas de melhoramento, que resultam no desenvolvimento de novas cultivares, estimando-se a existência de pelo menos 10.000 cultivares de uva mantidos em coleções de germoplasma. Avaliou-se a diversidade genética presente em 136 acessos de uvas de mesa de uma coleção de germoplasma do estado da Bahia, com base em caraterísticas morfoagronômicas de variação contínua e discreta. A análise de agrupamento pelo método de Tocher resultou na formação de 30 grupos utilizando-se descritores morfo-agronômicos de variação contínua e 9 grupos, com base em caracteres multicategóricos. Não houve concordância entre os grupos obtidos pela análise de descritores fenotípicos contínuos e discretos, independente do método de agrupamento utilizado. Detectou-se a existência de variabilidade genética satisfatória entre os acessos de uvas de mesa da coleção.

  17. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.

  18. SCAM-STMAS: satellite-transition MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with self-compensation for magic-angle misset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Wimperis, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Several methods are available for the acquisition of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin quantum number. Satellite-transition MAS (STMAS) offers an approach that employs only conventional MAS hardware and can yield substantial signal enhancements over the widely used multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) experiment. However, the presence of the first-order quadrupolar interaction in the satellite transitions imposes the requirement of a high degree of accuracy in the setting of the magic angle on the NMR probehead. The first-order quadrupolar interaction is only fully removed if the sample spinning angle, χ, equals cos-1(1/ 3) exactly and rotor synchronization is performed. The required level of accuracy is difficult to achieve experimentally, particularly when the quadrupolar interaction is large. If the magic angle is not set correctly, the first-order splitting is reintroduced and the spectral resolution is severely compromised. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel STMAS method (SCAM-STMAS) that is self-compensated for angle missets of up to ±1° via coherence transfer between the two different satellite transitions ST +( mI=+3/2↔+1/2) and ST -( mI=-1/2↔-3/2) midway through the t1 period. In this work we describe in more detail the implementation of SCAM-STMAS and demonstrate its wider utility through 23Na ( I=3/2), 87Rb ( I=3/2), 27Al ( I=5/2), and 59Co ( I=7/2) NMR. We discuss linewidths in SCAM-STMAS and the limits over which angle-misset compensation is achieved and we demonstrate that SCAM-STMAS is more tolerant of temporary spinning rate fluctuations than STMAS, resulting in less " t1 noise" in the two-dimensional spectrum. In addition, alternative correlation experiments, for example involving the use of double-quantum coherences, that similarly display self-compensation for angle misset are investigated. The use of SCAM-STMAS is also considered in systems where other high-order interactions, such as third

  19. Charakterystyka tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z udziałem zużytych mas odlewniczych ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Referat zawiera wyniki badań tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z mas plastycznych, w których składnikiem przeznaczonym doschudzania surowca ilastego były zużyte masy odlewnicze. Wprawdzie masy te pochodziły z różnych odlewni, to jednak wspólną ichcechą był rodzaj spoiwa wykorzystywanego do ich przygotowania. Spoiwa te należały do grupy spoiw organicznych, opartych nażywicach furanowych lub fenolowo-formaldehydowych. Ze względu na potencjalną możliwość emisji do atmosfery szkodliwychsubstancji gazowych w postaci wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych (WWA, mogących się uwalniać w warunkachwysokich temperatur charakterystycznych dla procesu wypalania wyrobów ceramicznych, podjęte badania stanowią próbę utylizacjijednego z najbardziej niebezpiecznych rodzajów zużytych mas odlewniczych.Koncepcja badań przewiduje otrzymanie zasadniczo dwóch rodzajów tworzyw ceramicznych. Pierwszy rodzaj stanowi tworzyworeferencyjne otrzymane z masy ceramicznej, w której rolę dodatku schudzającego surowiec ilasty spełnia tradycyjny dodatek w postacipiasku kwarcowego pochodzenia naturalnego. Drugi rodzaj stanowią tworzywa eksperymentalne otrzymywane również z masceramicznych, lecz w tym przypadku dodatkiem schudzającym był materiał krzemionkowy otrzymany w wyniku odpowiedniegoprzetworzenia zużytych mas odlewniczych zawierających pozostałości spoiw organicznych, wprowadzany w ekwiwalentnej ilościw stosunku do piasku kwarcowego. Ocenę przydatności tego rodzaju surowca wtórnego we wspomnianym kierunku utylizacji,przeprowadzono w oparciu o wynik analizy porównawczej obu rodzajów tworzyw, obejmującej swym zakresem ich podstawowe cechyużytkowe oraz wybrane elementy mikrostruktury. Uzyskane wyniki badań świadczą o braku negatywnego oddziaływania na środowiskonaturalne związane z potencjalną możliwością emisji WWA w trakcie produkcji tworzyw ceramicznych z udziałem zużytych masodlewniczych zawieraj

  20. Prediction of daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance using the Ktuv and Kt clearness index; Prediccion de valores diarios de radiacion solar UV-A (295-385 nm) utilizando los indices de transparencia K{sub t}uv y K{sub t} y tecnicas de resdes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In this work we compare two methodologies in order to estimate daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance measurements. The first one is based on standard statistical procedures for relating the daily clearness indices Ktuv and Kt and the relative air mass, whereas the second methodology is based on the novel techniques of artificial neuronal networks. In both cases, we employed data recorded at the radiometric station located at the University of Almeria between 1993 and 1996. Both models are checked against data for years not previously used. (Author)

  1. Caracterização social e tecnológica da produção de uvas para mesa em pequenas propriedades rurais da região de Jales-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vieira da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A viticultura é uma atividade relevante para os produtores rurais do Estado de São Paulo, sobretudo aqueles detentores de pequenas áreas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os principais aspectos sociais e tecnológicos utilizados na produção de uvas para mesa na região de Jales (SP. Os dados foram levantados nos anos de 2009 e 2010, a partir da aplicação de questionários a 19 produtores de uva e do acompanhamento do ciclo de produção de 10 propriedades. Os produtores cultivam pelo menos três cultivares diferentes de uva, sendo as principais: 'Niagara Rosada', 'Itália' e 'Benitaka'. A área média das propriedades é de, aproximadamente, 21 ha, e a área média com parreiras de uva é de 2,4 ha. A maioria dos produtores não conta com assistência técnica regular, não segue recomendações de adubação e não emprega critérios técnicos para o manejo da irrigação. O controle de doenças é realizado de forma preventiva e intensa, chegando a superar 100 aplicações por ciclo, no caso das uvas finas para mesa. Os resultados devem subsidiar a realização de outras pesquisas, assim como programas de planejamento e transferência de tecnologia, proporcionando ao produtor um manejo mais adequado da cultura, bem como o desenvolvimento sustentável rural regional.

  2. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdim, Esra [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Environmental Engineering Department, Marmara University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Badireddy, Appala Raju [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composite device for multi-ROS generation. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} (UV-A independent) and {sup 1}O{sub 2} (UV-A dependent) are generated at neutral pH. • At low Fe concentration, ZVI/nC{sub 60} device is a better ROS generator than ZVI alone. • C{sub 60} mediates electron transfer from ZVI surface to dissolved O{sub 2} to produce O{sub 2}·{sup −}. • Bacteria are rapidly inactivated by O{sub 2}·{sup −} even at low ZVI/nC{sub 60} ratio. - Abstract: A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C{sub 60} fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC{sub 60}) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1 mM and 2 mM) but not nC{sub 60} (2.5 mg-C/L), and (2) nC{sub 60} (0–25 mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1 mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L C{sub 60} generated 3.74-fold higher O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1 mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L nC{sub 60} showed negligible improvement over 2 mM ZVI in terms of O{sub 2}·{sup −} generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC{sub 60} in the range of 0–25 mg-C/L in 0.1 mM ZVI/nC{sub 60} led to increased O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC{sub 60} device delivers (1) enhanced O{sub 2}·{sup −} with nC{sub 60} as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) {sup 1}O{sub 2} (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions.

  3. Qualidade de uva 'Isabel' tratada com cloreto de cálcio em pós-colheita e armazenada sob atmosfera modificada

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Sousa da Silva; Silvanda de Melo Silva; Ana Lima Dantas; Rejane Maria Nunes Mendonça; George Henrique Camêlo Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Uvas 'Isabel' foram tratadas após a colheita com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2) e submetidas a atmosfera modificada para avaliação da manutenção de sua qualidade durante o armazenamento, a 12±1 ºC e 85±2% de UR. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 5, com 3 repetições, sendo cinco doses de CaCl2 (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0%), dois tipos de atmosfera [ambiente e modificada (AM)] e cinco períodos, durante o armazenamento refrigerado. As aval...

  4. L'installation de methanisation de Mas El Cros. Evaluation de 16 années de fonctionement

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2000-01-01

    L’installation de méthanisation de l’élevage porcin du ‘’Mas El cros’’ (La Garrotxa, Catalogne, Espagne) a été conçue en 1981, en même temps que l’exploitation. Ceci a permis d’intégrer l’installation, sa conduite et sa maintenance dans la conception générale de l’exploitation. L’installation a été mise end route fin 1983. Le système de chauffage des bâtiments a été mis en route en 1984. En 1994, il a été arrêté pour être remplacé, à cause de problèmes de corrosion. Entre 1984 et décembre...

  5. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced....... Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile...... regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches....

  6. “La simbología masónica en el Cementerio de Colón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Iglesias Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los monumentos funerarios son parte de la vida de los pueblos. Una puesta en escena, a través de la piedra, de sus sueños, cumplidos o no. Al transitar por el cementerio de Colón de la Ciudad de La Habana, asistimos a la petrificación de parte del “imaginario colectivo” capitalino. En este ensayo centramos nuestra atención en la presencia de la simbología masónica, a partir de algunos monumentos mortuorios presentes en este recinto. Uno de nuestros objetivos fue registrar la presencia de las logias en el Cementerio y constatar las diversas maneras en que su simbología está presente en sus monumentos funerarios.

  7. Residual methyl protonation in perdeuterated proteins for multi-dimensional correlation experiments in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vipin; Reif, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    NMR studies involving perdeuterated proteins focus in general on exchangeable amide protons. However, non-exchangeable sites contain as well a small amount of protons as the employed precursors for protein biosynthesis are not completely proton depleted. The degree of methyl group protonation is in the order of 9% for CD 2H using >97% deuterium enriched glucose. We show in this manuscript that this small amount of residual protonation is sufficient to perform 2D and 3D MAS solid-state NMR experiments. In particular, we suggest a HCCH-TOBSY type experiment which we successfully employ to assign the methyl resonances in aliphatic side chains in a perdeuterated sample of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin.

  8. Assignment of amide proton signals by combined evaluation of HN, NN and HNCA MAS-NMR correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Castellani, Federica [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Pauli, Jutta [BAM (Germany); Rehbein, Kristina [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Hollander, J.; Groot, Huub J.M. de [BAM (Germany); Oschkinat, Hartmut [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)], E-mail: Oschkinat@fmp-berlin.de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a strategy for the {sup 1}H{sup N} resonance assignment in solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, using the {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain as an example. A novel 3D triple resonance experiment is presented that yields intraresidue H{sup N}-N-C{sup {alpha}} correlations, which was essential for the proton assignment. For the observable residues, 52 out of the 54 amide proton resonances were assigned from 2D ({sup 1}H-{sup 15}N) and 3D ({sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-{sup 13}C) heteronuclear correlation spectra. It is demonstrated that proton-driven spin diffusion (PDSD) experiments recorded with long mixing times (4 s) are helpful for confirming the assignment of the protein backbone {sup 15}N resonances and as an aid in the amide proton assignment.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the Renin Angiotensin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Robson AS; Ferreira, Anderson J; Verano-Braga, Thiago;

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) is now recognized as a biologically active component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) appears to play a central role in the RAS because it exerts a vast array of actions, many of them opposite to those attributed to the main effector peptide of the RAS, Ang II....../proliferative arm of the RAS consisting of ACE, Ang II and AT1 receptor. In this brief review, we will discuss recent findings related to the biological role of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas arm in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as in metabolism. In addition, we will highlight the potential interactions...

  10. Indication of Erosion At Tea - Plantation - Gunung Mas - Puncak - West Java Using Environmental Isotop of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erosion is a natural phenomena as a result of deforestation. Indication of erosion could be investigated by nuclear method that is used a natural radioisotope of 137Cs in the soil. The present of 137Cs in environment is a result of the nuclear weapon testing in the middle of 1950's. The result of this pre study showed that the total activity of 137Cs in the soil of Tea - Plantation - Gunung Mas - Puncak - West Java is between 150 Bq/m2-1872 Bq/m2. The result showed that the activity of 137Cs could be detected, and the erosion or deposition could be seen at the points of the investigation

  11. Schémas de type Godunov pour la modélisation hydrodynamique et magnétohydrodynamique

    OpenAIRE

    Vides Higueros, Jeaniffer

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif principal de cette thèse concerne l’étude, la conception et la mise en œuvre numérique de schémas volumes finis associés aux solveurs de type Godunov. On s’intéresse à des systèmes hyperboliques de lois de conservation non linéaires, avec une attention particulière sur les équations d’Euler et les équations MHD idéale. Tout d’abord, nous dérivons un solveur de Riemann simple et véritablement multidimensionnelle, pouvant s’appliquer à tout système de lois de conservation. Ce solveur...

  12. The History and the Current Situation on the Research of MAS%MAS研究的历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛丽; 殷建平; 赵建民; 毛晓青

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1引言 MAS(Multi Agent System)是人工智能的一个分支领域.有人把Agent翻译成"主体",也有人把它翻译成"智能体".不管如何翻译,总可把它看成是一个有"感觉"会"思考"有"自主行为"的东西,比如机器人.这时,机器人的"感觉"靠摄像机传感器,"思考"靠逻辑推理,"自主行为"靠规划.Agent是一类在特定环境下能感知环境,并能自治地运行以实现一系列目标的计算实体或程序.其特性有:反应性、自治性、面向目标性和针对环境性.

  13. Visibility of lipid resonances in HR-MAS spectra of brain biopsies subject to spinning rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, C; Diserens, G; Oevermann, A; Vermathen, M; Lang, J; Boesch, C; Vermathen, P

    2015-12-01

    Lipid resonances from mobile lipids can be observed by ¹H NMR spectroscopy in multiple tissues and have also been associated with malignancy. In order to use lipid resonances as a marker for disease, a reference standard from a healthy tissue has to be established taking the influence of variable factors like the spinning rate into account. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of spinning rate variation on the HR-MAS pattern of lipid resonances in non-neoplastic brain biopsies from different regions and visualize polar and non-polar lipids by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Red staining. ¹H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy demonstrated higher lipid peak intensities in normal sheep brain pure white matter biopsies compared to mixed white and gray matter biopsies and pure gray matter biopsies. High spinning rates increased the visibility particularly of the methyl resonances at 1.3 and the methylene resonance at 0.89 ppm in white matter biopsies stronger compared to thalamus and brainstem biopsies, and gray matter biopsies. The absence of lipid droplets and presence of a large number of myelin sheaths observed in white matter by Nile Red fluorescence microscopy suggest that the observed lipid resonances originate from the macromolecular pool of lipid protons of the myelin sheath's plasma membranes. When using lipid contents as a marker for disease, the variable behavior of lipid resonances in different neuroanatomical regions of the brain and at variable spinning rates should be considered. The findings may open up interesting possibilities for investigating lipids in myelin sheaths.

  14. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25444446

  15. Viabilidade da utilização de descartes de produção de uvas sem sementes para elaboração de passas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A região do Vale do São Francisco destaca-se na produção de uvas de mesa, com incrementos cada vez maiores na produção de cultivares sem sementes. A fim de evitar perdas e aumentar a renda do produtor, torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o aproveitamento do excedente da produção de forma economicamente viável. Considerando-se a dependência do Brasil ao mercado externo em uva-passa, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade da elaboração de passas a partir das cultivares sem sementes Sultanina, Catalunha, Superior Seedless e Crimson Seedless produzidas no norte de Minas Gerais. As passas foram analisadas quanto ao teor de umidade, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, pH, açúcares redutores e diâmetros longitudinal e transversal, e os resultados, comparados com o produto chileno adquirido no comércio local. As passas das cultivares produzidas nesta região apresentaram maior tamanho e composição semelhante ao produto importado. As passas de 'Crimson Seedless' apresentaram teor significativamente maior de umidade após 20h de secagem, enquanto Catalunha e Sultanina se destacaram quanto aos teores de SST, ATT e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a produção de passas é viável tecnicamente, porém trabalhos complementares são necessários para avaliar a viabilidade econômica deste processo.

  16. Aplicação de AG3 e CPPU na qualidade da uva 'Itália' em Porto Feliz-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L. é a cultivar de uva fina para mesa mais consumida no Brasil. A qualidade dos cachos é uma característica fundamental, sendo o tamanho das bagas o componente mais valorizado pelos consumidores. Uma das alternativas para incrementar a qualidade das bagas é o uso de biorreguladores. Avaliaram-se, em três ciclos de produção, os efeitos de doses de ácido giberélico (AG3 isolado e associado com forchlorfenuron (CPPU, na qualidade dos cachos de uva Itália produzida em Porto Feliz-SP. A aplicação dos biorreguladores foi realizada aos 25 dias após o florescimento, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4X4 (zero, 10; 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 5; 10 e 15 mg L-1 CPPU, com oito repetições para o primeiro ciclo, e fatorial 3X3 (zero, 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 10 e 20 mg L-1 CPPU com dez repetições para o segundo e terceiro ciclos. A mistura de 20 mg L-1 de AG3 com 10 mg L-1 de CPPU promoveu o incremento do comprimento e do diâmetro das bagas sem prejuízo da massa dos cachos, melhorando sua qualidade, em Porto Feliz-SP. O uso de CPPU isoladamente acarretou em redução do teor de sólidos solúveis das bagas.

  17. Application of (119)Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural (119)Sn Isotope Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyagin, Yury G; Yakimov, Alexander V; Tolborg, Søren; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Ivanova, Irina I

    2016-04-01

    (119)Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5-40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders of magnitude in the case of dehydrated Sn-BEA samples as compared to conventional methods. In the latter case, the reconstruction of the quantitative spectrum without the loss of sensitivity is shown to be possible. The method proposed allows obtaining (119)Sn MAS NMR spectra with improved resolution for Sn-BEA zeolites with natural (119)Sn isotope abundance using conventional MAS NMR equipment. PMID:26978430

  18. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  19. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage Características analíticas e discriminação de suco, néctar e bebida de uva comerciais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.A produção e a comercialização de suco de uva brasileiro estão aumentando anualmente devido a sua tipicidade, qualidade e valor nutritivo. Por isso, realizou-se este trabalho em face de sua importância para a agroindústria de vinho e de suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição e discriminação do suco de uva em relação a outras bebidas dele derivadas. Avaliaram-se 24 amostras de sucos de uva −integral, adoçado e reprocessado −, néctar de uva e bebida de uva. As variáveis clássicas foram determinadas por meio de métodos físico-químicos; os ácidos tartárico e málico, por HPLC; o metanol, por cromatografia gasosa; e os minerais, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Esses produtos foram

  20. Agent通信及多Agent系统(MAS协作机制的研究)%Study of Agent Communication and MAS Cooperation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许精明

    2006-01-01

    Agent及多Agent系统(Multi-Agent system,MAS)已被视为一种新的软件设计风格.本文在介绍了Agent的概念与BDI模型的基础上,分析了Agent的通信类型、通信规划以及多Agent系统(MAS)的基本模型与体系结构,同时对MAS的协作、协商、协调机制进行了深入研究,提出了远程通信和移动Agent通信概念.

  1. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar a evolução da absorção de potássio pelas uvas durante o processo de maturação e verificar sua influência no pH, bem como tentar correlacionar ambas com os teores encontrados nos pecíolos na época da floração. Amostras das uvas foram coletadas durante o processo de maturação de três variedades: Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot. Durante os dois anos de estudo, ocorreram variações nos teores de potássio absorvidos pelos frutos durante a maturação, sendo o aumento acompanhado pela elevação do pH; a redução no teor de potássio foi acompanhada pela estabilização dos valores de pH, fato também influenciado pela queda nos teores de acidez titulável. Sugere-se, assim, que os altos valores de pH encontrados nos vinhos elaborados com uvas destes vinhedos, em anos anteriores, estão relacionados com a absorção de potássio e a diminuição da acidez total durante a maturação da uva. A retirada de amostras peciolares na floração e trinta dias após mostrou-se um mecanismo eficiente na avaliação do teor de potássio nos tecidos próximos aos grãos. Dessa forma, a análise peciolar, além de ser utilizada para monitorar os níveis de potássio na planta e avaliar a necessidade de adubações e tratos culturais, pode servir de diagnóstico futuro para os teores de potássio nas uvas e nos vinhos.Grapes from three Vitis vinifera varieties (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were analyzed over a two-year period to determine their potassium content, aiming to monitor this mineral content during the ripening process and evaluate its influence on pH values. Grape samples were harvested periodically during the berries’ development until their harvest. As expected, the grapes’ potassium content showed variations, i.e., high potassium content went hand-in-hand with increased pH values while low potassium content led to stabilized pH; this process was also affected by the

  2. Produção e qualidade de uvas de mesa 'Sugraone' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos no Submédio do Vale do São Francisco Production and quality of table grapes 'Sugraone' on different rootstocks in the São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento agronômico da cultivar de uva de mesa sem sementes Sugraone sobre quatro porta-enxertos nas condições do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo comercial no município de Sento Sé-BA durante quatro ciclos de produção (2002 à 2004, em sistema de condução do tipo latada e irrigação por gotejamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de porta-enxerto ('Paulsen 1103', 'SO4', 'Harmony' e '420A', utilizando-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso. Foram obtidas maiores produções por planta e vigor vegetativo sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103'. Também observou-se uma tendência de maior massa de cachos, massa e tamanho de bagas sobre este porta-enxerto, embora tenham ocorrido variações entre os ciclos de produção. O porta-enxerto exerceu influência sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, mas não afetou a acidez total e a relação SST/ATT dos frutos.The present work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of the seedless grape cultivar Sugraone on four rootstocks in the São Francisco Valley. The trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard in Sento Sé, State of Bahia for four seasons (2002 to 2004. The treatments were four cultivars of rootstock ('Paulsen 1103', 'SO4', 'Harmony' and '420A', using a randomized block design. The highest yield per plant and vegetative vigor were obtained on the rootstock Paulsen 1103. Also there was a tendency for higher mass of bunches, mass and size of berries on the same rootstock, although there were variations between seasons. The rootstock showed positive influence on the content of soluble solids, but did not affect the total acidity and TSS/TA. Young plants of grapevine cv. Sugraone showed good agronomic performance on Paulsen 1103, but it is important to continue the studies for a larger number of years to recommend their use in the São Francisco Valley.

  3. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V. [Mining and Chemical Combine, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation); Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  4. Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Coated Conductors With Edges Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) in Conjunction With the Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.;

    2002-01-01

    A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer...

  5. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO2 storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued

  6. Application of 119Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural 119Sn Isotope Abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Kolyagin, Yury; V. Yakimo, Alexander; Tolborg, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    119Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5–40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders of ...

  7. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  8. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago, E-mail: ago.samoson@ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology, NMR Instituut, Tartu Teadus, Tehnomeedikum (Estonia); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T{sub 2}′ times and a site-specific comparison of T{sub 2}′ at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96 %.

  9. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of 0.4× 0.5 mm2, offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10-25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2} , with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2}/ dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability

  10. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of 0.4× 0.5 mm2, offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10–25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2} , with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2}/ dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability

  11. Efeito da temperatura no armazenamento de uvas apirênicas minimamente processadas Effect of stored temperature in minimally processed seedless table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Mattiuz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de três cultivares de uvas de mesa sem semente submetidas ao processamento mínimo e armazenadas sob refrigeração e à temperatura ambiente. Para tanto, foram utilizadas uvas das cultivares BRS Clara, BRS Linda e BRS Morena, produzidas na Embrapa Uva e Vinho/Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, em Jales-SP. Os cachos, depois de higienizados e imersos em água clorada a 200 mg de cloro.L-1 por 5 minutos, foram mantidos em câmara fria, a 12ºC, por 12 h. As bagas foram degranadas e lavadas em solução de álcool a 70%, por 5 segundos. Depois de escorrido o excesso da solução alcoólica, as bagas foram acondicionadas em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente com tampa e com capacidade para 500 mL. Cada unidade, contendo 200 g de bagas, foi armazenada a 12±1,8ºC e 24±0,8ºC, por 12 dias. Avaliaram-se, a cada três dias, a perda de massa fresca, a aparência, a coloração e os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT. A temperatura de 12ºC manteve a turgidez, a coloração, as qualidades organoléptica (relação SS/AT e comercial das bagas das três cultivares testadas, por nove dias, enquanto no armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (24ºC, ocorre perda da qualidade comercial das bagas aos três dias para as cvs. BRS Clara e BRS Linda, e aos seis dias para a cv. BRS Morena.The objective of this research was to evaluate the postharvest quality of three apirenic (seedless table grapes cultivars submitted to minimally processed and stored under refrigeration and room temperature. It was used the cultivars BRS Clara, BRS Linda and BRS Morena produced at Embrapa Grapes and Wine/Tropical Viticulture of Experimental Station, in Jales, state of São Paulo. The clusters were immersed in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (200 mg Cl.L-1 for 5 minutes before being stored at 12ºC for 12 hours. The berries were removed and rinsed with

  12. Mechanical behavior of 'Niagara Rosada' grape berry detachment Comportamento mecânico do destacamento de bagos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Niagara Rosada' grape is the main Brazilian table grape belonging to the Labrusca family. It develops medium, cylindrical and compact bunches with berries presenting a pinkish skin and a foxy flavor that is valued in the Brazilian market. These berries are tender and have a pedicel-berry connection provided by the vascular bundles and surrounding skin. This cultivar is very susceptible to berry drop mainly caused by vibration and senescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal mechanical behavior of the pedicel-berry detachment, using resistance indexes extracted from traction force-deformation curves. Test results showed two different detachment types. In the first one, which exhibited higher average resistance, a considerable portion of the vascular bundle came out attached to the pedicel and in the second type; the vascular bundle was retained inside the berry. The proposed indexes based on maximum detachment force, force at 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.2 mm, and maximum force to corresponding deformation ratio did not discriminate the senescence of the berry.A uva Niagara Rosada é a principal uva de mesa brasileira, da família das Labruscas, possui cachos médios cilíndricos e compactos, coloração rosada e sabor denominado Foxy muito apreciado pelo consumidor brasileiro. Os frutos são delicados, a junção do pedicelo com o bago é feita pela casca e por feixes vasculares. Essa cultivar é muito suscetível à degrana causada, principalmente, pela vibração e pelo envelhecimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento mecânico da junção pedicelo-bago e sua variação temporal, utilizando-se de índices de resistência ao destacamento, extraídos das curvas força-deslocamento, obtidos em ensaios de tração de uvas. Os ensaios revelaram dois tipos de destacamento: um em que porção considerável do pincel (feixes vasculares saiu preso ao pedicelo, e outro, em que o pincel ficou no interior do bago

  13. Huiles usagées : schémas IFP de raraffinage Ifp Flowsheets for Rerefining Used Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tout bailleur de licence de procédés de reraffinage des huiles doit rester averti des multiples problèmes concernant ce sujet. Le schéma proposé doit assurer la flexibilité requise du fait des qualités variables de charges et de la législation sur l'environnement. Les schémas complets proposés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP comprennent un premier flash, une purification physique en profondeur et une étape de raffinage adaptée à la demande locale. Des détails sont donnés sur chaque séquence ainsi que les analyses des produits. Any licensor must be aware of the problems involved in the rerefining of used ails. The proposed flowsheet should ensure the desired flexibility with regard ta feedstockquality variations and environmental - regulation requirements. The complete flowsheets proposed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP include a first flash, an in-depth physical purification and a refining step adapted to the local demands. Details are given for each séquence along with product analyses.

  14. Um ano de muitas preocupações, mas também de esperanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Litre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O ano de 2015 foi farto em notícias ruins, mas se encerra com perspectivas boas. As más notícias confirmam que o mundo parece estar de cabeça para baixo, ao menos em matéria ambiental e de segurança internacional. Pioraram as condições climáticas globais; fanáticos religiosos lançaram ataques terroristas de grandes proporções, como os do dia 13 de novembro em Paris, além da surpreendente constituição de uma base territorial onde reina o terror, no Oriente Médio; uma persistente situação da pobreza extrema e de fome em grande escala em alguns países contrasta com a prosperidade em algumas nações; desastres ambientais e instabilidades políticas regionais e nacionais acontecem em cada continente. No Brasil, o rompimento de uma represa de lama e resíduos tóxicos de uma mineradora, em Mariana, Minas Gerais, provocou o que possivelmente seja a pior catástrofe ambiental já registrada no País.

  15. CP-MAS 207Pb with 19F decoupling NMR spectroscopy: medium range investigation in fluoride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, B; Silly, G; Buzaré, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb is used to perform structural investigations of crystalline fluoride compounds (PbF2, Pb2ZnF6, PbGaF5, Pb3Ga2F12 and Pb9Ga2F24) and transition metal fluoride glasses (TMFG) of the PZG family (PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3). Using 207Pb Cross Polarisation Magic Angle Spinning (CP-MAS) NMR with 19F decoupling, it is shown that the isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb varies on a large scale (1000 ppm) and that the main changes of its value are not due to the nearest neighbour fluorines but may be related to the number of next nearest neighbour (nnn) Pb2+ ions. In this way, it is demonstrated that 207Pb chemical shift is an interesting probe to investigate medium range order in either crystalline or glassy fluoride systems. The 207Pb delta(iso) parameter has been linearly correlated to the number of nnn Pb2+ ions. PMID:10670899

  16. Proton-detected scalar coupling based assignment strategies in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy applied to perdeuterated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linser, Rasmus; Fink, Uwe; Reif, Bernd

    2008-07-01

    Assignment of proteins in MAS (magic angle spinning) solid-state NMR relies so far on correlations among heteronuclei. This strategy is based on well dispersed resonances in the 15N dimension. In many complex cases like membrane proteins or amyloid fibrils, an additional frequency dimension is desirable in order to spread the amide resonances. We show here that proton detected HNCO, HNCA, and HNCACB type experiments can successfully be implemented in the solid-state. Coherences are sufficiently long lived to allow pulse schemes of a duration greater than 70 ms before incrementation of the first indirect dimension. The achieved resolution is comparable to the resolution obtained in solution-state NMR experiments. We demonstrate the experiments using a triply labeled sample of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin, which was re-crystallized in H 2O/D 2O using a ratio of 1/9. We employ paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) using EDTA chelated Cu II to enable rapid data acquisition.

  17. Effect of physiographic factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cornus mas L. natural stands in Arasbaran forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Alijanpour

    2013-01-01

    Arasbaran forests are located in East Azerbaijan (northwest Iran).Increasing of socio-economic problems in this area causes destruction of biodiversity and structure of these forests.Using multipurpose trees such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) to encourage villagers to produce forest by-products is a basic approach for preserving these forests.This species grows naturally in Arasbaran forests and the fruit is annually exploited using traditional harvest methods.This study aims to assess the ecological requirements of cornelian cherry and the important factors affecting its distribution.For this purpose,40 circular sampling plots (300 m2) on various slope aspects were demarcated for sampling the occurrence of cornelian cherry in forest stands.DBH and crown cover percentage on north aspects were significantly greater than on other aspects and 4.5% of all trees were cornelian cherry in mature forest stands.North aspects had more seed-origin trees (standards) of cornelian cherry than coppiced trees,while west facing aspects had more coppiced than standard trees.This species had the highest regeneration rate in the sapling stage of 0-2.5 cm DBH.Thus,I recommend cultivation and development of cornelian cherry as a multi-purpose tree in the Arasbaran region on degraded forest lands on north and west aspects.

  18. Etkin liderlik ve takım çalışması = Effective leadership and teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Uzun süre önce işletme ve kurumlara giren ve hızla yaygınlaşan takım çalışmaları, çok boyutlu sorunlarda bile çözümün ve başarının anahtarı halini almıştır. Takım çalışmasındaki başarı üst yönetimin bakış açısıyla bağlantılı olmakla birlikte, takım elemanlarının ilişkileri, gönüllü olmaları ve iş birliğine olan yatkınlıklarıyla da alakalıdır. Bu noktada lider faktörü kendini hissettirmektedir. Liderin takım içindeki etkinliği başarıyı sağlayacak faktörlerin başında gelir. Bu çalışmada bir tak...

  19. N Photo-CIDNP MAS NMR To Reveal Functional Heterogeneity in Electron Donor of Different Plant Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Geertje J; Roy, Esha; Matysik, Jörg; Alia, A

    2012-02-01

    In plants and cyanobacteria, two light-driven electron pumps, photosystems I and II (PSI, PSII), facilitate electron transfer from water to carbon dioxide with quantum efficiency close to unity. While similar in structure and function, the reaction centers of PSI and PSII operate at widely different potentials with PSI being the strongest reducing agent known in living nature. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) in magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provides direct excess to the heart of large photosynthetic complexes (A. Diller, Alia, E. Roy, P. Gast, H.J. van Gorkom, J. Zaanen, H.J.M. de Groot, C. Glaubitz, J. Matysik, Photosynth. Res. 84, 303-308, 2005; Alia, E. Roy, P. Gast, H.J. van Gorkom, H.J.M. de Groot, G. Jeschke, J. Matysik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12819-12826, 2004). By combining the dramatic signal increase obtained from the solid-state photo-CIDNP effect with (15)N isotope labeling of PSI, we were able to map the electron spin density in the active cofactors of PSI and study primary charge separation at atomic level. We compare data obtained from two different PSI proteins, one from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and other from the aquatic plant duckweed (Spirodella oligorrhiza). Results demonstrate a large flexibility of the PSI in terms of its electronic architecture while their electronic ground states are strictly conserved. PMID:22303078

  20. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  1. Structural investigations of Pu{sup III} phosphate by X-ray diffraction, MAS-NMR and XANES spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, Karin [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Raison, Philippe E., E-mail: philippe.raison@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Martel, Laura [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Martin, Philippe M. [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prieur, Damien [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Solari, Pier L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Bouëxière, Daniel; Konings, Rudy J.M.; Somers, Joseph [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PuPO{sub 4} was prepared by a solid state reaction method and its crystal structure at room temperature was solved by powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement. High resolution XANES measurements confirm the +III valence state of plutonium, in agreement with valence bond derivation. The presence of the americium (as β{sup −} decay product of plutonium) in the +III oxidation state was determined based on XANES spectroscopy. High resolution solid state {sup 31}P NMR agrees with the XANES results and the presence of a solid-solution. - Graphical abstract: A full structural analysis of PuPO{sub 4} based on Rietveld analysis of room temperature X-ray diffraction data, XANES and MAS NMR measurements was performed. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of PuPO{sub 4} monazite is solved. • In PuPO{sub 4} plutonium is strictly trivalent. • The presence of a minute amount of Am{sup III} is highlighted. • We propose PuPO{sub 4} as a potential reference material for spectroscopic and microscopic studies.

  2. Genome wide association analysis of the 16th QTL- MAS Workshop dataset using the Random Forest machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies are now widely used in the livestock sector to estimate the association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the whole genome and one or more trait. As computational power increases, the use of machine learning techniques to analyze large genome wide datasets becomes possible. Methods The objective of this study was to identify SNPs associated with the three traits simulated in the 16th MAS-QTL workshop dataset using the Random Forest (RF) approach. The approach was applied to single and multiple trait estimated breeding values, and on yield deviations and to compare them with the results of the GRAMMAR-CG method. Results The two QTL mapping methods used, GRAMMAR-CG and RF, were successful in identifying the main QTLs for trait 1 on chromosomes 1 and 4, for trait 2 on chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 and for trait 3 on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Conclusions The results of the RF approach were confirmed by the GRAMMAR-CG method and validated by the effective QTL position, even if their approach to unravel cryptic genetic structure is different. Furthermore, both methods showed complementary findings. However, when the variance explained by the QTL is low, they both failed to detect significant associations. PMID:25519518

  3. Aspectos relacionados à presença de fungos toxigênicos em uvas e ocratoxina A em vinhos Aspects related to the presence of toxigenic fungi in grapes and ochratoxin A in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Elisa Welke

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A colonização dos Aspergillus da secção Nigri nas uvas durante o cultivo é a principal fonte de ocratoxina A (OTA nos vinhos. A. carbonarius e A. niger são os principais produtores desta micotoxina em uvas e são fungos oportunistas que, se desenvolvem, principalmente, nas bagas danificadas durante seu amadurecimento. A produção de OTA em uvas é influenciada pelas condições climáticas e áreas geográficas, bem como pela variedade de uva, pelo sistema de cultivo e pelos danos causados nas uvas por insetos, infecção fúngica ou excesso de irrigação e chuva. As medidas para o controle de fungos toxigênicos devem considerar esses pontos críticos de controle. A OTA presente nas uvas é transferida para o vinho durante o processo de vinificação, sendo que um aumento na concentração de OTA ocorre após a maceração das uvas. Durante o envelhecimento do vinho, observa-se que a toxina permanece estável, pois a mesma concentração de OTA é encontrada no vinho após um ano de armazenamento. Boas práticas de produção, como, por exemplo, a seleção e separação dos cachos de uva com desenvolvimento fúngico visível auxilia, consideravelmente, na redução dos níveis de contaminação por fungos produtores de OTA, bem como dos níveis dessa micotoxina nos vinhos.The infection of grapes by 'black aspergilli' in the field is the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA in the wine. Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger fungi are the main producers of this mycotoxin in grapes. They are opportunistic fungi that develop mainly on damaged berries at ripening. The production of OTA in grapes is influenced by climatic conditions, geographical location, grape varieties, crop system, berries damage caused by insets, fungal infection or excessive irrigation and rainfall. Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. OTA in grapes is transferred to wine during vinification and an increase

  4. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite de pipa de uva, Vitis vinifera, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, M. E.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme incorporation is analyzed over the yield of grapeseed oil extraction by cold pressing. By this type of process the objective is to preserve grapeseed active compounds and to diminish the environmental impact in comparison to oil extraction conventional methods which use higher temperatures. The enzymatic hydrolysis takes place with a commercial enzyme previous to pressing stage. Its effectiveness is compared to a control without the biocatalyst. An oil extraction yield of 72 % d.b. is obtained with an enzymatic pre-treatment for 4 hours at 50 ºC, and 60 % of moisture, increasing in 26 % the control result. It is concluded that the incorporation of an enzymatic processing would be a feasible alternative to extract grapeseed oil under softener process conditions improving the yield of extraction in comparison to the same type of methodology without an enzyme.Se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de enzimas sobre el rendimiento de extracción de aceite por prensado en frío. Con el prensado en frío se busca preservar los compuestos activos de la pipa de uva y minimizar el impacto medioambiental en comparación con los métodos convencionales de extracción de aceite que utilizan altas temperaturas. El tratamiento enzimático se efectúa previo al prensado con una enzima comercial y su efectividad se compara con un control sin catalizador. Un rendimiento de extracción de aceite del 72 % b.s. se logra con un pre-tratamiento enzimático durante 4 horas a 50 ºC, y 60 % de humedad, superando en un 26 % al control. Se concluye que la incorporación de un tratamiento enzimático sería una alternativa factible para extraer el aceite de pipa de uva bajo condiciones suaves de proceso mejorando el rendimiento de extracción en comparación con el mismo tipo de proceso sin enzima.

  5. Armazenamento refrigerado da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A1105 cultivada sob cobertura plástica Cold storage of 'Romana' (A1105 table grape cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí - SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking" e podridões. Visando a solucionar essa dificuldade, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo em vinhedo cultivado em cortina dupla e sob cobertura plástica. Após a colheita, foram coletadas oito amostras com seis cachos cada, que foram armazenadas a 3 ºC e submetidas a avaliações de qualidade por um período máximo de 36 dias. A perda de massa ultrapassou o valor de 6% após três semanas de armazenamento refrigerado, quando apresentou sinais de murchamento das bagas, concluindo-se que o período máximo de armazenamento em câmara fria para a cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 foi de 21 dias.The grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop and nowadays the preference for seedless grapes is gradualy increasing in the Brazilian internal market. The table grape cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 has been showing potential as a new option for the growers from Jundiaí - SP, Brazil, as a seedless grape. However the bunch quality has been affected by rain at the harvest allowing the incidence of cracking and bunch rot. Aiming to solve this problem a field trial was carried out with grapes cultivated under plastic cover and Geneva Double Curtain training system. After harvest, eight samples of six bunches each were taken and stored at 3 ºC and evaluated for quality during a period of 36 days. After three weeks of storage, the weight loss was higher than 6%, showing bunch fade and the rot bunch increased significantly. It was concluded that maximum shelf life for

  6. QUALIDADE DE POLPA DE GOIABA, MANGA E DE SUCO DE CAJÚ, LARANJA E UVA CONGELADOS E ARMAZENADOS A -18ºC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO, Carolina Thomazini1

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The frozen pulp and juice of fruits are consumed and appreciated in the whole world, however, during the storage it can occur physical-chemistry alterations that compromise the quality. This work has asobjective to evaluate some physical-chemistries characteristics in pulps of guava and mango, and juice of cashew, orange and grape, conditioned in plastic bags with thickness of 60µm, frozen and stored at -18ºC. The physical-chemistry characteristics determined in frozen pulp and juice were: titrable acidity, pH, total solublesolids, vitamin C, and the appearance. For the results obtained it can be verified that the pulps and juices of the fruits had suffered variations about the attributes evaluated during the storage at -18ºC; content levels of vitamin C decreased dramatically with storage time, except frozen cashew juice that presented loss of 5%, in relation of the inicial content; the pulp and juice frozen had different shelf life; according to actual legislation, the frozen grape and orange juices are in disagreement with the minimum standard demanded. Os sucos e as polpas congeladas de frutas são consumidas e apreciadas em todo o mundo, entretanto, durante o armazenamento pode ocorrer alterações físico-químicas que comprometem a qualidade. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar algumas características físico-químicas em polpas de goiaba e manga esucos de caju, laranja e uva, acondicionados em sacos plásticos, com espessura de 60µm, congelados e armazenados a -18ºC. As características físico-químicas determinadas foram: acidez total titulável, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C e aparência. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se verificar que as polpas e sucoscongelados das frutas sofreram variações quanto aos atributos avaliados durante o armazenamento a -18ºC; os teores de vitamina C diminuíram drasticamente com o tempo de armazenamento, com exceção do suco de caju congelado que teve somente 5% de perda, em rela

  7. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  8. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  9. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran; Pinpat Tripatara; Rattana Phadungrakwittaya; Pravit Akarasereenont; Tawee Laohapand; Uraiwan Panich

    2013-01-01

    Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics ...

  10. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

  11. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation. PMID:26806467

  12. UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance from measurements at 380 nm for solar water treatment and disinfection. Comparison between model and measurements in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Almeria, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navntoft, C.; Dawidowski, L. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)]|[Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Blesa, M.A. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)]|[Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina)]|[Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez-Ibanez, P. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Carretera Senes km 4, 04002 Tabernas (Spain); Wolfram, E.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de las Fuerzas Armadas (CITEFA), San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO Villa Martelli (Argentina); Paladini, A. [Instituto de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, CP 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]|[Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-02-15

    A linear correlation between UV-A and 380 nm was developed by means of the TUV 4.1 radiative transfer model. The prediction error of the correlation was evaluated with data from Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001, and from 2006, Almeria, Spain. Percent random mean square error (RMSE%) was calculated for intervals of 10 of solar zenith angles, ranging 4.75% at 20 to 37.70% at 90 in clear days and 22.16% at 20 to 26.17% at 90 for cloudy days in Buenos Aires Argentina, and 1.27% at 20 to 11.27% at 90 for clear days in Almeria, Spain. Clouded days were not assessed with the data from Spain. In Argentina, the UV-A radiometer is located in a rural area and the 380 nm radiometer is located in an urban area 6 km away. Hence the real error of the proposed model is closer to that found in Spain were both measurements were performed at the same site. The objective of the work is to achieve a simple and precise method to assess UV-A availability for environmental applications of solar energy, particularly for solar water treatment, at any desired latitude. (author)

  13. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Tripatara, Pinpat; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee

    2013-01-01

    Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA) in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH) loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA. PMID:24171043

  14. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ximing; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switching off the light, that lasts for 30min but not 2h, and oxidizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was brominated in a light dose-dependent manner, however no bromine or tribromide ion could be detected by spectrophotometry or LC-MS. The mechanism appears to have elements in common with the antimicrobial system (myeloperoxidase+hydrogen peroxide+bromide). PMID:27012419

  15. UV-A light-induced photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyarajan, Thangaraj; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Contreras, David; Ruiz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this report, optical and photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) has been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures which were prepared by a simple wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the prepared nanostructures were in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the dopant Sm ion was incorporated into the Zn lattice. Interesting morphological changes involving a nanosheet-star-spherical transition were observed upon Sm doping and annealing, which were identified through transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption measurements showed an exciton absorption band and a band gap narrowing with respect to the Sm concentrations. The photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 under UV-A radiation by using pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures showed that samarium played an important role in the significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and the optimum amount of Sm ion was found to be 1 mmol %. Further, the possible degradation mechanism was proposed herein.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye Sunset Yellow under UV-A light using TiO2/CAC composite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Shanthi, M.

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic activity and the promoting effect of titania (TiO2) by commercial activated carbon (CAC) for removing the pollutant in wastewater were investigated. The TiO2/CAC composite photocatalysts with various ratios of CAC to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CAC was investigated for the degradation of Sunset Yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. The TiO2/CAC is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The synergism between TiO2 and CAC may increase the catalytic activity. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  17. An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, Alexei V; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, Jincai

    2002-12-01

    The photostabilities of a random set of commercially available sunscreen lotions and their active ingredients are examined spectroscopically subsequent to simulated sunlight UV exposure. Loss of filtering efficacy can occur because of possible photochemical modifications of the sunscreen active agents. Changes in absorption of UVA/ UVB sunlight by agents in sunscreen lotions also leads to a reduction of the expected photoprotection of human skin and DNA against the harmful UV radiation. The active ingredients were investigated in aqueous media and in organic solvents of various polarities (methanol, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions The UV absorption features are affected by the nature of the solvents with properties closely related to oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions actually used in sunscreen formulations, and by the presence of molecular oxygen. The photostabilities of two combined chemical ingredients (oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate) and the combination oxybenzone/titanium dioxide were also explored. In the latter case, oxybenzone undergoes significant photodegradation in the presence of the physical filter TiO2. PMID:12661594

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial activity of Acacia catechu willd, Azadirachta indica, Aryctostaphylos Uva ursi against Lactobacillus Acidophilus ?An in vitro Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio López De León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the in vitro antibacterial potential of methanolic and acetone leaf extracts of Acacia catechu willd, Azadirachta indica ,Aryctostaphylos Uva ursi against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic and acetone extract of three herbal extracts was tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus by using the broth dilution method. Results: The methanolic extract of Acacia catechu willd exhibited antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus with minimum bactericidal concentration of 1mg/ml, and appreciable activity with Azadirachta indica methanolic extract at a concentration of 10mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic and acetone extract of the herbal extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antibacterial action . Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Acacia catechu willd was found to be bactericidal in action when compared to the other herbal extracts tested . Clinical Significance: Acacia catechu willd methanolic leaf extract is proved to be an potent antibacterial herb against lactobacillus acidophilus and can be recommended to treat dental caries when compared to Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem which is commercially obtained in the market.

  19. UVA-induced autocrine stimulation of fibroblast-derived collagenase/MMP-1 by interrelated loops of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We here provide evidence that UVA-induced IL-1α and IL-1β play a central role in the induction of the synthesis both of IL-6 and collagenase/MMP-1. In contrast to the late increase of IL-1α and IL-1β mRNA levels at 6 h postirradiation, bioactivity of IL-1 is already detectable at 1 h postirradiation. This early peak of IL-1 bioactivity appears to be responsible for the induction of IL-6 synthesis and together with IL-6 lead to an increase of the steady-state mRNA level of collagenase/MMP-1 as deduced from studies using IL-1α and IL-1β antisense oligonucleotides or neutralizing antibodies against IL-1α and IL-1β. Besides the early posttranslationally controlled release of intracellular IL-1, a latter pretranslationally controlled synthesis and release of IL-1 perpetuates the UV response. From these data we suggest a UV-induced cytokine network consisting of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6, which via interrelated autocrine loops induce collagenase/MMP-1 and thus may contribute to the loss of interstitial collagen in cutaneous photoaging. (Author)

  20. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ximing; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switching off the light, that lasts for 30min but not 2h, and oxidizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was brominated in a light dose-dependent manner, however no bromine or tribromide ion could be detected by spectrophotometry or LC-MS. The mechanism appears to have elements in common with the antimicrobial system (myeloperoxidase+hydrogen peroxide+bromide).

  1. Caracterización del aceite de semilla de uva extraído con dióxido de carbono supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero Gómez, A.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the quality of grape seed oil obtained by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. At the optimun operating conditions (313 K and 25 MPa, the yield of supercritical extraction is similar to the conventional extraction by liquid solvent, but the quality of the grape seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide is higher.
    Furthermore, supercritical extraction could be more economical than liquid extraction because the solvent removal by distillation is not necessary and several steps of the subsequent oil refining process can be eliminated.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la calidad del aceite de semillas de uva obtenido por extracción con dióxido de carbono supercrítico. En las condiciones operativas óptimas del proceso (313 K y 25 MPa el rendimiento de la extracción supercrítica es similar al de la extracción con disolventes líquidos, pero la calidad del aceite es muy superior.
    En consecuencia, el proceso supercrítico resulta competitivo con el convencional al reducir las etapas de refinado del aceite y eliminar la destilación del disolvente, las más costosas desde el punto de vista energético.

  2. New UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for near-field remote sensing of vegetation: characteristics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata; Cunin, Bernard; Heisel, Francine; Miehe, Joseph-Albert

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, a compact, new UV-A laser induced fluorescence imaging system implemented in an all-road car for near-field remote sensing of vegetation will be described. It has been developed as a part of a European Community Program INTERREG II* and is consisting of three main parts: excitation, detection and control units. The excitation light pulses (10 ns) are produced by a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm with a variable repetition rate up to approximately equals 22 kHz and a pulse energy typically of 40 (mu) J. The laser spot size is adjusted by means of a variable beam expander. Fluorescence images are recorded via entrance lenses and 10 nm bandpass filters with a gated intensified digital CCD camera operating at 50 frames per second. The 'head of the system' (laser and camera) can be directed in site and azimuth, and can be high until a 6 meters height. All the functions like the system positioning, localization and distance detection, spot size adjustment, focus, sharpness, selection of the filter, laser and camera synchronization, gain of the intensifier, real time visualization of images, acquisition time are controlled by a newly developed software which also allows image storage, analysis and treatment. Examples of remote sensing fluorescence images recorded at a distance between 10 and 30 m are presented.

  3. Optimum levels of exchangeable protons in perdeuterated proteins for proton detection in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbey, Umit; Lange, Sascha; Trent Franks, W.; Linser, Rasmus; Rehbein, Kristina; Diehl, Anne; Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Reif, Bernd; Oschkinat, Hartmut, E-mail: oschkinat@fmp-berlin.d [Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We present a systematic study of the effect of the level of exchangeable protons on the observed amide proton linewidth obtained in perdeuterated proteins. Decreasing the amount of D{sub 2}O employed in the crystallization buffer from 90 to 0%, we observe a fourfold increase in linewidth for both {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances. At the same time, we find a gradual increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlations in dipolar coupling based experiments for H{sub 2}O concentrations of up to 40%. Beyond 40%, a significant reduction in SNR is observed. Scalar-coupling based {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlation experiments yield a nearly constant SNR for samples prepared with {<=}30% H{sub 2}O. Samples in which more H{sub 2}O is employed for crystallization show a significantly reduced NMR intensity. Calculation of the SNR by taking into account the reduction in {sup 1}H T{sub 1} in samples containing more protons (SNR per unit time), yields a maximum SNR for samples crystallized using 30 and 40% H{sub 2}O for scalar and dipolar coupling based experiments, respectively. A sensitivity gain of 3.8 is obtained by increasing the H{sub 2}O concentration from 10 to 40% in the CP based experiment, whereas the linewidth only becomes 1.5 times broader. In general, we find that CP is more favorable compared to INEPT based transfer when the number of possible {sup 1}H,{sup 1}H interactions increases. At low levels of deuteration ({>=}60% H{sub 2}O in the crystallization buffer), resonances from rigid residues are broadened beyond detection. All experiments are carried out at MAS frequency of 24 kHz employing perdeuterated samples of the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  4. Development of a homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high throughput screening of mas-related gene receptor agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui ZHANG; Pang-ke YAN; Cai-hong ZHOU; Jia-yu LIAO; Ming-wei WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor agonists. Methods: CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the full-length MrgD receptor and a calcium-sensitive dye were used to develop an HTS assay based on intracellular calcium influx. This method was applied to large-scale screening of a library containing 8000 synthetic compounds and natural product extracts, cAMP measurements were camed out to verify the bioactivities of the hits found by the calcium mobilization assay. Similar approaches were also employed in the identification of the MrgA1 recep-tor agonists following HTS of 16 000 samples. Results: EC50 values of the positive control compounds (β-alanine for MrgD receptor and dynorphin A for MrgA1 receptor) determined by the calcium mobilization assay were consistent with those reported in the literature, and the Z' factors were 0.65 and 0.50 for MrgD and MrgA1 receptor assay, respectively. About 31 compounds for the MrgD receptor and 48 compounds for the MrgA1 receptor showing ≥20% of the maximal agonist activities found in the controls were initially identified as hits. Secondary screen- ing confirmed that 2 compounds for each receptor possessed specific agonist activities. Intracellular cAMP level measurements indicated that the 2 confirmed hits displayed the functionality of the MrgD receptor agonists. Conclusion: A series of validation studies demonstrated that the homogeneous calcium mobili-zation assay developed was highly efficient, amenable to automation and a robust tool to screen potential MrgD and MrgA1 receptor agonists. Its application may be expanded to other G-protein coupled receptors that mobilize calcium influx upon activation.

  5. Schémas variationnels et gestion du non-standard en contextes français et maltais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezzina Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Une visée comparative est adoptée dans cette étude traitant de la variation, notamment de la variation stylistique qui se produit en fonction du degré de formalité caractérisant la situation de communication et d’un nombre d’autres critères. La comparaison des situations sociolinguistiques présentes en contextes français et maltais permet de faire ressortir les caractéristiques propres à chaque situation. En français, la variation stylistique passe par le registre; en maltais, l’alternance codique maltais/anglais s’y ajoute pour la réalisation du style. Le français se distingue par une ampleur stylistique exceptionnelle, qui s’explique par diverses raisons culturelles, comme l’idéologie du standard et la portée de la littératie. Les deux cadres s’opposent par leurs processus de standardisation: le français, anciennement élu langue officielle, a naturellement suivi des schémas de progrès différents du maltais, langue officielle depuis bien moins longtemps, à l’héritage écrit qui ne remonte pas très loin dans le passé. Les deux langues partagent pourtant certains objectifs qui sous-tendent leurs efforts de protection. Des hypothèses sont émises quant à l’acceptabilité sociale de la variation aux différents niveaux d’analyse linguistique en maltais, et quant au type de variation proéminent dans cette langue, qui serait la variation sociale. Ces hypothèses sont construites par comparaison avec les arguments parallèles élaborés pour la situation française.

  6. The evaluation of different MAS techniques at low spinning rates in aqueous samples and in the presence of magnetic susceptibility gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi Hu, Jian; Wind, Robert A.

    2002-11-01

    It was recently demonstrated that the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) linewidths for stationary biological samples are dictated mainly by magnetic susceptibility gradients, and that phase-altered spinning sideband (PASS) and phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) solid-state NMR techniques employing slow and ultra-slow magic angle spinning (MAS) frequencies can be used to overcome the static susceptibility broadening to yield high-resolution, spinning sideband (SSB)-free 1H NMR spectra [Magn. Reson. Med. 46 (2001) 213; 47 (2002) 829]. An additional concern is that molecular diffusion in the presence of the susceptibility gradients may limit the minimum useful MAS frequency by broadening the lines and reducing SSB suppression at low spinning frequencies. In this article the performance of PASS, PHORMAT, total sideband suppression (TOSS), and standard MAS techniques were evaluated as a function of spinning frequency. To this end, 300 MHz (7.05 T) 1H NMR spectra were acquired via PASS, TOSS, PHORMAT, and standard MAS NMR techniques for a 230-μm-diameter spherical glass bead pack saturated with water. The resulting strong magnetic susceptibility gradients result in a static linewidth of about 3.7 kHz that is larger than observed for a natural biological sample, constituting a worst-case scenario for examination of susceptibility broadening effects. Results: (I) TOSS produces a distorted centerband and fails in suppressing the SSBs at a spinning rate below ˜1 kHz. (II) Standard MAS requires spinning speeds above a few hundred Hz to separate the centerband from the SSBs. (III) PASS produces nearly SSB-free spectra at spinning speeds as low as 30 Hz, and is only limited by T2-induced signal losses. (IV) With PHORMAT, a SSB-free isotropic projection is obtained at any spinning rate, even at an ultra-slow spinning rate as slow as 1 Hz. (V) It is found empirically that the width of the isotropic peak is proportional to F- x, where F is the spinning frequency, and x

  7. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE UVA MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA ADICIONADA DE ÁCIDO ASCÓRBIDO E DE ÁCIDO CÍTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ferreira Chaves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os principais problemas de conservação pós-colheita em uvas de mesa são a ocorrência de danos mecânicos,podridões, escurecimento das bagas e degrana, o que compromete a aceitação pelos consumidores, muitosdos quais estão atentos aos benefícios de uma vida saudável, que incluem o consumo de uma variedade defrutas na dieta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas da uva cultivar “Rubi”minimamente processada adicionada de antioxidantes. Após o processamento, foi realizada a adição dosácidos cítrico e ascórbico, ambos na concentração de 2 %, e em seguida as uvas foram embaladas earmazenadas a temperatura de 5 e 10 °C para posterior realização das análises físico-químicas após 24, 48,72 e 96 horas. A adição dos ácidos ascórbico e cítrico influenciou as variáveis sólidos solúveis, acideztitulável e umidade. Já a perda de massa e pH foram afetados pela temperatura de estocagem, enquanto o pH,a atividade de água, a perda de massa e o conteúdo de sólidos solúveis foram interferidos pelo tempo dearmazenamento. Além disso, a uva apresentou variação na perda de massa em relação à temperatura dearmazenamento, sendo menor a 5 ºC. Podemos concluir que a aplicação de antioxidantes em uvas cv.’Rubi’minimamente processadas afetou suas características físico-químicas e a temperatura ideal dearmazenamento é a 5 °C por promover menor perda de massa.

  8. Coal structure at reactive sites by sup 1 H- sup 13 C- sup 19 F double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The solid state NMR technique, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C-{sup 31}P double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy, uses the direct dipolar interaction between {sup 13}C-{sup 31}P spin pairs in organophosphorus substances to identify the subset of carbons within a spherical volume element of 0.4 nm radius centered on the {sup 31}P atom. In combination with chemical manipulation of coals designed to introduce phosphorus containing functionality into the organic matrix, the NMR experiment becomes a method to examine selectively the carbon bonding network at the reactive sites in the coal. This approach generates a statistical structure description of the coal at the reaction centers in contrast to bulk carbon characterization using conventional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3 refs.

  9. Quantification of Choline- and Ethanolamine-Containing Metabolites in Human Prostate Tissues Using 1H HR-MAS Total Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Mark G.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Zektzer, Andrew S.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2008-01-01

    A fast and quantitative 2D high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment was developed to resolve and quantify the choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues in ≈1 hr prior to pathologic analysis. At a 40-ms mixing time, magnetization transfer efficiency constants were empirically determined in solution and used to calculate metabolite concentrations in tissue. Phosphocholine (PC) was observed in 11/15 (73%) can...

  10. Mejora de la eficiencia energética en la explotación ganadera "Mas Isern" situada en el término municipal de Vic

    OpenAIRE

    Canga Navarro, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to describe the energy situation, as well as, analyze and evaluate proposals for improvement of the exploitation of dairy cattle, Mas Isern, located in Vic's municipal area. To comply with this objective was conducted an energy audit as a tool of compilation and analysis of information. The energy audit evaluates mainly the turnover of the electrical rate of power supply, the sizing and the energy efficiency of the lights of the stable, the performance of...

  11. Optimal degree of protonation for {sup 1}H detection of aliphatic sites in randomly deuterated proteins as a function of the MAS frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, Sam [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany); Szekely, Kathrin; Schanda, Paul; Meier, Beat H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETH Zuerich) (Switzerland); Reif, Bernd, E-mail: reif@tum.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The {sup 1}H dipolar network, which is the major obstacle for applying proton detection in the solid-state, can be reduced by deuteration, employing the RAP (Reduced Adjoining Protonation) labeling scheme, which yields random protonation at non-exchangeable sites. We present here a systematic study on the optimal degree of random sidechain protonation in RAP samples as a function of the MAS (magic angle spinning) frequency. In particular, we compare {sup 1}H sensitivity and linewidth of a microcrystalline protein, the SH3 domain of chicken {alpha}-spectrin, for samples, prepared with 5-25 % H{sub 2}O in the E. coli growth medium, in the MAS frequency range of 20-60 kHz. At an external field of 19.96 T (850 MHz), we find that using a proton concentration between 15 and 25 % in the M9 medium yields the best compromise in terms of sensitivity and resolution, with an achievable average {sup 1}H linewidth on the order of 40-50 Hz. Comparing sensitivities at a MAS frequency of 60 versus 20 kHz, a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 4-4.5 is observed in INEPT-based {sup 1}H detected 1D {sup 1}H,{sup 13}C correlation experiments. In total, we find that spectra recorded with a 1.3 mm rotor at 60 kHz have almost the same sensitivity as spectra recorded with a fully packed 3.2 mm rotor at 20 kHz, even though {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign less material is employed. The improved sensitivity is attributed to {sup 1}H line narrowing due to fast MAS and to the increased efficiency of the 1.3 mm coil.

  12. Application of High-Resolution 1H MAS NMR Spectroscopy to the Analysis of Intact Bones from Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, QiBin; Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Murphy, Mark K; Phipps, Richard P.; HUSO, DAVID L.; Dicello, John F

    2009-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that high-resolution magic angle spinning (MAS) 1H NMR can be used to profile the pathology of bone marrow rapidly and with minimal sample preparation. The spectral resolution obtained allows several metabolites to be analyzed quantitatively. The level of NMR-detectable metabolites in the epiphysis + metaphysis sections of mouse femur were significantly higher than that observed in the diaphysis of the same femur. The major metabolite damage to bone marrow resulting from...

  13. Attenuation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Disruption of a mas-Like Gene or a Chalcone Synthase-Like Gene, Which Causes Deficiency in Dimycocerosyl Phthiocerol Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sirakova, Tatiana D.; Dubey, Vinod S.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the leading preventable causes of death. Emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis makes the discovery of new targets for antimycobacterial drugs critical. The unique mycobacterial cell wall lipids are known to play an important role in pathogenesis, and therefore the genes responsible for their biosynthesis offer potential new targets. To assess the possible role of some of the genes potentially involved in cell wall lipid synthesis, we disrupted a mas-like gene, msl7, ...

  14. Mechanisms of influence of high-power UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1对兔耳增生性瘢痕模型影响的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响的可能机制.方法 24只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成4组,每组6只,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻(U0)、1个月(U1)、2个月(U2)、3个月(U3)开始强功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组;各照射组分为两个剂量组[60 J/cm2(M),110 J/cm2(H)],分别在照射前后进行MMP-1、TIMP-1、TGF-β1、PCNA和α-SMA的免疫组织化学染色和透射电镜检查.结果 与照射前比较,中高剂量组照射后瘢痕处MMP-1表达:U1组分别为10.43±1.61、11.16±1.57;U2组分别为8.63±2.61、7.33±1.58;U3组分别为5.74±1.43、3.11±0.27;均显著增加(P<0.05).TGF-β1表达:U1组分别为12.51±4.13、12.02±5.02;U2组分别为18.74±6.42、19.69±4.52;U3组分别为20.51±1.78、29.45±6.55.PCNA表达:U1组分别为2.67±0.44、2.04±0.65;U2组分别为4.50±0.97、5.82±0.68;U3组分别为7.45±1.47、8.16±1.07;均显著降低(P<0.05).只有高剂量组显著降低TIMP-1表达,U1组为12.74±4.58,U2组为15.17±3.26,U3组为20.72±3.31(P<0.05).只有U1H、U1M、U2H组α-SMA表达(1.33±0.34、2.04±0.20、3.60±1.75)显著降低(P<0.05).U0组:与对照组比较,高剂量组MMP-1表达(2.25±0.38)显著降低(P<0.05),而TGF-β1表达(23.90±2.92)显著增加(P<0.05).中、高剂量组PCNA(7.42±0.65、7.59±0.31)、TIMP-1(29.82±1.94、33.51±1.19)及α-SMA表达(6.31±0.61、2.97±0.56)均显著增加(P<0.05).透射电镜结果显示:强功率UVA1照射后胶原纤维直径变细;成纤维细胞胞质变少,细胞器欠发达,多数为静止的纤维细胞.结论 UVA1对瘢痕的作用可能与其抑制TGF-β1、TIMP-1、PCNA和α-SMA的表达,同时促进MMP-1的表达,从而促进基质蛋白降解及抑制成纤维细胞和肌成纤维细胞的增值活性有关.如果UVA1过早干预,则会出现相反的结果.%Objective To study the

  15. Chemometric analysis applied in 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR data for chemotaxonomic distinction of intact lichen samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the potentiality of chemometric analysis applied in 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR data for lichen chemotaxonomic investigations. Lichens present a difficult morphologic differentiation and the chemical analyses are frequently employed for their taxonomic classification, mainly due to the secondary metabolites to be relatively constant for these organisms. The lichen chemotaxonomic classification is usually carried out by color reactions, chromatography, fluorescence and mass spectrometry analysis, where the identification is obtained by one or more techniques. There are some papers which use the carbohydrate content in chemotaxonomy investigation. However, the majority of these techniques involve laborious and time consuming sample pre-treatment. This work focuses on application of 1H high resolution magic angle spinning - nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) associated with chemometric analysis to intact samples. In comparison to other traditional techniques, 1H HR-MAS NMR and FT-IR allied with chemometrics provided a fast and economic method for lichen chemotaxonomy. Both methods were useful for lichen analysis and permitted the satisfactory distinction among families, genera and species, although better results were achieved for FT-IR data

  16. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J.

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state 33S (spin I = 3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH 4) 2WS 4 and (NH 4) 2MoS 4. These materials all exhibit 33S quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise CQ values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced 33S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I = 3/2 nuclei with similar CQ values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance 33S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-γ nucleus.

  17. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  18. Research on the Shipborne Close-in System Based on the MAS Technolohy%基于MAS技术的舰载近防系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢道华; 穆兴兴

    2011-01-01

    Combining carrier-based air defense missiles, main artillery, near defense artillery and jamming devices to form a near defense system is proposed based on MAS technology, and the common task is achieved through coordinating in ternal Agents, so as to the MAS near defense system becomes a intelligent, near-defense and carrier-based system that can self improve, gather experience and is shareable. The concepts, principles, work process and key technologies of MAS near defense system are described in detail.%提出将舰载防空导弹、主炮、近防炮与干扰装置组建为一个基于MAS技术的近防系统。通过协调系统内部各Agent共同完成任务,使系统成为能在工作过程中自我完善、经验积累和分享的智能舰载近防系统。阐述了MAS近防系统的概念、原理、工作过程及其主要关键技术。

  19. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DO CLONE HÍBRIDO A1105 DE UVAS BRANCAS SEM SEMENTES SOBRE DOIS PORTA-ENXERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELSO VALDEVINO POMMER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O clone híbrido A1105 de uvas brancas sem sementes, obtido no Arkansas (EUA, foi avaliado sobre os porta-enxertos IAC 766 e Kober 5BB, em Campinas (SP. As obser-vações foram efetuadas em 1994 quando, após a segunda poda de produção, acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento de seu ciclo vegetativo. Na colheita, avaliaram-se: produção de uvas por planta, número, massa, comprimento e largura dos cachos, massa, comprimento e largura das bagas, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e o diâmetro do caule a 60 cm do solo. O comportamento do A1105 foi semelhante sobre os dois porta-enxertos, sendo a largura das bagas a única característica influenciada diferencialmente por eles. As bagas mostraram variação da massa entre 3 e 6 g, mesmo sem aplicação de ácido giberélico; sabor neutro agradável e textura crocante. As plantas, vigorosas, de boa fertilidade de gemas, podem produzir até 26 cachos em um metro de cordão esporonado, o que representaria produção de mais de 20 t/ha. Os cachos são bem formados, de compacidade média, cônicos, com massa média de mais de 225 g. O ciclo vegetativo foi curto, de 113 dias, mostrando ser material genético bem precoce.Scions of A1105, a white seedless grape obtained at University of Arkansas, USA, were grafted on IAC 766 and Kober 5BB rootstocks at Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were evaluated in 1994, after the second production pruning, and data were obtained on yield per plant, cluster number, weight, length and width, berry weight, length and width, total soluble solids and trunk diameter at 60 cm height. The performance of A1105 on both rootstocks was similar, except for berry width, which was larger on Kober 5BB. Berry weight ranged from 3 to 6 g without application of gibberellic acid. Berries showed a nice neutral flavor and an almost crisp texture, with good eating quality. Plants showed high vigor and very high bud fertility, producing 26 bunches per meter of cordon, which led to an

  1. Effect of Partial Grapevine Defoliation (Vitis vinifera on Wine Quality / Efecto de la Defoliación Parcial en Uva (Vitis vinifera sobre la Calidad del Vino

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    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine quality was determined for partially-defoliatedgrapevines grown in Villa de Leyva, Colombia at an elevation of2,143 masl. The experimental design was totally randomized,with two treatments (50% defoliation and 0% defoliation andthree repetitions per treatment. The planting material consistedof five-year-old vines of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, trainedto trellises, with a spacing of 2.1 m x 1 m. Every fifteen days,the plants in the defoliation treatment underwent the removalof half of the newly-emerged leaves. Before undertaking themicro-vinification process, the total soluble solids (TSS weremeasured in the grape must, and after a fermentation of 100days, wine quality parameters were measured, namely: residual sugars (TSS of the wine, pH, total titratable acid (TTA, and potential alcohol content of the wine. In the plants undergoing partial defoliation, the total soluble solids in the grape must increased, as well as the wine pH and potential alcohol content. At the same time, total titratable acid decreased in the wine of partially-defoliated plants. These results demonstrate that the wine quality was greatly improved by the reduction of leaf area in Chardonnay variety grape plants. / Con el uso de un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y sin defoliación parcial y tres repeticiones por tratamiento, se determinó la calidad del vino en plantas de uva sometidas a defoliación parcial temprana en Villa de Leyva – Colombia a una altitud de 2.143 msnm. Como material vegetal se utilizaron plantas de Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay de cinco años de edad, sembradas en un sistema de espalderas a 2,1 x 1 m. Quincenalmente, se realizó la defoliación parcial a las plantas, la cual consistió en retirar una de cada doshojas recién emergidas en cada una de las plantas sometidas al tratamiento de defoliación. Antes de iniciar el proceso de microvinificación se determinaron los sólidos solubles

  2. Aplicação de ethephon e qualidade da uva 'Rubi' em Porto Feliz-SP Ethephon on 'Rubi' grapevine quality in Porto Feliz, SP

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    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas de mesa é uma importante atividade econômica no Estado de São Paulo. A região de Porto Feliz, em clima Cwa, apresenta grande número de agricultores familiares dedicados a esta atividade. Condições climáticas e manejo da cultura durante a fase de amadurecimento determinam a qualidade dos bagos, sendo o uso de fitorreguladores uma ferramenta útil para o ajustamento de atributos da qualidade. Avaliaram-se sete concentrações de ethephon, aplicadas por imersão dos cachos no início da mudança de coloração dos bagos, sobre a qualidade de uva 'Rubi', durante os ciclos de 2007 e de 2008, em propriedade comercial localizada em Porto Feliz-SP. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram a coloração de bagos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e desbagoamento pós-colheita, sendo determinado também o índice de velocidade de desbagoamento. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Em 2007, observaram-se maiores coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, associados às maiores temperaturas registradas no período entre o início de maturação e a colheita. O uso de ethephon, independentemente da concentração utilizada, promoveu coloração mais avermelhada dos bagos de 'Rubi' nas duas safras. Não houve efeito do uso do ethephon sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Não foi possível inferir sobre o efeito do etephon no desbagoamento em função do elevado coeficiente de variação. Estudos básicos para avaliar o efeito de fatores climáticos, nutricionais e de manejo do vinhedo são necessários no desenvolvimento de coloração dos bagos da cultivar 'Rubi' em clima tropical.Grapevine production for fresh market is an important economic activity in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The region of Porto Feliz is located in Cwa climate and concentrates several small producers. Climatic conditions and cultural practices during fruit maturation determine berry quality, and

  3. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

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    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  4. Avaliação de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes no Submédio São Francisco

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    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas, às características físicas e à composição química dos frutos de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes nas condições do Submédio São Francisco. Os dados foram registrados durante os anos de 1997 e 1998. As variedades utilizadas foram enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 (`Jales'. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas nos ciclos de produção. Houve diferenças significativas na resposta da maioria das variedades entre as épocas de poda. O peso médio dos cachos variou entre 164,8 g na variedade Marroo Seedless, e 203,5 g na `Beauty Seedless'. O diâmetro médio das bagas foi superior a 15,7 mm em todas as variedades. Foram obtidos teores de sólidos solúveis compreendidos entre 14,05ºBrix na variedade Canner e 19,6ºBrix na `Vênus', enquanto a acidez total titulável foi inferior a 0,91 g de ácido tartárico/100 mL de suco, resultando em adequadas relações SST/ATT, que variaram entre 19,05 na variedade Beauty Seedless a 28,57 na `Vênus'. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.

  5. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.

  6. INTRODUÇÃO DOS CULTIVARES DE UVA DE MESA "FANTASIA" E "RUIVA" NO BRASIL INTRODUCTION OF THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS "FANTASY SEEDLESS" AND "CRIMSON SEEDLESS" INTO BRAZIL

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    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados em diferentes regiões paulistas. Resultados de observações preliminares são apresentados. Para a familiarização pelos viticultores, bem como facilitar a pronúncia em português, os cultivares foram renomeados como sendo `Fantasia' para "Fantasy Seedless" e `Ruiva' para "Crimson Seedless". `Fantasia' é uma uva preta, de ciclo precoce a médio, com cachos médios (350-550g, de 13-20cm de comprimento e de compacidade média a solta. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 4-9g, com diâmetro de 17 a 22mm e 20-30mm de comprimento e ovais. `Ruiva' é uma uva avermelhada, de ciclo médio, com cachos médios a grandes (460-620g, com 18-30cm de comprimento e levemente compactos. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 3,5-8,0g, diâmetro de 16-21mm e 18-30mm de comprimento e cilíndricas a ovais. A duração do ciclo vegetativo (da poda à colheita em Campinas, para ambos os cultivares foi aproximadamente o mesmo, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado. Por outro lado, o vigor, avaliado por intermédio do diâmetro do tronco e do peso de ramos podados, foi mais pronunciado para Ruiva enxertado sobre Kober 5BB. O comportamento de ambos cultivares em São Paulo, avaliado nas condições enunciadas, mostrou elevado potencial produtivo, aliado a excelentes características comerciais."Fantasy Seedless" and "Crimson Seedless" are two vinifera table grape cultivars released in 1989

  7. Subprodutos da uva como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade = Grape by-products as growth promoters for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

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    Rui Rotava

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para se avaliar os efeitos da utilização de compostos fenólicos contidos em subprodutos da uva (Vitis vinifera como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frango de corte. Foram utilizados 600 pintos de corte machos Ross, de um a 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado,com seis tratamentos, inoculados ou não, com cepas de Escherichia coli, constituindo-se fatorial 6 x 2 com cinco repetições de dez aves cada uma. Foi utilizada uma dieta isonutritiva composta por ração inicial basal, com subproduto de uva ou antibiótico, de acordo com osseguintes tratamentos: T1-controle negativo; T2-0,05% de flavomicina e sulfato de colistina; T3-0,04% extrato de semente de uva desengordurada; T4-0,1% de semente de uva integral (SUI; T5-0,47% de SUI e T6-2,35% de SUI. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganhode peso, consumo de ração, ganho de peso médio, peso final, conversão alimentar e índice de eficiência produtiva. A inclusão de subprodutos da uva não influenciou as variáveis zootécnicas nem apresentou atividade promotora de crescimento. A inoculação com E. colipiorou o ganho de peso e o peso final. Os resultados não recomendam a utilização de subprodutos de uva.An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phenoliccompounds from grape by-products (Vitis vinifera as growth promoters in the diets of broilers between 1 and 21 days of age. Six hundred Ross male chicks were raised from 1 to 21 days of age. The experimental design was completely randomized a 6 x 2 factorialscheme (six diets, inoculated or not inoculated with strains of Escherichia coli, and five repetitions consisting of 10 animals each. Each bird received an isonutritive basal diet consisting of grape by-products or antibiotics as follows: T1-negative control; T2 – positive control-0.05% of flavomycin and colistin sulphate; T3 – 0.04% defatted grape seed extract; T4 – 0.1% grape seed (WGS; T5 – 0

  8. Influência da altitude na qualidade das uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' em Minas Gerais Altitude influence on the quality of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' grapes in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No Sul e Sudeste brasileiros, o excesso de chuvas durante o período de maturação afeta negativamente a qualidade dos vinhos tintos. Por outro lado, estas regiões possuem potencial para a elaboração de espumantes, uma vez que, para a elaboração desta bebida, a uva é colhida antes de completar o amadurecimento. No Estado de Minas Gerais, as condições de verão chuvoso estão presentes em todas as regiões de potencial vitícola, e a variação de altitude entre elas pode exercer influência na composição das uvas. Desta forma, este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial de maturação de uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' destinadas à elaboração de espumantes em dois locais de Minas Gerais: Cordislândia (873m e Caldas (1.150m. As plantas foram enxertadas sobre 1.103 Paulsen e conduzidas em espaldeira. Foram avaliados os teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ácidos málico e tartárico, e pH do mosto, tamanho e massa das bagas, compostos fenólicos nas cascas e sementes, antocianinas na casca e açúcares solúveis nas bagas, em duas safras consecutivas. As bagas apresentaram maior tamanho e massa quando cultivadas em Caldas. As uvas colhidas em Cordislândia apresentaram maior grau de maturação, sendo observados maior pH, maiores teores de glicose e frutose, e quantidade inferior de acidez e fenólicos totais nas sementes. Os maiores teores de ácido málico presentes nas uvas provenientes de Caldas sugerem que esta região pode ser mais indicada à produção de uvas para elaboração de vinhos espumantes.In the southern and southeastern of Brazil, the excessive rainfall during the maturation period negatively affects the quality of red wines. On the other hand, these regions have great potential for the development of sparklings since that for the elaboration of this drink, the grape is harvested before complete its maturation. In the state of Minas Gerais, the conditions of rainy summer season are present in all

  9. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

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    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado

  10. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

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    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  11. Uso prático de marcadores moleculares para seleção assistida no melhoramento de uvas de mesa apirênicas Practical use of molecular markers for seedlessness assisted selection in grapevine breeding

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    Luís Fernando Revers

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese mais bem aceita atualmente para explicar a genética complexa da estenoespermocarpia, observada na videira, indica que a expressão deste fenótipo é controlada por três genes recessivos, independentemente herdados e controlados por um gene regulador dominante (sdI. Em estudo anterior, Lahogue et al. (1998 identificaram um marcador RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA ligado ao gene sdI e utilizaram-no para desenvolver um SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region co-dominante denominado SCC8, que pode distinguir, em uma progênie, indivíduos com semente como também selecionar indivíduos apirênicos. Neste trabalho, são apresentados resultados da avaliação do potencial de aplicação do marcador molecular SCAR SCC8 para seleção assistida do caráter da apirenia no melhoramento de uvas de mesa sem sementes. A utilização deste marcador na seleção assistida para apirenia em uvas de mesa mostrou-se viável, e as conseqüências da sua utilização no programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Uva e Vinho são discutidas.The inheritance of seedlessness in grapevine is based on a complex genetic system, where the expression of three independently inherited recessive genes is controlled by a dominant regulator gene (sdI. In a previous study, Lahogue et al. (1998 identified a random amplified polymorphic DNA marker, tightly linked to the sdI gene and developed a codominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region marker named SCC8, that allows the distinction of seeded and seedless plants in a segregating progeny. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the usefullness of the SCAR marker SCC8 for assisted selection of the seedlessness character in grape breeding. According to our results, the use of the SCC8 marker is economically viable and the consequences of its use in the grapevine breeding program at Embrapa Uva e Vinho are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of cell death after treatment with extracorporeal photopheresis.

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    Daniele, Nicola; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Cerrone, Paola; Sinopoli, Silvia; Sansone, Lucia; Gadaleta, Deborah Ilaria; Lanti, Alessandro; Ferraro, Angelo Salvatore; Spurio, Stefano; Scerpa, Maria Cristina; Zinno, Francesco; Adorno, Gaspare; Isacchi, Giancarlo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the mortality of leukocytes during extracorporeal photopheresis. Sixty-three photopheresis performed on 13 patients affected by chronic GvHD were evaluated. Samples were analyzed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Apoptosis and necrosis of limphomononuclear cells dramatically increased after the apheretic procedure. We found a further increase of apoptotic and necrotic limphomononuclear cells after treatment with 8-MOP and UVA (p≤0.05). Our data suggested that the immunomodulatory effects of extracorporeal photopheresis, triggered by circulating apoptotic or necrotic cells, could play an important role in the treatment of GvHD with this procedure.

  13. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain.

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    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  14. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

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    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  15. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  16. Intelligent Optimizing Control of Formation for UUVs Based on MAS%基于MAS的多UUV编队智能优化控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏宏; 康凤举; 顾浩

    2013-01-01

    The multi-agent system (MAS) based strategy and corresponding implementing algorithms for UUVs formation navigation are proposed according to aviation characteristics and practical const raint s of UUVs. The coordinative optimizations among every individual UUV are carried out with flexible and smart ways by interactive communications and information feedback in MAS so as to implement the autonomous formation navigation of UUVs. Furthermore the control law and corresponding algorithms of the UUV controller in the formation process are studied in depth based on the controller in the formation keeping and simulation result s verify the robustness and stability of the formation cont rollers. Finally, the formation intelligent control method was verified by simulated verification and comparative analysis.%针对无人水下航行器(Unmanned Underwater Vehicle,UUV)编队航行的实际背景和限制条件,提出了一种基于多智能体系统(MAS)技术的多UUV编队智能控制方法.利用多Agent之间的交互作用,以灵活便捷的方式进行各UUV之间的协同优化,从而实现多个UUV的自主编队航行.考虑到控制器在编队保持中的重要性,对面向UUV编队航行的控制率和实现算法进行了重点研究,设计了UUV编队控制器,并通过仿真实验验证了该算法的鲁棒性和稳定性,最后对多UUV编队智能控制方法进行了仿真验证和分析.

  17. Compuestos volátiles libres y enlazados glicosídicamente en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart. Compostos voláteis livres e enlaçados glicosídicamente na polpa da uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Constanza Barrios Guio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles presentes en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona se estudiaron mediante GC-MS. Éstos se extrajeron por tres técnicas: evaporación del aroma asistida con solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extracción continua líquido-líquido (LL y destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultanea con solvente orgánico (DES. En general los componentes volátiles predominantes en la pulpa fueron alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos. Las notas olfativas del extracto SAFE fueron descritas como floral tenue y verde herbal similares a las exhibidas por la pulpa fresca. Este extracto presentó como componentes mayoritarios linalol 1,2-propanodiol y salicilato de metilo. En contraste, el extracto LL presentó notas que recuerdan la uva pasa y el vino moscatel y sus componentes mayoritarios fueron el ácido acético, el salicilato de metilo y el 2,6-dimetil-2(Z,7-octadien-1,6-diol. El extracto DES fue descrito con notas fresca, floral, cereal y amargo y está constituido por un reducido número de componentes mostrando el efecto negativo de la temperatura en la extracción; sus componentes mayoritarios fueron 1,2-propanodiol, linalol y salicilato de metilo. Adicionalmente, los componentes volátiles mayoritarios liberados por hidrólisis enzimática (Rohapect D5L de los glicósidos de la pulpa fueron ácido acético, ácido benzoico y vainillina. Cabe destacar que aunque el linalol no se encontró entre las agliconas volátiles, se detectaron los dioles biogenéticamente relacionados: 3,7-dimetil-1,5-octadien-3,7-diol y los isómeros E y Z del 2,6-dimetil-2,7-octadien-1,6-diol.Os componentes voláteis presentes na polpa da uva Caimarona foram estudados mediante GC-MS. Estes foram extraídos por três técnicas: evaporação de aroma assistida com solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extração continua líquido-líquido (LL e destilação por arraste com vapor-extração simultânea com solvente org

  18. Pengaruh Penerapan Program Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3) Terhadap Keamanan Kerja Dan Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT. Sinar Oleochemichal Internasional (SOCI) Mas Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Silviyani

    2011-01-01

    The application of occupational health and safety management (K3) in an industrial environment with high-risk installation and the user of dangerous chemicals very much needed in the process of production. This action is taken to guarantee the safety of the workers in their capacity as the main generator in the process of production when working that they can motivate their fellow workers to work more productively. PT. SOCI MAS Medan as one of the chemist industry, doesn’t has unstabiled flu...

  19. Global Fold of Human Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor Probed by Solid-State 13C-, 15N-MAS NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tomohiro; Vukoti, Krishna; Lynch, Diane L.; Hurst, Dow P.; Grossfield, Alan; Pitman, Michael C.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Yeliseev, Alexei A.; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The global fold of human cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor in the agonist-bound active state in lipid bilayers was investigated by solid-state 13C- and 15N magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, in combination with chemical-shift prediction from a structural model of the receptor obtained by microsecond-long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Uniformly 13C-, and 15N-labeled CB2 receptor was expressed in milligram quantities by bacterial fermentation, purified, and functionally reconstituted into l...

  20. Uso del FitoMas-E® como atenuante del estrés salino (NaCl durante la emergencia y crecimiento inicial de Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Batista-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bioestimulantes vegetales estimula la emergencia y el crecimiento vegetal debido a que están compuestos por sustancias naturales como carbohidratos, péptidos de bajo peso molecular y aminoácidos, activadores de las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas, por lo que su aplicación permite un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes y representa una opción para enfrentar problemas de estrés abiótico por salinidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del bioestimulante FitoMas-E® derivado de la caña de azúcar como atenuante de la salinidad en la emergencia y el crecimiento de plántulas de variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. con respuesta diferencial al estrés por salinidad. Tres variedades de albahaca: Napoletano, Emily y Nufar se sometieron a cuatro concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y cuatro dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 mL L-1 en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones. El trabajo se desarrolló en una estructura de malla sombra y las variables que se midieron fueron: porcentaje y tasa de emergencia, longitud de radícula, altura de la plántula, biomasa fresca y seca de radícula y de parte aérea. Los resultados evidenciaron que en condiciones de estrés salino (NaCl de moderado a severo, las variables disminuyeron significativamente. Largo de raíz, altura de planta y biomasa seca de raíz en 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más afectadas. Se observó que cuando se aplicó FitoMas-E® las plantas incrementaron significativamente sus valores en las variables, largo de raíz 32% y altura de planta 41%, lo que revela el efecto estimulante del FitoMas-E®, siendo 0.5 mL L-1 la dosis estimulante para la variedad Napoletano y 1.0 mL L-1 para la variedad Emily, aún y cuando se encontraban en condiciones de estrés salino hasta 100 mM de NaCl. Para la concentración de 150 mM se evidenció una afectación extrema para las variedades Emily y Nufar.

  1. The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J; Davies, H A; Heyes, S J; Osborne, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells have specific characteristics which include high levels of unmethylated pectin in the walls and an inducible (x35) polygalacturonase enzyme expression. Together these findings help to explain the localised precision of cell separation events. PMID:11219806

  2. Determinação de resveratrol em sucos de uva no Brasil Determination of resveratrol in grape juice produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia K. Sautter

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de resveratrol em vinhos vem sendo estudada mais intensamente nos últimos anos. O isômero trans-resveratrol tem reconhecidas atividades biológicas, e algumas delas são de uso terapêutico, tais como ação antiinflamatória, inibição da enzima lipoxigenase e ação anticarcinogênica in vitro. A presença do composto resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihidroxiestilbeno, em seus isômeros (trans e cis, foi determinada nos diferentes tipos de sucos de uva produzidos no Brasil. Além destes, também foram quantificados os polifenóis totais, acidez, açúcares redutores, sólidos solúveis e densidade, em conformidade com a legislação vigente. O resveratrol foi quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência segundo SOUTO et al. [23], com adaptação da temperatura para 50° C. Foi detectada a presença de trans-resveratrol em todos os sucos analisados na concentração de 0,19mg.L-1 a 0,90mg.L-1 e o isômero cis-resveratrol foi de 0,07 a 1,59mg.L-1 .The resveratrol detection in wines has been studied more intensely in the last years. The isomeric trans-resveratrol has recognized biological activities, and some of them are therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory action, enzyme lipoxigenase inhibition and anti-carcinogenic action in vitro. The presence of resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihydroxystilbene, trans and cis isomers, was investigated in industrial grape juices produced in Brazil. Additionally, total phenols, acidity, reducing sugars, soluble solids and specific gravity of samples were determined in accordance with law. Resveratrol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography by SOUTO et al. [23], adapted to the temperature of 50°C. Trans and cis-resveratrol were found in all the juices analyzed, tran-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.19 to 0.90mg.L-1 and cis-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.07 to 1.59mg.L-1.

  3. Antecipação da maturação da uva 'Rubi' produzida fora de época no noroeste do estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sérgio Ruffo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do anelamento de tronco na antecipação da maturação de uvas finas de mesa produzidas fora de época, na região noroeste do Paraná. A técnica foi avaliada em três parreiras de videira 'Rubi' (Vitis vinifera L. e consistiu na remoção da casca do tronco de aproximadamente 3-4 mm de largura, com um incisor de lâmina dupla, a uma altura de 1,5 m do solo. O anelamento foi aplicado no início do amolecimento das bagas, o que se deu no início de abril de 2001. O delineamento experimental para as três áreas experimentais foi o de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (anelamento e testemunha e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por uma planta útil. Avaliaram-se, semanalmente, a partir da instalação do experimento, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez total titulável (ATT das bagas até a colheita, em um total de seis amostragens. Tanto o teor de SST como a ATT apresentaram um comportamento linear em função do tempo para os dois tratamentos, e através de regressão linear foi estimado o período para que os cachos atingissem a plena maturação, considerando-se 14 ºBrix como padrão. O período de antecipação da maturação de cachos pelo uso do anelamento em relação à testemunha variou de 3 a 12 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação ao decréscimo do teor de ATT entre os tratamentos nas parreiras avaliadas.

  4. Reply to Mas et al.: Comment on Gebhardt et al. MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 3923–3943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mas, J.F. et al. have submitted a paper [1] for publication, which aims to respond to a paper published by Gebhardt et al. [2]. Mas, J.F. et al. had received a consultancy in 2013 to assess the quality of the early prototype products partly described in Gebhardt et al. in 2014. This consultancy, although a formal non-disclosure agreement had not been demanded, was awarded under the mutual understanding that the data handed over to Mas et al. constitute the early development phase of the program. Therefore, Mas et al. had been asked to give an assessment on the quality of the prototypes to obtain a proof of concept for the proposed workflow of MAD-Mex. It was clear that this assessment would suffer from limited availability of high quality training and validation data available in 2013. Mas et al. finally did not execute the consultancy due to the limited vector processing capacities in their lab. In October 2014, we sent the latest products, version 4.2 of the MAD-Mex products, including the more than 200,000 validation points gathered from independent expert interpreters of all Mexican ecosystems. Mas et al. did not respond to this transfer or to our request to collaborate in the quality control and assessment of MAD-Mex.

  5. Ensaio de vinificação: influência da mistura de variedades de uva, sôbre a qualidade do vinho Wine fermentation: the blending of grape varieties to improve wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Zardetto de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados ensaios de vinificação, para observar a influência da associação de variedades de uvas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo, sôbre a melhoria da qualidade do vinho. As uvas empregadas no ensaio foram das variedades Seibel 2 e Seibel 10096. A mistura dos mostos constituída de 70% da var. Seibel 10096 e 30% da var. Seibel 2 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados.The musts of two grape varieties (Seibel 2 and Seibel 10.096 raised in the State of S. Paulo were blended in different percentages to observe their influence on the wine quality. The variety Seibel 2 produces wines of very poor quality. A must composed of 50% Seibel 2 and 50% Seibel 10.096 produced a much better wine. The most remarkable improvement was obtained through the fermentation of a must composed of 70% Seibel 10.096 and 30% Seibel 2.

  6. 1H-MAS-NMR Chemical Shifts in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Chlorophenols (Pentachlorophenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-Dichlorophenol, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, and p-Chlorophenol) and Amine, and H/D Isotope Effects on 1H-MAS-NMR Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi Honda

    2013-01-01

    Chemical shifts (CS) of the 1H nucleus in N···H···O type hydrogen bonds (H-bond) were observed in some complexes between chlorophenols [pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,6-tricholorophenol (TCP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (26DCP), 3,5-dichlorophenol (35DCP), and p-chlorophenol (pCP)] and nitrogen-base (N-Base) by solid-state high-resolution 1H-NMR with the magic-angle-spinning (MAS) method. Employing N-Bases with a wide range of pKa values (0.65–10.75), 1H-MAS-NMR CS values of bridging H atoms in H-bonds...

  7. Windows 10 reklāmas kampaņas lokalizācijas analīze Latvijā 2015. gadā

    OpenAIRE

    Strogonova, Sanita

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā “Windows 10 reklāmas kampaņas lokalizācijas analīze Latvijā 2015. gadā” tiek pētīta Microsoft korporācijas veiktās globālās un lokalizētās integrētā mārketinga komunikācijas zīmola Windows 10 virzīšanai Latvijas tirgū. Darbs sastāv no 3 daļām: teorētiskās daļas, metodoloģijas daļas un empīriskās daļas. Teorijas daļā ir veikts literatūras apskats par komunikācijas modeļu veidiem, integrētā mārketinga teorijām, apskatīta reklāmas kampaņas veidošanas un efektivitātes mērīšanas te...

  8. Os desastres podem até cair dos céus... Mas a culpa não é de Deus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Petrônio Quirino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta pesquisa é apresentar uma reflexão sobre o descaso em que a politica de enfrentamento aos desastres naturais vem sendo abordada no Brasil nos últimos 100 anos.  Com uma população cada vez mais urbana as cidades passam a ser o centro não só do poder econômico e político, mas também dos mais diversos eventos decorrentes das mudanças climáticas. Uma série de problemas agrava essa urbanização vulnerável e desencadeiam uma crise socioambiental determinada por fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, tecnológicos, culturais e ecológicos que, de forma integrada, provocam consequências devastadoras. Inundações, deslizamentos, ciclones, incêndios florestais, enxurradas, estiagens, enchentes, secas e terremotos provocam impactos inesperados e pressionam ainda mais este quadro urbano complexo a uma dinâmica preocupante. O desastre não são as principais ameaças, mas a incapacidade de planejamento e enfrentamento na gestão dos desastres demostraram o descaso com a questão foi tratado no país ao longo de décadas.

  9. XRD, FTIR and 13C CP/ MAS NMR Studies of Composite Comprising Poly(vinyl acetate)- silylated Si-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite structure based on silylated MCM-41 and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) was synthesized via solution intercalation. Poly(vinyl acetate)-silylated Si- MCM-41 composite were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and 13C CP/ MAS NMR in order to determine the compatibility between PVAc and the silicate host. XRD study reveals that the framework of silylated Si-MCM-41 was not altered upon incorporation of PVAc. FTIR study showed that characteristic peak assigned to carbonyl group in PVAc was observed around 1741.6 cm-1 for all the composites indicating the presence of PVAc in the silylated Si-MCM-41. 13C CP/ MAS NMR showed the increase of line width of the peak assigned to C=O carbonyl group indicating the increase in randomness of polymer chains in confined space. The shifting of the C=O carbonyl groups is a sign of the change in chemical environment of the carbonyl owing to the interaction of PVAc with the silica matrix of silylated Si-MCM-41. (author)

  10. Task Programming of Antiballistic Missile Sensors Based on MAS%基于多智能体的反导传感器任务规划算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林锋; 王刚; 刘昌云; 杨少春

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and functions of the sensor resources under the antiballistic missile condition are firstly discussed, Then a sensor task programming system structure which adapts to the anti-ballistic missile requirement is put forward based on the multi-agent system (MAS) of distribute artificial intelligence, and the main functions of each agent in the structure in detail is analyzed. Finally a programming process is presented and the arithmetic of a sensor Agent in the layer of entity is carried out, which provides an effective method for building a high-efficiency and intelligent antimissile sensor network.%首先探讨了反导作战中各类传感器资源的构成特点和功能划分,然后基于多智能体multy-agent system(MAS)的分布式人工智能技术提出了适应反导作战需求的传感器任务规划体系架构,既而深入分析了体系架构中各类agent的主要功能,最后给出了一个实体层传感器的任务规划流程和算法实例,为构建高效率、智能化的反导作战多传感器任务规划技术提供了一种有效的研究方法.

  11. Reklāmas analīze un produkcijas virzīšana, izmantojot kompānijas L'Oreal Group piemēru

    OpenAIRE

    Platonova, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarbs veltīts reklāmas jēdziena pētīšanai, kompānijas L'Oreal Group darbības detalizētākai aplūkošanai, kā arī respondentu aptaujas par šī uzņēmuma reklāmu veikšana un tālāka tās analīze. Šis diplomdarbs sastāv no trīs daļām ar apakšdaļām. Pirmajā daļā autore aplūko reklāmas jēdzienu, tās veidus, metodes, efektivitāti un efektivitātes vadīšanas metodes. Otrajā daļā pievērsta uzmanība skaistuma un kosmētikas nozares un detalizētākai kompānijas L'Oreal Group aplūkošanai un aprakstam, konk...

  12. Structure determination of uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein using qualitative distance restraints from MAS solid-state 13C-NMR observed paramagnetic relaxation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful method for structure determination of insoluble biomolecules. However, structure determination by MAS solid-state NMR remains challenging because it is difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of distance restraints owing to spectral complexity. Collection of distance restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is a promising approach to alleviate this barrier. However, the precision of distance restraints provided by PRE is limited in solid-state NMR because of incomplete averaged interactions and intermolecular PREs. In this report, the backbone structure of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) has been successfully determined by combining the CS-Rosetta protocol and qualitative PRE restraints. The derived structure has a Cα RMSD of 1.49 Å relative to the X-ray structure. It is noteworthy that our protocol can determine the correct structure from only three cysteine-EDTA-Mn2+ mutants because this number of PRE sites is insufficient when using a conventional structure calculation method based on restrained molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. This study shows that qualitative PRE restraints can be employed effectively for protein structure determination from a limited conformational sampling space using a protein fragment library

  13. High Field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2016-04-04

    High field quantitative 27Al MAS NMR and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol are used to study the surface and phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 during calcination in the temperature range of 500 to 1300 degrees C. Following ethanol adsorption, ethylene is generated during TPD with a desorption temperature > 200 degrees C. With increasing calcination temperature prior to TPD, the amount of ethylene produced decreases monotonically. Significantly, 27Al MAS NMR reveals that the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions (Lewis acid sites) also decreases with increasing calcination temperature. In fact, a strong correlation between the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions and the amount of strongly adsorbed ethanol molecules (i.e., the ones that convert to ethylene during TPD) is obtained. This result indicates that the penta-coordinate aluminum sites are the catalytic active sites on alumina surfaces during ethanol dehydration reaction across the entire course of gamma- to alpha-Al2O3 phase transformations.

  14. Determination of structural topology of a membrane protein in lipid bilayers using polarization optimized experiments (POE) for static and MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mote, Kaustubh R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States); Gopinath, T. [University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Veglia, Gianluigi, E-mail: vegli001@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The low sensitivity inherent to both the static and magic angle spinning techniques of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has thus far limited the routine application of multidimensional experiments to determine the structure of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of using a recently developed class of experiments, polarization optimized experiments, for both static and MAS spectroscopy to achieve higher sensitivity and substantial time-savings for 2D and 3D experiments. We used sarcolipin, a single pass membrane protein, reconstituted in oriented bicelles (for oriented ssNMR) and multilamellar vesicles (for MAS ssNMR) as a benchmark. The restraints derived by these experiments are then combined into a hybrid energy function to allow simultaneous determination of structure and topology. The resulting structural ensemble converged to a helical conformation with a backbone RMSD {approx}0.44 A, a tilt angle of 24 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign , and an azimuthal angle of 55 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign . This work represents a crucial first step toward obtaining high-resolution structures of large membrane proteins using combined multidimensional oriented solid-state NMR and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR.

  15. 1H-MAS-NMR Chemical Shifts in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Chlorophenols (Pentachlorophenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-Dichlorophenol, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, and p-Chlorophenol and Amine, and H/D Isotope Effects on 1H-MAS-NMR Spectra

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    Hisashi Honda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical shifts (CS of the 1H nucleus in N···H···O type hydrogen bonds (H-bond were observed in some complexes between chlorophenols [pentachlorophenol (PCP, 2,4,6-tricholorophenol (TCP, 2,6-dichlorophenol (26DCP, 3,5-dichlorophenol (35DCP, and p-chlorophenol (pCP] and nitrogen-base (N-Base by solid-state high-resolution 1H-NMR with the magic-angle-spinning (MAS method. Employing N-Bases with a wide range of pKa values (0.65–10.75, 1H-MAS-NMR CS values of bridging H atoms in H-bonds were obtained as a function of the N-Base’s pKa. The result showed that the CS values were increased with increasing pKa values in a range of DpKa 2: The maximum CS values was recorded in the PCP (pKa = 5.26–4-methylpyridine (6.03, TCP (6.59–imidazole (6.99, 26DCP (7.02–2-amino-4-methylpyridine (7.38, 35DCP (8.04–4-dimethylaminopyridine (9.61, and pCP (9.47–4-dimethylaminopyridine (9.61 complexes. The largest CS value of 18.6 ppm was recorded in TCP–imidazole crystals. In addition, H/D isotope effects on 1H-MAS-NMR spectra were observed in PCP–2-amino-3-methylpyridine. Based on the results of CS simulation using a B3LYP/6-311+G** function, it can be explained that a little changes of the N–H length in H-bond contribute to the H/D isotope shift of the 1H-MAS-NMR peaks.

  16. Characterization of Sugars and Organic Acids in Commercial Varieties of Table Grapes Caracterización de Azúcares y Ácidos Orgánicos en Variedades Comerciales de Uva de Mesa

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    Pablo Muñoz-Robredo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor composition has been defined as a complex attribute of fruit quality, in which the mix of sugars, acids and volatiles play a primary role. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., sweetness and sourness are the most important flavor attributes for fresh consumption. However, most of the studies available have been performed on wine grapes, which are grown, cultured and processed differently to table grapes. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize the changes in sugars and organic acids during the development of ‘Thompson Seedless’, ‘Red Globe’ and ‘Crimson Seedless’ grown under the same agroclimatic conditions. Each variety was sampled weekly from 2 wk before véraison until commercial harvest. Sugars and organic acids were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD and ultra violet detector, respectively. The ranges of acid and sugars concentrations found in grapes were as follows: tartaric acid, 1.28-7.45 g L-1; malic acid, 0.38-29.92 g L-1, citric acid traces-1.03 g L-1; fructose, 0.15-8.74 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1; glucose, 0.19-8.71 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1 and sucrose 0.02-0.91 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1. Among sugars, glucose was the most abundant one in early stages and then it decreased until the harvest period, when the amount of fructose and glucose converged to an average of 47% for each sugar. Despite organic acids reaching steady levels 3-4 wk before commercial harvest, there were important differences in the organic acid profiles among varieties, with ‘Thompson Seedless’ showing the lowest tartaric/malic acid ratio of 1.19. These differences are an important aspect in terms of overall flavor.La composición del sabor ha sido definida como un atributo complejo de la calidad de la fruta, en el cual la mezcla de azúcares, ácidos y volátiles juega un rol determinante. En uva de mesa (Vitis vinifera L., el dulzor y la acidez son

  17. Transactivation of ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Is Inhibited by Angiotensin-(1-7 via Its Mas Receptor.

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    Saghir Akhtar

    Full Text Available Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB family members, namely EGFR and ErbB2, appears important in the development of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] can prevent the development of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications partly through inhibiting EGFR transactivation. Here, we investigated whether Ang-(1-7 can inhibit transactivation of ErbB2 as well as other ErbB receptors in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were chronically treated with Ang-(1-7 or AG825, a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, for 4 weeks and mechanistic studies performed in the isolated mesenteric vasculature bed as well as in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Ang-(1-7 or AG825 treatment inhibited diabetes-induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 receptor at tyrosine residues Y1221/22, Y1248, Y877, as well as downstream signaling via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, ROCK, eNOS and IkB-α in the mesenteric vascular bed. In VSMCs cultured in high glucose (25 mM, Ang-(1-7 inhibited src-dependent ErbB2 transactivation that was opposed by the selective Mas receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7. Ang-(1-7 via Mas receptor also inhibited both Angiotensin II- and noradrenaline/norephinephrine-induced transactivation of ErbB2 and/or EGFR receptors. Further, hyperglycemia-induced transactivation of ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors could be attenuated by Ang-(1-7 that could be prevented by D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7 in VSMC. These data suggest that Ang-(1-7 via its Mas receptor acts as a pan-ErbB inhibitor and might represent a novel general mechanism by which Ang-(1-7 exerts its beneficial effects in many disease states including diabetes-induced vascular complications.

  18. Study on Electric Fault Diagnosis Model Based on MAS%基于MAS电务故障诊断模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳奇; 党建武

    2013-01-01

    铁路运输组织模式逐步向集中调度、系统综合集成、智能管理和信息共享及融合的方向转变和延伸,在此趋势下,针对高速铁路信号监测系统功能尚存在缺陷的状况,提出将分布式人工智能技术引入到信号设备故障诊断系统中.利用MAS对复杂系统问题的较强求解能力,建立基于MAS的故障诊断系统,采用面向Agent的知识表示,构造数据采集Agent、诊断Agent、事例分析Agent及管理Agent等核心模块的BDI模型,扩展混合Agent结构,将常规的不具备自学习能力的诊断系统设计成为低耦合高内聚的具有自学习能力的并行MAS诊断系统,使系统具有良好的可靠性、扩展性和鲁棒性,提高故障诊断决策和监测管理水平.%Under the new situation that the railway transportation organization pattern is gradually transforming and extending to the direction of centralized dispatching, comprehensive systems integration, intelligent management and information sharing and integrating, in view of the fact that the functions of signal monitoring systems of high-speed railways still have defects, the distributed artificial intelligence technology was introduced into the fault diagnosis system of signal devices. Utilizing the strong MAS ability to solve complicated system problems, the MAS-based fault diagnosis system was established. By indication of facing the Agent knowledge, the center BDI models were constructed, which consisted of central modules of data acquisition A-gent, diagnosis Agent, event analysis Agent and management Agent. The hybrid Agent structure was extended. The conventional diagnosis system without self-learning ability was designed into the low-coupling high-cohesion diagnosis system with self-learning ability and parallel to the MAS diagnosis system. The proposed system has good reliability, augmentabilily and robustness so that the level of fault diagnosis and monitoring management is raized.

  19. Constant-time 2D and 3D through-bond correlation NMR spectroscopy of solids under 60 kHz MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Establishing connectivity and proximity of nuclei is an important step in elucidating the structure and dynamics of molecules in solids using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Although recent studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of proton-detected multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments under ultrafast-MAS frequencies and obtaining high-resolution spectral lines of protons, assignment of proton resonances is a major challenge. In this study, we first re-visit and demonstrate the feasibility of 2D constant-time uniform-sign cross-peak correlation (CTUC-COSY) NMR experiment on rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS conditions, where the sensitivity of the experiment is enhanced by the reduced spin-spin relaxation rate and the use of low radio-frequency power for heteronuclear decoupling during the evolution intervals of the pulse sequence. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the performance of a proton-detected pulse sequence to obtain a 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum by incorporating an additional cross-polarization period in the CTUC-COSY pulse sequence to enable proton chemical shift evolution and proton detection in the incrementable t{sub 1} and t{sub 3} periods, respectively. In addition to through-space and through-bond {sup 13}C/{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C chemical shift correlations, the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H experiment also provides a COSY-type {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum, where only the chemical shifts of those protons, which are bonded to two neighboring carbons, are correlated. By extracting 2D F1/F3 slices ({sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum) at different {sup 13}C chemical shift frequencies from the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H spectrum, resonances of proton atoms located close to a specific carbon atom can be identified. Overall, the through-bond and through-space homonuclear/heteronuclear proximities determined from the

  20. PRODUTIVIDADE DE CULTIVARES DE UVAS PARA SUCO SOBRE DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS IAC EM MOCOCA-SP YIELD OF JUICE GRAPE CULTIVARS GRAFTED ON SOME IAC ROOTSTOCKS

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    MAURILO MONTEIRO TERRA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se o potencial de produção de uvas das cultivares copa Concord, Isabel e Seibel 2, recomendadas para produção de suco, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos IAC 313 'Tropical', 'IAC 571-6', IAC 572 'Jales', e IAC 766 'Campinas', num experimento conduzido, durante seis anos, na Estação Experimental de Mococa (21º28'S, 47º01'W do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Para a variedade Concord, as maiores produções médias foram obtidas quando se utilizaram os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6' e 'IAC 572', totalizando 3,86kg/planta, 3,81kg/planta e 3,65kg/planta, respectivamente; para 'Isabel', quando se empregaram os porta-enxertos 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6' e 'IAC 313', somando 3,85kg/planta, 3,63kg/planta e 3,26kg/planta; para o cv. Seibel 2, quando se fez uso dos porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 571-6', auferiram-se 2,61kg/planta, 2,40kg/planta e 2,10kg/planta; por outro lado, para as três variedades, o porta-enxerto de pior performance foi o 'IAC 766'. Quanto ao vigor, representado pela massa dos ramos podados ao longo dos anos, os melhores porta-enxertos para 'Concord' foram 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 313'; para 'Isabel': 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 313'; e para 'Seibel 2': 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572'.The yield potential of juice grape cultivars, namely Concord, Isabel and Seibel 2, grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', 'IAC 572' and 'IAC 766' rootstocks was studied in an experiment conducted for six years at Mococa Experimental Station (21º28'S, 47º01'W. Regarding Concord cultivar, the greatest mean yields were achieved when grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6' and 'IAC 572'rootstocks, respectively 3.86kg/plant, 3.81 kg/plant and 3.65 kg/plant. 'Isabel' gave the largest grape productions when grafted on 'IAC 572' (3.85kg/plant, 'IAC 571-6' (3.63kg/plant and 'IAC 313' (3.26kg/plant. The best grape yields of 'Seibel-2' were obtained when it was grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 572' and 'IAC 571-6', being respectively 2.61kg/plant, 2.40 kg/plant and 2.10 kg