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Sample records for 8-mop mas uva

  1. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

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    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  2. Effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA on human lymphocytes. [Psoriasis

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    Lischka, G.; Bohnert, E.; Baechtold G.; Jung, E.G.

    1977-09-27

    Peripheral lymphocytes of 37 psoriatic patients are tested before and under PUVA treatment using as parameter the non specific stimulation effect of HgCl2 (10 microgram/ml) in culture, measuring the 3H-thymidine incorporation after the last 16 h of a 5-days culture. Oral 8-MOP in therapeutic doses is decreasing the lymphocyte stimulation as well as 8-MOP together with UVA irradiation during the first week of treatment. After 1 week, the stimulation is, on the contrary, significantly enhanced after irradiation. Lymphocytes isolated by centrifugation over Lymphoprep are submitted to PUVA conditions in petri dishes (Hank's solution 8-MOP 1 microgram/ml, irradiation with 350 nm, 93 to 372 mJ/cm2). The total cell number, the E-rosette formation (as marker for T-lymphocytes) and the EAC-rosette formation (as marker for B-lymphocytes) are determined. PUVA conditions have an energy dependent decreasing effect on the cell number, while the T- and B-cell proportions remain constant. UVA irradiation alone has such an effect only with high energies. 8-MOP without UVA has no significant influence on the cell number.

  3. Establishment of Mus Skin Photo-damage Model by 8-MOP plus UVA Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong; LI Jiawen; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    To establish a simple and reliable animal model of skin photo-damage, 20 mice were treated with 8-MOP and exposed to UVA (UVA 320-400 nm) for 24 h. After irradiation, the structure of the epidermis and dermis, collagen fibers, elastic fibers were observed by using HE staining and Weigert technique and compared with the normal controls. The acanthosis and epidemis proliferation with accompanying hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were observed. Inflammatory infiltration was noted in the dermis. The elastic fibers became coarse, irregularly arranged and clustered, with their number increased. The collagen fibers showed obvious degeneration and some amorphous materials could also be observed. The blood vessels were irregularly dilated and vascular walls were thickened, with infiltration of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that murine photodamage model can be quickly, conveniently and reliably established by means of 8-MOP/UVA.

  4. A comparison of systemic photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP and with trimethylpsoralen (TMP in vitiligo

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    Mhaske Vandana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral 8-MOP and TMP were compared in the PUVA therapy for vitiligo. Group A (25 cases was initiated on 0.3 mg/kg of 8-MOP with 1/2 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1/2 Joule/ cm2 and Group B was started on 0.6 mg/kg of TMP with 1 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1 Joule/cm2. Therapy was given thrice a week. Repigmentation was evaluated by using a 0-6 scale. At the end of 60 sittings, on acceptable cosmetic response was seen over the face, neck and upper extremities in both groups, while trunk and lower extremities showed lesser response. 8-MOP gave earlier response, needing a lower cumulative UVA dose i.e. 75 J/cm2 as compared to TMP i.e. 106 J/cm2. Phototoxicity was seen more often with 8-MOP. In conclusion, in Indians, 8-MOP is the drug of choice in PUVA therapy of vitiligo provided precautions against phototoxicity are adequate.

  5. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

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    Tingying Cheng; Fungwin Shen; Ronghwa Lin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    1996-09-01

    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ``male`` 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ``male`` 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author).

  6. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light; Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

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    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.

    1990-12-31

    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ({sup h}ot spots{sup )}. (author)

  7. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light. Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

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    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ([sup h]ot spots[sup )]. (author)

  8. UVA radiation augments cytotoxic activity of psoralens in melanoma cells.

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    Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Delijewski, Marcin; Hechmann, Anna; Oprzondek, Martyna; Rzepka, Zuzanna; Bacler-Żbikowska, Barbara; Buszman, Ewa

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UVA radiation and psoralens: 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) on melanoma cells viability. The amelanotic C32 and melanotic COLO829 human melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of psoralens (0.1-100 μM) in the presence or absence of UVA radiation. Cell viability was evaluated by the WST-1 assay. We demonstrated that 8-MOP, in contrast to 5-MOP, has no cytotoxic effect on both melanoma cell lines. Simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-MOP and UVA radiation caused significant cytotoxic response in C32 cells where the EC50 value was estimated to be 131.0 μM (UVA dose: 1.3 J/cm(2)) and 105.3 μM (UVA dose: 2.6 J/cm(2)). The cytotoxicity of 5-MOP on both C32 and COLO829 cells was significantly augmented by UVA radiation - the EC50 was estimated to be 22.7 or 7.9 μM (UVA dose: 1.3 J/cm(2)) and 24.2 or 7.0 μM (UVA dose: 2.6 J/cm(2)), respectively. The demonstrated high cytotoxic response after simultaneous exposure of melanoma cells to psoralens and UVA radiation in vitro suggests the usefulness of PUVA therapy to treat melanoma in vivo.

  9. Relationships between chromatin remodeling and DNA damage repair induced by 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Lavínia Almeida Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms to prevent genomic instability, such as DNA damage detection and repair, control of cell cycle progression and cell death induction. The bifunctional compound furocumarin 8-methoxy-psoralen (8-MOP is widely used in the treatment of various inflammatory skin diseases. In this review, we summarize recent data about the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA damage induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (8-MOP+UVA, focusing on repair proteins in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an established model system for studying DNA repair pathways. The interstrand crosslinks (ICL formed by the 8-MOP+UVA treatment are detrimental lesions that can block transcription and replication, leading to cell death if not repaired. Current data show the involvement of different pathways in ICL processing, such as nucleotide excision repair (NER, base excision repair (BER, translesion repair (TLS and double-strand break repair. 8-MOP+UVA treatment in yeast enhances the expression of genes involved in the DNA damage response, double strand break repair by homologous replication, as well as genes related to cell cycle regulation. Moreover, alterations in the expression of subtelomeric genes and genes related to chromatin remodeling are consistent with structural modifications of chromatin relevant to DNA repair. Taken together, these findings indicate a specific profile in 8-MOP+UVA responses related to chromatin remodeling and DNA repair.

  10. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism.

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    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba; Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles; Kövér, Katalin E; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2016-08-01

    A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5J/cm(2)) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ-34+UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and -8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ-34+UVA causes DNA damage and caspase-mediated cell death independently of PARP-1 inhibition.

  11. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism

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    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Kövér, Katalin E. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szabó, Éva [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Virág, László, E-mail: lvirag@med.unideb.hu [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA-DE Cell Biology and Signaling Research Group, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • PARP-1 is not a key regulator of photochemotherapy. • The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism. • Photosensitization by PJ-34 is associated with increased ROS production and DNA damage. • Cells sensitized by PJ-34 undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis. - Abstract: A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5 J/cm{sup 2}) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ–34 + UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and −8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ–34 + UVA causes DNA damage and caspase

  12. Preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad mutants after induction of interstrand cross-links by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA.

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    Meniel, V; Magaña-Schwencke, N; Averbeck, D

    1995-11-01

    The gene specific induction and the incision step of the removal of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA-induced interstrand cross-links (ICL) was measured in repair mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Events were examined at the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci in mutants deficient in the repair of ICL, namely rad1, rad2 delta, rad52, pso2 and the rad16 mutant which is impaired in the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent HML alpha locus. Previously, we observed in a wild-type strain (K107) preferential repair concerning the incision of 8-MOP photo-induced ICL. The present study indicates that the two mutants rad1 and rad2 delta show no repair in either locus, due presumably to their deficiency in the incision step of ICL repair. The rad52 mutant which is defective in recombination, is proficient in the preferential incision of ICL at the MAT alpha locus versus the HML alpha locus. The same is true for the pso2 mutant which also lacks the ability to perform complete repair of ICL. The rad16 mutant is unable to repair ICL in the silent locus HML alpha but is proficient in repair (i.e. the incision of ICL) in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus.

  13. Main: 1UVA [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1UVA イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. Nonspecific Lipid-Transfer Protein 1 Precursor Oryza S...4 Da MARAQLVLVALVAALLLAAPHAAVAITCGQVNSAVGPCLTYARGGAGPSAACCSGVRSLFAAASTTADRRTACNCLKNAARGIKGLNAGNAASIPSKCGVSVPYTISASIDCSRVS rice_1UVA.jpg ...

  14. Photopheresis with UV-A light and 8-methoxypsoralen leads to cell death and to release of blebs with anti-inflammatory phenotype in activated and non-activated lymphocytes

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    Stadler, K. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Frey, B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Munoz, L.E.; Finzel, S.; Rech, J. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Hueber, A. [Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gaipl, U.S., E-mail: udo.gaipl@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis is a therapy for treatment of autoimmune diseases, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, organ graft rejection as well as graft-versus-host diseases. The exact mechanism how the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen plus UV-A irradiation (PUVA) acts is still unclear. We investigated the cell death of activated and non-activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment as well as the rate of released blebs and their antigen composition. Results: In presence of 8-MOP, UV-A light highly significantly increased the cell death of activated lymphocytes. The same was observed to a lesser extent in non-activated cells. Blebs derived from activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment showed the highest surface exposition of phosphatidylserine. These blebs also displayed a high exposure of the antigens CD5 and CD8 as well as a low exposure of CD28 and CD86. Conclusion: PUVA treatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inducing apoptosis and apoptotic cell-derived blebs with immune suppressive surface composition.

  15. EFEITO DO PROCESSAMENTO NA ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DE UVA

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    M. I. S. VEDANA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As vitaminas C, E e os flavonóides são consideradas excelentes antioxidantes, capazes de seqüestrar os radicais livres com grande eficiência. Vários são os métodos para testar a atividade antioxidante, podendo ser usados para compostos isolados e extratos. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que a uva é fonte natural de antioxidantes e rica em compostos fenólicos, mas muito pouco estudada quanto ao efeito do seu processamento nesses compostos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a determinação e comparação da capacidade antioxidante (radicais ABTS e DPPH de extratos elaborados a partir de uva da cultivar Isabel e de dois produtos dessa fruta: o suco e a geléia, assim como correlacionar com a quantidade de fenólicos totais e de antocianinas totais. Apesar das diferenças entre os métodos DPPH e ABTS, foi possível obter conclusões semelhantes quanto à atividade antioxidante das amostras testadas. O tratamento térmico favoreceu a extração dos compostos fenólicos e conseqüentemente o aumento da atividade antioxidante, mas provocou uma diminuição no teor de antocianinas totais nos produtos elaborados a partir da uva.

  16. Porphyra-334, a potential natural source for UVA protective sunscreens.

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    Torres, Avital; Enk, Claes D; Hochberg, Malka; Srebnik, Morris

    2006-04-01

    The mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), porphyra-334 (lambda(max) = 334 nm; epsilon = 42,300 M(-1) cm(-1)), was isolated from the aquatic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and its structure was verified by spectroscopic methods. The UVA absorption properties of the crude methanolic extract were determined against two commercial sun care products in terms of mean critical wavelength, mean UVA/UVB ratios and UVA protection category (Boots the Chemists, Ltd.). The crude methanolic extract from AFA exhibited maximum UVA protection comparable to that determined for Boots SPF 4.

  17. High Tech M&As

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    of findings are not applicable to the high-tech industry; in fact this industry has many additional challenges. In this study, we aim to explore the process of M&A in the high-tech industry by drawing on extant literature and empirical field work. The paper outlines a research project in progress which...... intends to provide theoretical, empirical and practical contributions in answering the research question: what role does Operations and IT play in creating value in high-tech M&As? The research adds a needed perspective on M&A literature by unveiling unique challenges and opportunities faced by the M...

  18. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  19. Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures.

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    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J

    2014-09-05

    The influence of cloud on the solar UVA (320-400 nm) exposures over five minute periods on a horizontal plane has been investigated. The first approach used cloud modification factors that were evaluated using the influence of clouds on the global solar exposures (310-2800 nm) and a model developed to apply these to the clear sky UVA exposures to allow calculation of the five minute UVA exposures for any cloud conditions. The second approach established a relationship between the UVA and the global solar exposures. The models were developed using the first six months of data in 2012 for SZA less than or equal to 70° and were applied and evaluated for the exposures in the second half of 2012. This comparison of the modelled exposures for all cloud conditions to the measured data provided an R(2) of 0.8 for the cloud modification model, compared to an R(2) of 0.7 for the UVA/global model. The cloud modification model provided 73% of the five minute exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures. This was improved to 89% of the exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures for the cases of cloud with the sun not obscured.

  20. Psoralen-UVA-treated psoriatic lesions

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    Hashimoto, K. (Univ. of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences, Memphis); Kohda, H.; Kumakiri, M.; Blender, S.L.; Willis, I.

    1978-05-01

    Psoralen-ultraviolet light (PUVA)-treated psoriatic lesions were studied for ultrastructural changes. In early stages of treatment, sunburn cells in the epidermis and bizarre giant cells in the dermis were more frequently observed. When clinical improvement was apparent, these changes had subsided. Dermal abnormality in long-term therapy consisted of a thick perivascular cost of amorphous substance. No abnormality was found in the epidermal keratinocytes in long-term therapy, except a clustering and giant cell formation of melanocytes, a heavy melanization of keratinocytes, and hyperkeratosis. Low-dose initiation and slow increment of both 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA is probably a reasonable regimen for benign dermatoses such as psoriasis because it will allow enough time for the skin to become more protected, while the therapeutic results are as satisfactory as in a high-dose schedule.

  1. Microvascular leakage of plasma proteins after PUVA and UVA

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    Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Rossing, N.; Brodthagen, H.

    1982-04-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), is a parameter of the leakage of macromolecules from the total microvasculature. In patients with psoriasis short-term PUVA treatment induces an increase in TERalb. In this study TERalb was measured in 3 groups of normal humans treated with PUVA, UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen. Treatment with PUVA and UVA caused a statistically significant increase in TERalb, whereas treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen did not induce any measurable changes. It is concluded that the UVA irradiation causes the abnormal leakage of macromolecules, whereas psoralen is not the responsible component. Furthermore the phenomenon can be elicited in normals and is not based on a preexisting psoriasis.

  2. UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review

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    Breuckmann Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-band UVA, long-wave UVA1 and PUVA treatment have been described as an alternative/adjunct therapeutic option in a number of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Nevertheless, controlled studies investigating the efficacy of UVA irradiation in connective tissue diseases and related disorders are rare. Methods Searching the PubMed database the current article systematically reviews established and innovative therapeutic approaches of broad-band UVA irradiation, UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in a variety of different connective tissue disorders. Results Potential pathways include immunomodulation of inflammation, induction of collagenases and initiation of apoptosis. Even though holding the risk of carcinogenesis, photoaging or UV-induced exacerbation, UVA phototherapy seems to exhibit a tolerable risk/benefit ratio at least in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease, lupus erythematosus and a number of sclerotic rarities. Conclusions Based on the data retrieved from the literature, therapeutic UVA exposure seems to be effective in connective tissue diseases and related disorders. However, more controlled investigations are needed in order to establish a clear-cut catalogue of indications.

  3. UVA Light-mediated Ascorbate Oxidation in Human Lenses.

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    Rakete, Stefan; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2017-01-13

    Whether ascorbate oxidation is promoted by UVA light in human lenses and whether this process is influenced by age and GSH levels are not known. In this study, we used paired lenses from human donors. One lens of each pair was exposed to UVA light, whereas the other lens was kept in the dark for the same period of time as the control. Using LC-MS/MS analyses, we found that older lenses (41-73 years) were more susceptible to UVA-induced ascorbate oxidation than younger lenses (18-40 years). Approximately 36% of the ascorbate (relative to control) was oxidized in older lenses compared to ~16% in younger lenses. Furthermore, lenses with higher levels of GSH were less susceptible to UVA-induced ascorbate oxidation compared to those with lower levels, and this effect was not dependent on age. The oxidation of ascorbate led to elevated levels of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds. In summary, our study showed that UVA light exposure leads to ascorbate oxidation in human lenses and that such oxidation is more pronounced in aged lenses and is inversely related to GSH levels. Our findings suggest that UVA light exposure could lead to protein aggregation through ascorbate oxidation in human lenses.

  4. Efficient DNA interstrand crosslinking by 6-thioguanine and UVA radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Reto; Daehn, Ilse; Karran, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Patients taking the immunosuppressant and anticancer thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine or 6-thioguanine (6-TG), develop skin cancer at a very high frequency. Their DNA contains 6-TG which absorbs ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, and their skin is UVA hypersensitive, consistent with the formation of DNA photodamage. Here we demonstrate that UVA irradiation of 6-TG-containing DNA causes DNA interstrand crosslinking. In synthetic duplex oligodeoxynucleotides, the interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) can form between closely opposed 6-TG bases and, in a less favoured reaction, between 6-TG and normal bases on the opposite strand. In vivo, UVA irradiation of cultured cells containing 6-TG-substituted DNA also causes ICL formation and induces the chromosome aberrations that are characteristically associated with this type of DNA lesion. 6-TG/UVA activates the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway via monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 protein. Cells defective in the FA pathway or other factors involved in ICL processing, such as XPF and DNA Polζ, are all hypersensitive to killing by 6-TG/UVA-consistent with a significant contribution of photochemical ICLs to the cytotoxicity of this treatment. Our findings suggest that sunlight-exposed skin of thiopurine treated patients may experience chronic photochemical DNA damage that requires constant intervention of the FA pathway.

  5. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  6. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  7. Effects of arsenite and UVA-1 radiation on calcineurin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musson, Ruben E.A., E-mail: rm@ream.nl [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon H.F. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Smit, Nico P.M. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Calcineurin is a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase and the target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin and tacrolimus, which are used in transplant recipients to prevent rejection. Unfortunately, the therapeutic use of this drugs is complicated by a high incidence of skin malignancy, which has set off a number of studies into the role of calcineurin signaling in skin, particularly with respect to cell cycle control and DNA repair. Both UVA1 radiation and arsenic species are known to promote skin cancer development via production of reactive oxygen species. In light of the well-documented sensitivity of calcineurin to oxidative stress, we examined and compared the effects of UVA1 and arsenite on calcineurin signaling. In this paper, we show that physiologically relevant doses of UVA1 radiation and low micromolar concentrations of arsenite strongly inhibit calcineurin phosphatase activity in Jurkat and skin cells and decrease NFAT nuclear translocation in Jurkat cells. The effects on calcineurin signaling could be partly prevented by inhibition of NADPH oxidase in Jurkat cells or increased dismutation of superoxide in Jurkat and skin cells. In addition, both UVA1 and arsenite decreased NF-{kappa}B activity, although at lower concentrations, arsenite enhanced NF-{kappa}B activity. These data indicate that UVA1 and arsenite affect a signal transduction route of growingly acknowledged importance in skin and that calcineurin may serve as a potential link between ROS exposure and impaired tumor suppression.

  8. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  9. Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    MAS is a remote sensing instrument for passive sounding (limb sounding) of the earth's atmosphere from the Space Shuttle. The main objective of the MAS is to study the composition and dynamic structure of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere in the height range 20 to 100 km, the region known as the middle atmosphere. The MAS will be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission scheduled for late 1990. The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder will provide, for the first time, information obtained simultaneously on the temperature and on ozone concentrations in the 20 to 90 km altitude region. The information will cover a large area of the globe, will have high accuracy and high vertical resolution, and will cover both day and night times. Additionally, data on the two important molecules, H2O and ClO, will also be provided.

  10. 48 CFR 538.271 - MAS contract awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS contract awards. 538... Schedules 538.271 MAS contract awards. (a) MAS awards will be for commercial items as defined in FAR 2.101. Negotiate contracts as a discount from established catalog prices. (b) Before awarding any MAS contract...

  11. Impactos socioambientais e de segurança do alimento na gestão da produção integrada de uvas finas de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procurou identificar e analisar os impactos socioambientais e de Segurança do
    Alimento do processo de certificação da produção de uvas finas de mesa no programa de
    Produção Integrada de Uva (PI-UVA recentemente implantado na região do Submédio do
    Vale do rio São Francisco, no município de Petrolina. A metodologia adotada baseou-se em
    um estudo de caso, analisando-se o processo de certificação vivenciado por uma média
    empresa da região. Os resultados obtidos apontam que a certificação não é só
    compensadora em termos de abertura e manutenção de importantes fatias do mercado
    externo, mas, mesmo internamente apresenta vantagens ao nível do controle operacional e
    satisfação no trabalho entre seus funcionários

  12. DNA repair inhibition by UVA photoactivated fluoroquinolones and vemurafenib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Matthew; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Karran, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous photosensitization is a common side effect of drug treatment and can be associated with an increased skin cancer risk. The immunosuppressant azathioprine, the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and vemurafenib—a BRAF inhibitor used to treat metastatic melanoma—are all recognized clinical photosensitizers. We have compared the effects of UVA radiation on cultured human cells treated with 6-thioguanine (6-TG, a DNA-embedded azathioprine surrogate), the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and vemurafenib. Despite widely different structures and modes of action, each of these drugs potentiated UVA cytotoxicity. UVA photoactivation of 6-TG, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was associated with the generation of singlet oxygen that caused extensive protein oxidation. In particular, these treatments were associated with damage to DNA repair proteins that reduced the efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. Although vemurafenib was also highly phototoxic to cultured cells, its effects were less dependent on singlet oxygen. Highly toxic combinations of vemurafenib and UVA caused little protein carbonylation but were nevertheless inhibitory to nucleotide excision repair. Thus, for three different classes of drugs, photosensitization by at least two distinct mechanisms is associated with reduced protection against potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic DNA damage. PMID:25414333

  13. A social-democracia do MAS boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Simões Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O partido MAS, que governa a Bolívia e é liderado pelo presidente Evo Morales, geralmente é classificado como populista ou como revolucionário. Este artigo contesta ambos os diagnósticos, e sustenta que o MAS é um partido social-democrata. Tanto em sua gênese, como em seu comportamento na oposição, como em suas políticas no governo, o MAS apresenta todas as características necessárias para ser classificado como um representante da social-democracia. Para contestar os diagnósticos predominantes na literatura, o argumento desenvolve-se aplicando três distintas abordagens sobre a social-democracia. Uma comparação histórico-ideológica com os partidos tradicionalmente apontados como social-democratas mostra que o MAS assemelha-se a eles tanto em sua origem fortemente sindical como no tipo de mudança que introduziu na política do país. Uma análise institucional mostra que não procedem as acusações de que é antissistema e contrário à democracia, características associadas tanto aos "populistas", de acordo com "teóricos das duas esquerdas latino-americanas", como aos partidos adeptos da "revolução violenta". Por fim, uma análise das políticas adotadas pelo MAS no governo indica que estão alinhadas com aquelas consideradas como social-democráticas no contexto de integração dos mercados globais. Argumenta-se no texto que o MAS não é em geral classificado como social-democrata, em parte devido a uma visão equivocada sobre suas práticas, e em parte por uma tendência dos estudiosos a chamarem a atenção para o que lhe é específico, e não para o que ele tem em comum com outros partidos de esquerda, como é feito com quaisquer partidos ao catalogá-los em famílias.

  14. 一个多Agent系统规范--MAS/KIB%MAS/KIB--a Multiagent System Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡舜耕; 钟义信

    2000-01-01

    采用K(知道),B(相信),I(意愿)等几个基本的心智状态,建立了一个多Agent系统逻辑规范-MAS/KIB,讨论了其语法、模型和语义,给出了公理和推理规则,研究了MAS/KIB的一些基本性质.

  15. Efeito da safra vitícola na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os fatores que interferem na composição e na qualidade do vinho, destaca-se a safra vitícola, com suas variações climáticas. Com este objetivo, avaliou-se o efeito das safras de 1999, 2000 e 2001 na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha. Nesse sentido, foram selecionados vinte e dois produtores de uva Isabel de onze municípios dessa região. Por ocasião da maturação, para as avaliações da uva e do mosto e a elaboração das microvinificações, foram colhidos 60kg de uva de cada viticultor. A safra vitícola interferiu significativamente no peso do cacho e da baga, mas não alterou a relação peso da ráquis/peso do cacho. No mosto, observaram-se diferenças em todas as variáveis, exceto para a relação degreesBrix/acidez total. No vinho, teve efeito na maior parte das variáveis avaliadas, com exceção aos cátions K, Mn, Cu e Rb. Em geral, a safra de 1999 foi a melhor, pois apresentou parâmetros mais adequados de acidez total, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, alcalinidade das cinzas, taninos, antocianinas e glicerol, variáveis essas que determinam a estrutura e a cor dos vinhos, importantes fatores para sua qualidade.

  16. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2016-03-01

    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  17. The impact of natural sunlight exposure on the UVB-sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) of a UVA/UVB SPF 50 sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Colón, Luz E; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-02-01

    To compare the functional stability of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 as measured by its ultraviolet B sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and ultraviolet A protection factor (UVA-PF) values following exposure to natural sunlight versus the UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values of unexposed product. These two randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded, single-center trials were conducted according to the methods outlined in the 2007 Proposed Amendment to the Final Monograph, “Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use.” Sunscreen samples were applied to glass plates and exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the form of natural sunlight in four minimal erythemal doses (MED) ranging from 2–6 MED (42–36 mJ/cm2). Three test sites were identified on the back of each study subject. Exposed sunscreen (one of four doses), unexposed sunscreen, and a UVB-SPF 15 control sunscreen were applied to the three test sites in a randomized fashion, followed by UV irradiation of incremental doses. Erythema and pigment darkening responses were assessed immediately following UV exposure and again 16–24 hours (erythema) or three to 24 hours (pigment darkening) after exposure. UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values were calculated for the exposed and unexposed samples. The calculated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values for all test samples (exposed and unexposed) were >50 and >9, respectively, which were greater than the stated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values on the product label. No differences were observed between the exposed and unexposed samples in UVB-SPF or UVA-PF. The UVA and UVB protection using standard evaluation techniques of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 remains stable despite exposure of the sunscreen to natural sunlight containing UVB ranging from 2–16 MED (41–336 mJ/cm2) and coexistent UVA.

  18. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, beca

  19. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress.

  20. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Chung, Young-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:23208372

  1. Evaluating UVA aerosol optical depth using a smartphone camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio V; Carter, Brad

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates a smartphone complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor's ability to detect and quantify incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 and 380 nm. Earlier studies revealed that the consumer grade CMOS sensor has inherent UVA sensitivities, despite attenuating effects of the lens. Narrow bandpass and neutral density filters were used to protect the image sensor and to not allow saturation of the solar images produced. Observations were made on clear days, free from clouds. The results of this research demonstrate that there is a definable response to changing solar irradiance and aerosol optical depth can be measured within 5% and 10% error margins at 380 and 340 nm respectively. The greater relative error occurs at lower wavelengths (340 nm) due to increased atmospheric scattering effects, particularly at higher air masses and due to lower signal to noise ratio in the image sensor. The relative error for solar irradiance was under 1% for observations made at 380 nm. The results indicate that the smartphone image sensor, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate solar UVA irradiance and aerosol optical depth. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. UVA experimental and high energy physics. Final grant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1999-10-07

    The period 1992--1997 was a mixture of frustrations and of accomplishments for the UVa HEP group. The experimental HEP group began this period with the completion of a truncated run of Experiment E771 at Fermilab in 1992. This experiment was designed to measure the cross section for beauty production in 800 GeV/c pN interactions. It succeeded in this goal as well as in obtaining one of the best limits on FCNC in charm decays by setting an upper limit on D{sup 0} {r_arrow} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}. In addition, they were able to measure {Psi}, {Psi}, {chi}{sub 1},{chi}{sub 2} and upsilon production. Three UVa PhD theses have resulted from this experiment (as well as 12 other PhD's at other institutions). At the same time, the UVa experimental group was vigorously pursuing the goal of studying CP violation in B production. This took the form of a proposal to the SSC for a super fixed target facility, the SFT, which would focus on studies of B mesons. B. Cox was the spokesman of this experiment that had over thirty institutions. This proposal EOI-14 had a good reception by the SSC PAC. A R and D activity to prove the technique of crystal channeling was undertaken to prove the accelerator aspects of this proposal. This activity, known as E853 or CEX at Fermilab, resulted in proof of the crystal channeling technique as viable for the extraction of 20 TeV beam at the SSC. In addition to this activity, the UVa group investigated many other aspects of B physics at the SSC. They were among the leaders of the 1993 Snowmass meeting on B Physics at Hadronic Accelerators. The UVa HEP group worked vigorously on developing the ideas for B physics at the SSC, as evidenced by the many different studies listed in the publication list given, up to the very day the SSC was terminated by an act of Congress.

  3. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by Fe(III)/UVA and Fe(III)/polycarboxylate/UVA photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; Fernández, G; Beltrán, F J

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) under UVA irradiation in the presence of Fe(III) or Fe(III)-polycarboxylate systems was studied. The effect of Fe(III) concentration, aqueous pH and the presence of four carboxylic acids (oxalic, malic, tartaric and citric) were investigated. The Fe(III)/UVA system was able to effectively degrade BPA at pH 3 but failed at pH > 4. At any rate, no mineralization of BPA was achieved with the Fe(III)/UVA system. The presence of carboxylic acids greatly enhanced the BPA degradation rate because of the formation of photoactive Fe(III)-polycarboxylate complexes. Aqueous pH in the 3-7 range exerted a negative effect on the BPA degradation rate and TOC conversion in the presence of oxalic, malic and tartaric acids. Only slight effect of pH was observed in the presence of citric acid, being the BPA degradation rate significant even at pH 7.

  4. Effect of UVA Fluence Rate on Indicators of Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hoerter, Christopher S. Ward, Kyle D. Bale, Admasu N. Gizachew, Rachelle Graham, Jaclyn Reynolds, Melanie E. Ward, Chesca Choi, Jean-Leonard Kagabo, Michael Sauer, Tara Kuipers, Timothy Hotchkiss, Nate Banner, Renee A. Chellson, Theresa Ohaeri, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a day human skin is exposed to solar UV radiation that fluctuates in fluence rate within the UVA (290-315 nm and UVB (315-400 nm spectrum. Variables affecting the fluence rate reaching skin cells include differences in UVA and UVB penetrating ability, presence or absence of sunscreens, atmospheric conditions, and season and geographical location where the exposure occurs. Our study determined the effect of UVA fluence rate in solar-simulated (SSR and tanning-bed radiation (TBR on four indicators of oxidative stress---protein oxidation, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and reactive oxygen species--in human dermal fibroblasts after receiving equivalent UVA and UVB doses. Our results show that the higher UVA fluence rate in TBR increases the level of all four indicators of oxidative stress. In sequential exposures when cells are exposed first to SSR, the lower UVA fluence rate in SSR induces a protective response that protects against oxidative stress following a second exposure to a higher UVA fluence rate. Our studies underscore the important role of UVA fluence rate in determining how human skin cells respond to a given dose of radiation containing both UVA and UVB radiation.

  5. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  6. UVA causes dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L underlying lysosomal dysfunction in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2013-06-05

    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.

  7. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  8. Governance of Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis by Chronic UVA-Exposed Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fibroblasts and determine if bystander oxidative stress is induced by UVA irradiation and abrogated by antioxidants . In initial studies, we selected...primary human skin cells in order to avoid untoward effects of immortalization or transformation. Initial experiments determined direct effects...of UVA on normal human melanocytes (NHMs), fibroblasts (NHFs) and keratinocytes (NHKs). Figure 1A shows dose- dependent toxicity for three skin

  9. Essential role of Nrf2 in keratinocyte protection from UVA by quercetin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shintarou [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Warabi, Eiji, E-mail: warabi-e@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yanagawa, Toru; Ma, Dongmei [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Itoh, Ken [Department of Stress Response Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki (Japan); Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Tetsuro [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Much of the cell injury caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin is a major natural polyphenol that is known to protect cells from UVA-induced damage. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this protection. Quercetin pretreatment strongly suppressed UVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, markedly increased protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the expression of antioxidative genes, and dramatically reduced the production of reactive oxygen species following UVA irradiation. Importantly, these beneficial effects were greatly attenuated by downregulating Nrf2 expression. Thus, quercetin protects cells from UVA damage mainly by elevating intracellular antioxidative activity via the enhanced accumulation of a transcription factor for antioxidant genes, Nrf2.

  10. Solar or UVA-Visible Photocatalytic Ozonation of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Rey, Ana

    2017-07-14

    An incipient advanced oxidation process, solar photocatalytic ozonation (SPO), is reviewed in this paper with the aim of clarifying the importance of this process as a more sustainable water technology to remove priority or emerging contaminants from water. The synergism between ozonation and photocatalytic oxidation is well known to increase the oxidation rate of water contaminants, but this has mainly been studied in photocatalytic ozonation systems with lamps of different radiation wavelength, especially of ultraviolet nature (UVC, UVB, UVA). Nowadays, process sustainability is critical in environmental technologies including water treatment and reuse; the application of SPO systems falls into this category, and contributes to saving energy and water. In this review, we summarized works published on photocatalytic ozonation where the radiation source is the Sun or simulated solar light, specifically, lamps emitting radiation to cover the UVA and visible light spectra. The main aspects of the review include photoreactors used and radiation sources applied, synthesis and characterization of catalysts applied, influence of main process variables (ozone, catalyst, and pollutant concentrations, light intensity), type of water, biodegradability and ecotoxicity, mechanism and kinetics, and finally catalyst activity and stability.

  11. Phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on rabbit corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Basu, P.K.; Hasany, S.M.; Persad, S.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) were investigated using the rabbit corneal endothelium in organ culture. The corneas were divided into four groups: (a) irradiated with a mercury vapor lamp (emitting UVA and visible radiation) in the presence of 8-MOP (experimental), (b) irradiated without 8-MOP (control A), (c) incubated with 8-MOP (control B) and (d) incubated without 8-MOP (control C). Specular and light microscopic examination showed that the experimental corneas had greater cellular damage compared to the control corneas. The effects of 8-MOP were restricted to certain localized areas of the cornea. However there was no significant difference in the amounts of 51Cr released from the labelled experimental and control corneas. These results show phototoxic damage of the corneal endothelial cells.

  12. 48 CFR 538.272 - MAS price reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS price reductions. 538.272 Section 538.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL... Schedules 538.272 MAS price reductions. (a) Section 552.238-75, Price Reductions, requires the contractor to...

  13. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  14. Involvement of lipid peroxidation and organic peroxides in UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Tobias; Tyrrell, Rex M

    2004-06-15

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation causes human skin aging and skin cancer at least partially through the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-1, the interstitial collagenase, is responsible for the degradation of collagen and is involved in tumor progression in human skin. The present study uses human skin fibroblast cells (FEK4) to investigate the involvement of lipid peroxidation and the role of peroxides as possible mediators in MMP-1 activation by UVA. Preincubation with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox reduced UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation, suggesting that peroxidation of membrane lipids is involved. Blocking the iron-driven generation of lipid peroxides and hydroxyl radicals by different iron chelators led to a decrease in UVA-induced MMP-1 mRNA accumulation. Moreover, modulation of glutathione peroxidase activity by use of the specific inhibitor mercaptosuccinate (MS) or by the depletion of glutathione (using buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO), enhanced the UVA-dependent MMP-1 response. Finally, UVA irradiation generated a significant increase in intracellular peroxide levels which is augmented by pretreatment of the cells with BSO or MS. Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation and the production of peroxides are important events in the signalling pathway of MMP-1 activation by UVA.

  15. [The intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanocyte's cell proliferation after UVA (365 nm) exposed.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced cell proliferation in human skin melanocyte. To apply the optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 cm2, nicotinamide was added after the 0.2 cm2 UVA exposure immediately or 48 h later, then the rate of cell proliferation, calcium concentration and the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes of melanocytes were measured respectively. After treatment with 1.000 mg/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, the rate of cell proliferation was decreased significantly 24 hours later. Treatment with 0.125 mg/ml nicotinamide 48 hours after UVA exposure also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation; 1.25 mg/ml nicotinamide increased calcium concentration in cells; 0.250 mg/ml nicotinamide increased the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes in melanocytes (P Nicotinamide has more obvious effect on inhibiting melanocyte's proliferation if added immediately following UVA exposure. Our discovery indicated that nicotinamide may affect the melanocyte through modulating the calcium concentration. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  16. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm-2) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined. PMID:27401663

  17. Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Suárez, Luis Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabido...

  18. Optimization of dental CBCT exposures through mAs reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, R; Seynaeve, L; Henriques, J C G; de Oliveira-Santos, C; Souza, P C; Westphalen, F H; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ribeiro-Rotta, R F; Rockenbach, M I B; Haiter-Neto, F; Pittayapat, P; Bosmans, H; Bogaerts, R; Jacobs, R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tube current-exposure time (mAs) reduction on clinical and technical image quality for different CBCT scanners, and to determine preliminary minimally acceptable values for the mAs and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CBCT. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and an anthropomorphic skull phantom, containing a human skeleton embedded in polyurethane, were scanned using four CBCT devices, including seven exposure protocols. For all protocols, the mAs was varied within the selectable range. Using the PMMA phantom, the CNRAIR was measured and corrected for voxel size. Eight axial slices and one coronal slice showing various anatomical landmarks were selected for each CBCT scan of the skull phantom. The slices were presented to six dentomaxillofacial radiologists, providing scores for various anatomical and diagnostic parameters. A hyperbolic relationship was seen between CNRAIR and mAs. Similarly, a gradual reduction in clinical image quality was seen at lower mAs values; however, for several protocols, image quality remained acceptable for a moderate or large mAs reduction compared with the standard exposure setting, depending on the clinical application. The relationship between mAs, CNRAIR and observer scores was different for each CBCT device. Minimally acceptable values for mAs were between 9 and 70, depending on the criterion and clinical application. Although noise increased at a lower mAs, clinical image quality often remained acceptable at exposure levels below the manufacturer's recommended setting, for certain patient groups. Currently, it is not possible to determine minimally acceptable values for image quality that are applicable to multiple CBCT models.

  19. A Construction Way of MAS Based on Organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    With emphasizing that the integration of autonomy and coordination is the basis for constructing multi-agent systems (MAS), we analyze the organizational characters inherent with MAS and point out that it's a natural and essential way to construct MAS based on organization theory. We consider that the emphasis of the theory is the process of system analyzing. Then we present an analysis frame to expound the process, which includes the process of organization definition, the process of role definition, the process of organizational structure definition and the process of interaction protocol definition. Lastly, we discuss some issues associated with the processes of system design and implementation.

  20. A multifunctional, light-activated prochelator inhibits UVA-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Andrew T; Wang, Qin; Franz, Katherine J

    2015-11-01

    UVA radiation can damage cells and tissues by direct photodamage of biomolecules as well as by initiating metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. In order to alleviate both concerns simultaneously, we synthesized a multifunctional prochelator PC-HAPI (2-((E)-1-(2-isonicotinoylhydrazono)ethyl)phenyl (trans)-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate) that contains a trans-(o-hydroxy)cinnamate ester photocleavable protecting group that is cleaved upon UVA exposure to release a coumarin, umbelliferone, and an aroylhydrazone metal chelator, HAPI (N'-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyliden]isonicotinoylhydrazide). While the prochelator PC-HAPI exhibits negligible affinity for iron, it responds rapidly to UVA irradiation and converts to an iron-binding chelator that inhibits iron-catalyzed formation of reactive oxygen species and protects cells from UVA damage.

  1. EMPREGO DE EMBALAGENS PARA CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA DE UVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josalba Vidigal de Castro

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho avaliou-se o uso de filmes plásticos (polietileno de 0,05 e 0,08 mm de espessura, 'Everfreshbag' e sacolinhas sanfonadas, de caixas de madeira e de papelão ondulado na qualidade de uvas Itália, durante armazenamento refrigerado. Os cachos de uva foram avaliados semanalmente quanto a percentagem de perda de peso, a taxa de desgrana, a mudança de cor das bagas, a ocorrência de bagas deterioradas, ao aspecto do cacho e a qualidade do engaço. Considerando-se em conjunto os vários parâmetros de qualidade da uva avaliados, constatou-se que a embalagem sacolinha plástica demonstrou ser adequada para conservar uvas Itália por até seis semanas em refrigeração.

  2. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  3. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud [New York Blood Center, NY (United States); Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 {mu}g/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm{sup 2} UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; {>=} 5.5 log{sub 10}) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter ({<=} 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author).

  4. Endothelin-1 downregulates Mas receptor expression in human cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Zuocheng; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yong; Li, Yan; He, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. The Mas receptor is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)‑(1-7), which is now considered a critical component of the RAS and exerts cardioprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with ET-1 at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for varied time periods (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6 h) with or without the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, endothelin A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ123 and ETB receptor blocker BQ788, or different kinase inhibitors. ET-1 decreased the Mas mRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4.5 h, which was reflected in the dose-dependent downregulation of Mas promoter activity, Mas protein levels and Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), BQ123 (1 µM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) siRNA and inhibitor PD169316 (25 µM), completely eliminated the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET-1 downregulates Mas expression at the transcription level in human cardiomyocytes via the ETA receptor by a p38 MAPK‑dependent mechanism. This study provides novel insights into the function of ET-1 and the Ang‑(1-7)/Mas axis in cardiac pathophysiology.

  5. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435

  6. POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y PEROXIDASA DE PULPA DE UVA CAIMARONA (Pourouma cecropiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Rivera Camelo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y peroxidasa (POD fueron extraídas de la pulpa de uva caimarona (Pouroumacecropiifolia y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para PFO se encontró un pH óptimo de 7,0, temperatura óptima de 45 °C y KM de 0,42 mM con L-Dopa como sustrato. Para POD se halló un pH óptimode 6,0, temperatura óptima de 37 °C y valores de KM de 2,0mMpara guayacol y 0,72 mM para H2O2. El perfil electroforéticomostró cinco iso-PFO y tres iso- POD. POD fue más termorresistente que PFO. De cuatro inhibidores estudiados el ácido ascórbico fue el inhibidor más potente, seguido por el bisulfito de sodio, mientras que el ácido cítrico y el cloruro de sodio fueron los menos potentes.

  7. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200-250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg(2)), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg(2)). The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  9. Treatment of T. cruzi infected human platelet concentrates with aminomethyltrimethyl psoralen (AMT and ultravioleta (UV-A light: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Moraes-Souza

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The present measures adopted to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease include screening of blood donors. and/or the inactivation of T. cruzi in collected blood using gentian violet (GV as a trypanocidal agent. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined use of AMT and UV-A in inactirating T. cruzi in infected human platelet cuncentrates. Human platelet concentrates were infected with T. cruzi (2x10/ml of the Y strain transfered to PL 269 (Fenwal Laboratories containers and treated with GV (250řg,/ml. and ascorbic acid (1 mg/ml; GV. ascorbic acid and UV-A; GV and UV-A; AMT (40/tG/ml and ascorbic acid; AMT, ascorbic acid and UV-A; AMT and UV-A; UV-A alone; and untreated (control. All UV-A treated platelet concentrates were exposed to UV-A doses of 24, 92, 184, 276, 368 and 644 kj/m². and the microscopical research of active T. cruzi was performed, using the microhematocrit technique, 1, 6 and 24 hours after each treatment. A high number of active forms of T. cruzi was observed in all condictions, except when GV was used as the trypanocidal agent, providing evidence of the failure of AMT and UV-A in inactivating T cruzi in infected human platelet concentrates.

  10. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in UVA-irradiated human skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treina, G.; Scaletta, C.; Frenk, E.; Applegate, L.A. [University Hospital-CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Laboratory of Photobiology; Fourtanier, A.; Seite, S. [L`Oreal-Centre de Recherche Charles Zviak (France). Recherche Avancee Biologie

    1996-08-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation represents an important oxidative stress to human skin and certain forms of oxidative stress have been shown to modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important part in many immune reactions and the perturbations of this molecule by ultraviolet radiation could have implications in many inflammatory responses. An enhancement immunohistochemical method with avidin/biotin was used for analysing the early effects of UVA radiation on human cell cultures and human skin (340-400 nm). Both in vitro and in vivo data show that ICAM-1 staining in epidermal keratinocytes, which was expressed constitutively, decreased in a UVA dose-dependent manner. The decrease was most noted at 3-6 h following UVA radiation with some ICAM-1 staining returning by 48 h post-UVA. ICAM-1 positive staining in the dermis was specific for vascular structures and was increased 24 h after UVA radiation. Cultured dermal fibroblasts exhibited ICAM-1 staining which increased slightly within 6-48 h post-UVA radiation. As epidermal ICAM-1 expression is depleted following UVA radiation and dermal expression increases due to an increase in the vascular structures, ICAM-1 provides a valuable marker following UVA radiation in human skin that can be readily measured in situ. (author).

  11. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  12. Transglutaminase involvement in UV-A damage to the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, O; Dovrat, A

    1996-11-01

    Solar radiation is believed to be one of the major environmental factors involved in lens cataractogenesis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the mechanisms by which UV-A at 365 nm causes damage to the eye lens. Bovine lenses were placed in special culture cells for pre-incubation of 24 hr. The lenses were positioned so that the anterior surface faced the incident UV-A radiation source and were maintained in the cells during irradiation. After irradiation, lens optical quality was monitored throughout the culture period and lens epithelium, cortex and nuclear samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Transglutaminase activity in the lens was affected by the radiation. The activity of transglutaminase in lens epithelium cortex and nucleus increased as a result of the irradiation and then declined towards control levels during the culture period, as the lens recovered from the UV-A damage. Specific lens proteins, alpha B and beta B1 crystallins (the enzyme substrates) were analyzed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Seventy-two hours after irradiation of 44.8 J cm-2 UV-A, alpha B crystallins were affected as was shown by the appearance of aggregation and degradation products. Some protein changes seem to be reversible. It appears that transglutaminase may be involved in the mechanism by which UV-A causes damage to the eye lens.

  13. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320–400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:26485711

  14. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  15. KINERJA USAHA TANAMAN HIAS POTONG PT PESONA DAUN MAS ASRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Arief Bangun Sanjaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesona Daun Mas Asri is a company in cut flowers  and leaves cultivation. The  achievement is shown by the performance of the company. The overall company’s performance contributes in developing the company’s vision. Balanced score card is a management tool used to observe and maintain the stability between financial indicators (financial perspective and non financial indicators (customer, business internal process, growth and learning.  The objective of the journal is to plan the performance of the company using balanced scorecard approach, analyze and calculate the vision, mission and strategy implemented by Pesona Daun Mas in it business activity..  The result for every strategic target shows that the performance of Pesona Daun Mas is excellent with the achieved score of 78,04%.  However the target for the selling growth level and marketing activities are classified as average which means that it still needs to be developed.   Keywords:  balanced scorecard, performance evaluation, KPI performance index, ornamental plants cutAbstrakPesona Daun Mas Asri merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang budi daya bunga potong dan daun potong. Pencapaian dalam menjalankan sebuah perusahaan dapat dilihat dari kinerja perusahaan tersebut.Kinerja perusahaan Pesona Daun Mas Asri secara keseluruhan dapat berkontribusi untuk mengembangkan perusahaan dalam mencapai visi. Balanced scorecard adalah salah satu alat manajemen yang dapat melihat dan menjaga keseimbangan antara indikator keuangan (perspektif keuangan dan indikator non-keuangan (pelanggan, proses bisnisinternal, pertumbuhan dan pembelajaran. Tujuan dari jurnal ini adalah untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan pendekatan Balanced scorecard. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan menganalisis dan mengukur pelaksanaan visi, misi dan strategi yang dijalankan oleh Pesona Daun Mas Asri dalam kegiatan bisnisnya. Selain itu, memberikan saran dan rekomendasi, serta merumuskan implikasi

  16. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  17. O sentido argumentativo do articulador mas no discurso oral

    OpenAIRE

    Nesello, Marcela Cristiane

    2008-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo estudar o sentido do articulador mas no discurso oral pela Teoria da Argumentação na Língua de Oswald Ducrot e colaboradores. Temos o propósito de identificar e analisar os sentidos que o articulador mas assume no discurso oral, bem como suas diferentes funções, por isso trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa. Também é objetivo desta pesquisa identificar os encadeamentos precedentes e subseqüentes ao articulador. Para esses fins, apresentamos estudos sobre o artic...

  18. Chronic UVA (365-nm) irradiation induced scratching in hairless mice: dose-time dependency and the effect of ketanserin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laat, J.M.T. de; Groenendijk, M.; Vloten, W.A. van; Gruijl, F.R. de [Univ. Hospital Utrecht, Dept. of Dermatology (Netherlands); Seite, S. [L`Oreal-Centre de Recherche Charles Zviak, Recherche Avancee Biologie (France)

    1997-12-31

    In a study on the dose-response relationship for longwave UVA (UVA1; 340-400 nm) carcinogenesis in hairless mice scratch marks appeared after months of daily exposure as an unwanted side effect. Tumor induction in the highest of the 4 tested dose groups (receiving a daily dose of 430 kJ/m{sup 2} of 365-nm radiation) could not be determined because extensive scarification occurred prior to the development of any tumors. The induction of scratch marks could be scored and quantified in all 4 dose groups tested. The UVA1 dose-dependencies for the induction of tumors and scratch marks were compared. We found that the induction of scratch marks depended mainly on the cumulative UVA1 exposure, whereas tumor induction showed a lesser dose-dependency. An attempt was made to prevent the apparent pruritogenic effect of UVA1 irradiation and to understand its mechanism. The influence of ketanserin, a serotonin/histamine antagonist, on the UVA1 induction of scratch marks was tested in groups of 8 mice daily irradiated with 430 kJ/m{sup 2}. No difference was found between treated and untreated animals. Histological examination of skin biopsies from irradiated mice from the 430-kJ/m{sup 2} dose group from the UVA1 carcinogenic experiment, showed no changes in numbers of mast cells or other inflammatory features when compared to skin biopsies from unirradiated control mice. This indicated that UVA1-induced scratching is not mediated through mast cell release of serotonin and/or histamine. An adequate therapeutic treatment which can prevent UVA1-induced scratching would enable us to test tumor induction with UVA1 over a larger dose range, and may provide additional insight in how this radiation damages the skin. It remains conjectural whether there exists and analogous UVA-induced pruritus in human skin. (au) 26 refs.

  19. FESTA DA UVA DE CAXIAS DO SUL/RS: A mémoria de uma festa através de seus cartazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zottis

    2010-09-01

    /RS industrializou-se e o evento não deixou de sentir esses reflexos. A uva, ligada à imagem da cidade e símbolo da Festa, cedia lugar aos produtos da indústria. Ato contínuo, a Feira Agroindustrial, promovida conjuntamente à Festa, assumiu maiores proporções e suplantaria o caráter festivo. Os slogans presentes nos cartazes reforçavam com evocações da “maior das festas” e “feira internacional”. O resgate da presença dos cartazes e a análise do seu significado resultaram na dissertação intitulada “b”, defendida em 2003, no Mestrado em Turismo/UCS. O objetivo do presente texto, mais do que retomar a dissertação propriamente, é o de socializar as imagens arroladas como corpus da pesquisa, por sua importância histórica e significado, tanto para o Turismo como para a Comunicação. Os textos sobre cada deles visam, apenas, contextualizar para o leitor o contexto da produção de cada uma das peças, para que possam a vir embasar novas e frutíferas pesquisas. O levantamento das peças foi realizado de setembro de 2001 a janeiro de 2003, exigindo uma busca exaustiva, diante da precariedade, na época, dos arquivos iconográficos. O ponto de partida foi o site oficial e o acervo da festa. Outro importante auxílio veio da memória de pessoas envolvidas com a história da Festa da Uva, como ex-presidentes e ex-prefeitos. Em seguida, a consulta passou para o Arquivo Municipal João Spadari Adami. Após uma primeira seleção, onde foram identificados 17 cartazes, foi necessário verificar se esses correspondiam às peças oficiais utilizadas no evento. Para esse delineamento, se tornou necessário consultar outros documentos, como os jornais dos períodos correspondentes. Sugiram, então, outras peças que eram citadas pela imprensa, mas não figuravam no arquivo municipal, ou, ainda, não correspondiam ao cartaz oficialmente adotado. Também se recorreu a dois arquivos particulares: ao da família Andreazza e do ex-prefeito Mário David Vanin. Não foram

  20. Chrysin protects epidermal keratinocytes from UVA- and UVB-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan-Lin; Fang, Jia-You; Chen, Marcelo; Wu, Chia-Jung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2011-08-10

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid occurring in various plants and foods such as propolis and honey, reportedly opposes inflammation and carcinogenesis, but has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the roles of chrysin in protection against UV-induced damage in HaCaT keratinocytes. Results showed that chrysin can attenuate apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression induced by UVB and UVA. Chrysin predominantly reversed the down-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) by UVB. It predominantly reversed JNK activation and also mildly inhibited p38 activation triggered by UVA and UVB. Animal studies revealed that chrysin's topical application demonstrated efficient percutaneous absorption and no skin irritation. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of chrysin on the protection of keratinocytes against UVA- and UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  1. Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 μM of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA: a direct photochemical mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, Stéphane; Philippe, Coralie; Gracia-Chantegrel, Jocelyne; Banyasz, Akos; Karpati, Szilvia; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Douki, Thierry

    2010-04-07

    The carcinogenic action of UVA radiation is commonly attributed to DNA oxidation mediated by endogenous photosensitisers. Yet, it was recently shown that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), well known for their involvement in UVB genotoxicity, are produced in larger yield than oxidative lesions in UVA-irradiated cells and skin. In the present work, we gathered mechanistic information on this photoreaction by comparing formation of all possible bipyrimidine photoproducts upon UVA irradiation of cells, purified genomic DNA and dA(20):dT(20) oligonucleotide duplex. We observed that the distribution of photoproducts, characterized by the sole formation of CPD and the absence of (6-4) photoproducts was similar in the three types of samples. The CPD involving two thymines represented 90% of the amount of photoproducts. Moreover, the yields of formation of the DNA lesions were similar in cells and isolated DNA. In addition, the effect of the wavelength of the incident photons was found to be the same in isolated DNA and cells. This set of data shows that UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are formed via a direct photochemical mechanism, without mediation of a cellular photosensitiser. This is possible because the double-stranded structure increases the capacity of DNA bases to absorb UVA photons, as evidenced in the case of the oligomer dA(20):dT(20). These results emphasize the need to consider UVA in the carcinogenic effects of sunlight. An efficient photoprotection is needed that can only be complete by completely blocking incident photons, rather than by systemic approaches such as antioxidant supplementation.

  3. Extracellular Polysaccharide Production in a Scytonemin-Deficient Mutant of Nostoc punctiforme Under UVA and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Shipe, Dexter; Lothamer, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Some cyanobacteria can protect themselves from ultraviolet radiation by producing sunscreen pigments. In particular, the sheath pigment scytonemin protects cells against long-wavelength UVA radiation and is only found in cyanobacteria which are capable of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The presence of a putative glycosyltransferase encoded within the scytonemin gene cluster, along with the localization of scytonemin and EPS to the extracellular sheath, prompted us to investigate the relationship between scytonemin and EPS production under UVA stress. In this study, it was hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the biosynthesis of scytonemin and EPS under both UVA and oxidative stress, since the latter is a by-product of UVA radiation. EPS production was measured following exposure of wild-type Nostoc punctiforme and the non-scytonemin-producing strain SCY59 to UVA and oxidative stress. Under UVA, SCY59 produced significantly more EPS than the unstressed controls and the wild type, while both strains produced more EPS under oxidative stress compared to the controls. The results suggest that EPS secretion occurs in response to the oxidative stress by-product of UVA rather than as a direct response to UVA radiation.

  4. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish.

  5. Changes of MMP-1 and collagen type Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA are differentially regulated by Trx-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Nicole; Schroeder, Peter; Jakob, Sascha; Kunze, Kerstin; Maresch, Tanja; Calles, Christian; Krutmann, Jean; Haendeler, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar radiation, which includes ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB) visible light and infrared radiation, induces skin aging. The effects of light have been attributed to irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, but the specific signaling pathways are not well understood. Detrimental effects of solar radiation are dermal diseases and photoaging. Exposure of cultured human dermal fibroblasts to UVA, UVB or IRA increased ROS formation in vitro. One important redox regulator is the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx). Trx is ubiquitously expressed and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides its function to reduce H(2)O(2), Trx binds to and regulates transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Trx influences the regulation of MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA. We irradiated human dermal fibroblasts with UVA, UVB and IRA. UVA, UVB and IRA upregulated MMP-1 expression. Trx inhibited UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation in a NFkappaB dependent manner. UVA, UVB and IRA reduced collagen Ialpha1 expression. Incubation with Trx inhibited the effects of UVB and IRA on collagen Ialpha1 expression. In conclusion, MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1, which play important roles in aging processes, seems to be regulated by different transcriptional mechanisms and Trx can only influence distinct signaling pathways induced by UVA, UVB and probably IRA. Thus, Trx may serve as an important contributor to an "anti-aging therapeutic cocktail".

  6. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how innov

  7. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...

  8. Size-exclusion chromatographic NMR under HR-MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Alcalde, Guillermo; Anderson, Natalie; Day, Iain J

    2017-05-01

    The addition of stationary phases or sample modifiers can be used to modify the separation achievable in the diffusion domain of diffusion NMR experiments or provide information on the nature of the analyte-sample modifier interaction. Unfortunately, the addition of insoluble chromatographic stationary phases can lead to line broadening and degradation in spectral resolution, largely because of differences in magnetic susceptibility between the sample and the stationary phase. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) techniques can be used to remove this broadening. Here, we attempt the application of HR-MAS to size-exclusion chromatographic NMR with limited success. Observed diffusion coefficients for polymer molecular weight reference standards are shown to be larger than those obtained on static samples. Further investigation reveals that under HR-MAS it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients, using either full rotor synchronisation or sophisticated pulse sequences. The requirement for restricting the sample to the centre of the MAS rotor to ensure homogeneous magnetic and RF fields is also tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  10. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  11. A Vision in Jeopardy: Royal Navy Maritime Autonomous Systems (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    article in The Economist, which observed that to break from the structures of Augustine’s 16th Law and unaffordable cost trends, defense needed a...52 Bibliography ...developed, not by the RN, but by the industrial and scientific research communities. Hoping to encourage the RN to invest in unmanned and MAS

  12. Residue specific hydration of primary cell wall potato pectin identified by solid-state 13C single-pulse MAS and CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H; Byg, Inge; Damager, Iben

    2011-01-01

    Hydration of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) derived from potato cell wall was analyzed by 13C single-pulse (SP) magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and supported by 2H SP/MAS NMR experiments. The study shows that the arabinan side chains...

  13. Desarrollo de nuevas variedades de uva (Vitis vinifera L.) sin semilla mediante rescate de embriones

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ernesto Tiznado Hernández; Alejandro Miranda Jiménez; Ángel J. Ojeda Contreras; Alberto Sánchez Estrada; Héctor J. Arreola Ortiz; Gerardo Martínez Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos principales de un programa de mejoramiento genético de uva es el desarrollo de variedades sin semilla. Sin embargo, para lograr esto se requiere combinar la técnica de rescate de embriones con la genética tradicional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar híbridos de cruzas con las siguientes variedades de uva sin semilla: Perlette, Black Seedless, Crimson Seedless, Crispy, Flame, Superior, Princesa, Red Globe, Fiesta, Fresno y Thompson, utilizadas como padre y como...

  14. [Hepatic manifestation of a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Schwarting, Andreas; Straub, Beate K; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure. In addition to genetic causes, MAS is commonly associated with infections and rheumatic diseases. We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient suffering from MAS as a rare cause of elevated liver enzymes. Methods Patient characteristics, laboratory values, liver histology, bone marrow and radiological imaging were documented and analyzed. Case Report After an ordinary upper airway infection with bronchitis, a rheumatic arthritis appeared and was treated with leflunomide und methotrexate. In the further course of the disease, the patient developed an acute hepatitis with fever, pancytopenia and massive hyperferritinemia. Immunohistochemistry of the liver biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis and activation of CD68-positive macrophages. In the radiological and histological diagnostics of the liver and bone marrow, an MAS was diagnosed as underlying disease of the acute hepatitis. Under therapy with prednisolone, the fever disappeared and transaminases and ferritin rapidly normalized. Conclusion Aside from the frequent causes of elevated liver values in younger patients, such as nutritive toxic, drug induced liver injury, viral or autoimmune hepatitis, especially in case of massive hyperferritinemia, a MAS should be considered as a rare cause of acute liver disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Pilot Study for UVA-LED Disinfection of Escherichia coli in Water for Space and Earth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragolta, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    To test the efficacy of UVA-LED disinfection, a solution of Escherichia coli was pumped through a modified drip flow reactor at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment chamber to ensure that temperature did not cause disinfection. The reactor featured three wells with different treatments: UVA-LED irradiation, UVA-LEDs with Ti02, and UVA-LEDs with nanosilver. Samples from each well were taken throughout a 340 hour period, inactivated, assayed, and analyzed for E. coli disinfection. Results of the duplicate experiments indicated longer exposure times are needed for UVA-LED disinfection of E. coli in water. Further research would consider a longer sampling period and different test conditions, such as increased contact area and various flow rates.

  16. Effects of UV-A Radiation on Desmodesmus armatus: Changes in Growth Rate, Pigment Content and Morphological Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálffy, Károly; Vörös, Lajos

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory cultures of Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chod.) Hegew. were grown under different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with 3.75 mW . cm-2 UV-A radiation. Growth rate was monitored daily, chlorophyl-a concentration, total carotenoid content, cell number and the relative abundance of different coenobial forms was determined at the end of each experiment. Exposure to UV-A radiation resulted in an increasing inhibition of growth towards higher PAR levels, reaching 100% at 400 μmol . m-2 . s-1. Cellular carotenoid content was higher in the presence of UV-A radiation, on the other hand no differences were observed in cellular chlorophyll-a concentration. UV-A radiation also induced changes in coenobium formation with a decreasing proportion of 4-celled coenobia and an increase in the abundance of 2-celled and teratologic coenobia, suggesting that high intensity UV-A radiation may influence cell cycle events or morphology development.

  17. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range.

  18. 1H MAS and 1H --> 31P CP/MAS NMR study of human bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaflak-Hachulska, A; Samoson, A; Kolodziejski, W

    2003-11-01

    Chemical structure of human bone mineral was studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Trabecular and cortical bone samples from adult subjects were compared with mineral standards: hydroxyapatite (HA), hydrated and calcined, carbonatoapatite of type B with 9 wt% of CO3(2-) (CHA-B), brushite (BRU) and mixtures of HA with BRU. Proton spectra were acquired with excellent spectral resolution provided by ultra-high speed MAS at 40 kHz. 2D 1H-31P NMR heteronuclear correlation was achieved by cross-polarization (CP) under fast MAS at 12 kHz. 31P NMR was applied with CP from protons under slow MAS at 1 kHz. Appearance of 31P rotational sidebands together with their CP kinetics were analyzed. It was suggested that the sidebands of CP spectra are particularly suitable for monitoring the state of apatite crystal surfaces. The bone samples appeared to be deficient in structural hydroxyl groups analogous to those in HA. We found no direct evidence that the HPO4(2-) brushite-like ions are present in bone mineral. The latter problem is extensively discussed in the literature. The study proves there is a similarity between CHA-B and bone mineral expressed by their similar NMR behavior.

  19. Differential sensitivity of T lymphocytes and hematopoietic precursor cells to photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabed, Mohamed; Coffe, Christian; Racadot, Evelyne; Angonin, Regis; Pavey, Jean-Jaques; Tiberghien, Pierre; Herve, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) has immunomodulatory effects and might abolish both graft-vs-host and host-vs-graft reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we have confirmed the sensitivity of T lymphocytes to 8-MOP treatment plus UV-A exposure as evidenced by the abrogation of the alloreactivity in mixed lymphocyte cultures as well as the inhibition of the response to phytohemagglutinin A. However, the clonogenic capacity of the bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors was inhibited with UV-A doses lower than the doses needed to inhibit T-lymphocytes alloreactivity. Moreover, long-term bone marrow cultures showed that 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment had detrimental effects on the more immature bone marrow stem cells. These data were confirmed when murine bone marrow graft was treated with 8-MOP, exposed to UV-A, then transplanted into semiallogeneic recipient mice. The treated cells could not maintain their clonogenic capacity in vivo resulting in death of all animals. Taken together, these data show that ex vivo 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment of the marrow graft cannot be used to prevent post-bone marrow transplantation alloreactivity.

  20. Stabilization of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas through interaction with PSD95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Weihua; Sun, Licui; Yang, Longyan; Li, Ji-Feng; Hu, Jia; Zheng, Shuai; Guo, Ruihan; Feng, Duiping; Ma, Qian; Shi, Xiaocui; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Xiaomei; Song, Ran; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Songlin; He, Junqi

    2013-08-01

    The functions and signalling mechanisms of the Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] receptor Mas have been studied extensively. However, less attention has been paid to the intracellular regulation of Mas protein. In the present study, PSD95 (postsynaptic density 95), a novel binding protein of Mas receptor, was identified, and their association was characterized further. Mas specifically interacts with PDZ1-2, but not the PDZ3, domain of PSD95 via Mas-CT (Mas C-terminus), and the last four amino acids [ETVV (Glu-Thr-Val-Val)] of Mas-CT were determined to be essential for this interaction, as shown by GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal co-localization experiments. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies indicated that PSD95 enhanced Mas protein expression by increasing the stabilization of the receptor. Mas degradation was robustly inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in time- and dose-dependent manners, and the expression of PSD95 impaired Mas ubiquitination, indicating that the PSD95-Mas association inhibits Mas receptor degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of Mas receptor regulation by which its expression is modulated at the post-translational level by ubiquitination, and clarify the role of PSD95, which binds directly to Mas, blocking the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the receptor via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  1. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...

  2. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by

  3. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by cultur

  4. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.

    2012-01-01

    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  5. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.

    2012-01-01

    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  6. A study of the photodegradation of leukotriene B sub 4 by ultraviolet irradiation (UVB, UVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, B.; Green, C.; Ferguson, J.; Raffle, E.J.; Macleod, T.M. (Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (UK))

    1989-02-01

    In view of the presence of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemoattractant Leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) in surface scale of the psoriatic lesion and the known therapeutic effect of phototherapy in psoriasis, the photostability of LTB{sub 4} was investigated. LTB{sub 4} was irradiated with UVB (290-320 nm) from 100-1500 mJ cm{sup -2} and UVA (320-400 nm) from 5-40 J cm{sup -2}. Topical application of UVB irradiated LTB{sub 4} to forearm skin of normal volunteers showed marked reduction in cutaneous erythema, paralleled by reduced transepidermal PMN migration compared with sites of application of unirradiated and UVA irradiated LTB{sub 4}. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated a dose-dependent photodegradation of LTB{sub 4} by UVB irradiation. UVA irradiation produced no such effect. The wavelengths responsible lie within the absorption spectrum of LTB{sub 4}. In vitro chemotaxis studies, using an under agarose technique, showed a statistically significant reduction in the migration of PMN from psoriatic and non-psoriatic subjects to the UVB irradiated LTB{sub 4} compared with unirradiated LTB{sub 4}, whilst UVA irradiated LTB{sub 4} produced a normal PMN chemotactic response. (author).

  7. Smartphone-Based Android app for Determining UVA Aerosol Optical Depth and Direct Solar Irradiances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio; Carter, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This research describes the development and evaluation of the accuracy and precision of an Android app specifically designed, written and installed on a smartphone for detecting and quantifying incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 and 380 nm. Earlier studies demonstrated that a smartphone image sensor can detect UVA radiation and the responsivity can be calibrated to measured direct solar irradiance. This current research provides the data collection, calibration, processing, calculations and display all on a smartphone. A very strong coefficient of determination of 0.98 was achieved when the digital response was recalibrated and compared to the Microtops sun photometer direct UVA irradiance observations. The mean percentage discrepancy for derived direct solar irradiance was only 4% and 6% for observations at 380 and 340 nm, respectively, lessening with decreasing solar zenith angle. An 8% mean percent difference discrepancy was observed when comparing aerosol optical depth, also decreasing as solar zenith angle decreases. The results indicate that a specifically designed Android app linking and using a smartphone image sensor, calendar and clock, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate both direct solar UVA irradiance and low aerosol optical depths for areas with low aerosol loads. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  9. Cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.A.; Pryor, D.V. [Superconducting Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Frock, C.K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In a signal processing environment, cross ambiguity functions are often used to detect when one signal is a time and/or frequency shift of another. They consist of multiple cross-correlations, which can be computed efficiently using complex valued FFTs. This paper discusses the implementation of cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2, a SIMD processor array. Two different implementations are developed. The first computes each cross ambiguity function serially, using FFT code that parallelizes across the complete set of processors. The second uses the MasPar IORAM to realign the data so that the cross ambiguity functions can be computed in parallel. In this case, multiple FFTs are executed in parallel on subsets of the processors, which lowers the overall amount of communication required.

  10. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  11. Solvent signal suppression for high-resolution MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Chaudhari, Sachin R.; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a powerful tool to substantially increase the sensitivity of high-field magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. The addition of dissolved hyperpolarizing agents usually results in the presence of solvent signals that can overlap and obscure those of interest from the analyte. Here, two methods are proposed to suppress DNP solvent signals: a Forced Echo Dephasing experiment (FEDex) and TRAnsfer of Populations in DOuble Resonance Echo Dephasing (TRAPDORED) NMR. These methods reintroduce a heteronuclear dipolar interaction that is specific to the solvent, thereby forcing a dephasing of recoupled solvent spins and leaving acquired NMR spectra free of associated resonance overlap with the analyte. The potency of these methods is demonstrated on sample types common to MAS-DNP experiments, namely a frozen solution (of L-proline) and a powdered solid (progesterone), both containing deuterated glycerol as a DNP solvent. The proposed methods are efficient, simple to implement, compatible with other NMR experiments, and extendable past spectral editing for just DNP solvents. The sensitivity gains from MAS-DNP in conjunction with FEDex or TRAPDORED then permits rapid and uninterrupted sample analysis.

  12. Immunoprotective UVA (320-400 nm) irradiation upregulates heme oxygenase-1 in the dermis and epidermis of hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Munif; Reeve, Vivienne E

    2004-04-01

    The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) radiation provides a protective cellular defence against oxidative stress, and has been well demonstrated in cultured human skin fibroblasts, although keratinocytes were unreactive. The UVA responsiveness of HO-1 however, has not been confirmed in intact skin. Previously, we reported that UVA-inducible HO enzyme activity in mouse skin is protective against UVB-induced immunosuppression. This study identifies the induced HO isoform and its localization in mouse skin irradiated in vivo with such an immunoprotective UVA dose. We found that HO-1 mRNA was expressed in UVA-irradiated skin, but not in normal or UVB-irradiated skin, whereas constitutive HO-2 was always present. UVA-irradiated skin had increased HO enzyme activity and bilirubin content, and decreased heme content, consistent with HO-1 induction. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining localized HO-1 mRNA and protein to both epidermis and dermis, with strongest expression in basal keratinocytes and weaker expression in dermal fibroblast-like and other cells, in contrast with UVA-induced HO-1 in cultured human skin fibroblasts. This suggests that cultured skin cells may not fully represent skin functions in vivo, or that there may be inherent differences between human and hairless mouse skin HO-1 responses.

  13. Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Motta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnCl2 and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+ had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii UVA+SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA+ SnCl2.

  14. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan.

  15. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  16. Effect of surface modification and UVA photoactivation on antibacterial bioactivity of zinc oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Hasan, Habsah; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul

    2014-02-01

    The effects of surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) powder and UVA illumination on the powder towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. FESEM-EDS results showed that oxygen annealing increased the O:Zn ratio on the surface of ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate samples. Surface conductances of ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate pellets were reduced from 1.05 nS to 0.15 nS and 1.34 nS to 0.23 nS, respectively. Meanwhile, UVA illumination on the surface of the ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate samples was found to improve surface conductance to 7.08 nS and 6.51 nS, respectively, due to the release of charge carrier. Photoluminescence results revealed that oxygen annealing halved the UV emission intensity and green emission intensity, presumably caused by oxygen absorption in the ZnO lattice. The antibacterial results showed that oxygen-treated ZnO exhibited slightly higher growth inhibition on E. coli and S. aureus compared with unannealed ZnO. UVA illumination on ZnO causes the greatest inhibition toward E. coli and S. aureus. Under the UVA excitation, the inhibition of E. coli increased by 18% (ZnO-rod) and 13% (ZnO-plate) while the inhibition of S. aureus increased by 22% (ZnO-rod) and 21% (ZnO-plate). Release of reactive oxygen species were proposed in antibacterial mechanisms, which were aided by surface modification and UVA photoactivation. The reactive oxygen species disrupted the DNA and protein synthesis of the bacterial cell, causing bacteriostatic effects toward E. coli and S. aureus.

  17. Application of UVA-riboflavin crosslinking to enhance the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Coyle, Aron

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogels derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have become increasing popular in recent years, particularly for use in tissue engineering. One limitation with ECM hydrogels is that they tend to have poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues they are trying to replicate. To address this problem, a UVA (ultraviolet-A) riboflavin crosslinking technique was applied to ECM hydrogels to determine if it could be used to improve their elastic modulus. Hydrogels fabricated from corneal, cardiac and liver ECM were used in this study. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using a spherical indentation technique. The microstructure of the hydrogels and the cytotoxic effect of crosslinking on cell seeded hydrogels were also evaluated. The combination of UVA light and riboflavin solution led to a significant increase in elastic modulus from 6.8kPa to 24.7kPa, 1.4kPa to 6.9kPa and 0.9kPa to 1.6kPa for corneal, cardiac and liver ECM hydrogels respectively. The extent of this increase was dependent on a number of factors including the UVA exposure time and the initial hydrogel concentration. There were also a high percentage of viable cells within the cell seeded hydrogels with 94% of cells remaining viable after 90min exposure to UVA light. These results suggest that UVA-riboflavin crosslinking is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties of ECM hydrogels without resulting in a significant reduction of cell viability.

  18. PERBAIKAN MUTU GENETIK IKAN MAS RAJADANU MELALUI SELEKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Radona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan mas rajadanu mempunyai karakter cepat tumbuh dan tahan penyakit. Selective breeding merupakan salah satu upaya dalam peningkatan mutu induk dan benih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respons pertumbuhan dan nilai heritabilitas pada ikan mas rajadanu (F-3 yang berpotensi tumbuh lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan generasi sebelumnya (F-2. Pembentukan ikan mas rajadanu F-3 dilakukan dengan metode hierarki (satu jantan membuahi empat betina. Pengujian respons seleksi dilakukan terhadap benih hasil pemijahan induk ikan mas rajadanu F-2 yang terseleksi. Terbentuk sebanyak 25 famili dan dipelihara secara terpisah selama 160 hari pada kolam beton ukuran 1,5 m x 1 m dengan ketinggian air 60 cm. Kolam digunakan sebanyak 25 buah. Respons seleksi dihitung dengan melihat nilai rata-rata pertumbuhan F-3 dibandingkan dengan F-2. Hasil penelitian menunjukan performa ikan mas rajadanu F-3 memiliki nilai respons seleksi (14,20 g; nilai heritabilitas (0,60; pertambahan bobot (41,63 ± 10,51 g; dan pertambahan panjang (9,86 ± 1,43 cm. Rajadanu carp strain have character of fast growing and disease resistant. Selective breeding is one of an attempts can be appllied to improve the broodstock and seed quality genetically. This research was aims to see response of growth and heritability value of F-3 on carp rajadanu that potentially grow faster compared with previous generation (F-2. The F-3 carp rajadanu was designated with hierarchy method (one males fertilize four female. The F-3 was derived from F-2 and formed 25 families. Those families were maintained for 160 days on pond with size of 1.5 m x 1 m and water depth of 60 cm. The response selection was calculated by choosing the best individuals of each based on ADG (averange daily growth. The research result show that the values of response selection was 14.20 g, heritability value of 0.60, weight, and length gain were 41.63 g and 9.86 cm, respectively.

  19. The MicroMAS CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Allen, G.; Bury, M.; Efromson, R.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, V.; Osaretin, I.; Retherford, L.; Scarito, M.; Shields, M.; Toher, D.; Wight, K.; Miller, D.; Marinan, A.; Paek, S.; Peters, E.; Schmidt, F. H.; Alvisio, B.; Wise, E.; Masterson, R.; Franzim Miranda, D.; Crail, C.; Kingsbury, R.; Souffrant, A.; Orrego, L.; Eslinger, G.; Nicholas, A.; Pong, C.

    2012-12-01

    The recently published Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey finds that, "The nation's Earth observing system is beginning a rapid decline in capability as long-running missions end and key new missions are delayed, lost, or canceled. The projected loss of observing capability could have significant adverse consequences for science and society." In this presentation, we explore low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that can meet stringent performance requirements pervading the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. New technologies have enabled a novel approach toward this science observational goal, and in this paper we describe recent technology develop efforts to address the challenges above through the use of CubeSat radiometers. The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (30x10x10 cm, ~4kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately 500-km altitude. A MicroMAS flight unit is currently being developed in anticipation of a 2014 launch to be provided by NASA. A parabolic reflector is mechanically rotated as the spacecraft orbits the earth, thus directing a cross-track scanned beam with FWHM beamwidth of 2.4-degrees, yielding an approximately 25-km diameter footprint from a nominal altitude of 500 km. Radiometric calibration is carried out using observations of cold space, the earth's limb, and an internal noise diode that is weakly coupled through the RF front-end electronics. A key technology feature is the development of an ultra-compact intermediate frequency processor module for channelization, detection, and A-to-D conversion. The antenna system and RF front

  20. Propolis Inhibits UVA-Induced Apoptosis of Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells by Scavenging ROS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees from several plant sources. This research aimed at showing its protective effect against UVA-induced apoptosis of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Using Hoechst staining, it was demonstrated that propolis (5 and 10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the apoptosis of HaCaT cells induced by UVA-irradiation. Propolis also showed the protective effect against loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by UVA-irradiaiton in HaCaT cells. Propo...

  1. MAS及其相关概念%MAS and Correlation Conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显毅; 董红斌

    2000-01-01

    The researching of MAS originates from distributed artificial intelligence ,because new theory framework is provided for solving some problems in complex and distributed environment ,MAS is valued increasingly by computer ,automatic control and management science.

  2. Marker-assisted-selection (MAS): A fast track to increase genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAS have been widely used for simple inherited traits than for polygenic traits, although there are few success stories in improving quantitative traits through MAS. ... Key words: DNA sequence, gene introgression, genetic maps, germplasm ...

  3. Coexistence effect of UVA absorbers to increase their solubility and stability of supersaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, M; Mukawa, T; Sato, N; Maezawa, D; Ohtsu, Y; Kuroda, A; Wakabayashi, M; Asakura, K

    2014-12-01

    Sunscreens containing UVA absorbers in high concentrations are expected to be developed, since recent studies have suggested the possibility of involvement of UVA ray in skin cancer and early skin aging. Solubility and stability of supersaturation of UVA absorbers in UVB absorber were determined in the absence and the presence of cosmetic oil. Coexistence effect of UVA absorbers was analyzed to dissolve them in high concentrations. Two UVA absorbers, diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), a UVB absorber, 2-ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and a cosmetic oil, 2-ethylhexyl ester of oligomer of hydroxystearic acid (EH-O-HSA), were used. Their solutions were prepared at 80°C and cooled to 5°C. The solid DHHB and/or BMDM were added to it, and the time evolution of concentrations of the UVA absorbers in the solution phase was monitored. At the saturation in the absence of EH-O-HSA at 5°C, weight ratio of DHHB and BMDM to EHMC was 0.39/1.00 and 0.22/1.00, respectively. Addition of EH-O-HSA slightly changed the solubility of DHHB and BMDM. When the weight ratio of EH-O-HSA to EHMC was 0.20/1.00, weight ratio of DHHB and BMDM to EHMC was 0.35/1.00 and 0.25/1.00, respectively at the saturation at 5°C. In the presence of EH-O-HSA, a strong coexistence effect of DHHB and BMDM was found on their solubility. A thermodynamically stable saturated solution at 5°C having the composition that DHHB: BMDM: EHMC: EH-O-HSA = 0.47: 0.46: 1.00: 0.20 was obtained by the simultaneous addition of solid DHHB and BMDM into the initial solution. The solution type composite having the highest concentrations of DHHB and BMDM prepared in this study exhibited critical wavelength at 368 nm that was just below the border for sunscreens being qualified as 'Broad Spectrum' protection under the new rule launched by US FDA. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. 77 FR 43084 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season- Operational Change AGENCY: Federal... to assess and improve the performance of the Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) contracts operated by GSA. GSA is proposing this operational change to enhance the performance of and modernize the MAS program...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... License Requirements § 101.1317 Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive initial applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a...

  6. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... award schedule (MAS) offers. 538.270 Section 538.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... negotiation objectives and determining price reasonableness, compare the terms and conditions of the MAS...

  7. What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galamhussen, Mohamed; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Using a gravity model, we analyze the determinants of the probability that commercial banks in 89 acquiring countries and 118 target countries will undertake M&As over a 30-year period (1981–2010) and of the value of these M&As. We find that the value of cross-border M&As increases with the size of

  8. Treatment of T. cruzi infected human platelet concentrates with aminomethyltrimethyl psoralen (AMT and ultravioleta (UV-A light: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Moraes-Souza

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The present measures adopted to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease include screening of blood donors. and/or the inactivation of T. cruzi in collected blood using gentian violet (GV as a trypanocidal agent. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined use of AMT and UV-A in inactirating T. cruzi in infected human platelet cuncentrates. Human platelet concentrates were infected with T. cruzi (2x10/ml of the Y strain transfered to PL 269 (Fenwal Laboratories containers and treated with GV (250řg,/ml. and ascorbic acid (1 mg/ml; GV. ascorbic acid and UV-A; GV and UV-A; AMT (40/tG/ml and ascorbic acid; AMT, ascorbic acid and UV-A; AMT and UV-A; UV-A alone; and untreated (control. All UV-A treated platelet concentrates were exposed to UV-A doses of 24, 92, 184, 276, 368 and 644 kj/m². and the microscopical research of active T. cruzi was performed, using the microhematocrit technique, 1, 6 and 24 hours after each treatment. A high number of active forms of T. cruzi was observed in all condictions, except when GV was used as the trypanocidal agent, providing evidence of the failure of AMT and UV-A in inactivating T cruzi in infected human platelet concentrates.As medidas adotadas atualmente para prevenir a doença de Chagas transfusional incluem a seleção dos doadores de sangue e/ou a inativação do T. cruzi no sangue coletado através do uso da violeta de genciana (VG como agente tripanosomicida. Neste estudo, nós investigamos a eficácia do uso combinado do AMTe da UV-A para a neutralização do T. cruzi em concentrados de plaquetas humanas infectados. Os concentrados de plaquetas infectados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (2x10/ml foram transferidos para recipientes PL. 269 (Fenwal Laboratories e tratados com VG (250/ml e ácido ascórbico (1mg/ml VG. ácido ascórbico e UV-A; GV e UV-A; AMT (40 G/ml e ácido ascórbico; AMT, ácido ascórbico e UV-A; AMT e UV-A; somente UV-A; e não tratado (controle. Todos os concentrados

  9. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zerbinati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues.

  10. Nacionalismo e indigenismo en el gobierno del MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga, Fernando; Rodríguez, Benjamín

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha modificado el mapa político de América latina con resultados electorales que indican una idea genérica de “giro a la izquierda”, imponiendo paulatinamente una taxonomía que distingue gobiernos socialdemócratas y gobiernos populistas. En Bolivia el arribo al gobierno del Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) en enero de 2006 y la reelección presidencial de Evo Morales, despliega el proceso de una profunda reforma estatal que articula las demandas sociales en torno al naciona...

  11. Reforma integral masía Casa Flac

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Reyes, Sara

    2014-01-01

    La Masía Casa Flac se encuentra en un entorno rural rodeado de montañas en pleno Pirineo Catalán. Es una edificación compuesta por diferentes casas y pajares construidas en distintas épocas y etapas, para satisfacer las necesidades de sus habitantes a medida que iban desarrollando su actividad agricultora y ganadera. La primera edificación del conjunto data de finales los años 1800 y ha estado expuesta a modificaciones hasta este año, ha tenido pues un mantenimiento mínimo aunq...

  12. MAS-SCM for Auto Sector-The Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sindhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe in detail the development status of the innovative Multi -Agent based supply chain management (MAS-SCMAS for auto sector. This study was undertaken in view of the significance of improvement in efficiency of automobile sector and the development of a good multi-agent system framework to achieve that. The factors affecting the efficiency or OEE of the industry and the efficiency properties were identified. It was clearly revealed that the available model do not fulfill the needs in the supply chain management of automobile industry and there is a scope for evolving new model resulting in better efficiency.

  13. Crosslinking of DNA repair and replication proteins to DNA in cells treated with 6-thioguanine and UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueranger, Quentin; Kia, Azadeh; Frith, David; Karran, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The DNA of patients taking immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory thiopurines contains 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and their skin is hypersensitive to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. DNA 6-TG absorbs UVA and generates reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and proteins. Here, we show that the DNA damage includes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. An oligonucleotide containing a single 6-TG is photochemically crosslinked to cysteine-containing oligopeptides by low doses of UVA. Crosslinking is significantly more efficient if guanine sulphonate (G(SO3))--an oxidized 6-TG and a previously identified UVA photoproduct--replaces 6-TG, suggesting that G(SO3) is an important reaction intermediate. Crosslinking occurs via oligopeptide sulphydryl and free amino groups. The oligonucleotide-oligopeptide adducts are heat stable but are partially reversed by reducing treatments. UVA irradiation of human cells containing DNA 6-TG induces extensive heat- and reducing agent-resistant covalent DNA-protein crosslinks and diminishes the recovery of some DNA repair and replication proteins from nuclear extracts. DNA-protein crosslinked material has an altered buoyant density and can be purified by banding in cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients. PCNA, the MSH2 mismatch repair protein and the XPA nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor are among the proteins detectable in the DNA-crosslinked material. These findings suggest that the 6-TG/UVA combination might compromise DNA repair by sequestering essential proteins.

  14. The global response of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to UVA stress, assessed in a temporal DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Gao, Qunjie; Stout, Valerie; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria in nature are exposed not only to the visible spectrum of sunlight but also to its harmful ultraviolet components (UVA and UVB). We used Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 as a model to study the UVA response by analyzing global gene expression patterns using genomic microarrays. UVA exposure resulted in the statistically detectable differential expression of 573 genes of the 6903 that were probed, compared with that of the control cultures. Of those genes, 473 were up-regulated, while only 100 were down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis, indicating a significant shift in this metabolism. As expected, we detected the up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and the sunscreen, scytonemin. However, a majority of the up-regulated genes, 47%, were unassignable bioinformatically to known functional categories, suggesting that the UVA stress response is not well understood. Interestingly, the most dramatic up-regulation involved several contiguous genes of unassigned metabolism on plasmid A. This is the first global UVA stress response analysis of any phototrophic microorganism and the differential expression of 8% of the genes of the Nostoc genome indicates that adaptation to UVA in Nostoc has been an evolutionary force of significance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Effects of supplemental UV-A on the development, anatomy and metabolite production of Phyllanthus tenellus cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victório, Cristiane Pimentel; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus tenellus is widely used for its antiviral, analgesic and hepatoprotective properties. Although the production of several chemical classes of secondary metabolites is influenced by UV radiation, particularly phenolic compounds, we also know that UV radiation can result in anatomical and developmental damage. However, the morphological, anatomical and phytochemical changes in response to UV-A exposure are generally understudied in the Phyllanthaceae. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of UV-A radiation on plant development and leaf anatomy, as well as the production of secondary metabolites and the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b, in P. tenellus. To accomplish this, in vitro cultures of P. tenellus were maintained for 60 days under white light (WL) and WL plus UV-A radiation. Results showed different phenotypic responses under additional UV-A, such as high phenolic metabolite production, increasing dimensions of abaxial epidermis and thickness of palisade parenchyma. Compared to plants cultured under WL, UV-A radiation caused damage to plant morphogenesis, including a reduced number of branches and shoots, consequently reducing the rate of proliferation. On the other hand, geraniin, ellagic acid and carotenoid contents increased after UV-A exposure, indicating that this light source is an important resource for inducing phenolic compounds.

  16. Avaliação da uva cv. Isabel para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZZON Luiz Antenor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Isabel, originária do Sul dos Estados Unidos, é uma das principais cultivares de Vitis labrusca. Atualmente é a cultivar mais difundida na Serra Gaúcha, representando aproximadamente 45% de toda a uva produzida nessa região. Além da elaboração de vinho tinto comum, a Isabel é utilizada para elaboração de vinho rosado e suco e comercializada como uva de mesa. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Isabel, para elaboração de vinho tinto comum. Para isso, avaliou-se a maturação da uva e realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto, nas safras de 1988 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a uva Isabel tem cacho pequeno, solto, formado por bagas e sementes grandes. O mosto apresenta cor rosada pouco intensa, tem bom teor de açúcar e baixo nível de ácido málico e acidez total. O vinho tem cor vermelha viva; o aroma é intenso e com acentuada tipicidade varietal; a análise sensorial evidencia que geralmente falta ao vinho equilíbrio e maciez.

  17. The deceptive nature of UVA-tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB-tanning on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G.; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin due to the constitutively higher pigmentation but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA&UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by the different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA-tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. PMID:20979596

  18. 基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.

  19. Spectral variations of UV-A and PAR solar radiation in estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Silveira, N.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Lotlikar, A.

    by Particulate organic carbon (POC). Both UV-B and UV-A have important effects on bacterial activities, phytoplankton photosynthesis, photo-degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [1], and photoproduction of DNA damages in bacterio... for plankton communities”. Limnol. Oceanogr., 41, pp. 1024–1034. 1996. [7] Cullen, J. J., and P. J. Neale, “Ultraviolet radiation, ozone depletion, and marine photosynthesis”, Photosynth. Res., 39, pp. 303–320, 1994. [8] Jeffrey, W. H., R. J. Pledger, P...

  20. Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and a new potent antioxidant and UVA-protective formulation as prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadshiew, I M; Treder-Conrad, C; v Bülow, R; Klette, E; Mann, T; Stäb, F; Moll, I; Rippke, F

    2004-08-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is the most common photodermatosis. While its etiology still remains elusive, pathogenesis seems to involve UVA-induced oxidative stress and subsequent deregulation of antioxidative immune responses. Only few and often ineffective prophylactic and therapeutic measures exist to date. In our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we compared the efficacy of a new topical formulation, consisting of 0.25%alpha-glucosylrutin (AGR) (a natural, modified flavonoid), 1% tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen (SPF 15) in a hydrodispersion gel vehicle, to a sunscreen-only gel and vehicle. Thirty patients with a history of PLE were pretreated with either the above formulation, a similar preparation (with the same concentration for vitamin E and AGR, but a different UV filter system), placebo or a SPF 15 sunscreen-only gel, 30 min prior to daily photoprovocation with UVA irradiations of 60-100 J/cm(2) to 5 x 5 cm(2) areas on the upper arms. After 4 days, results revealed a statistically highly significant difference (PPLE. While only one patient developed clinical signs of PLE with accompanying itch in the area treated with the new antioxidant UV-protective gel formulation, 62.1% of the placebo-treated areas and 41.3% of the sunscreen-only treated areas showed mild to moderate signs of PLE. Combining a potent antioxidant with a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen is far more effective in preventing PLE than sunscreen alone or placebo and should thus be employed as the prophylaxis of choice for PLE.

  1. Assessing the effects of UVA photocatalysis on soot-coated TiO2-containing mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M; Miller, Ana Z; Pozo-Antonio, J Santiago; González-Pérez, José A; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Dionisio, Amelia

    2017-12-15

    The deposition of soot on building surfaces darkens their colour and leads to undesirable black crusts, which are one of the most serious problems on the conservation of built cultural heritage. As a preventive strategy, self-cleaning systems based on the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings have been employed on building materials for degrading organic compounds deposited on building surfaces, improving their durability and performance. In this study, the self-cleaning effect of TiO2-containing mortars coated with diesel soot has been appraised under laboratory conditions. The mortar samples were manufactured using lime putty and two different doses of TiO2 (2.5% and 5%). The lime mortars were then coated with diesel engine soot and irradiated with ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination for 30days. The photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated by visual inspection, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and colour spectrophotometry. Changes in the chemical composition of the soot particles (including persistent organic pollutants) were assessed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The FESEM and colour spectrophotometry revealed that the soot-coated TiO2-containing mortars promoted a self-cleaning effect after UVA irradiation. The combination of analytical pyrolysis and (13)C solid state NMR showed that the UVA irradiation caused the cracking of polycyclic aromatic structures and n-alkyl compounds of the diesel soot and its transformation into methyl polymers. Our findings also revealed that the inclusion of TiO2 in the lime mortar formulations catalysed these transformations promoting the self-cleaning of the soot-stained mortars. The combined action of TiO2 and UVA irradiation is a promising proxy to clean lime mortars affected by soot deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photo-Fenton treatment of valproate under UVC, UVA and simulated solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funai, Daniel Haranaka; Didier, Florian; Giménez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago; Marco, Pilar; Machulek, Amilcar

    2017-02-05

    The abatement of valproic acid sodium salt (VA) via photo-Fenton process was investigated to evaluate the effect of irradiation type. Three different light sources have been used: UVA (black light blue lamps, BLB reactor), UVC (UVC reactor) and simulated sunlight in a Solarbox (SB). Using the highest concentrations of Fe(2+) (10mgL(-1)) and H2O2 (150mgL(-1)), 100% of VA degradation was observed in BLB and UVC devices, and 89.7% in Solarbox. Regarding mineralization, 67.4% and 76.4% of TOC conversion were achieved in BLB and UVC, respectively. In Solarbox, mineralization was negligible. Treated solutions under UVA or UVC radiation became biodegradable (BOD5/COD≥0.25), which was not observed in Solarbox where BOD5/COD achieved was only 0.20. Regarding to toxicity (Vibrio Fischeri method), all processes have promoted the overall toxicity reduction of VA solution. Transformation products were identified by a LC-ESI-TOF mass spectrometer, and degradation pathways were proposed. Operating costs and the energy needed by mg of VA removed were estimated and compared, for the different installations, showing that UVA can remove around 3 times more VA than SB and 2 times more VA than UVC, under the same conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacteria and fungi inactivation by photocatalysis under UVA irradiation: liquid and gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Miranda, Sandra M; Lopes, Filipe V S; Silva, Mário; Dezotti, Márcia; Silva, Adrián M T; Faria, Joaquim L; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia

    2017-03-01

    In the last decade, environmental risks associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become a concern in the scientific community due to the absence of specific legislation governing the occupational exposure limits (OEL) for microorganisms present in indoor air. Thus, it is necessary to develop techniques to effectively inactivate microorganisms present in the air of WWTPs facilities. In the present work, ultraviolet light A radiation was used as inactivation tool. The microbial population was not visibly reduced in the bioaerosol by ultraviolet light A (UVA) photolysis. The UVA photocatalytic process for the inactivation of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, ATCC strains and isolates from indoor air samples of a WWTP) using titanium dioxide (TiO2 P25) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was tested in both liquid-phase and airborne conditions. In the slurry conditions at liquid phase, P25 showed a better performance in inactivation. For this reason, gas-phase assays were performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolithic structures coated with P25. The survival rate of microorganisms under study decreased with the catalyst load and the UVA exposure time. Inactivation of fungi was slower than resistant bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Graphical abstract Inactivation of fungi and bacteria in gas phase by photocatalitic process performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolith structures coated with TiO2.

  4. The bystander effect is a novel mechanism of UVA-induced melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hideki; Kumagai, Jun; Kashino, Genro; Okada, Takuya; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    We successfully identified the bystander effect in B16 murine melanoma cells exposed to UVA irradiation. The effect was identified based on melanogenesis following the medium transfer of the B16 cells, which had been cultured for 24 h after being exposed to UVA irradiation, to nonirradiated cells (bystander cells). Our confirmation study of the functional mechanism of bystander cells confirmed the reduced levels of mitochondrial membrane potential 1-4 h after the medium transfer. In addition, we observed increased levels of intracellular oxidation after 9-12 h, and the generation of melanin radicals, including long-lived radicals, 24 h after medium transfer. Further analysis of bystander factors revealed that the administration of EGTA treatment at the time of medium transfer led to an inhibition of melanogenesis and to neutralization of the mitochondrial membrane potential level, as well as to the restoration of intracellular oxidation levels to those of controls. The results demonstrated that the UVA irradiation bystander effect in B16 cells, as indicated by melanogenesis, was induced by the increase in intracellular oxidation due to the mitochondrial activity of calcium ions, which were among the bystander factors involved in the increase. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Copper resistance of the evergreen dwarf shrub Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: an experimental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salemaa, Maija; Monni, Satu

    2003-12-01

    The copper (Cu) resistance of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi was tested in a pot experiment (lasting 8 weeks) using rooted cuttings originating from an area near the Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter, SW Finland. The fine roots were moderately infected by arbutoid mycorrhizae. The plants were exposed to five Cu levels (1, 10, 22, 46 and 100 mg l{sup -1}) given repeatedly together with a nutrient solution. The critical Cu concentration in the nutrient solution inhibiting the growth of A. uva-ursi was below 10 mg l{sup -1} Cu (EC{sub 50} value for biomass production 3.3 mg l{sup -1} Cu). This concentration was clearly lower than the value we have found earlier for other dwarf shrubs under similar experimental conditions. Most of the Cu given accumulated in the roots and old stems. The results suggest that A. uva-ursi cuttings were relatively sensitive to Cu despite the ability of the adult clones to grow in Cu-contaminated soil. The adult clones extend their roots into the less toxic deeper soil layers, which may facilitate the avoidance of heavy metals. - Root extension into deeper layers of soil may aid in avoidance of heavy metals.

  6. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  7. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A 'cardiac-specific finger print' of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a 'MAS-signalosome' model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of 'signalosome' components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor.

  8. TOKSISITAS LETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA PADA BENIH IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan moluskisida untuk menanggulangi hama dalam budidaya tanaman padi yang semakin meningkat berpotensi mencemari lingkungan perairan, karena mengandung residu dari bahan aktifnya. Moluskisida niklosamida (C13H8Cl2N2O4 merupakan bahan aktif pestisida yang digunakan untuk memberantas hama keong mas atau siput murbei (Pomacea sp. di sawah. Dengan demikian, bahan tersebut memiliki potensi untuk mencemari lahan tempat usaha budidaya ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi toksisitas akut niklosamida terhadap benih ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 24, 48, dan 96 jam. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi, Cibalagung-Bogor. Menggunakan ikan mas dengan bobot individu 2,47 ± 0,13 g. Moluskisida yang digunakan mengandung bahan aktif niklosamida 250g/L. Wadah pengujian berupa 21 unit akuarium kaca berukuran 40 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm yang dilengkapi aerasi serta saluran pemasukan dan pengeluaran. Jumlah ikan uji setiap wadah 10 ekor dengan peubah yang diukur adalah mortalitas ikan. Selama penelitian ikan tidak diberi makan. Tahapan penelitian terdiri atas penentuan nilai ambang atas-bawah, nilai lethal time dan LC50 -24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam. Data diolah dengan analisis probit program LC50. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50-24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam terhadap benih ikan mas adalah 0,8012 (0,7140—0,8990; 0,5999 (0,5356—0,6719; 0,4511 (0,4067—0,5004; dan 0,3849 mg/L (0,3684—0,4061. Hal ini menunjukkan niklosamida termasuk pestisida yang memiliki toksisitas sangat tinggi (golongan A. The use of molluscicide in aquatic as well as in terresterial agro ecosystem without properly controlled may produce detrimental effects on freshwater fisheries. Molluscicide utilization for golden apple snail (Pomacea sp. control in rice field has increased. The ingredient potencially has a possibility to pollute aquaculture water. The

  9. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  10. Multiple non-coding exons and alternative splicing in the mouse Mas protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenina, Natalia; Böhme, Ilka; Bader, Michael; Walther, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The Mas protooncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with the common seven transmembrane domains, expressed mainly in the testis and brain. We provided evidence that Mas is a functional angiotensin-(1-7) receptor and can interact with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The gene is transcriptionally regulated during development in the brain and testis, but its structure was unresolved. In this study we used 5'- and 3'-RACE, RT-PCR, and RNase-protection assays to elucidate the complete Mas gene structure and organization. We identified 12 exons in the mouse Mas gene with 11 in the 5' untranslated mRNA, which can be alternatively spliced. We also showed that Mas transcription can start from 4 tissue-specific promoters, whereby testis-specific Mas mRNA is transcribed from two upstream promoters, and the expression of Mas in the brain starts from two downstream promoters. Alternative splicing and multiple promoter usage result in at least 12 Mas transcripts in which different 5' untranslated regions are fused to a common coding sequence. Moreover, termination of Mas mRNA is regulated by two different polyadenylation signals. The gene spans approximately 27 kb, and the longest detected mRNA contains 2,451 bp. Thus, our results characterize the Mas protooncogene as the gene with the most complex gene structure of all described members of the gene family coding for G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Reverse Induced Fit-Driven MAS-Downstream Transduction: Looking for Metabotropic Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; de Paula da Silva, Carlos Henrique Tomich; Campos, Joaquin

    2017-09-11

    The protective effects assigned to MAS receptors activation have spurred a great interest in the development of MAS agonists for clinical purposes. However, the current bases that drive the design of these ligands preclude important concepts recently addressed for MAS activation. Emerging data confirmed that physiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists induce an atypical signaling that does not reach the metabotropic efficacy of constitutive MAS activation. The canonical activation of MAS-coupled G proteins is only achieved by supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists or physiological concentrations of chemically modified analogues. These pleiotropic differences are because of two overlapped but non-identical ligand binding domains (LBD): one non-metabotropic site that recognizes peptide agonists and one metabotropic domain that recognizes modified analogues. Accordingly, it is feasible that supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists undergo to chemical modifications that make them suitable for binding to the metabotropic LBD. Recent advances on Receptor Theory confirmed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization enhances pharmacological parameters coupled to metabotropic signaling from GPCR ligands, including MAS agonists. For instance, the formation of GPCR-signalosome complex (higher order heteroligomers of GPCR involved in signaling crosstalk) makes the transduction of agonists a more adaptive signal. Considering the recent identification of MAS-signalosome, we postulate the reverse induced fit hypothesis in which MAS-signalosome would trigger chemical modifications required for agonists bind to the metabotropic MAS/LBD. In view of this hypothesis, we cover rational perspectives that consider this information for the development of novel metabotropic MAS agonists provided with constitutive efficacy at physiological concentrations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. UVA1治疗皮肤病的现状%Ultraviolet A1 for the treatment of cutaneous diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利红; 郑捷

    2014-01-01

    在过去的30年中,UVA1因能进入皮肤深层诱导T细胞凋亡,下调多种细胞因子,激活内皮细胞并促进血管新生,逐渐被用于治疗各种皮肤疾病.目前有随机对照队列研究证据的疾病包括特应性皮炎、局限性硬皮病、系统性红斑狼疮,其他的适应证还有皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤、系统性硬皮病、胫前黏液性水肿、结节性痒疹等.相比其他光疗法,UVA1的近期不良反应相对较少,远期副作用目前尚无报道,仍需跟踪随访.%Since ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) can penetrate into deep layers of the skin,induce the apoptosis of T cells,down-regulate multiple cytokines,activate endothelial cells and promote neovascularization,it has been used to treat many dermatoses over the last three decades.There have been evidences from randomized control and cohort studies for the application of UVA1 phototherapy in atopic dermatitis,localized scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus.Other indications of UVA1 phototherapy are cutaneous T cell lymphoma,systemic scleroderma,pretibial myxedema,prurigo nodularis,etc.Compared with the other phototherapy regimens,UVA1 phototherapy shows less short-term side effects.However,little is known about long-term side effects of UVA1 phototherapy,and long-term follow-up studies are required.

  14. Autocrine Regulation of UVA-Induced IL-6 Production via Release of ATP and Activation of P2Y Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Kawano

    Full Text Available Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, are released from cells in response to various stimuli and act as intercellular signaling molecules through activation of P2 receptors. Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation A (UVA component of sunlight causes molecular and cellular damage, and in this study, we investigated the involvement of extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors in the UVA-induced cellular response. Human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells were irradiated with a single dose of UVA (2.5 J/cm2, and ATP release and interleukin (IL-6 production were measured. ATP was released from cells in response to UVA irradiation, and the release was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of gap junction hemichannels or P2X7 receptor antagonist. IL-6 production was increased after UVA irradiation, and this increase was inhibited by ecto-nucleotidase or by antagonists of P2Y11 or P2Y13 receptor. These results suggest that UVA-induced IL-6 production is mediated by release of ATP through hemichannels and P2X7 receptor, followed by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. Interestingly, P2Y11 and P2Y13 were associated with the same pattern of IL-6 production, though they trigger different intracellular signaling cascades: Ca2+-dependent and PI3K-dependent, respectively. Thus, IL-6 production in response to UVA-induced ATP release involves at least two distinct pathways, mediated by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors.

  15. The Role of JNK and p38 MAPK Activities in UVA-Induced Signaling Pathways Leading to AP-1 Activation and c-Fos Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Silvers

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available To further delineate ultraviolet A (UVA signaling pathways in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, we examined the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in UVA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression. UVA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK proteins was detected immediately after irradiation and disappeared after approximately 2 hours. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly inhibited for up to 1 hour post-UVA irradiation. To examine the role of p38 and JNK MAPKs in UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations, the selective pharmacologic MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 (p38 inhibitor and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor, were used to independently treat stably transfected HaCaT cells in luciferase reporter assays. Both SB202190 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations. SB202190 (0.25–0.5 MM and SP600125 (62-125 nM treatments also primarily inhibited UVA-induced c-Fos expression. These results demonstrated that activation of both JNK and p38 play critical role in UVA-mediated AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression in these human keratinocyte cells. Targeted inhibition of these MAPKs with their selective pharmacologic inhibitors may be effective chemopreventive strategies for UVA-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  16. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneker, M; Kanne, J

    2010-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, because powdery mildew infections may result in a total loss of the crop. In organic currant growing the number of adequate control methods is very limited. Sulphur as a fungicide against powdery mildew in e.g. gooseberry or table grape growing is not recommendable due to possible bleaching of berries and scorching of tender shoots. Various bicarbonate salts are suggested as a good option to control powdery mildew. In a field trial the effect of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the on the control of powdery mildew of gooseberry was evaluated. Four treatments; i.e. two preventive strategies and two curative strategies, were applied. PLants were sprayed until runoff. The percent of infected fruits and disease severity were assessed. In the unsprayed control plots very high disease incidences were observed; on average more than 90% of the berries were infected with powdery mildew. The weekly (preventive) spray applications with potassium carbonate reduced the disease incidences on fruits significantly. On average approximately 10% of the fruits were affected by powdery mildew. However, the number of spray applications was high. In conclusion, our results indicate that applications of potassium bicarbonate (as Armicarb) are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of American powdery mildew in gooseberry. Early spray applications are necessary to protect berries against powdery mildew infections. Future research will focus on reducing the number of applications, e.g. warning models based on powdery mildew of rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa).

  17. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may...... indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells...... transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency...

  18. MAS based coordinated scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based on a distribu......A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based...... on a distributed optimization algorithm to minimize power flow from/to a virtual microgrid over a transformer substation. A cooperative low-level MAS scheme, which is based on the consensus algorithm is introduced. It is shown that using a cooperative MAS, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility...... be used, for example by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to control grid load profiles of virtual microgrids....

  19. Solar-UV-signature mutation prefers TCG to CCG: extrapolative consideration from UVA1-induced mutation spectra in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Kumagai, Jun; Ono, Tetsuya; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-08-01

    UVA1 exerts its genotoxicity on mammalian skin by producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA and preferentially inducing solar-UV-signature mutations, C → T base substitution mutations at methylated CpG-associated dipyrimidine (Py-mCpG) sites, as demonstrated previously using a 364 nm laser as a UVA1 source and lacZ-transgenic mice that utilize the transgene as a mutational reporter. In the present study, we confirmed that a broadband UVA1 source induced the same mutation profiles in mouse epidermis as the UVA1 laser, generalizing the previous result from a single 364 nm to a wider wavelength range of UVA1 (340-400 nm). Combined with our previous data on the mutation spectra induced in mouse epidermis by UVB, UVA2 and solar UVR, we proved that the solar-UV-signature mutation is commonly observed in the wavelength range from UVB to UVA, and found that UVA1 induces this mutation more preferentially than the other shorter wavelength ranges. This finding indicates that the solar-UV-signature mutation-causing CPDs, which are known to prefer Py-mCpG sites, could be produced with the energy provided by the longer wavelength region of UVR, suggesting a photochemical reaction through the excitation of pyrimidine bases to energy states that can be accomplished by absorption of even low-energy UVR. On the other hand, the lower proportions of solar-UV-signature mutations observed in the mutation spectra for UVB and solar UVR indicate that the direct photochemical reaction through excited singlet state of pyrimidine bases, which can be accomplished only by high-energy UVR, is also involved in the mutation induction at those shorter wavelengths of UVR. We also found that the solar-UV signature prefers 5'-TCG-3' to 5'-CCG-3' as mutational target sites, consistent with the fact that UVA induces CPDs selectively at thymine-containing dipyrimidine sites and that solar UVR induces them preferably at Py-mCpG sites. However, the mutation spectrum in human p53 gene from non

  20. Drying rates of Rubi grapes submitted to chemical pretreatments for raisin production Taxas de secagem de uva Rubi submetida a pré-tratamentos químicos para a produção de passas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis

    2006-03-01

    50ºC, o que resultou em tempos de secagem próximos aos do pré-tratamento com 2,5% de azeite de oliva, mas com um menor consumo dessa substância. Além disso, a imersão das uvas em uma suspensão aquosa de 2% de lecitina de soja, a 50ºC, por 5 minutos, resultou em um tempo de secagem total apenas levemente superior ao do pré-tratamento mais efetivo.

  1. Influence of UV-A radiation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arif; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan; Huang, Qiu Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Abiotic stress factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, significantly affect insect life. UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) has been widely used for insect control since it increases the production of ROS and causes oxidative cell damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of UV-A irradiation on an important pest in China, the ear-cutting caterpillar, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We exposed 3-day-old M. separata adults to UV-A radiation for different periods of time (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) and evaluated the resulting total antioxidant capacity and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after exposure to UV-A radiation for 60 min but decreased after 90 and 120 min of exposure, compared with the control. The antioxidant activity of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased after 60-min exposure, and it was decreased at the longest exposure period 120 min. The longest exposure time period relatively activates the xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes like glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes. The longest duration of UV-A radiation may cooperate with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. Our results demonstrated that UV irradiation causes oxidative stress, affects the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and disturbs the physiology of M. separata adults.

  2. Thymol and Thymus Vulgaris L. activity against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in NCTC 2544 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Rossella; Visone, Clementina M; Marabini, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Many authors focused on the research of natural compounds in order to protect skin from indirect (UVA) and direct (UVB) ultraviolet radiation side effects. The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of a dry extract from T. vulgaris L. and of its major synthetic compound thymol (about 60%), against oxidative and genotoxic UVA- and UVB damage. Experiments were reproduced in a low differentiated keratinocytes cell line (NCTC 2544) Cells were pretreated for 1h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1μg/mL) or T. vulgaris L. (1.82μg/mL) then exposed to different UVA (8-24J/cm(2)) or UVB doses (0.016-0.72J/cm(2)). Immediately after the UV exposure the intracellular redox status was evaluated by ROS quantification and by LPO. Genotoxic aspects were evaluated 24h after the end of irradiations using the alkaline comet assay, the micronucleus formation assay and the immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX histone protein (detected 1h after the end of UV exposure). Thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract inhibited ROS generation in UVA and UVB-irradiated cells. On the contrary, MDA formation was reduced only in UVA treated cells. Both agents decreased the DNA damage evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, but not in the micronucleus and H2AX tests probably because of the severity of damage (double strands) detected.

  3. An ascorbic acid-enriched tomato genotype to fight UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Del Giudice, Rita; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Monti, Daria Maria

    2016-10-01

    UVA radiations contribute up to 95% of the total UV exposure and are known to induce cell damage, leading to apoptosis. Since the benefic effects of ascorbic acid on human health are well known, a new tomato genotype (named DHO4), highly rich in ascorbic acid, has been recently obtained. Here, we compared the effects of ascorbic acid and hydrophilic DHO4 extracts in protecting human keratinocytes exposed to UVA stress. Keratinocytes were pre-incubated with ascorbic acid or with extracts from the ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype and irradiated with UVA light. Then, ROS production, intracellular GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified. Western blots were carried out to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade, activation of caspase-3 and inflammation levels. We demonstrated that ROS, GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were not altered in cell exposed to UVA stress when cells were pre-treated with ascorbic acid or with tomato extracts. In addition, no evidence of apoptosis and inflammation were observed in irradiated pre-treated cells. Altogether, we demonstrated the ability of an ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype to counteract UVA-oxidative stress on human keratinocytes. This protective effect is due to the high concentration of vitamin C that acts as free radical scavenger. This novel tomato genotype may be used as genetic material in breeding schemes to produce improved varieties with higher antioxidant levels.

  4. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  5. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  6. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. MOS-2: A Two-Dimension Space for Positioning MAS Organizational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Hosny; Shaheen, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The increased complexity and dynamism of present and future Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) enforce the need for considering both of their static (design-time) and the dynamic (run-time) aspects. A type of balance between the two aspects can definitely give better results related to system stability and adaptivity. MAS organization is the research area that is concerned with these issues and it is currently a very active and interesting research area. Designing a MAS with an initial organization an...

  8. COMPOZER-based longitudinal cross-polarization via dipolar coupling under MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Takayuki; Murakami, Miwa; Noda, Yasuto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K

    2014-08-01

    We propose a cross polarization (CP) sequence effective under magic-angle spinning (MAS) which is tolerant to RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. Its key feature is that spin locking is not used, as CP occurs among the longitudinal (Z) magnetizations modulated by the combination of two pulses with the opposite phases. We show that, by changing the phases of the pulse pairs synchronized with MAS, the flip-flop term of the dipolar interaction is restored under MAS.

  9. Effects of UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1照射对增生性瘢痕动物模型瘢痕形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响情况.方法 18只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成3组,每组6只兔,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻、1个月、2个月开始用不同剂量大功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组.各照射组又分为两个剂量照射组,兔耳分别每次照射UVA1 60 J/cm2、110 J/cm2,连续30次.结果 创伤建模1个月、2个月后开始照射UVA1组,与照射前比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处真表皮厚度(282.32±58.60;336.50±98.34)和真皮胶原含量(24.91±16.88;34.47±8.90)均显著降低(P<0.05);照射组与非照射组在UVA1照射前后差值的比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处表真皮厚度差值(-143.52±42.91;-142.44±49.96)和真皮胶原含量差值(-56.39±15.04;-48.35±10.44)的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各照射组UVA1对瘢痕皮肤厚度(811.68±79.03;659.08±178.98)和胶原含量(67.80±9.06;61.35±12.91)的影响均存在剂量依赖性(P<0.05).而创伤建模的同时照射UVA1组,两种剂量的UVA1照射后瘢痕处皮肤厚度和胶原含量较非照射耳均显著增加(P<0.05).结论 上皮化后开始UVA1照射可使瘢痕变软,皮肤变薄,胶原含量降低.创伤同时照射UVA1不仅不能阻止瘢痕模型的建立,反而加重瘢痕.%Objective To study the effects of different doses of UVA1 on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin. Methods A hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin (2 cm×5 cm) on the ventral surface of rabbit ears. A total of 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 equal groups to receive UVA1 radiation on the left ears immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after the excision, respectively, and every group were classified into two subgroups to be irradiated with 60 and 110 J/cm2 of UVA1, respectively

  10. Aerosol forcing efficiency in the UVA region from spectral solar irradiance measurements at an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazadzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Ultraviolet (UV measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be −0.71±0.30 W m−2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of −15.2%±3.8% (2 σ per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.

  11. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  12. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. Copyright

  13. Formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers from UVA photosensitization of pyridopsoralen monoadducted DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillo, L.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Beylot, B.; Spassky, A. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Vigny, P. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Orleans (France)

    1996-08-01

    The present report provides evidence that thymine dimerization can be UVA photosensitized at a tetranucleotide, 5`-TATT-3`, by a 7-methyl-pyrido(3,4-c)psoralen monoadduct in DNA. The efficiency of the photoprocess depends on the tetranucleotide flanking sequences. These results demonstrate that one DNA lesion can originate the contigious formation of a second type of lesion and emphasize the sequence-specific response to interaction of drugs with DNA. Results are related to the sensitivity of DNA to 1,10-phenanthroline-cuprous ion complex nucleolytic activity and discussed in terms of the major role of local deformability of DNA in interaction with ligands. (author).

  14. Psoralen/UVA treatment and chromosomes. II. Analyses of psoriasis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broegger, A.; Waksvik, H.; Thune, P.

    1978-05-31

    Five psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA (PUVA) were studied by lymphocyte cultures at the 1st, 5th, 10th and 20th treatment and at a maintenance treatment 6 months later. Abnormal amounts of chromosome aberrations were not found, and the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (examined at the last treatment) was not increased. In vitro experiments with nanogram doses of psoralen (similar to plasma levels in patients) showed no increase in chromosome aberration or SCE frequency. The results indicate that therapeutic doses of PUVA have no clastogenic effect.

  15. The selects of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l. spreng. from natural populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Malinowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five plants of bearberry selected from natural stands in Poland and one from a Botanical Garden were propagated by cuttings. The clonal plants were first kept under observation for two years planted on different substrates in containers and were afterwards field cultivated for three subsequent years. The existence of a significant differentiation within these Arctostaphylos uva-ursi clones was proved. Two selects of good ornamental features as well as with high concentration of medicinal substance - arbutin were chosen. Plants started fruiting in the fourth year of growth and the area covered by a single plant exceeded 2 m2 after five years of cultivation.

  16. Structural studies on meiosis-activating sterols and structurally related compounds : potential ligands of the FF-MAS receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Meiosis Activating Sterols (MAS) are key regulatory factors in the meiotic cell cycle. Two compounds in this family, Follicular Fluid-MAS (FF-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3b-ol) and Testicular-MAS (T-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14-diene-3b-ol), have been isolated and

  17. MAS-mediated antioxidant effects restore the functionality of angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis in diabetic rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araujo; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species during type I-diabetes impairs carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which accounts for the impaired carotid flow in diabetic rats. We also hypothesized that angiotensin-(1-7) chronic treatment of diabetic rats restores carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality and carotid flow. Relaxant curves for angiotensin II or angiotensin-(1-7) were obtained in carotid from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Superoxide or hydrogen peroxide levels were measured by flow cytometry in carotid endothelial cells. Carotid flow was also determined. We found that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in diabetic rat carotid impairs ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which reduces carotid flow. In this mechanism, hydrogen peroxide derived from superoxide dismutation inhibits ACE2 activity in generating angiotensin-(1-7) seemingly by activating I(Cl,SWELL0, while superoxide inhibits the nitrergic Mas-mediated vasorelaxation evoked by angiotensin-(1-7). Angiotensin-(1-7) treatment of diabetic rats restored carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality by triggering a positive feedback played by endothelial Mas receptors, that blunts endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species. Mas-mediated antioxidant effects also restored diabetic rat carotid flow, pointing to the contribution of ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis in maintaining carotid flow.

  18. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi‐robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS‐MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS‐Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content‐FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM‐FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi‐robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi‐robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi‐robot collaboration.

  19. Assessment of extracts of Helichrysum arenarium, Crataegus monogyna, Sambucus nigra in photoprotective UVA and UVB; photostability in cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2013-11-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Receptor MAS protects mice against hypothermia and mortality induced by endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Laura L; Duchene, Johan; Todiras, Mihail; Azevedo, Luciano C P; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Alenina, Natalia; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system is involved in maintaining cardiovascular function by regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. More recently, alternative pathways within the renin-angiotensin system have been described, such as the ACE-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, with opposite effects to the ones of the ACE/Ang-II/AT1 axis. Correspondingly, our previous work reported that Ang-(1-7) via its receptor Mas inhibits the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data led us to investigate the functional role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in an in vivo LPS model. In this work, we present evidence that Ang-(1-7) via Mas significantly reduced the LPS-increased production of circulating cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and CXCL-1. This inhibitory effect was mediated by Mas because it was not detectable in Mas-deficient (Mas) mice. Accordingly, IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 levels were higher after LPS treatment in the absence of Mas. Mas mice were less resistant to LPS-induced endotoxemia, their survival rate being 50% compared with 95% in wild-type mice. Telemetric analyses showed that Mas mice presented more pronounced LPS-induced hypothermia with a 3°C lower body temperature compared with wild-type mice. Altogether, our findings suggest that Ang-(1-7) and Mas inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production and hypothermia and thereby protect mice from the fatal consequences of endotoxemia.

  1. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Bagaço de uva como ingrediente alternativo no arraçoamento de coelhos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão do bagaço de uva em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e parâmetros morfohistológicos do trato gastrointestinal de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de bagaço de uva; e pelas dietas com 25% e 50% de substituição de alfafa por bagaço de uva nas respectivas rações experimentais. A inclusão de bagaço de uva causou aumento linear no consumo total de ração e no ganho de peso. A presença em maior proporção dos ácidos graxos essenciais ômega3 e ômega6 nos tratamentos T25BU e T50BU promoveu melhores respostas zootécnicas, uma vez que esses nutrientes agem positivamente no equilíbrio homeostático. Os resultados morfohistológicos demonstraram que a altura das vilosidades intestinais do ceco aumentou com a inclusão de bagaço de uva na dieta, possuindo correlação positiva. A inclusão de bagaço de uva em dietas para coelhos na fase de crescimento altera o desempenho dos animais, aumentando o consumo total de ração e o ganho de peso. Evidenciou-se também que o aumento desse co-produto melhora as características morfológicas das vilosidades intestinais referentes ao ceco.

  3. Chronic Exposure to Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Extract Lycogen™ Prevents UVA-Induced Malondialdehyde Accumulation and Procollagen I Down-Regulation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Hsiu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UVA contributes to the pathogenesis of skin aging by downregulation of procollagen I content and induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-associated responses. Application of antioxidants such as lycopene has been demonstrated as a convenient way to achieve protection against skin aging. Lycogen™, derived from the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exerts several biological effects similar to that of lycopene whereas most of its anti-aging efficacy remains uncertain. In this study, we attempted to examine whether Lycogen™ could suppress malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation and restore downregulated procollagen I expression induced by UVA exposure. In human dermal fibroblasts Hs68 cells, UVA repressed cell viability and decreased procollagen I protein content accompanied with the induction of MMP-1 and MDA accumulation. Remarkably, incubation with 50 µM Lycogen™ for 24 h ameliorated UVA-induced cell death and restored UVA-induced downregulation of procollagen in a dose-related manner. Lycogen™ treatment also prevented the UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation and intracellular MDA generation in Hs68 cells. Activation of NFκB levels, one of the downstream events induced by UVA irradiation and MMP-1 induction, were also prevented by Lycogen™ administration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Lycogen™ may be an alternative agent that prevents UVA-induced skin aging and could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. The Tryptophan-Derived Endogenous Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]Carbazole Is a Nanomolar UVA Photosensitizer in Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophia L; Justiniano, Rebecca; Williams, Joshua D; Cabello, Christopher M; Qiao, Shuxi; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-06-01

    Endogenous UVA chromophores may act as sensitizers of oxidative stress underlying cutaneous photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, but the molecular identity of non-DNA key chromophores displaying UVA-driven photodyamic activity in human skin remains largely undefined. Here we report that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct and endogenous high-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, acts as a nanomolar photosensitizer potentiating UVA-induced oxidative stress irrespective of AhR ligand activity. In human HaCaT and primary epidermal keratinocytes, photodynamic induction of apoptosis was elicited by the combined action of solar-simulated UVA and FICZ, whereas exposure to the isolated action of UVA or FICZ did not impair viability. In a human epidermal tissue reconstruct, FICZ/UVA cotreatment caused pronounced phototoxicity inducing keratinocyte cell death, and FICZ photodynamic activity was also substantiated in a murine skin exposure model. Array analysis revealed pronounced potentiation of cellular heat shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress response gene expression observed only upon FICZ/UVA cotreatment. FICZ photosensitization caused intracellular oxidative stress, and comet analysis revealed introduction of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-sensitive oxidative DNA lesions suppressible by antioxidant cotreatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the endogenous AhR ligand FICZ displays nanomolar photodynamic activity representing a molecular mechanism of UVA-induced photooxidative stress potentially operative in human skin.

  5. Monitorización molecular de la ecología levaduriforme de la uva al vino

    OpenAIRE

    López Enríquez, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    La calidad y singularidad de un vino están estrechamente relacionadas con las poblaciones de levaduras asociadas al proceso de transformación desde la uva al vino. El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el estudio de la sucesión natural de especies de levaduras propio de un proceso de vinificación, realizado mediante fermentación espontánea, a partir de uva de variedad Verdejo, recolectada de una parcela de orientación sur, localizada en la D. O. Rueda. Para ello, se ana...

  6. Base pairing enhances fluorescence and favors cyclobutane dimer formation induced upon absorption of UVA radiation by DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyasz, Akos; Vayá, Ignacio; Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Gustavsson, Thomas; Douki, Thierry; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2011-04-13

    The photochemical properties of the DNA duplex (dA)(20)·(dT)(20) are compared with those of the parent single strands. It is shown that base pairing increases the probability of absorbing UVA photons, probably due to the formation of charge-transfer states. UVA excitation induces fluorescence peaking at ∼420 nm and decaying on the nanosecond time scale. The fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime, and the quantum yield for cyclobutane dimer formation increase upon base pairing. Such behavior contrasts with that of the UVC-induced processes.

  7. Conservação de uva de mesa 'Crimson' com recurso a revestimentos edíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Sara Isabel Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Os revestimentos edíveis têm sido usados no tratamento pós-colheita de uva de mesa com bons resultados, ou seja mantendo a sua qualidade e segurança. Deste modo, surge o presente trabalho com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento pós-colheita de uva de mesa apirénica ‘Crimson’ conservada a 1°C e humidade relativa de 95%, com a aplicação de revestimentos edíveis baseados em quitosano e Aloe vera. O material colhido apresentava características de qualidade indicativas de acentua...

  8. Role of the receptor Mas in macrophage-mediated inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anna; Yang, Guang; Friedrich, Juliane; Kovacs, Agnes; Lee, De-Hyung; Grave, Katharina; Jörg, Stefanie; Alenina, Natalia; Grosch, Janina; Winkler, Jürgen; Gold, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Manzel, Arndt; Rump, Lars C; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2016-12-06

    Recently, an alternative renin-angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1-7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II-mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation. Mas deficiency exacerbated the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and increased macrophage infiltration as well as proinflammatory gene expression in the spleen and spinal cord. Furthermore, Mas deficiency promoted atherosclerosis by affecting macrophage infiltration and migration and led to increased oxidative stress as well as impaired endothelial function in ApoE-deficient mice. In summary, we identified the Mas axis as an important factor in macrophage function during inflammation of the central nervous and vascular system in vivo. Modulating the Mas axis may constitute an interesting therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and/or atherosclerosis.

  9. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas pathway in the brain: the axis of good

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Ping; Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2011-01-01

    ...). Among them, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the Mas receptor have forced a reevaluation of the original cascade and led to the emergence of a new arm of the RAS: the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis...

  11. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  12. Design of P-Type Cladding Layers for Tunnel-Injected UVA Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuewei; Akyol, Fatih; Allerman, Andrew A; Moseley, Michael W; Armstrong, Andrew M; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62% were achieved for tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be used to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs, and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.

  13. Suco de uva enriquecido com soro: elaboração e aceitabilidade sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm sido realizados em diversos países visando oferecer ao mercado novas formas de utilização do soro de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver suco de uva enriquecido com soro lácteo e avaliar a aceitação sensorial utilizando a escala hedônica facial e a técnica Mapa de Preferência. As diferentes formulações foram avaliadas por 111 crianças com idade entre 7 e 11 anos, no período de setembro a novembro de 2009, em uma escola pública do município de Rio Pomba, MG. Para o preparo da bebida foram adicionados 250 mL de suco de uva concentrado em 1750 mL da mistura de água e soro nas proporções de 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% de soro e 7% de açúcar. As amostras que continham 40% e 60% de soro na mistura de água e soro foram classificadas pelas crianças entre os termos hedônicos "gostei extremamente" e "gostei moderadamente", respectivamente, indicando a boa aceitação pela maioria dos consumidores. Entretanto, do total de provadores, 44 classificaram a amostra contendo 100% de soro na mistura entre os termos hedônicos "desgostei moderadamente" e "desgostei extremamente" indicando rejeição.

  14. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

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    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  15. The utility of MAS5 expression summary and detection call algorithms

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    Wilson Claire L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used alone, the MAS5.0 algorithm for generating expression summaries has been criticized for high False Positive rates resulting from exaggerated variance at low intensities. Results Here we show, with replicated cell line data, that, when used alongside detection calls, MAS5 can be both selective and sensitive. A set of differentially expressed transcripts were identified that were found to be changing by MAS5, but unchanging by RMA and GCRMA. Subsequent analysis by real time PCR confirmed these changes. In addition, with the Latin square datasets often used to assess expression summary algorithms, filtered MAS5.0 was found to have performance approaching that of its peers. Conclusion When used alongside detection calls, MAS5 is a sensitive and selective algorithm for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  16. UVA radiation is highly mutagenic in cells that are unable to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, S; Slezak, G; Reynaud-Angelin, A; Elie, C; de Rycke, Y; Boiteux, S; Sage, E

    2005-09-20

    UVA (320-400 nm) radiation constitutes >90% of the environmentally relevant solar UV radiation, and it has been proposed to have a role in skin cancer and aging. Because of the popularity of UVA tanning beds and prolonged periods of sunbathing, the potential deleterious effect of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. Although generally accepted, the impact of DNA damage on the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of yeast mutants affected in the processing of DNA damage to the lethal and mutagenic effect of UVA radiation. The data show that none of the major DNA repair pathways, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, and postreplication repair, efficiently protect yeast from the lethal action of UVA radiation. In contrast, the results show that the Ogg1 DNA glycosylase efficiently prevents UVA-induced mutagenesis, suggesting the formation of oxidized guanine residues. Furthermore, sequence analysis of UVA-induced canavanine-resistant mutations reveals a bias in favor of GC-->TA events when compared with spontaneous or H(2)O(2)-, UVC-, and gamma-ray- induced canavanine-resistant mutations in the WT strain. Taken together, our data point out a major role of oxidative DNA damage, mostly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, in the genotoxicity of UVA radiation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the capacity of skin cells to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine may be a key parameter in the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation in humans.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  18. Mas receptor contributes to pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmos-Silva, Cintia; Almeida, Jônathas Fernandes Queiroz de; Macedo, Larissa Matuda; Melo, Marcos Barrouin B; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Santos, Fernanda Fernanda Cristina Alcantara; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Augusto Souza; Carvalho, Adryano Augustto; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Castro, Carlos Henrique de

    2016-09-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Also, the involvement of Mas receptor in the exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been suggested. However, the role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor on pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation of the Mas receptor in the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by gestation. Female Wistar rats were shared in 3 groups: control , pregnant , and pregnant treated with Mas receptor antagonist A-779 . Wild type (WT) and Mas-knockout mice (KO) were distributed in non-pregnant  and pregnant  groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. The medial part of the left ventricle (LV) was collected for histological analysis. Echocardiographic analysis was used to evaluate the cardiac function. SBP was not changed by pregnancy or A-779 treatment in the Wistar rats. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of Mas receptor attenuates the pregnancy-induced myocyte hypertrophy. The treatment with A-779 or genetic deletion of the Mas receptor increased the collagen III deposition in LV from pregnant animals without changing the fibroblast proliferation. KO mice presented a lower ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume and higher end systolic volume compared to WT. Interestingly, the pregnancy restored these parameters. In conclusion, these data show that while Mas receptor blockade or deletion decreases physiological hypertrophy of pregnancy, it is associated with more extracellular matrix deposition. These alterations are associated with improvement of the cardiac function through Mas-independent mechanism. ©2016 The Author(s).

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates fear memory and extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaroni, Thiago Luiz do Nascimento; Bastos, Cristiane Perácio; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Santos, Robson Souza; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate defense-alerting reaction to fear is a common feature of neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, impairments in brain circuits, as well as in molecular pathways underlying the neurovegetative adjustments to fear may play an essential role on developing neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that interfering with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis homeostasis, which appears to be essential to arterial pressure control, would affect fear memory and extinction. Mas knockout (MasKO) mice, in FVB/N background, showed normal cued fear memory and extinction, but increased freezing in response to context. Next, as FVB/N has poor performance in contextual fear memory, we tested MasKO in mixed 129xC57BL/6 background. MasKO mice behaved similarly to wild-type (WT), but memory extinction was slower in contextual fear conditioning to a weak protocol (1CS/US). In addition, delayed extinction in MasKO mice was even more pronounced after a stronger protocol (3CS/US). We showed previously that Angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist, losantan, rescued object recognition memory deficit in MasKO mice. Here, losartan was also effective. Memory extinction was accelerated in MasKO mice after treatment with losartan. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may modulate fear memory extinction. Furthermore, we suggest MasKO mice as an animal model to study post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MAS receptors mediate vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan upon the recovery of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; do Prado, Alejandro F; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; da Silva, Carlos H T P; Gerlach, Raquel F; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-05

    AT1 antagonists effectively prevent atherosclerosis since AT1 upregulation and angiotensin II-induced proinflammatory actions are critical to atherogenesis. Despite the classic mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective and atheroprotective actions of AT1 antagonists, the cross-talk between angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin II-AT1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axes suggests other mechanisms beyond AT1 blockage in such effects. For instance, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity is inhibited by reactive oxygen species derived from AT1-mediated proinflammatory signaling. Since angiotensin-(1-7) promotes antiatherogenic effects, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of AT1 antagonists could result from their inhibitory effects on the AT1-mediated negative modulation of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality. Interestingly, our results showed that early atherosclerosis triggered in thoracic aorta from high cholesterol fed-Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice impairs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality by a proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated pathway. In such mechanism, AT1 activation leads to the aortic release of tumor necrosis factor-α, which stimulates NAD(P)H oxidase/Nox1-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. While hydrogen peroxide inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity, superoxide impairs MAS functionality. Candesartan treatment restored the functionality of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis by inhibiting the proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated mechanism. Candesartan also promoted vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects that were mediated by MAS since A779 (MAS antagonist) co-treatment inhibited them. The role of MAS receptors as the final mediators of the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan was supported by the vascular actions of angiotensin

  1. Atypical signaling and functional desensitization response of MAS receptor to peptide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Desnoyer, Russell; Speth, Robert C; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2014-01-01

    MAS is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in multiple physiological processes. Several physiological peptide ligands such as angiotensin-(1-7), angiotensin fragments and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) are reported to act on MAS. Studies of conventional G protein signaling and receptor desensitization upon stimulation of MAS with the peptide ligands are limited so far. Therefore, we systematically analyzed G protein signals activated by the peptide ligands. MAS-selective non-peptide ligands that were previously shown to activate G proteins were used as controls for comparison on a common cell based assay platform. Activation of MAS by the non-peptide agonist (1) increased intracellular calcium and D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) levels which are indicative of the activation of classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathways, (2) decreased Gαi mediated cAMP levels and (3) stimulated Gα12-dependent expression of luciferase reporter. In all these assays, MAS exhibited strong constitutive activity that was inhibited by the non-peptide inverse agonist. Further, in the calcium response assay, MAS was resistant to stimulation by a second dose of the non-peptide agonist after the first activation has waned suggesting functional desensitization. In contrast, activation of MAS by the peptide ligand NPFF initiated a rapid rise in intracellular calcium with very weak IP1 accumulation which is unlike classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathway. NPFF only weakly stimulated MAS-mediated activation of Gα12 and Gαi signaling pathways. Furthermore, unlike non-peptide agonist-activated MAS, NPFF-activated MAS could be readily re-stimulated the second time by the agonists. Functional assays with key ligand binding MAS mutants suggest that NPFF and non-peptide ligands bind to overlapping regions. Angiotensin-(1-7) and other angiotensin fragments weakly potentiated an NPFF-like calcium response at non-physiological concentrations (≥100 µM). Overall, our data suggest

  2. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  3. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  4. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Tulipani, Sara; Gonzàles-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-07

    Exposure to UV-A radiation is known to induce discrete lesions in DNA and the generation of free radicals that lead to a wide array of skin diseases. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Because the major representative components of strawberry are anthocyanins, these may significantly contribute to its properties. To test this hypothesis, methanolic extracts from the Sveva cultivar were analyzed for anthocyanin content and for their ability to protect human dermal fibroblasts against UV-A radiation, as assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide and Comet assays. Five anthocyanin pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Moreover, the strawberry extract showed a photoprotective activity in fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation, increasing cellular viability, and diminishing DNA damage, as compared to control cells. Overall, our data show that strawberry contains compounds that confer photoprotective activity in human cell lines and may protect skin against the adverse effects of UV-A radiation.

  5. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves, pet

  6. The ideal table grapes for the Spanish market A uva de mesa ideal para o mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore a survey of consumers in Spain. The survey explores the attributes of quality that consumers are seeking and promotion of grapes via "quality" marks, which are indicators of possible ways to increase demand. The reason consumers are switching to other foods, such as dairy based snacks, is that grapes are not easy to eat, can be unreliable in terms of their quality attributes, and their price more variable. Consumers are also generally unaware of the marks quality currently used.Este trabalho busca explorar o mercado da uva de mesa na Espanha, do ponto de vista do consumidor. O estudo explora os atributos de qualidade que os consumidores estão buscando e a promoção da uva de mesa via marcas de "qualidade" com a possibilidade de incremento de demanda. A importância deste estudo reside na mudança que vem ocorrendo no hábito de consumo de alimentos, onde as frutas e verduras em geral, e a uva de mesa em particular têm perdido espaço para produtos prontos para o consumo, como os derivados lácteos , doces e sobremesas. Em contraste, a uva de mesa não se apresenta pronta para o consumo, possui qualidade de fruta e preços mais variáveis, e o conceito de marca comercial encontra-se ainda pouco estabelecido, ao contrário dos produtos industrializados.

  7. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  8. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup Iran Open 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    This year the task of the UvA Rescue Team is to break up the monolith architecture of the control architecture. On the one hand this will make the existing modules reusable by other researchers; on the other hand it opens the possibility to incorporate efficient modules from other research groups. A

  9. Potentiating effect of UVA irradiation on anticancer activity of Carboplatin derivatives involving 7-azaindoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Štarha

    Full Text Available The moderate-to-high in vitro cytotoxicity against ovarian A2780 (IC50 = 4.7-14.4 μM, prostate LNCaP (IC50 = 18.7-30.8 μM and prostate PC-3 (IC50 = 17.6-42.3 μM human cancer cell lines of the platinum(II cyclobutane-1,1'-dicarboxylato complexes [Pt(cbdc(naza2] (1-6; cbdc = cyclobutane-1,1'-dicarboxylate(2-; naza = halogeno-substituted 7-azaindoles, derived from the anticancer metallodrug carboplatin, are reported. The complexes containing the chloro- and bromo-substituted 7-azaindoles (1, 2, and 4-6 showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05 cytotoxicity against A2780 cell line as compared to cisplatin used as a reference drug. Addition of the non-toxic concentration (5.0 μM of L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO, an effective inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase markedly increases the in vitro cytotoxicity of the selected complex 3 against A2780 cancer cell line by a factor of about 4.4. The cytotoxicity against A2780 and LNCaP cells, as well as the DNA platination, were effectively enhanced by UVA light irradiation (λmax = 365 nm of the complexes, with the highest phototoxicity determined for compound 3, resulting in a 4-fold decline in the A2780 cells viability from 25.1% to 6.1%. The 1H NMR and ESI-MS experiments suggested that the complexes did not interact with glutathione as well as their ability to interact with guanosine monophosphate. The studies also confirmed UVA light induced the formation of the cis [Pt(H2O2(cbdc`(naza] intermediate, where cbdc` represents monodentate-coordinated cbdc ligand, which is thought to be responsible for the enhanced cytotoxicity. This is further supported by the results of transcription mapping experiments showing that the studied complexes preferentially form the bifunctional adducts with DNA under UVA irradiation, in contrast to the formation of the less effective monofunctional adducts in dark.

  10. Pattern of Mas expression in acute and post-acute stage of nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Alex Dias; de Assis Araújo, Fernanda; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Zanon, Renata Graciele

    2017-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang [1-7]) and its receptor Mas are involved in a number of physiological processes, including control of arterial pressure and modulation of nervous system actions. However, the involvement of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in peripheral nerve injury has not been investigated. Using a model of sciatic nerve injury in mice, we demonstrated opposing changes in Mas receptor expression at days 2 and 14 post-injury. Mas receptor expression was more intense 2days after the nerve lesion, compared with the intensity of the intact nerve. At this time point, the sciatic nerve functional index was -20. At day 14 after the lesion, the intensity of the immunostaining labeling in longitudinal sections of the nerve was reduced (∼30%) and the functional index increased +36 (gait improvement). In the axotomized group treated with A779 (a Mas receptor antagonist), the functional recovery index decreased in relation to the untreated axotomized group. The Mas receptor inhibitor also altered the intensity of labeling of S-100, GAP43, and IBA-1 (morphological features compatible with delayed axon growth). This study demonstrated that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activity was differentially modulated in the acute and post-acute stages of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fremgen

    Full Text Available Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP components essential for social (S gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  12. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  13. Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Donathan G; Meyer, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) is composed of UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths. Only two sunscreen active ingredients approved in the US, avobenzone (butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane) and zinc oxide (ZnO), provide true broad-spectrum protection against UVA wavelengths >360 nm. Although effective against shorter UVR wavelengths avobenzone. To sustain its absorption capacity within a sunscreen film during UVR exposure, avobenzone needs to be formulated into sunscreen products using sound formulation strategies. To characterize the efficacy of avobenzone, ZnO, and TiO(2) in terms of their abilities to provide broad UVA protection and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the different formulation strategies used today to maintain the efficacy of avobenzone even during prolonged exposures to UVR. UVA efficacy was assessed by measuring absorbance profiles in vitro using Vitro Skin® (IMS Inc., Orange, CT, USA) as an inert substrate and by determining UVA protection factors (PFA) on human skin. The impact of avobenzone loss on sun protection factor (SPF) and PFA values was evaluated by serially reducing avobenzone concentrations in an otherwise photostable product. The photostabilizing influence of specific formulation ingredients was monitored by measuring the extent to which they prevented UVR-induced degradation of avobenzone, whereas photostability of commercial sunscreen products was quantified by measuring the percentage change in absorbance within the UVB and UVA spectral regions following irradiation of thin product films on inert substrates. Model formulations containing 3% avobenzone or 5% ZnO provided superior attenuation of UVA wavelengths >360 nm compared with formulas containing 5% TiO(2). Additionally, sunscreen products of similar SPF containing avobenzone or ZnO exhibited significantly higher PFA values than those containing TiO(2). The addition of photostabilized avobenzone or ZnO increased PFA values nearly 3-fold, whereas the addition of

  14. A novel MAs(III)-selective ArsR transcriptional repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Rosen, Barry P

    2017-09-01

    Microbial expression of genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is usually transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring toxic metalloid widely distributed in soil and groundwater. Microbes biotransform both arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) into more toxic methylated metabolites methylarsenite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsenite (DMAs(III)). Environmental arsenic is sensed by members of the ArsR/SmtB family. The arsR gene is autoregulated and is typically part of an operon that contains other ars genes involved in arsenic detoxification. To date every identified ArsR is regulated by inorganic As(III). Here we described a novel ArsR from Shewanella putrefaciens selective for MAs(III). SpArsR orthologs control expression of two MAs(III) resistance genes, arsP that encodes the ArsP MAs(III) efflux permease, and arsH encoding the ArsH MAs(III) oxidase. SpArsR has two conserved cysteine residues, Cys101 and Cys102. Mutation of either resulted in loss of MAs(III) binding, indicating that they form an MAs(III) binding site. SpArsR can be converted into an As(III)-responsive repressor by introduction of an additional cysteine that allows for three-coordinate As(III) binding. Our results indicate that SpArsR evolved selectivity for MAs(III) over As(III) in order to control expression of genes for MAs(III) detoxification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Chronic nerve injury-induced Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons alleviates neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanting; Qin, Yue; Liu, Tuanjiang; Hao, Dingjun

    2015-12-01

    Neuropathic pain, which is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain, is one of the most painful symptoms that can be experienced in the clinic. It often occurs as a result of injury to the peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord or brain. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in nociception. As an essential component of the RAS, the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis may be involved in antinociception. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression pattern of Mas in DRG neurons following chronic nerve injury and examine the effects of Mas inhibition and activation on neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. The results showed, that compared with the sham group, CCI caused a time-dependent induction of Mas expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels in DRG neurons. Consistent with the results, isolated DRG neurons showed a time-dependent increase in Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane following the CCI surgery, but not the sham surgery. Compared with the sham control groups, CCI significantly decreased the paw withdrawal latency and threshold, and this was markedly improved and aggravated by intrathecal injection of the selective Mas agonist Ang-(1-7) and the selective Mas inhibitor D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7), respectively. In conclusion, this study has provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the Mas expression in DRG neurons is time-dependently induced by chronic nerve injury and that the intrathecal activation and inhibition of Mas can improve and aggravate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, respectively. This study has provided novel insights into the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain and suggests that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis could be an effective therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, warranting further study.

  17. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (290-320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  18. Le signe /mas/ : entre la quantification et l’adversation

    OpenAIRE

    Sicot-Dominguez, María-Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Se trata de demostrar, desde una perspectiva semasiológica, la unicidad del signo lingüístico /mas/, pese a la distinción establecida por la gramática entre un más adverbio, pronombre o adjetivo cuantitativo y un mas conjunción adversativa. La observación de diversos enunciados tomados del Corpus de la RAE permite postular la existencia de un significado común a todos los empleos discursivos del signo /mas/; un signo único, a cuyo significante corresponde invariablemente un significado y que,...

  19. A New Algebraic Modelling Approach to Distributed Problem-Solving in MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅典勋; 邓志东

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a new algebraic modelling approach to distributed problem-solving in multi-agent systems (MAS), which is featured by a unified framework for describing and treating social behaviors, social dynamics and social intelligence. A conceptual architecture of algebraic modelling is presented. The algebraic modelling of typical social behaviors, social situation and social dynamics is discussed in the context of distributed problemsolving in MAS. The comparison and simulation on distributed task allocations and resource assignments in MAS show more advantages of the algebraic approach than other conventional methods.

  20. UVA-UVB Photoprotective Activity of Topical Formulations Containing Morinda citrifolia Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  1. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  2. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-05

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  3. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid upon skin photoreaction to UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Bahar; Fetil, Emel; Ilknur, Turna; Tahsin Güneş, Ali; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2005-01-01

    Various agents which can be used in combination can also interfere with phototherapy. In this study, the effects of topical petrolatum and 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum upon skin photoreaction to UVA were investigated, in an in vivo test. Minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) test was performed on 31 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thin 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum and sunscreen. The effect of each agent on MPD was investigated. MPD was increased with thin and thick applications of all agents. Also, MPD was increased with 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum when compared with pure petrolatum, in the same thickness. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid in petrolatum just before PUVA therapy is not recommended because of their blocking effects.

  4. UVA photoirradiation of halogenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leading to induction of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreno-Sáenz, Diógenes; Xia, Qingsu; Chiu, Li-Ting; Fu, Peter P

    2006-06-01

    Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo- PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo- PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10- dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7- bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6- bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  5. UVA mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles in pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, M. Del P.; Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Olmos-López, M.; Salas, P.; Gutiérrez, Clara

    2013-09-01

    A photochemical-based method in which UVA light (λ=366 nm) is used for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is presented by irradiating gold (III) chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) in the presence of pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium (PGHEP) as a reducing and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Different HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratios were exposed to UVA for up to seven hours. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pH measurements. The synthesized AuNPs present spherical as well as anisotropic shapes, such as oval, triangular, hexagonal sheets, rods, and some other faceted forms, with dimensions ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm. All obtained products show good temporal stability in solution. Surface plasmons differ when varying HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio. The obtained samples exhibit two absorption peaks, one in the region between 500-600 nm, and another one in the near-IR between 900-1200 nm; both peaks shift to longer wavelengths and increase their absorption intensity as the HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio increase. TEM images show the change in nanoparticles yield as well as the shape and sizes change depending on HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio variation. Ph measurements suggest that acidic media promote anisotropic nanoparticle formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to find out which heparin sodium main groups attached to the nanoparticles surface, and in what amount. In summary, it is found that when modifying the reactants concentrations and keeping the UV exposition time as the only fixed parameter, different nanoparticles with distinctive characteristics can be attained.

  6. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  7. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  8. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (USA). Dept. of Biology); Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Roth, R.M. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (USA). Dept. of Biology)

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Determination of residual 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and mutagenicity testing following psoralen plus UVA treatment of platelet suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S.J.; Robinette, D.; Dodd, R.Y. (American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Jerome H. Holland Lab. for Biomedical Sciences); White, R.; Wolf, L.; Chapman, J. (Baxter Biotech, Round Lake, IL (United States). Fenwal Labs.); Lawlor, T.E. (Hazleton Labs., Vienna, VA (United States). Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)

    1993-05-01

    Psoralens and UVa light have been used in the laboratory to study the inactivation of viruses that may be infrequently present in platelet concentrates prepared for transfusion. In order to evaluate safety aspects of the treatment of platelet suspensions with 4'-aminomethyl-4,5'8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), the authors have investigated the residual levels and mutagenic potential of AMT after UVA phototreatment. The results suggest that residual available AMT is mutagenic in the AMES test and that the observed frameshift mutations may be caused by binding of AMt or its metabolites to nucleic acids in the absence of UVA light. (Author).

  10. Tendências climáticas e produção de uva na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências nas séries climáticas e nos índices agroclimáticos para o cultivo da videira na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe, em Santa Catarina. A região apresenta clima mesotérmico úmido. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura máxima e mínima do ar, do período de 1924 a 2010, e de precipitação pluvial, de 1955 a 2010. O teste de Mann‑Kendall foi utilizado para avaliar a tendência nas séries, cuja magnitude foi estimada pela declividade mediana determinada pelo teste de Theil-Sen. Foi observada tendência de aumento nas séries de temperatura mínima do ar, em escala anual, bem como nas estações do ano. Quanto à temperatura máxima, somente houve tendência de aumento na série de verão. Em relação aos índices agrometeorológicos, foi observada tendência de diminuição do número de geadas, diminuição do período entre a brotação e a colheita, aumento da soma térmica e dos índices de Huglin e de frio. Foram evidenciadas tendências de aumento da precipitação pluvial total anual e da precipitação no período de crescimento da videira, bem como aumento do número de dias, com chuva igual ou superior a 20 mm, e aumento na temperatura mínima e noturna.

  11. Moderate MAS enhances local (1)H spin exchange and spin diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  13. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  14. 77 FR 58996 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-- Operational Change; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Acquisition Service (FAS), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION...

  15. Angiotensin-(1-7) Is an Endogenous Ligand for the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Mas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robson A. S. Santos; Ana C. Simoes e Silva; Christine Maric; Denise M. R. Silva; Raquel Pillar Machado; Insa de Buhr; Silvia Heringer-Walther; Sergio Veloso B. Pinheiro; Myriam Teresa Lopes; Michael Bader; Elizabeth P. Mendes; Virgina Soares Lemos; Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Robert Speth; Thomas Walther

    2003-01-01

    ...) antagonist indicated the existence of a distinct Ang-(1-7) receptor. We demonstrate that genetic deletion of the G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Mas protooncogene abolishes the binding of Ang-(1-7) to mouse kidneys...

  16. BOREAS Level-1B MAS Imagery At-sensor Radiance, Relative X and Y Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Ungar, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-1b MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C-130 INS data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  17. Intercomparison of MAS, AVIRIS, and HIS data from FIRE cirrus 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Liam E.; King, Michael D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gao, Bo-Cai; Arnold, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 flight on 5 Dec. 1991 is unique among the FIRE Cirrus 2 missions in that data were acquired simultaneously by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). These data represent a unique source of information about the spatial and spectral properties of cirrus clouds. The MAS is a new instrument which will aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. In order to establish confidence in the absolute calibration accuracy of the MAS radiances, an inter-comparison of MAS radiances with AVIRIS and HIS has been undertaken.

  18. TrustMAS: Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Cabaj, Krzysztof; Radziszewski, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents TrustMAS - Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems, which provides trust and anonymity for mobile agents. The platform includes anonymous technique based on random-walk algorithm for providing general purpose anonymous communication for agents. All agents, which take part in the proposed platform, benefit from trust and anonymity that is provided for their interactions. Moreover, in TrustMAS there are StegAgents (SA) that are able to perform various steganographic communication. To achieve that goal, SAs may use methods in different layers of TCP/IP model or specialized middleware enabling steganography that allows hidden communication through all layers of mentioned model. In TrustMAS steganographic channels are used to exchange routing tables between StegAgents. Thus all StegAgents in TrustMAS with their ability to exchange information by using hidden channels form distributed steganographic router (Stegrouter).

  19. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  20. Expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in the adult and developing mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Tuhina; Verma, Amrisha; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the retina and plays an important role in retinal neurovascular function. We have recently shown that increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)], two components of the protective axis of the RAS, in the retina via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery, conferred protection against diabetes-induced retinopathy. We hypothesized that the protective molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ang (1-7) are mediated by its receptor, Mas, and the expression level and cellular localization dictate the response to Ang (1-7) and activation of subsequent protective signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by examining the expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in adult and developing mouse retinas. The cellular localization of the Mas receptor protein was determined with immunofluorescence of the eyes of adult and postnatal day 1 (P1), P5, P7, P15, and P21 mice using the Mas receptor-specific antibody, and mRNA was detected with in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. Western blotting and real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR analysis were performed to determine the relative levels of the Mas protein and mRNA in adult and developing retinas, as well as in cultured retinal Müller glial and RPE cells. In the adult eye, the Mas receptor protein was abundantly present in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptor cells; a lower level of expression was observed in endothelial cells, Müller glial cells, and other neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. In the developing retina, Mas receptor mRNA and protein expression was detected in the inner retina at P1, and the expression levels increased with age to reach the adult level and pattern by P15. In the adult mouse retina, Mas receptor mRNA was expressed at a much higher level when compared to angiotensin II (Ang II) type I (AT1R) and type II (AT2R) receptor m

  1. U.S. Geological Survey mineral databases; MRDS and MAS/MILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaul, E.J.; Mason, G.T.; Ferguson, W.B.; Lipin, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    These two CD-ROM's contain the latest version of the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database and the Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System (MAS/MILS) database for coverage of North America and the world outside North America. The records in the MRDS database each contain almost 200 data fields describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, deposits, and commodities. The records in the MAS/MILS database each contain almost 100 data fields describing mines and mineral processing plans.

  2. {sup 29}Si MAS NMR for the zeolite Y - gallium oxide system; {sup 29}Si mas NMR dla ukladu fojazyt-tlenek galu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulikowski, B.; Derewinski, M. [Inst. Katalizy i Fizykochemii Powierzchni, Polska Akademia Nauk, Cracow (Poland); Olejniczak, Z.; Segnowski, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Wide-pore zeolites modified by gallium oxide has been prepared for catalytic use. Its physico-chemical and catalytic properties have been studied. The structure changes of the catalyst have been investigated by means of MAS NMR spectroscopy. Spectra of {sup 29}Si has been described and discussed. 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  4. Glucagon-producing cells are increased in Mas-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Braga, Janaína; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1-7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P Mas(-/-) mice (0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.31 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P = 0.02). In order to eliminate the possibility of a background-related phenotype, we determined the number of glucagon-producing cells in FVB/N Mas(-/-) mice. In keeping with the observations in C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice, the number and percentage of pancreatic α-cells were also significantly increased in these mice (number of α-cells: 260 ± 22 vs 156 ± 12 in WT, P Mas has a previously unexpected role on the pancreatic glucagon production. © 2017 The authors.

  5. The expression of Mas-receptor of the renin-angiotensin system in the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajanen, A; Kalesnykas, G; Vapaatalo, H; Uusitalo, H

    2015-07-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system has been held to be expressed in many organs, including the eye. It has an important role in the regulation of local fluid homeostasis, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and vascular tone. Mas-receptor (Mas-R) is a potential receptor acting mainly opposite to the well-known angiotensin II receptor type 1. The aim of this study was to determine if Mas-R is expressed in the human eye. Seven enucleated human eyes were used in immunohistochemical detection of Mas-R and its endogenous ligand angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)]. Both light microscopy and immunofluorescent detection methods were used. A human kidney preparation sample was used as control. The Mas-R was found to have nuclear localization, and localized in the retinal nuclear layers and in the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. A cytoplasmic immunostaining pattern of Ang(1-7) was found in the inner and outer nuclear and plexiform layers of the retina and in the ciliary body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing Mas-R expression in the human eye. Its localization suggests that it may have a role in physiological and pathological processes in the anterior part of the eye and in the retina.

  6. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  7. Temperature calibration for high-temperature MAS NMR to 913 K: 63Cu MAS NMR of CuBr and CuI, and 23Na MAS NMR of NaNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingshi; Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state phase transitions of CuBr, CuI and NaNbO(3) can be readily observed using (63)Cu and (23)Na high-temperature magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Temperature has large, linear effects on the peak maximum of (63)Cu in each solid phase of CuBr and CuI, and there is large jump in shift across each phase transition. The (23)Na MAS NMR peak intensities and the line widths in NaNbO(3) also clearly show its high-temperature transition to the cubic phase. These data can be used to calibrate high-temperature MAS NMR probes up to 913 K, which is two hundred degrees higher than the commonly-used temperature calibration based on the chemical shift of (207)Pb in Pb(NO(3))(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Podocalyxin promotes glioblastoma multiforme cell invasion and proliferation by inhibiting angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Yugang

    2015-05-01

    Podocalyxin (PODX) reportedly enhances invasion in many human cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent studies have shown that the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in tumor environment contributes significantly to tumor progression. As a counter-regulatory axis in RAS, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to inhibit the growth and invasiveness of several human cancers including GBM. In the present study, we examined the crosstalk between PODX and Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling in GBM cells, and assessed its impact on GBM cell invasion and proliferation. A strong negative correlation between the expression of PODX and Mas in GBM tumor tissues from 10 consecutive patients (r=-0.768, pMas at the mRNA and protein levels, which led to decreased density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. This effect was completely abolished by selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120. By contrast, the stable knockdown of PODX in LN-229 and U-118 MG cells increased the expression of Mas and the density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. Overexpression and knockdown of PODX respectively reversed and enhanced the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell invasion and proliferation in GBM cells. Although the overexpression of Mas showed no significant effect on the promoting effect of PODX on GBM cell invasion and proliferation in the absence of Ang-(1-7), it completely eliminated the effect of PODX in the presence of Ang-(1-7). In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence that PODX inhibits Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling by downregulating the expression of Mas through a PI3K-dependent mechanism in GBM cells. This effect led to enhanced GBM cell invasion and proliferation. The results of this study add new insight into the biological functions of PODX and the molecular mechanisms underlying GBM progression.

  9. Norovirus and MS2 inactivation kinetics of UV-A and UV-B with and without TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2013-10-01

    Germicidal ultraviolet, such as 254-nm UV-C, is a common method of disinfection of pathogenic enteric viruses. However, the disinfection efficacies of UV-A or -B in terms of inactivating waterborne viruses such as norovirus have not been characterized. We evaluated the inactivation kinetics of MS2 bacteriophage and murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate of human norovirus (NoV), by UV-A and -B. In addition to UV disinfection, we further investigated whether the presence of TiO2 could enhance the virus inactivation kinetics of UV-A and -B. Both MS2 and MNV were highly resistant to UV-A. However, the addition of TiO2 enhanced the efficacy of UV-A for inactivating these viruses. UV-A dose of 1379 mJ/cm(2) resulted in a 4 log10 reduction. In comparison, UV-B alone effectively inactivated both MS2 and MNV, as evidenced by the 4 log10 reduction by 367 mJ/cm(2) of UV-B. The addition of TiO2 increased the inactivation of MS2; however, it did not significantly increase the efficacy of UV-B disinfection for inactivating MNV. When these treatments were applied to field water such as groundwater, the results were generally consistent with the laboratory findings. Our results clearly indicated that UV-B is useful for the disinfection of waterborne norovirus. However, MNV was quite resistant to UV-A, and UV-A effectively inactivated the tested viruses only when used in combination with TiO2.

  10. Influence of Seed pre-treatment by UV-A and UV-C radiation on germination and growth of Mung beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of pre-treatment of UV-A (366 nm and UV-C (254 nm radiation on seed germination and growth of Vigna radiata was investigated at three different exposure period (2, 4 and 6 hours. Supplementation of UV-A enhanced the germination rate, specific leaf area, root and shoot length and dry weight than the UV-C supplemented plants.

  11. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoirradiation of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twelve isomeric methylbenz[a]anthracene with UVA light: formation of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Chou, Ming W; Yin, Jun J; Howard, Paul C; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants, which require metabolic activation in order to exert biological activities, including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Photoactivation is another activation pathway that can lead to PAH genotoxicity. In this paper, we demonstrate that photoirradiation of a series of representative PAHs, with and without bearing a methyl substituent, with UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate resulted in the formation of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides (a lipid peroxide). The lipid peroxide formation was inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT) (free radical scavenger), NaN3 (singlet oxygen and free radical scavenger), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (superoxide scavenger), but was enhanced by the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) (extends singlet oxygen lifetime). These results suggest that photoirradiation of PAHs by UVA light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation.

  14. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor; Miele Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera) da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinho...

  15. Studies on singlet oxygen formation and UVA light-mediated photobleaching of the yellow chromophores in human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwerth, Beryl J; Chemoganskiy, Vitaliy; Olesen, P R

    2002-02-01

    The protein-bound chromophores, which increase with aging in the human lens, act as UVA sensitizers, producing almost exclusively singlet oxygen in vitro. Direct irradiation of whole, aged human lenses with high intensity UVA light (200 mW cm(-2) for 24 hr), however, failed to produce singlet oxygen damage, as evidenced by the lack of either His or Trp photodestruction. Total homogenates of human lenses prepared in a cuvette under air did show destruction of His and Trp residues by UVA light, but no destruction was seen when equivalent homogenates were prepared under argon. These data are consistent with the idea that the low oxygen levels in the lens prevent singlet oxygen damage in vivo.UVA irradiation of aged human lenses in culture caused an extensive photobleaching of the yellow chromophores. A time course indicated that the photobleaching increased with time, with significant color loss apparent after 6 hr. Homogenization of the irradiated and dark control lenses in 6 M guanidine-HCl, followed by determination of the difference spectrum, showed approximately 50% bleaching of compounds with a lambda(max) at 355 nm. Similarly, fluorophores with a lambda(max) for excitation of 355 nm and for emission of 420 nm were 50% destroyed by the UVA light. Similar results were obtained in vitro by the anaerobic irradiation of a sonication-solubilized WI fraction from type II brunescent cataracts and from aged human lenses. In this system, there was an initial bleaching of 15% after 30 min of irradiation, followed by a slow increase over the next 6 hr to a final bleaching of 30%. The addition of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid, but not 1.0 m M glutathione (GSH), increased the photobleaching to 60% under argon, and the loss of ascorbate could be detected under these anaerobic conditions. In the presence of air, UVA light produced no photobleaching, but rather caused a three-fold increase in absorbance at 345 nm, which was prevented by the inclusion of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid and almost

  16. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  17. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  18. Stromal haze after combined riboflavin-UVA corneal collagen cross-linking in keratoconus: in vivo confocal microscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Traversi, Claudio; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-08-01

    The technique of corneal collagen cross-linking consists of photopolymerization of stromal fibres by the combined action of a photosensitizing substance (riboflavin or vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light from a solid state UVA source. Photopolymerization increases the rigidity of corneal collagen and its resistance to keratectasia. In this report we present two cases, studied through in vivo confocal microscopy, with stage III keratoconus that developed stromal haze after the cross-linking treatment.

  19. Apigenin inhibits UVA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prevents signs of skin aging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Youn, Jeungyeun; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; An, In-Sook; Kwon, Seungbin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-08-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin on skin and found that, in experiments using cells, apigenin restored the viability of normal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs), which had been decreased by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the UVA range. Using a senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal assay, we also demonstrate that apigenin protects against the UVA-induced senescence of nHDFs. Furthermore, we found that apigenin decreased the expression of the collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in UVA-irradiated nHDFs. UVA, which has been previously identified as a photoaging-inducing factor, has been shown to induce MMP-1 expression. The elevated expression of MMP-1 impairs the collagen matrix, leading to the loss of elasticity and skin dryness. Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of apigenin on aged skin, using an apigenin‑containing cream for clinical application. Specifically, we measured dermal density, skin elasticity and the length of fine wrinkles in subjects treated with apigenin cream or the control cream without apigenin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the apigenin-containing cream on skin texture, moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). From these experiments, we found that the apigenin‑containing cream increased dermal density and elasticity, and reduced fine wrinkle length. It also improved skin evenness, moisture content and TEWL. These results clearly demonstrate the biological effects of apigenin, demonstrating both its cellular and clinical efficacy, and suggest that this compound holds promise as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient.

  20. Avaliação sensorial de suco de uva cv. Isabel em cortes com diferentes cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Sá Borges

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As videiras americanas constituem a base varietal do suco de uva brasileiro, com destaque para a cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação de consumidores por meio de avaliação sensorial de sucos de uva de 'Isabel' combinados em cortes com sucos de outras cultivares. Foram preparadas em panela extratora seis amostras de suco de uva integral: Isabel (100%; Isabel (80% + Concord (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Rúbea (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Cora (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Violeta (20% e Isabel (80% + BRS Carmem (20%. Foram avaliados o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total e pH das amostras. Para a avaliação sensorial, contou-se com cinquenta julgadores que avaliaram os atributos Cor, Aroma, Sabor, Corpo e Aceitação Global, usando uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. Tanto o suco puro de 'Isabel' como os cortes tiveram aceitação sensorial satisfatória. Com relação à cor, os cortes contendo 'BRS Rúbea', 'BRS Cora', 'BRS Violeta' e 'BRS Carmem' apresentaram as maiores médias, 7,98; 8,10; 7,96 e 8,22, respectivamente. Para os demais atributos, como aroma, sabor, corpo e aceitação global, os cortes de suco de 'Isabel' com outras cultivares não diferiram do suco puro dessa cultivar, 6,84; 6,56; 6,80 e 6,74, respectivamente. Na avaliação do consumidor, todas as cultivares avaliadas, com exceção da 'Concord', podem ser usadas em cortes com a 'Isabel', na proporção de 4:1, para melhorar a coloração do suco de uva, sem alterar as demais características.

  1. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Giuchici Camelia V; Butnariu Monica V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its ri...

  2. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROTETORES SOLARES ANTI UVA E ANTI UVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da temperatura no planeta devido o efeito estufa, há uma preocupação com as radiações ultravioletas que incidem na pele dos seres humanos. Diante disso a indústria cosmética vem desenvolvendo constantemente formulações contendo filtros solares, anti UVA, anti UVB e também os dois filtros associados numa mesma formulação, retardando o envelhecimento cutâneo, formação dos radicais livres e prevenindo uma grande problemática atual, o câncer de pele. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção para conhecimento do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação de filtros solares associados em uma mesma formulação baseando-se no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (EPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil (INPI, bem como nas bases de periódicos, CAPES, Pubmed, Science Direct e ACS Publications. O maior número de patentes foi depositado nos últimos 5 anos. As patentes em sua maioria estão classificadas em A61K. Os responsáveis por maior número de patentes foram os Estados Unidos, China e Japão. Há uma diminuição no número de depósitos de patentes quando se associou a UVA e UVB no fotoprotetor. Em relação à produção científica o número de publicações referente a formulações fotoprotetoras contendo os dois filtros associados é maior que o de depósito de patentes, porém segue o mesmo perfil de redução ao associar os filtros numa mesma formulação.

  3. Treatment of crystallized-fruit wastewater by UV-A LED photo-Fenton and coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, Jorge; Amor, Carlos; Fernandes, José R; Tavares, Pedro B; Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the treatment of crystallized-fruit effluents, characterized by a very low biodegradability (BOD5/COD UV-A LED photo-Fenton process. Firstly, a Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology was applied to achieve the optimal conditions for the UV-A LED photo-Fenton process, trying to maximize the efficiency by saving chemicals and time. Under the optimal conditions ([H2O2] = 5459 mg/L; [Fe(3+)] = 286 mg/L; time >180 min), a COD removal of 45, 64 and 74% was achieved after 360 min, using an irradiance of 23, 70 and 85 W/m(2) respectively. Then a combination of UV-A LED photo-Fenton with coagulation-flocculation-decantation attained a higher COD removal (80%), as well as almost total removal of turbidity (99%) and total suspended solids (95%). Subsequent biodegradability of treated effluents increased, allowing the application of a biological treatment step after the photochemical/CFD with 85 W/m(2).

  4. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by sunlight and UV-A, -B and -C irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kohei; Sugihara, Kazumi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.

  5. Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, L; Serraf-Tircazes, D; Jeanmougin, M; Morlière, P; Averbeck, D; Young, A R

    1990-11-01

    As part of an international cooperative study of the photophysical, photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic properties of bergamot oil and the effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens, the phototoxic properties of model perfumes containing 5, 15 and 50 ppm 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in bergamot oil with and without a sunscreen have been investigated on human skin. It has been confirmed that the photosensitivity of human skin is maximal 2 h after perfume application. Interestingly the addition of a UVA sunscreen is more efficient for decreasing the phototoxic properties of bergamot oil than is a UVB sunscreen. The addition of sunscreens in a model perfume containing 50 ppm 5-MOP in bergamot oil can reduce the phototoxic properties of this perfume to a toxicity equivalent to that produced by the application of a model perfume containing 15 ppm 5-MOP without sunscreens. However, despite their promising protective effect in vitro, UVB and UVA sunscreens at low concentration (0.5%-1%) in perfumes cannot suppress the phototoxicity of bergamot oil on human skin.

  6. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells.

  7. The Effect of NaCl and CMA on the Growth and Morphology of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick

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    Jane P. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described the negative effects of the commonly used deicer, NaCl, on plants; this has led to research on less toxic alternatives, for example, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA. The present research investigated the native ground cover species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick, as a possible candidate for landscaping in high salt conditions. The effect of NaCl and CMA on the growth, morphology, and survival of A. uva-ursi plants was examined to explore the use of CMA as a potential environmentally friendly alternative deicing agent to that of NaCl. The influence of these deicing agents on selected soil properties was also investigated. It was found that this ground cover species was able to tolerate moderate-to-high levels of NaCl and even greater concentrations of CMA. Therefore, A. uva-ursi proved to be a candidate for landscaping use in a north central city of Canada, where deicing agents are used in winter months.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  9. Experimental reproduction of polymorphous light eruption and benign summer light eruption by whole-body UVA irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J; Verheyen, A; Dockx, P

    1997-01-01

    The entity 'benign summer light eruption' (BSLE) has been introduced to make a clinical subdivision in the heterogeneous group of polymorphous light eruptions (PLE). Provocation tests for PLE are not always easy to perform and require expensive apparatus. Our purpose was to evaluate a provocation test that could be readily done by a dermatologist with a UVA cabin. Provocation tests are currently required in order to obtain a financial contribution from the social security services in Belgium. In addition, we were interested in determining whether the results of the provocation test would permit us to differentiate between the clinical entities of BSLE and PLE. We studied the efficacy of whole-body UVA irradiation for BSLE and PLE patients. A total of 45 patients was tested, of whom 26 were diagnosed as having BSLE and 19 PLE. In the BSLE group, 24 patients (92%) presented lesions. In the PLE group, 15 patients (79%) had a reaction, but 3 had a positive UVB test. The mean dose to induce lesions was 65.96 J/cm2 for the BSLE group and 52.86 J/cm2 for the PLE group. We conclude that the whole-body UVA test is a high-performance provocation test for both BSLE and PLE patients although it cannot differentiate the two entities from one another.

  10. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  11. Phototherapy and photopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Chan, G.; Edelson, R.L.

    1985-11-01

    The activation of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) by long-wavelength ultraviolet A light (UVA, 320-400 nm) induces the formation of interstrand cross-links in DNA. Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis, a hyperproliferative disease of the skin. A new psoralen plus UVA therapy has been developed in which the 8-MOP-containing blood of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients is irradiated with UVA light extracorporeally (i.e., extracorporeal photopheresis). The first group of patients had the leukemic variant of CTCL. A regimen of two treatments on successive days at monthly intervals produced a clinical response in eight of 11 patients. In this review the properties of several psoralens (both naturally occurring and synthetic derivatives) are compared, using several assays (DNA cross-linking, inhibition of lymphocyte response to mitogen stimulation, and cell viability). The development of a panel of monoclonal antibodies that recognize 8-MOP-modified DNA is also described. These antibodies have been used to quantitate 8-MOP photoadduct levels in human DNA samples. In addition to the psoralens, the light activation of two other compounds, gilvocarcin and an insulin-psoralen conjugate, is described.

  12. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can inhibit hepatic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rong-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-08-05

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can reduce the risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has recently been proposed to function as a negative regulator of the RAS. In previous studies, we first demonstrated that ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/)(y)) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However the precise roles of ACE2 on glucose metabolism are unknown. Here we show that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis increases glucose uptake and decreases glycogen synthesis in the liver accompanied by increased expression of glucose transporters, insulin receptor substrates and decreased expression of enzymes for glycogen synthesis. ACE2 knockout mice displayed elevated levels of oxidative stress and exposure to Ang-(1-7) reduced the stress in hepatic cells. As a consequence of anti-oxidative stress, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis led to improved hepatic insulin resistance through the Akt/PI3K/IRS-1/JNK insulin signaling pathway. This is the first time documented that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. As insulin resistance in the liver is considered to be the primary cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, this axis may serve as a new diabetes target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  14. Altered heart rate and blood pressure variability in mice lacking the Mas protooncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability is a relevant predictor of cardiovascular risk in humans. A significant genetic influence on heart rate variability is suggested, although the genes involved are ill-defined. The Mas-protooncogene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains highly expressed in testis and brain. Since this receptor is supposed to interact with the signaling of angiotensin II, which is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed in Mas-deficient mice. Using a femoral catheter the blood pressure of mice was measured for a period of 30 min and 250 data values per second were recorded. The mean values and range of heart rate and blood pressure were then calculated. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure were significantly different between knockout mice and controls. However, high resolution recording of these parameters and analysis of the data by non-linear dynamics revealed significant alterations in cardiovascular variability in Mas-deficient animals. In particular, females showed a strong reduction of heart rate variability. Furthermore, the data showed an increased sympathetic tone in knockout animals of both genders. The marked alterations detected in Mas-deficient mice of both genders suggest that the Mas-protooncogene is an important determinant of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

  15. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm.

  16. Temporal variation of erythemally effective UVB/UVA ratio at Chilton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, R J; Pearson, A J; O'Hagan, J B

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the temporal variation in the erythemally weighted UVB/UVA irradiance ratio using spectral data collected from a monitoring site in Chilton, UK (51°N) for the 5-y period from 2004 to 2008 is presented. The variation in the diurnal ratio was found to be bell-shaped, with minima on average 1 h after sunrise and before sunset. The minima were found to be indicative of the point at which UVB becomes undetectable by the spectroradiometer and therefore the outer boundary of useful data. A potential flaw entailed in the erythemal weighting of low-level spectral UV data is described. The peak daily ratio value was found to have a bell-shaped distribution over the course of a year with a maximum in July rather than at the summer solstice-a result explained by the ozone cycle. The peak daily ratio was found to vary by a factor of 4 over the course of the year; this range of variation was also found to occur over a single day in the summer.

  17. La economía y "Las uvas de la ira"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Paulo Reis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Un estudiante me dijo una vez: "La economía no es verdadera". Este trabajo trata de mostrar cómo nos ayuda la economía a entender mejor nuestro mundo. Usando la muy conocida novela de Steinbeck Las uvas de la ira traté de relacionar los conceptos económicos básicos con la acción que se narra en el libro, para mostrar que la economía, o la literatura, son útiles para explicar la complejidad de la Gran Depresión, específicamente la complejidad asociada con las migraciones de trabajadores a otros estados. Este texto puede ser estimulante en los cursos de introducción, pues indica que las leyes del mercado son nociones básicas útiles, así como la información imperfecta, los mercados competitivos o la negociación colectiva.

  18. Low-flow transport models for conservative and sorbed solutes; Uvas Creek, near Morgan Hill, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Models describing low-flow transport of conservative (nonreactive) and reactive solutes, which adsorb on the streambed, are developed and tested. Temporary storage within the bed plays an important role in solute movement. Three different models of bed-storage processes are developed for conservative solutes. One model assumes the bed is a well-mixed, nondiffusing, nonreacting zone. Solute flux into the bed is then proportional to the difference between stream and bed-solute concentrations. A second model assumes that solute is transported within the bed by a vertical diffusion process. The bed-solute concentration, which matches the stream concentration at the interface, varies with depth in the bed according to Fick 's law. A third model assumes convection in the downstream direction occurs in certain parts of the bed, while the mechanism of the first model functions elsewhere. Storage of absorbing species is assumed to occur by equilibrium adsorption within streambed particles. Uptake rate is described by an intraparticle diffusion process. Model equations were solved using finite element numerical methods. Models were calibrated using data from a 24-hour injection of conservative chloride and adsorptive Sr ions at Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California. All models predict well except for some overestimation by the adsorption model during dieaway. (USGS)

  19. Phenylmercury degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis assisted by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cristian; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Zaror, Claudio; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenylmercury was studied using TiO2 in aqueous suspension assisted by UV-A irradiation. Reaction conditions, such as pH and amount of TiO2 were set using a factorial design of experiments resulting in a greater influence of pH on phenylmercury degradation. Hg (II) reduction and simultaneous oxidation of aromatic group was observed. Optimum reaction conditions were obtained under nitrogen atmosphere at pH 10 and 0.35 g/L(-1) TiO2. Under these conditions almost 100% reduction of mercury was reached after 30 min UV irradiation. Total mercury reduction was achieved after 40 min reaction under saturated oxygen. Furthermore, phenol and diphenylmercury were identified as intermediate products of oxidation. It was observed that a major fraction of the reduced mercury was removed as metallic vapor by gas stripping, whereas a minor fraction was adsorbed on the catalyst surface, probably as Hg(OH)2. Under optimal conditions obtained by multivariable analysis, total mineralization of organic matter was achieved after about 60-min irradiation.

  20. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UVA irradiation of glass mounted dye-sensitized solar cells without UV filtration causes failure within 400 hours of light exposure. The failure mode is shown to relate to consumption of I3−, which is directly related to TiO2 photo-catalysis. The onset of failure is easily determined from electrochemical impedance data where the recombination resistance of the TiO2/electrolyte back reaction drops markedly prior to the onset of degradation. At the point of complete cell failure this impedance value then dramatically increases as there is no longer an interfacial reaction possible between the TiO2 and the I3− depleted electrolyte. Device failure is most rapid for cells under electrical load indicating that the degradation of the electrolyte is related to photogenerated hole production by excitation of the TiO2. Once depleted by UV exposure, the I3− can be regenerated by simple application of a reverse bias which can restore severely UV degraded devices to near original working conditions.

  1. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min.

  2. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  3. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.

  4. Cornus mas (Linnaeus Novel Devised Medicinal Preparations: Bactericidal Effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Kyriakopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of Cornus mas L. (=Cornus mascula L., Cornaceae, are well described in Hippocratian documents, and recent research provides experimental evidence for some of these properties. However, the chemical components of Cornus mas L. that may be of pharmaceutical importance are relatively unstable. In this respect a novel methodology for plant nutrient element extraction that provides favorable conditions for simultaneous stabilization of such fragile and unstable structures has been devised. Using this methodology, medicinal preparations derived from Cornus mas L. fresh fruits, proved to possess significant antimicrobial activity selective against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. This effect became apparent with the addition of sodium bromide in the extraction procedure and varied with the ion availability during extraction. The identification of novel agents with potent antimicrobial activity against these species is of medical importance to overcome the problem of universal antibiotic resistance.

  5. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  6. MAS-Based Cooperative Control for Biotechnological Process-A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choinski, Dariusz; Metzger, Mieczyslaw; Nocon, Witold

    The MAS-based control seems to be better suited for manufacturing control because of its discrete event character. Nevertheless, for continuous industrial processes the MAS-based control can be also very attractive. In this paper, a synthesis of the MAS-based control system for the continuous process is presented. A biological reactor is controlled using respirometric approach. In this approach, both standard control loops and additional experiments are performed to obtain measurements not available on-line. Therefore, the system consists of different control agents being able to cooperate or to inhibit each other in order to achieve the appropriate goals. A case study experiments are realized using an experimental wastewater treatment pilot plant.

  7. Evidence for a systematic offset of $-$0.25~mas in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G

    2016-01-01

    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres (2016). We find a clear average offset of $-$0.25$\\pm$0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The documented Gaia systematic uncertainty is 0.3 mas, which the eclipsing binary sample corroborates. The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color, brightness, or spatial position. However, with a statistical significance of 99.7%, nearer stars possibly exhibit larger offsets according to $\\Delta\\pi \\approx -0.16 -0.02 \\times \\pi$ mas.

  8. Technology Enhanced Learning for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Cerebral Paralysis: The MAS Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.

  9. Factor analysis of 27Al MAS NMR spectra for identifying nanocrystalline phases in amorphous geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured materials offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of the large interfacial area. Typically, geopolymers with specifically synthesized nanosized zeolites are a promising material for the sorption of pollutants. The structural characterization of these aluminosilicates, however, continues to be a challenge. To circumvent complications resulting from the amorphous character of the aluminosilicate matrix and from the low concentrations of nanosized crystallites, we have proposed a procedure based on factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra. The capability of the proposed method was tested on geopolymers that exhibited various tendencies to crystallize (i) completely amorphous systems, (ii) X-ray amorphous systems with nanocrystalline phases, and (iii) highly crystalline systems. Although the recorded (27)Al MAS NMR spectra did not show visible differences between the amorphous systems (i) and the geopolymers with the nanocrystalline phase (ii), the applied factor analysis unambiguously distinguished these materials. The samples were separated into the well-defined clusters, and the systems with the evolving crystalline phase were identified even before any crystalline fraction was detected by X-ray powder diffraction. Reliability of the proposed procedure was verified by comparing it with (29)Si MAS NMR spectra. Factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra thus has the ability to reveal spectroscopic features corresponding to the nanocrystalline phases. Because the measurement time of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra is significantly shorter than that of (29)Si MAS NMR data, the proposed procedure is particularly suitable for the analysis of large sets of specifically synthesized geopolymers in which the formation of the limited fractions of nanocrystalline phases is desired. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dibujo y pensamiento en la obra de Rafael Masó

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón González, Rafael Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Rafael Masó, arquitecto noucentista, es además, el artista adecuado para el análisis de una obra totalmente gráfica.Dibujos, escritos, gráficos y bocetos, son los elementos idóneos para que las ideas sobre la expresión gráfica, queden reflejados en esta Tesis Doctoral.Para conocer su obra gráfica, es necesario llegar a lo más profundo de sus pensamientos transmitidos por historiadores y la Familia Masó. Tanto su obra arquitectónica, como sus dibujos, son conocidos por expertos y estudiosos ...

  11. Solid-phase enolate chemistry investigated using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchart, Jean-Sébastien; Lippens, Guy; Kuhn, Cyrille; Gras-Masse, Hélène; Melnyk, Oleg

    2002-01-25

    Supported P4-t-Bu enolate chemistry of phenylacetyloxymethyl polystyrene (PS) resin was investigated using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Direct analysis of the crude reaction suspensions through the use of a diffusion filter (DF) allowed a rapid selection of the optimal experimental conditions, but also the characterization of the enolate on the solid phase. Comparison with solution experiments and literature data allowed us to address partially the structure of the enolate. HR-MAS NMR spectra of the enolate revealed also a tight interaction of P4-t-Bu base with the polymer matrix.

  12. “Logias masónicas en la Nueva España”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Martínez Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar que en la Nueva España hubo logias masónicas autorizadas por la Gran Logia del Estado de Louisiana para ser establecidas en Veracruz, Campeche y Mérida Yucatán entre 1816 y 1820. La evidencia documental se presenta por primera vez con su transcripción y traducción, con un estudio hermenéutico del contexto político y masónico de la época, y de algunas reflexiones acerca de la composición de los miembros de las tres logias.

  13. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  14. Activation of Nrf2 Reduces UVA-Mediated MMP-1 Upregulation via MAPK/AP-1 Signaling Cascades: The Photoprotective Effects of Sulforaphane and Hispidulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Lohakul, Jinaphat; Soontrapa, Kitipong; Sampattavanich, Somponnat; Akarasereenont, Pravit

    2017-01-01

    UVA irradiation plays a role in premature aging of the skin through triggering oxidative stress-associated stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) responsible for collagen degradation, a hallmark of photoaged skin. Compounds that can activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor regulating antioxidant gene expression, should therefore serve as effective antiphotoaging agents. We investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2 could relieve UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling using human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Antiphotoaging effects of hispidulin (HPD) and sulforaphane (SFN) were assessed on their abilities to activate Nrf2 in controlling MMP-1 and collagen expressions in association with phosphorylation of MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38), c-Jun, and c-Fos, using the skin of BALB/c mice subjected to repetitive UVA irradiation. Our findings suggested that depletion of Nrf2 promoted both mRNA expression and activity of MMP-1 in the UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells. Treatment of Nrf2 knocked-down HaCaT cells with MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed UVA-induced MMP-1 and AP-1 activities. Moreover, pretreatment of the mouse skin with HPD and SFN, which could activate Nrf2, provided protective effects against UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction and collagen depletion in correlation with the decreased levels of phosphorylated MAPKs, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the mouse skin. In conclusion, Nrf2 could influence UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation through the MAPK/AP-1 signaling cascades. HPD and SFN may therefore represent promising antiphotoaging candidates. PMID:28011874

  15. The ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis protects against pancreatic cell damage in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Li, Huihui; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product angiotensin-(1-7), and its receptor Mas have been shown to moderate the adverse effects of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 axis in many diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis could have similar effects in a cell culture model of pancreatic damage. AR42J cells were stimulated with 10 nmol/L cerulein to simulate acute pancreatitis. ACE2, Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and PI3K/AKT pathway were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. ACE2 and Mas receptor protein levels in AR42J cells were significantly increased (P Mas receptor gene expression was significantly increased (P Mas axis significantly inhibits pancreatitis in response to decreased inflammatory factors by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO signaling pathways.

  16. Nivel de aceptabilidad para cinco variedades de uva de mesa en el mercado español Nivel de aceitabilidade para cinco variedades de uva de mesa no mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel de aceptabilidad con relación a distintas variedades de uva de mesa, la Unidad de Comercialización y Divulgación Agraria del Departamento de Economía y Ciencias Sociales Agrarias (E.T.S.I.Agrónomos, de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, realizó la presente investigación en julio de 1999. Se utilizó el análisis sensorial en Sala de Catas como herramienta para la evaluación del nivel de aceptabilidad de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Se puso énfasis en conocer las posibles diferencias de carácter sensorial entre las variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble, variedades que coinciden en su época de cosecha en España. En los análisis hechos, las variedades Cardinal y Superior Seedless fueron las más preferidas en comparación con Flame Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble. La variedad Superior Seedless fue muy valorada por su ausencia de semillas, además de su buen sabor, lo que la torna de gran potencial para el mercado español. El sabor, seguido de la jugosidad, fueron los elementos determinantes en el proceso de aceptación de la uva.Com o objetivo de avaliar o nível de aceitabilidade de distintas variedades de uva de mesa, a Unidade de Comercialização e Divulgação Agrária do Departamento de Economia y Ciências Sociales Agrárias (E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, da Universidade Politécnica de Madri, realizou o presente estudo em julho de 1999. Empregou-se a análise sensorial para a avaliação do nível de aceitabilidade de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Procurou-se determinar especial atenção em conhecer as possíveis diferenças de caráter sensorial entre as variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria e Redgloble. Nos pomares espanhóis, essas variedades atingem a maturação de colheita na mesma época. Nas análises realizadas, as variedades Cardinal e Superior Seedless foram as mais preferidas em comparação com Flame Seedless

  17. Changes in Structural and Electronic Properties of the Zeolite Framework Induced by Extra-Framework Al and La in H-USY and La(x)NaY : A 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and 27Al MQ MAS NMR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Roest, A.L.; Miller, J.T.; Nachtegaal, G.H,; Kentgens, A.

    2000-01-01

    A 27Al 3Q MAS, a quantitative 27Al MAS, and a 29Si MAS NMR study has been carried out on La(x)NaY and H-USY. Assignment of the different types of Al coordinations has been done using the results of the MQ MAS experiments. The 29Si MAS and 27Al MAS NMR results obtained at high fields (14.1 T) and

  18. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae, E-mail: arimoto@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in {phi}X174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  19. Impact of UV-A radiation on the performance of aphids and whiteflies and on the leaf chemistry of their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moreno, Aránzazu; Winters, Ana; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-09-05

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly regulates a multitude of herbivore life processes, in addition to indirectly affecting insect success via changes in plant chemistry and morphogenesis. Here we looked at plant and insect (aphid and whitefly) exposure to supplemental UV-A radiation in the glasshouse environment and investigated effects on insect population growth. Glasshouse grown peppers and eggplants were grown from seed inside cages covered by novel plastic filters, one transparent and the other opaque to UV-A radiation. At a 10-true leaf stage for peppers (53 days) and 4-true leaf stage for eggplants (34 days), plants were harvested for chemical analysis and infested by aphids and whiteflies, respectively. Clip-cages were used to introduce and monitor the insect fitness and populations of the pests studied. Insect pre-reproductive period, fecundity, fertility and intrinsic rate of natural increase were assessed. Crop growth was monitored weekly for 7 and 12 weeks throughout the crop cycle of peppers and eggplants, respectively. At the end of the insect fitness experiment, plants were harvested (68 days and 18-true leaf stage for peppers, and 104 days and 12-true leaf stage for eggplants) and leaves analysed for secondary metabolites, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, total proteins and photosynthetic pigments. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that UV-A modulates plant chemistry with implications for insect pests. Both plant species responded directly to UV-A by producing shorter stems but this effect was only significant in pepper whilst UV-A did not affect the leaf area of either species. Importantly, in pepper, the UV-A treated plants contained higher contents of secondary metabolites, leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and total content of protein. Such changes in tissue chemistry may have indirectly promoted aphid performance. For eggplants, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid levels decreased with supplemental UV-A over the entire

  20. 27 Al MAS NMR Studies of HBEA Zeolite at Low to High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wan, Chuan; Vjunov, Aleksei; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2017-06-01

    27Al single pulse (SP) MAS NMR spectra of HBEA zeolites with high Si/Al ratios of 71 and 75 were obtained at three magnetic field strengths of 7.05, 11.75 and 19.97 T. High field 27Al MAS NMR spectra acquired at 19.97 T show significantly improved spectral resolution, resulting in at least two well-resolved tetrahedral-Al NMR peaks. Based on the results obtained from 27Al MAS and MQMAS NMR acquired at 19.97 T, four different quadrupole peaks are used to deconvolute the 27Al SP MAS spectra acquired at vari-ous fields by using the same set of quadrupole coupling constants, asymmetric parameters and relative integrated peak intensities for the tetrahedral Al peaks. The line shapes of individual peaks change from typical quadrupole line shape at low field to essentially symmetrical line shapes at high field. We demonstrate that for fully hydrated HBEA zeolites the effect of second order quadrupole interaction can be ignored and quantitative spectral analysis can be performed by directly fitting the high field spectra using mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian line shapes. Also, the analytical steps described in our work allow direct assignment of spectral intensity to individual Al tetrahedral sites (T-sites) of zeolite HBEA. Finally, the proposed concept is suggested generally applicable to other zeo-lite framework types, thus, allowing a direct probing of Al distributions by NMR spectroscopic methods in zeolites with high confi-dence.

  1. Project MAS, 1982-1983. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Ana; Villegas, Jose

    This multi-site instructional program, in its first year of a three-year funding cycle, provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native language arts, as well as bilingual instruction in various content areas, to 400 Spanish speaking students of limited English proficiency in grades 3-8. The functional goal of Project MAS,…

  2. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  3. Considerations for Consortia as States Transition Away from AA-MAS. NCEO Brief. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2014

    2014-01-01

    States with an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) that received a flexibility waiver from some of the requirements of No Child Left Behind are required to phase out their use of this assessment. And, on August 23, 2013, the U.S. Department of Education published a proposed rollback of regulation that allowed the…

  4. Successfully Transitioning from the AA-MAS to the General Assessment. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Federal policy initiatives such as the flexibility waivers for accountability are requiring that states transition away from the use of an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). It is expected that those students who had participated in that assessment will instead participate in the state's general assessment (or a…

  5. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  6. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...... problem....

  7. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  8. Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-06-01

    The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.

  9. The role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO₂ disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Hu, Jiangyong; Chen, MinDong

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen species have three states including ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)/NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and are often found in the disinfection system. However, no available literature could be found on their role and fate in photocatalytic disinfection systems. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate bacteria inactivation, H2O2 generated and inorganic nitrogen variation to understand the role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO2 disinfection and evaluate effects of initial pH and bacteria levels on the role and fate. NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) inhibited the photocatalytic disinfection process obviously. It could be confirmed through that H2O2 yield used for pathogen inactivation was dependent on NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) levels. The NH4(+)/NH3 remaining, NH4(+) remaining and NO3(-) yields in only NH4(+)/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation experiments were obviously different from the corresponding values in the photocatalytic disinfection experiments with NH4(+)/NH3, which confirmed that photocatalytic disinfection had an obvious effect on the fate of NH4(+)/NH3. However, photocatalytic disinfection had slight effects on the fate of NO2(-) and NO3(-). Escherischia coli inactivation rate was the highest in neutral solutions (Initial pH 7) while the lowest in alkaline solutions (Initial pH 8.5). The decrease of NH4(+)/NH3 in alkaline solutions was the most significant. In turn, the photocatalysis of NO2(-) was more evident in acidic solutions. E. coli inactivation was reduced with the increase of initial E. coli concentrations. The initial bacteria concentrations significantly influenced the increase of NH4(+)/NH3, NH4(+) and NO3(-), but slightly impacted the decrease of NO2(-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avaliação de mosto de uva fermentado Evaluation of fermented grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a concentração de compostos voláteis nos mostos de uva Chardonnay e Pinot Noir fermentados pela Pichia membranaefaciens, como também analisar as fases de crescimento da levedura durante a fermentação a 15 e 20 °C. Compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação como: etanol, acetato de etila, acetato de isoamila, acetaldeido, 1-propanol, isobutanol e álcool isoamílico foram isolados e quantificados pelo sistema de "Purge and Trap". A fermentação conduzida a 15 °C mostrou ser mais adequada na produção de acetato de etila, com valores inferiores a 200 mg.L-1 (131,3 e 147,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente, enquanto que a 20 °C a produção foi de 286,0 e 270,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente.The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of volatile compounds in Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape musts. The study also aims to analyze yeast growth phases during fermentation at 15 and 20 °C. Major volatile compounds of fermentation such as ethanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 3-methyl butanol and 2-methyl butanol were isolated and quantified using the Purge and Trap system. Fermentation carried out at 15 °C was more appropriate in the production of ethyl acetate (131.3 and 147.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts, respectively, whilst at 20 °C the production was of 286.0 and 270.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts respectively.

  11. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Jing [Faculty of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 630005 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Liu Chengshuai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)]. E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.cn; Li Xiaomin [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Shungui [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Liu Tongxu [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gu Minghua [Faculty of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 630005 (China); Wu Qitang [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2006-09-21

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including {gamma}-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount ({gamma}{sub max}) was ranked the order of IO-250>IO-320>{gamma}-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (K{sub a}) followed the order of IO-250>IO-520>{gamma}-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C{sub ox}{sup 0}) for {gamma}-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C{sub ox}{sup 0} was ranked as the order of {gamma}-FeOOH>IO-250>IO-320>IO-420>IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C{sub ox}{sup 0} and iron oxides.

  12. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Shungui; Liu, Tongxu; Gu, Minghua; Wu, Qitang

    2006-09-21

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including gamma-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount (gamma(max)) was ranked the order of IO-250 > IO-320 > gamma-FeOOH > IO-420 > IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (Ka) followed the order of IO-250 > IO-520 > gamma-FeOOH > IO-420 > IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C(ox)0) for gamma-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8 mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C(ox)0 was ranked as the order of gamma-FeOOH > IO-250 > IO-320 > IO-420 > IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe3+ and Fe2+ during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C(ox)0 and iron oxides.

  13. Treatment of progressive keratoconus by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: ultrastructural analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II in vivo confocal microscopy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Tommasi, Cristina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To assess ultrastructural stromal modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus. This was a second-phase prospective nonrandomized open study in 10 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen and assessed by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Rostock Corneal Module (HRT II-RCM) in vivo confocal microscopy. The eye in the worst clinical condition was treated for each patient. Treatment under topical anesthesia included corneal deepithelization (9-mm diameter) and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin phosphate-20% dextran T 500 solution at 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. UVA irradiation was 7 mm in diameter. Patients were assessed by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy in vivo at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rarefaction of keratocytes in the anterior and intermediate stroma, associated with stromal edema, was observed immediately after treatment. The observation at 3 months after the operation detected keratocyte repopulation in the central treated area, whereas the edema had disappeared. Cell density increased progressively over the postoperative period. At approximately 6 months, keratocyte repopulation was complete, accompanied by increased density of stromal fibers. No endothelial damage was observed at any time. Reduction in anterior and intermediate stromal keratocytes followed by gradual repopulation has been confirmed directly in vivo in humans by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking.

  14. Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways Contribute to Porphyra-334-Mediated Inhibition of UVA-Induced Inflammation in Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-07-31

    In this study, we examined the protective effects of porphyra-334 against UVA-irradiated cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Porphyra-334 prevented UVA-induced cell death and exhibited scavenging activities against intracellular oxidative stress induced by UVA irradiation in skin fibroblasts. We found that porphyra-334 significantly reduced the secretion and expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, reduced nuclear expression of Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and sustained NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Further mechanism research revealed that porphyra-334 promoted the Nrf2 signaling pathway in UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of porphyra-334 is due to the direct scavenging of oxidative stress and its inhibitory effects on NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes, such as IL-6 and TNF-κ. Therefore, we hypothesize that boosting the Nrf2- NF-κB-dependent response to counteract environmental stress is a promising strategy for the prevention of UVA-related damage.

  15. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in transgenic mice overexpressing GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marina C; Burghi, Valeria; Miquet, Johanna G; Giani, Jorge F; Banegas, Ricardo D; Toblli, Jorge E; Fang, Yimin; Wang, Feiya; Bartke, Andrzej; Dominici, Fernando P

    2014-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological homeostasis and diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. In this cascade, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor axis induces pathological effects, such as vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and fibrosis, while the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective for end-organ damage. The altered function of the RAS could be a contributing factor to the cardiac and renal alterations induced by GH excess. To further explore this issue, we evaluated the consequences of chronic GH exposure on the in vivo levels of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), ACE, ACE2, and Mas receptor in the heart and the kidney of GH-transgenic mice (bovine GH (bGH) mice). At the age of 7-8 months, female bGH mice displayed increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), a high degree of both cardiac and renal fibrosis, as well as increased levels of markers of tubular and glomerular damage. Angiotensinogen abundance was increased in the liver and the heart of bGH mice, along with a concomitant increase in cardiac Ang II levels. Importantly, the levels of ACE2, Ang-(1-7), and Mas receptor were markedly decreased in both tissues. In addition, Ang-(1-7) administration reduced SBP to control values in GH-transgenic mice, indicating that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is involved in GH-mediated hypertension. The data indicate that the altered expression profile of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the heart and the kidney of bGH mice could contribute to the increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal alterations observed in these animals.

  16. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p. at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p. 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05, an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  17. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Lee, Chien-Te; Adelibieke, Yelixiati; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis counteracts the deleterious actions of Ang II. ACE2 exerts its actions by cleaving Ang II into Ang-(1-7) which activates Mas receptor. This study aimed to determine if the expression of Mas receptor is altered in the kidneys of CKD rats, and if indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, affects the expression of Mas receptor in rat kidneys and cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). The expression of Mas receptor was examined in the kidneys of CKD and AST-120-treated CKD rats using immunohistochemistry. Further, the effects of IS on Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats were examined. The effects of IS on the expression of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HK-2 cells were examined using immunoblotting. CKD rats showed reduced renal expression of Mas receptor, while AST-120 restored its expression. Administration of IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in HK-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, also inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. Mas receptor expression is reduced in the kidneys of CKD rats. IS downregulates renal expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells. IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor might be involved in upregulation of TGF-β1 in proximal tubular

  18. In vivo persistent pigment darkening method: proposal of a new standard product for UVA protection factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, D; Pissavini, M; Boyer, F; Perier, V; Frêlon, J H

    2007-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) has recommended assessing the level of ultraviolet A (UVA) protection afforded by sunscreen products using the in vivo persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method or other methods giving equivalent results. In this context, the reproducibility of the in vivo PPD method is of importance. To check the validity of the UVA protection factor (UVAPF) tests, the Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) recommends using a standard product (JCIA standard) with an expected UVAPF 3.75 (SD 1.01). However, considering the increase in UVA efficacy of the new sunscreen products available in the market, with UVAPF up to 30, it seemed useful to develop a new standard product to be used when testing products with expected UVAPF > or =10. The PPD method was used in six centres to determine the UVAPF of the two products. Reproducibility of results was also studied by testing two batches of the new product at two different times. There was no statistical difference between the six centres with regard to the JCIA standard. The ring study showed that the mean value of UVAPF (4.3) was higher than that given by JCIA (3.75). These data enable the proposal of a new acceptance range for the JCIA standard product (3.4-5.2) derived from actual results from European laboratories. Whereas this range is different from that proposed by JCIA (2.74-4.76), there is an overlapping of the values. Data on the new standard product show that reproducibility is not influenced by the batches of this product. The mean UVAPF value obtained is 12.1. An acceptance range (9.6-14.6) is proposed for the new standard. Data presented here demonstrate that if an identical protocol is used, reproducible results can be expected and that the PPD method is reproducible and reliable.

  19. The molecular characterization by SSRs reveals a new South Italian kinship and the origin of the cultivar Uva di Troia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, C; Perniola, R; Cardone, M F; Gasparro, M; Pepe, R; Caputo, A R; Antonacci, D

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. varieties were spread through cuttings following historic migrations of people, trades, or after biological crises due to pests outbreaks. Some today's varieties could be more than a 1000 years old and, although over the centuries these varieties generated most of the remaining cultivars, their origin could be impossible to track back. The Italian grapevine biodiversity is one of most important, most likely due to its strategic position in the middle of the Mediterranean sea. Unravelling of its structure is challenging because of its complexity and the lack of historical documentation. In this paper molecular data are compared with historical documentations. Simple Sequence Repeats fingerprinting are molecular markers best suited to investigate genetic relationships and identify pedigrees. South-Italian germplasm was studied with 54 nuclear microsatellites. A family was identified, consisting of two parents and three siblings and further genetically characterized with six nuclear and five chloroplast microsatellites and described with ampelographic and phylometric analysis. Although these latter were not informative for the kinship identification. The common Bombino bianco was the female parent and the previously unknown Uva rosa antica was the male parent. Bombino nero, Impigno and the popular Uva di Troia, all typical of the south-east Italy, were the offspring. Further research showed that the Uva rosa antica was a synonym of Quagliano and Bouteillan noir, both minor varieties. Quagliano was considered to be autochthonous of some alpine valleys in the north-west of Italy and Bouteillan noir is a neglected variety of Vancluse in France. This finding uncovers the intricate nature of Italian grape cultivars, considered peculiar of an area, but possibly being the remains of ancient latin founding varieties. Consequently, intriguing new hypotheses are discussed and some conclusions are drawn, based on the peculiar geographical origin of the parents

  20. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  1. Elaboración de vinos dulces de Andalucía a partir de uvas secadas artificialmente

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Bejarano, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Los vinos dulces naturales de Andalucía gozan de una fama considerable estando basada su elaboración tradicional en el asoleo de las uvas a fin de elevar su contenido en azúcar y en el sistema de envejecimiento por soleras y criaderas. Pero la etapa del asoleo natural, que implica un cierto periodo de tiempo, conlleva junto a importantes cambios en la composición, importantes riesgos, entre los que destaca la posible lluvia o el aumento de la humedad durante la noche, que puede...

  2. Desidratação osmótica e secagem convectiva de uvas da cultivar Crimson

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Luis Carlos Pita de

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2013. A uva passa é um alimento amplamente consumido no Brasil, como consumo direto e também quando aplicadas em produtos alimentícios, como panetones, bolos, sorvetes, barras de cereais, entre outros, além de refinados pratos da alta gastronomia. Entretanto, o Brasil não possui produção suficiente para atender a toda esta demanda, import...

  3. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) architecture and design accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term “ hyperspectral microwave” is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth's atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4 - 9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the s- an head

  4. Evidence for preferential repair of 3-carbethoxypsoralen plus UVA induced DNA lesions in the active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the UvrABC assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méniel, V; Brouwer, J; Averbeck, D

    1993-09-01

    The occurrence of preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus was confirmed after 254 nm UV irradiation. Experiments carried out using the UvrABC excinuclease assay with the monofunctional furocoumarin 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) plus UVA radiation which induce mainly monoadducts in DNA demonstrated preferential repair of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus in a SIR+ strain. However, as after 254 nm UV irradiation, no difference in the rate of removal of 3-CPs plus UVA induced lesions was observed between the two loci in the sir-3 mutant in which both loci are active. Thus, it appears that 3-CPs plus UVA induced monoadducts as well as pyrimidine dimers are subject to preferential repair.

  5. Evolución y análisis de la producción y exportación de uvas de mesa: 2000-2012

    OpenAIRE

    López Llave, Luis Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    El propósito del presente trabajo de investigación titulado “Evolución y Análisis de la Producción y Exportación de Uvas de Mesa : 2000-2012” consiste en conocer y analizar el mercado mundial de la uva de mesa y evaluar en qué medida una adecuada política económica hace posible la producción y el ingreso de la uva de mesa al mercado mundial con la finalidad de contribuir a mantener una balanza comercial global en equilibrio durante el periodo 2000-2012 en el Perú; asimismo, se evaluó en qué m...

  6. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  7. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  8. A novel BN–MAS system composite ceramics with greatly improved mechanical properties prepared by low temperature hot-pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@hit.edu.cn; Duan, Xiaoming; Liang, Bin; Li, Qian; Jia, Dechang, E-mail: dcjia@hit.edu.cn; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel composite ceramics with excellent mechanical properties was fabricated by means of low temperature hot-pressing using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as raw materials. The influences of starting MAS content on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicate that the effective enhancement of relative density of composites has been achieved, which shows that MAS is an effective liquid-phase sintering aid during the hot-pressing. MAS also can improve the structural ordering of h-BN flakes. On the other hand, h-BN exhibits significant inhibiting effect on the crystallization of α-Cordierite. Furthermore, h-BN flakes with layered structure can play a role in strengthening the MAS matrix. So h-BN and MAS are considered to be co-enhanced by each other, resulting in better sintering ability and the mechanical properties of composite ceramics are better than that of both h-BN and MAS. Composite ceramics incorporated with 50 wt% MAS exhibits the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of 213±25 MPa and 2.49±0.35 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively.

  9. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-07-14

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  10. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Acuña, María José; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Olguin, Hugo; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophyin vivousing unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT) and Mas-knockout (Mas KO) mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7) immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7) prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7) increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Angiotensin-(1-7 attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7 in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7 and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT and Mas-knockout (Mas KO mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7 immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7 prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7 increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  12. Enhancement of photoprotection potential of catechin loaded nanoemulsion gel against UVA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwansh, Ranjit K; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kar, Amit; Bahadur, Shiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, V

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a catechin (CA) loaded nanoemulsion based nano-gel for the protection of skin against ultraviolet radiation (UV) induced photo-damage and to ensure its enhanced skin permeability as well as bioavailability through transdermal route. The optimized nanoemulsion (CA-NE4) was prepared by spontaneous nano-emulsification method. It was composed of oil (ethyl oleate), Smix [surfactant (span 80) and co-surfactant (transcutol CG)] and aqueous system in an appropriate ratio of 15:62:23% w/w respectively. The CA-NE4 was characterized through assessment of droplet size, zeta potential, refractive index, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The average droplet size and zeta potential of CA-NE4 were found to be 98.6±1.01nm and -27.3±0.20mV respectively. The enhanced skin permeability was better with CA-NE4 based nano-gel (CA-NG4) [96.62%] compared to conventional gel (CA-CG) [53.01%] for a period of 24h. The enhanced % relative bioavailability (F) of CA (894.73), Cmax (93.79±6.19ngmL(-1)), AUC0-t∞ (2653.99±515.02nghmL(-1)) and Tmax (12.05±0.02h) was significantly obtained with CA-NG4 as compared to oral suspension for extended periods (72h). CA-NG4 could improve the level of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and reduce the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) against oxidative stress induced by UVA. Nano-gel formulation of CA showed sustained release profile and enhanced photoprotection potential due to its improved permeability as well as bioavailability (Pgel. Therefore, transdermal administration of nano-gel (CA-NG4) of CA offers a better way to develop the endogenous cutaneous protection system and thus could be an effective strategy for decreasing UV-induced oxidative damage in the skin tissues.

  13. Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

    2006-01-01

    Due to its excessive cost thalassemia management is a major health care problem in Sri Lanka. The majority of doctors are using only desferrioxamine (DFO), in grossly inadequate doses mainly because of its unavailability. Deferiprone (L1), which is more affordable, is not used due to fear of toxicity, as previously reported. Arthropathy attributed to L1 has been observed in some patients, and has led to the discontinuation of the drug in all patients, without scientific rationale. The proposed thalassemia prevention project for Uva Province is based on prevention of marriages between carriers. This could be achieved by carrier screening and counseling of teenagers and adolescents well before they select their partners. In Sri Lanka, people find their marriage partners at their work place or universities, by themselves, or with the help of professional marriage brokers (they are called Kapuwa), through relatives and close friends. This process of finding a partner may also be helped by paper advertisements. However, in addition to the appearance and attitude of the prospective partner, the caste, social background and horoscope are major considerations in selecting a partner. Even when they select partners on their own at the work place or university, they keep these factors in the back of their minds to ensure social acceptance. Many relationships are given up due to objections and advice from parents when the caste or social background does not match. A horoscope is a written document that almost every child gets, written by a professional horoscope reader and depending on the time of birth. It is believed, according to the horoscope, that a person's attitudes, desires, future prospects of finding a suitable partner, could be predicted. It is rare to proceed with a marriage if the horoscope does not match. These customs are considered less seriously among educated people when they find their partner at the work place or university. The concept of thalassemia risk

  14. Seguimiento de la maduración de variedades de uva mediante colorimetría y análisis de imagen de semillas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Pulido, Francisco José; González-Miret Martín, María Lourdes; Gómez Robledo, Luis; Heredia Mira, Francisco José

    2010-01-01

    El seguimiento de la maduración de la uva se realiza mediante análisis fisicoquímico y organoléptico del mosto, siendo el momento de la vendimia un aspecto que repercute directamente en la calidad de un vino. La visión artificial proporciona una alternativa automatizable y de bajo coste al análisis convencional, pudiendo así, caracterizar de manera efectiva la variedad de uva y el estado de maduración a partir de las características de una imagen. Se han podido discriminar con éxito variedade...

  15. Avaliação econômica de alternativas de investimentos no agronegócio da uva no meio oeste Catarinense

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio uva para vinho e para suco, no Meio Oeste Catarinense. Detalham-se os investimentos, os custos de produção e a rentabilidade financeira inerentes a esta atividade, tendo-se por base a produção de uva para vinho e para suco, em três sistemas de sustentação: latada, manjedoura e espaldeira. A metodologia utilizada, baseada no fluxo de caixa descontado, consistiu na geração de indicadores de retorno e risco. Apesar da leve ...

  16. Características energéticas de combustibles densificados de residuos de la uva isabella (viti labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de densificación son utilizados para mejorar las características fisicoquímicas de biomasa, con la finalidad de que esta sea empleada como combustible. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de las características energéticas que presentan los residuos provenientes del cultivo (sarmientos y producción de jugo de uva (hollejos, escobajos y semillas, al ser densificados. Para evaluar las características energéticas, tanto los residuos como las briquetas se caracterizaron respecto a su análisis próximo, análisis último y se determinó el índice de reactividad por medio de la relación materia volátil/carbono fio (MV/CF. Se encontró no fue posible densificar las semillas por la presencia de aceite en su composición, pero es el residuo de mayor HHV. También se encontró que el proceso de densificación favorece la concentración de energía y se recomienda elaborar briquetas con la mezcla de los residuos tal cual se obtienen en el cultivo y procesamiento de la uva.

  17. Cellular and molecular mechanism of ofloxacin induced apoptotic cell death under ambient UV-A and sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A; Mujtaba, S F; Yadav, N; Kushwaha, H N; Amar, S K; Singh, S K; Pant, M C; Ray, R S

    2014-03-01

    Ofloxacin (OFLX) is a racemic mixture of levofloxacin which revealed phototoxicity in patients exposed with sunlight after medication. Here, we have been addressed the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of OFLX induced apoptosis under ambient UV-A and sunlight exposure using HaCaT cell line as a model. The results showed that Photodegradation and three photo-products formation of OFLX by LC-MS/MS under ambient intensities of UV-A (1.5 and 2.2 mW/cm(2)) and sunlight. OFLX produced (1)O2, O2(.-), and OH radicals via type-II- and type-I-dependent reaction mechanism, which corroborated by its specific quenchers. 2'-dGua degradation in photochemical and % tail DNA formation in cell line using comet test advocated the genotoxic potential of OFLX. Photocytotoxic assays (MTT and NRU) revealed the considerable decline in cell viability by OFLX. OFLX triggered apoptosis, proved by cell cycle, Annexin V/PI double staining along with acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB), and Hoechst staining as well as caspase-3 activity by colorimetric assay. OFLX induced lysosomal disruption and mitochondrial membrane destabilization confirmed through fluorescence staining with AO/JC-1. OFLX significantly upregulated the expression of p21 and bax genes. In conclusion, the study revealed that photosensitized OFLX induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated DNA damage, destabilization of lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane, and upregulation of p21, bax, and caspase-3 genes.

  18. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects on TiO2-anatase upon UV-A and UV-A/VIS threshold irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyun; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis mediated by the anatase modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has shown antibacterial effects in medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of expanding the excitation wavelengths for photocatalytic antibacterial effects from ultraviolet (UV) into the visible light range. After deposition of salivary pellicle and adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii on anatase, different irradiation protocols were applied to induce photocatalysis: ultraviolet A (UV-A) > 320 nm; ultraviolet/visible (UV-A/VIS) light > 380 nm and > 390 nm; and VIS light 400-410 nm. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) tests and microscopic examination were used to observe the photoinduced antibacterial effects. Salivary pellicle could be photocatalytically decomposed under all irradiation protocols. In contrast, effective photocatalytic attack of bacteria could be observed by UV-A as well as by UV-A/VIS at 380 nm < λ < 390 nm only. Wavelengths above 380 nm show promise for in situ therapeutic antifouling applications.

  19. Inactivation/reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by a novel UVA/LED/TiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei; Hu, Jiangyong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, an effective photocatalytic disinfection system was established using the newly emerged high power UVA/LED lamp. Crystallizing dish coated with TiO2 was prepared by 32-times impregnation-drying processes, and served as the supporting container for water samples. This study focused on the application of this UVA/LED system for the photocatalytic disinfection of selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 700891. The disinfection performances were studied under various light intensities and illumination modes. Results show that higher light intensity could reach more significant inactivation of E. coli ATCC 700891. With the same UV dose, log-removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria decreased with circle time in the studied range, while increased with duty circle. A "residual disinfecting effect" was found in the following dark period for bacteria collected at different phases of photocatalytic process. Residual disinfecting effect was found not significant for bacteria with 30 min periodic illumination. While residual disinfecting effect could kill almost all bacteria after 90 min UV periodic illumination within the following 240 min dark period.

  20. Highly sensitive UVA and violet photodetector based on single-layer graphene-TiOsub>2sub> heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Deng-Yue; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Kong, Wei-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Yi; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2016-11-14

    A highly sensitive ultraviolet A (UVA) and violet photodetector based on p-type single-layer graphene (SLG)-TiOsub>2sub> heterostructure was fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposition derived SLG on the surface of commercial single-crystal TiOsub>2sub> wafer. Optoelectronic analysis reveals the as-fabricated Schottky junction PD was highly sensitive to light illumination in UVA and violet range, with peak sensitivity at 410 nm and excellent stability and reproducibility, but virtually blind to illumination with wavelength less than 350 nm or more than 460 nm. The on/off ratio of the device was calculated to be 6.8 × 104, which is better than the majority of previously reported TiOsub>2sub> based PDs. What is more, the rise/fall time were estimated to be 0.74/1.18 ms, much faster than other TiOsub>2sub> based counterparts. The totality of the above result signifies that the present SLG-TiOsub>2sub> Schottky junction photodetector may have promising application in future high-speed, high-sensitivity optoelectronic nanodevices and systems.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of SnO2-ZnO composite under UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhalosai, V; Subash, B; Senthilraja, A; Dhatshanamurthi, P; Shanthi, M

    2013-11-01

    The SnO2 loaded ZnO (SnO2-ZnO) was successfully synthesized by precipitation-decomposition method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of SnO2-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Orange 10 (AO 10) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. SnO2-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO, bare ZnO, TiO2-P25 and TiO2 (Merck) at pH 12 for the mineralization of AO 10 dye. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of AO 10 dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of AO 10 has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of AO 10 with SnO2-ZnO under UV-A light. This catalyst is found to be reusable.

  2. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues.

  3. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  4. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by 31P MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Ishay; Waysbort, Daniel; Shmueli, Liora; Nir, Ido; Kaplan, Doron

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) {(DES)2}. Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed.

  5. Le Kāmasūtra et la « pulsion shastrique » en Inde

    OpenAIRE

    Naudou, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Le mot « shastrique » fait référence au traité (śāstra) d’où sont issus les Kāmasūtra, (plus généralement appelé le Kāmasūtra), « aphorismes sur l’amour » : le Kāmaśāstra, « traité sur l’amour ». Qui dit śāstra, dit, en Inde, exposé religieux ou scientifique, d’où l’expression « pulsion shastrique » que l’on pourrait rendre par « pulsion encyclopédique énumérative et classificatoire ». Le but de cet exposé est de replacer le texte dans cette structure mentale typiquement indienne, qui reflète...

  6. Rehabilitación de una masía de Sentmenat

    OpenAIRE

    Souto Béjar, Carla; Hormigo Morales, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    El siguiente Proyecto Final de Carrera trata del estudio de evolución histórica, diagnosis, intervención y propuesta de rehabilitación de la masía “Can Padró” de Sentmenat, municipio de la comarca del Vallés Occidental. La masía “Can Padró” es un edificio aislado que consta de 1195,67 m2 útiles y 1501,98 m2 construidos distribuidos en 3 plantas más la azotea que forma esta casa rural. Aparte, se ha edificado 261,6 m2 en las construcciones anexas sin incluir la balsa adyacente. ...

  7. Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Flores Zavala

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la presencia del general Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana. Para la redacción de este texto se recurrió a las obras de José María Mateos (Historia de la masonería en México desde 1806 hasta 1884), Richard Chism (Una contribución a la historia masónica de México) y Luis J. Zalce (Apuntes para la historia de la masonería en México, de mis lecturas y mis recuerdos). El cuestionario es básico: ¿Qué fuentes documentales utilizaron los autores para red...

  8. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues. PMID:24284435

  9. Design and implementation of distributed virtual geographic environment system based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Kaiping; Yang, Xiaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The use of distributed virtual geographic environments (DVGE) is one of the most promising uses of virtual reality in geographic field. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is flexible and adaptive enough to resolve highly complex distributed computing problems. This paper aims to discuss how to apply MAS technology to improve the efficiency of collaborative work among multi-user. We firstly design the three-layer system architecture and multi agent system of the DVGE. Then dynamic cooperative group algorithm is also addressed. Finally, we built a collaborative virtual environment and implemented prototype system in silt dams system planning on a case study area, Jiu-Yuan-Gou watershed of Loess Plateau, China. Experiment results prove that the scheme addressed in this paper is efficient and feasible.

  10. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan [Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel). Departments of Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Increasing 13C CP-MAS NMR resolution using single crystals: application to model octaethyl porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Dalal, Naresh S

    2012-08-02

    Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) and its Ni and Zn derivatives are considered as model compounds in biochemical, photophysical, and fossil fuel chemistry. They have thus been investigated by high-resolution solid-state (13)C NMR using powders, but peak assignment has been difficult because of large line widths. Arguing that a significant cause of broadening might be the anisotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility, we utilized single crystals in our (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) measurements and observed a nearly 2-fold line narrowing. This enhanced resolution enabled us to assign chemical shifts to each carbon for all the three compounds. The new assignments are now in agreement with X-ray structural data and allowed us to probe the motional dynamics of the methyl and methylene carbons of the OEP side chains. It is apparent that the use of single crystals in (13)C CP-MAS measurements has a significantly wider impact than previously thought.

  12. Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Flores Zavala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la presencia del general Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana. Parala redacción de este texto se recurrió a las obras de José María Mateos (Historia de la masonería en Méxicodesde 1806 hasta 1884, Richard Chism (Una contribución a la historia masónica de México y Luis J. Zalce(Apuntes para la historia de la masonería en México, de mis lecturas y mis recuerdos. El cuestionario esbásico: ¿Qué fuentes documentales utilizaron los autores para redactar sus textos? ¿Cómo examinan laactuación del general Díaz, como actor de un régimen o un hermano masón? Pese a lo elemental de laspreguntas, éstas colaboran para situar parte de los tópicos y de las formas en que fueron redactadas lashistorias de la masonería en México. El artículo está integrado con dos secciones. En la primera se esboza unabiografía del general Díaz y se presentan las obras que se definen como historiografía masónica mexicana. Lasegunda sección presenta la descripción de las obras y cómo examinaron la presencia de Díaz en lamasonería.

  13. Trends and Determinants in the Japanese Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Filobok, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trends in the Japanese cross-border M&A activity in 1988-2004 and investigates the factors influencing them. We develop classifications of theoretical foundations and factors of M&A activity and their application for the Japanese case. The article examines two categories of the Japanese M&As - transactions with Japanese companies as a target (sales) and transactions with Japanese companies as an acquirer (purchases). In the Japanese cr...

  14. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  15. Investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics by 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J H; Hoatson, G L; Vold, R L

    1998-11-01

    The technique of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is presented for the investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics. To evaluate the effects of discrete random reorientation a Lie algebraic formalism based on the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is developed. The solution to the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is obtained both in the presence and absence of rf irradiation. This allows effects of molecular dynamics to be evaluated during rf pulses and extends the applicability of the formalism to arbitrary multiple pulse experiments. Theoretical methods are presented for the description of multiaxial dynamics with particular emphasis on the application of vector parameters to represent molecular rotations. Numerical time and powder integration algorithms are presented that are both efficient and easy to implement computationally. The applicability of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy for investigating molecular dynamics is evaluated from theoretical spectra. To demonstrate the potential of the technique the dynamics of thiourea-2H4 is investigated experimentally. From a series of variable temperature MAS and quadrupole echo spectra it has been found that the dynamics can be described by composite rotation about the CS and CN bonds. Both experiments are sensitive to the fast CS rotation which is shown to be described by the Arrhenius parameters E(CS) = 46.4 +/- 2.3 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CS))= 32.6 +/- 0.9. The MAS experiment represents a significant improvement by simultaneously allowing the dynamics of the slow CN rotation to be fully characterized in terms of E(CN) = 56.3 +/- 3.4 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CN)) = 25.3 +/- 1.1.

  16. Identifikasi Kadar Amoniak sebagai Indikator Bau Toilet Menggunakan Perangkat MAS TUQUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsabila Nurulfarah Mahmudah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toilet merupakan tempat untuk melakukan ekskresi. Kegiatan ekskresi ini terdapat 2 wujud zat, yaitu berupa zat cair atau urin dan keringat, dan zat padat berupa feses. Urin manusia menyuplai setidaknya 1% terhadap kuantitas air limbah domestik dengan 80% nitrogen dan 50% fosfat. Kebutuhan untuk melakukan ekskresi menjadikan pentingnya toilet di setiap tempat, baik di rumah maupun di tempat umum. Kebutuhan itu perlu diimbangi dengan tersedianya toilet layak pakai, yang memperhatikan kebersihan, kenyamanan dan kesehatan bagi pengguna. Kenyamanan toilet, bau toilet umum, dapat diidentifikasi dengan mengetahui kadar amoniak. Hubungan antara kadar amoniak dengan bau di toilet dapat dinyatakan dengan persamaan Y = 1.8045 + 0.5836 X. Y merupakan kategori bau, sedangkan X merupakan kadar amoniak (ppm. Kadar amoniak menyumbang 67% dari keseluruhan bau yang ada di toilet. Kadar amoniak yang telah disebutkan dalam Peraturan Kesehatan, yakni sebesar 2 ppm. Nilai tersebut termasuk kategori bau biasa. Pada pengukuran berdasarkan bau amoniak ini, Mas Tuqul dapat membacanya dengan benar. Mas Tuqul dapat membaca secara stabil selama 15 menit. Dari hasil pembacaan tersebut, dapat dilihat dengan mudah kadar bau yang ada di dalam toilet. Diharapkan dengan adanya Mas Tuqul ini dapat mempermudah untuk mengetahui keadaan udara yang ada di toilet.

  17. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asgharzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  18. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  19. High temperature {sup 17}O MAS NMR study of calcia, magnesia, scandia and yttria stabilized zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hsieh, Cheng-Han [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Huang, Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    High-resolution {sup 17}O MAS NMR can provide unique constraints on local structure and oxide ion dynamics in conductive zirconia ceramics of interest for fuel cells and other technologies. We describe here NMR and bulk conductivity measurements for scandia, yttria, calcia, and magnesia stabilized zirconias, including MAS NMR spectra collected in situ at temperatures up to 700 C. All of the cubic compounds with high dopant levels showed line narrowing and coalescence in this temperature range, and the temperature-induced changes in line widths are qualitatively correlated with the bulk conductivities. A monoclinic zirconia with 2% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant level (expected to have relatively low ionic mobility) showed no motional averaging of its two {sup 17}O NMR peaks even at 600 C, but instead is observed to begin to transform to a disordered, possibly cubic or tetragonal phase at 600 to 700 C. {sup 17}O MAS NMR spectra of calcia stabilized zirconia were analyzed in detail and the exchange frequencies as a function of temperature, conductivity, and activation energy were estimated and compared with bulk conductivities. The activation energy estimated from NMR exchange frequencies is somewhat lower than that of bulk conductivity but the conductivities estimated from NMR appear to be lower than bulk conductivity. (author)

  20. MAS/MILS Arc/Info point coverage for the western U.S. (excluding Hawaii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has two international and one regional digital database that contains information on mineral properties. This report describes the conversion of selected data from one of the international databases - MAS/MILS (Mineral Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System) - into a spatial data product. The MAS/MILS database, obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) upon its closure, contains over 221,000 records of mineral properties and processing facilities throughout the world. However, the majority of the records in the database are of sites located in the western U.S. This is due to the extensive mineral activity that has occurred in the West, and the work done by mineral professionals in the Western, Alaska, and Intermountain Field Operations Centers of the USBM. The purpose of this project was to create a spatial coverage of the western U.S. containing mineral resource information. This coverage includes information for the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For this report, locations from MAS/MILS were converted to a point coverage using a geographic information system (GIS). All work was done using Arc/Info v. 7.0.4. There are 128,441 points in the coverage.

  1. Processing of CP MAS kinetics: Towards NMR crystallography for complex solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Laurynas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2016-09-01

    Variable temperature and high data point density measurements of 1H-31P cross-polarization kinetics in the powdered ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) have been carried out in the range of -40 °C to +90 °C upon 7 and 10 kHz MAS. The advanced route of processing CP MAS kinetic data has been developed. It is based on reducing the incoherent far range order spin couplings and extracting the CP oscillatory term with the sequent mathematical treatment. The proper replica has been found, which allowed to reduce the Fourier-Bessel (Hankel) transform calculating the angularly averaged and purely distance-depending spin distribution profile to the routine Fourier transform. The shortest 31P-1H distances determined by CP MAS kinetics get between the values obtained by neutron and X-ray diffraction, whereas those for more remote protons are slightly larger. The changes in P⋯H distances are hardly noticeable, though a certain trend to increase upon the heating can be deduced. The clearly pronounced effect was the increase of the spin-diffusion rate constant upon heating. It allows to state that the communication between interacting spins is the process extremely easy to activate.

  2. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  3. Indirect detection of infinite-speed MAS solid-state NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P.; Goh, Tian Wei; Huang, Wenyu; Rossini, Aaron J.; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic 1H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic "infinite-MAS" spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides. For these nuclides, the combination of fast MAS and 1H detection provides a high sensitivity, which rivals the DNP-enhanced ultra-wideline SSNMR. The new pulse sequences were used to determine the Pt coordination environments in a complex mixture of decomposition products of transplatin and in a metal-organic framework with Pt ions coordinated to the linker ligands.

  4. Infrared and MAS NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Al18B4O33

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The IR spectrum and 11B and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of Al18B4O33 are presented and discussed in relation to the possible existence of boron atoms substituting for aluminum atoms. TheIR spectrum shows that the strong vibrations of the BO3 groups are present in the 1 500~1 200em-1 region, and very weak bands of BO4 units are present in the region from 1 000 to 1 100cm-1. 11B MAS NMR spectrum indicates that the strong signal for BO3 units appears in the region from δ +5 to δ +20, and the very weak signal for BO4 units is at about δ-1, while 27AlMAS NMR spectrum shows five peaks at about δ +62, +42. 1, +14,-4.7 and-6.4, originating from AlO4, AlO4, A1O5, AlO6 and AlO6, respectively. These results reveal that there areminor BO4 units in Al18B4O33, indicating that a small amount of B atoms substitute for Al atomsin the 4-fold coordination.

  5. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brett J.; Jensen, C. Jarakae

    2013-01-01

    Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity. PMID:24228188

  6. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity.

  7. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.

  8. Characterization of Mas-7-induced pore formation in SK-N-BE(2)C human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, B C; Lee, I S; Chae, H D; Han, S; Kim, K T

    1998-04-30

    Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venome, mimics receptors by stimulating the GTPase activity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and the G-protein-coupled phospholipase C (PLC). By using Mas-7, the active analog of mastoparan, we showed that it makes pores in the plasma membrane. Treatment with Mas-7 but not Mas-17, the inactive analog, produced a concentration-dependent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and facilitated the uptake of ethidium bromide (EtBr) (314 Da) to a sustained level during the stimulation. In addition, Mas-7 triggered the influx of lucifer yellow (457 Da), while it did not induce the influx of fura-2 (831 Da) and Evans blue (961 Da). However, the Mas-7-induced permeability was selectively prevented by the addition of La3+, Ni2+, and Co2+, but not Cd2+. This blocking activity was concentration-dependent. While the stimulatory effect of Mas-7 on PLC activity was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, the pore forming activity of Mas-7 was not effected by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These results, therefore, suggest that the mastoparan's action in pore formation is independent from its action in PLC stimulation and is negatively effected by inorganic cations.

  9. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY4(1)4, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D (1)H/(1)H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY4(1)2, XY4(1)3, XY4(1)4, and XY8(1)4 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T(10)T(2,±2), T(1,±1)T(2,±1), etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY4(1)4 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp

  10. Qualidade sensorial e físico-química de uvas finas de mesa cultivadas no submédio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uvas Vitis vinifera L. das variedades comerciais: Brasil, Benitaka, Itália e Red Globe, quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os teores de sólidos solúveis, diâmetro e comprimento das bagas, cujos resultados apresentaram conformidade com os padrões comerciais, foram determinados. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa - ADQ. Foram selecionados e treinados os julgadores que, sob orientação de um líder, estabeleceram os atributos sensoriais capazes de descrever com fidedignidade as características das uvas, conforme se segue: tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, aroma característico, firmeza, gosto doce, gosto amargo, gosto ácido, adstringência, sabor e qualidade global. Constatou-se que as médias obtidas nos atributos tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, firmeza, sabor e qualidade global diferiram estatisticamente dentre as uvas avaliadas e, ainda, que os atributos do sabor, seguido do gosto doce e da tonalidade da cor, apresentaram as correlações mais fortes com a qualidade global, determinantes, portanto, das características sensoriais das uvas.

  11. The cross-talk between electrophiles, antioxidant defence and the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and keratinocytes after UVA and UVB irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Biernacki, Michał; Ambrożewicz, Ewa; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Wroński, Adam; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2016-02-01

    UV, including UVA and UVB radiation, is one of the most ubiquitous environmental stress factors to human skin and leads to redox imbalance and, consequently, photoaging and cancer development. The aim of the study was to verify which skin cells, keratinocytes or fibroblasts, were more susceptible to UVA or UVB irradiation. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were subjected to UVA and UVB irradiation. The redox potential (superoxide anion generation and antioxidant level/activity), electrophile level and endocannabinoid system were estimated. The results presented in this paper demonstrate a strong relationship between UV-induced oxidative stress and changes in the endocannabinoid system. Simultaneously, in irradiated cells, the transcription factors Nrf1, Nrf2 and NFκB are activated to varying degrees. Fibroblasts have a greater susceptibility to ROS generation and transcription factor activation after both UVA and UVB irradiation than keratinocytes. Keratinocytes are more sensitive to changes in the electrophile levels connected with oxidative stress compared to fibroblasts. The differences demonstrated in the response of the tested cells to UV irradiation allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms occurring in the human skin, which may be exploited for future therapies in dermatology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development.

  13. Roles of reactive oxygen species in UVA-induced oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid-melanin as studied by differential spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shosuke; Kikuta, Marina; Koike, Shota; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Sarna, Tadeusz; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Eumelanin photoprotects pigmented tissues from ultraviolet (UV) damage. However, UVA-induced tanning seems to result from the photooxidation of preexisting melanin and does not contribute to photoprotection. We investigated the mechanism of UVA-induced degradation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-melanin taking advantage of its solubility in a neutral buffer and using a differential spectrophotometric method to detect subtle changes in its structure. Our methodology is suitable for examining the effects of various agents that interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to determine how ROS is involved in the UVA-induced oxidative modifications. The results show that UVA radiation induces the oxidation of DHICA to indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylic acid in eumelanin, which is then cleaved to form a photodegraded, pyrrolic moiety and finally to form free pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. The possible involvement of superoxide radical and singlet oxygen in the oxidation was suggested. The generation and quenching of singlet oxygen by DHICA-melanin was confirmed by direct measurements of singlet oxygen phosphorescence.

  14. Effects of UV-A exposures on longevity and reproduction in Helicoverpa armigera, and on the development of its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yu Zhang; Jian-Yu Meng; Xiao-Ping Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera adults display a conspicuous positive phototacdc behavior to light stimuli,and are especially sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light.The effects of UV-A (longwave) exposures on adult longevity and reproduction in H.armigera were investigated,as well as the development of the F1 generation.Paired adults were exposed to UV-A for various time periods (0,1,5 and 9 h/day),until the end of adult life.The results showed that adult longevity decreased with increasing exposure time for both sexes,and a significant decrease was observed after exposure for 5 and 9 h/day.Fecundity increased when adults were exposed for 1 and 5 h/day,and a significant difference was observed in the 5 h/day group.Oviposition rates of females in all treatments were significantly higher than in the control.Exposure to UV-A for longer periods (5 and 9 h/day) caused a decline in cumulative survival of F1 immature stages,but no significant differences were found in egg hatch,pupation and eclosion.The developmental periods of F1 larvae were significantly prolonged after exposure to UV-A for 5 and 9 h/day.UV-A radiation had no significant effects on F1 pupal period.

  15. 1H NMR characterization of the intermediate formed upon UV-A excitation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin in O 2-free aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoni, Mariana; Salum, M. Laura; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Thomas, Andres H.; Cabrerizo, Franco M.

    2010-01-01

    Pterins belong to a family of heterocyclic compounds present in a wide range of living systems and participate in relevant biological functions. Under anaerobic conditions, the unstable red intermediate generated by UV-A irradiation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin was identified by 1H NMR analysis, in alkaline D 2O solutions, as 5,8-dihydro-6-formylpterin.

  16. Modulation of ultraviolet (UV) transmission by emollients: relevance to narrowband UVB phototherapy and psoralen plus UVA photochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otman, S G H; Edwards, C; Pearse, A D; Gambles, B J; Anstey, A V

    2006-05-01

    Patients with psoriasis undergoing or about to undergo ultraviolet (UV) phototherapy and photochemotherapy often have thick scale on their plaques which can prevent the penetration of UV radiation. Emollients are used to moisturize the skin and to prevent or reduce some of the milder side-effects ('dryness', itching) sometimes experienced during UV therapy. However, emollients can alter the UV transmission of skin and thus may alter the clinical effects of phototherapy and photochemotherapy. We tested 30 of the topical emollients in the British National Formulary (BNF) using a standard in vitro technique used to test sunscreens. We also surveyed U.K. phototherapy units to establish routine practice for emollient use in phototherapy and photochemotherapy. We used a standard in vitro technique to measure the monochromatic protection factors (MPFs) of 30 non-bath emollients from the BNF. An application rate of 2 mg cm-2 was used. For the assessment of effects during narrowband UVB (TL-01) phototherapy, the mean of the protection factors at 310 and 315 nm was calculated; for psoralen plus UVA photochemotherapy the mean UVA protection factor was used. A questionnaire survey was used to assess routine practice concerning emollient use prior to phototherapies in phototherapy units throughout the U.K. In the UVA range, 17 of the 30 emollients gave protection factors of 1.2 or above. In the UVB range, 23 of 30 had an MPF of 1.2 or above. Yellow soft paraffin had the highest protection factor in the UVB range. Of 78 centres surveyed, 57 returned completed questionnaires (73%). Seventeen of 57 (30%) centres routinely used emollients immediately prior to administering phototherapy treatments. The remaining 40 of 57 (70%) did not. Forty-five (79%) responding centres recommended the use of emollients after phototherapy. This study has revealed considerable variability in the practice of emollient use before phototherapy treatments. Although the majority of centres included in

  17. Induction of bystander effects by UVA, UVB, and UVC radiation in human fibroblasts and the implication of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, Maria; Krzywon, Aleksandra; Gajda, Karolina; Skonieczna, Magdalena; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are various types of responses displayed by nonirradiated cells induced by signals transmitted from neighboring irradiated cells. This phenomenon has been well studied after ionizing radiation, but data on bystander effects after UV radiation are limited and so far have been reported mainly after UVA and UVB radiation. The studies described here were aimed at comparing the responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed directly to UV (A, B, or C wavelength range) and searching for bystander effects induced in unexposed cells using a transwell co-incubation system. Cell survival and apoptosis were used as a measure of radiation effects. Additionally, induction of senescence in UV-exposed and bystander cells was evaluated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide radical anions, and nitric oxide inside the cells and secretion of interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8) into the medium were assayed and evaluated as potential mediators of bystander effects. All three regions of ultraviolet radiation induced bystander effects in unexposed cells, as shown by a diminution of survival and an increase in apoptosis, but the pattern of response to direct exposure and the bystander effects differed depending on the UV spectrum. Although UVA and UVB were more effective than UVC in generation of apoptosis in bystander cells, UVC induced senescence both in irradiated cells and in neighbors. The level of cellular ROS increased significantly shortly after UVA and UVB exposure, suggesting that the bystander effects may be mediated by ROS generated in cells by UV radiation. Interestingly, UVC was more effective at generation of ROS in bystanders than in directly exposed cells and induced a high yield of superoxide in exposed and bystander cells, which, however, was only weakly associated with impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential. Increasing concentration of IL-6 but not IL-8 after exposure to each of the three bands of UV points to its role

  18. SnO{sub 2} foam grain-shaped nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and UVA light induced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, Elaziouti, E-mail: elaziouti_a@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Electronic Microscope and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Nadjia, Laouedj, E-mail: nlaouedj@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Naceur, Benhadria, E-mail: nacer1974@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Noureddine, Bettahar, E-mail: nbettahar2001@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Cassiterite (tin oxide; SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs), has been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. The obtained compounds are subsequently calcined at 80, 450 and 650 °C for 4 h and are assigned as SnO{sub 2}-80, SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs and SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs, respectively. All prepared samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-SM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The XRD results confirmed the aggregated cassiterite SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) with a size ranging from 13 to 23 nm. The absorption edge of the SnO{sub 2} NPs samples calcined at higher temperatures showed 25 nm (SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs) and 10 nm (SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs) red shifted compared with that of commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs sample. The photodegradation efficiency of SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated using Congo red (CR) dye, as model organic pollutant. The effect of environmental factors (e.g., reaction time and calcination temperature) on the photocatalysis process of CR on SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated in photocatalysis process under UVA light irradiation. We found that the SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs with 23 nm particle size and about 3.49 eV band gap was higher than that of the SnO{sub 2}-450 as well as the commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model gave the best fit, with highest correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.95). On the basis of the energy band diagram positions, the enhanced photodegradation efficiency SnO{sub 2} NPs catalyst could be proceeded via direct reactions with (O{sub 2}·{sup -} and ·OH), as active oxidative species involved in the photocatalysis process of CR dye under UVA-light irradiation. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} NPs photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol–gel route. • As-prepared SnO{sub 2} NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and UV–vis-DRS techniques. • Noticeably UVA

  19. PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE DE UVAS DA CV. ISABEL (Vitis labrusca L. SUBMETIDAS À ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTÔNIO DALBÓ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Videiras ‘Isabel’ enxertadas em porta-enxerto ‘SO4’ e ‘IAC 766’, e em pé-franco plantadas sobre Nitossolo foram tratadas anualmente com doses crescentes de K2O, a 0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1, durante 5 safras vitícolas (2007/2008; 2008/2009; 2009/2010; 2010/2011; 2011/2012. O delineamento experimental foi em faixas, com cinco repetições, sendo seis plantas por repetição, e os tratamentos, dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x3, com 12 tratamentos, correspondentes às quatro doses de adubação potássica e aos três portaenxertos. No estádio de mudança de cor da casca das bagas, coletaram-se pecíolos para determinar o teor de nutrientes no tecido foliar das uvas. Na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliados comportamentos vegetativos e produtivos, como produtividade, peso de poda, índice de Ravaz e características químicas da polpa das bagas, como sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH. O aumento da adubação potássica não representa ganho na produtividade na cv. Isabel nem no acúmulo de sólidos solúveis totais nas uvas. K e Mg nos pecíolos de uvas são influenciados pela forma de cultivo (enxertada ou pé-franco. Videiras ‘Isabel’ cultivadas em pé-franco têm menor capacidade de acúmulo de K e maior acúmulo de Mg nos pecíolos. Nas condições do solo em que foi desenvolvido o trabalho, não se justifica a adubação potássica do vinhedo.

  20. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-16

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank squamous cell carcinomas (+4 responses). AC-11 retarded, but did not stop, carcinogenesis progression. It is possible that if AC-11 was continuously applied tumors would not have in mice treated

  1. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S

    2013-09-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  2. Dermato-protective properties of ergothioneine through induction of Nrf2/ARE-mediated antioxidant genes in UVA-irradiated Human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Lo, Heng-Wei; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Tang, Meng-Ju; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2015-09-01

    UVA irradiation-induced skin damage and redox imbalance have been shown to be ameliorated by ergothioneine (EGT), a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid. However, the responsible molecular mechanism with nanomolar concentrations of EGT remains unclear. We investigated the dermato protective efficacies of EGT (125-500nM) against UVA irradiation (15J/cm(2)), and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. We found that EGT treatment prior to UVA exposure significantly increased the cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium. UVA-induced ROS and comet-like DNA formation were remarkably suppressed by EGT with a parallel inhibition of apoptosis, as evidenced by reduced DNA fragmentation (TUNEL), caspase-9/-3 activation, and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, EGT alleviated UVA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Dose-dependent increases of antioxidant genes, HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCLC and glutathione by EGT were associated with upregulated Nrf2 and downregulated Keap-1 expressions. This was confirmed by increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and inhibition of Nrf2 degradation. Notably, augmented luciferase activity of ARE may explain Nrf2/ARE-mediated signaling pathways behind EGT dermato-protective properties. We further demonstrated that Nrf2 translocation was mediated by PI3K/AKT, PKC, or ROS signaling cascades. This phenomenon was confirmed with suppressed nuclear Nrf2 activation, and consequently diminished antioxidant genes in cells treated with respective pharmacological inhibitors (LY294002, GF109203X, and N-acetylcysteine). Besides, increased basal ROS by EGT appears to be crucial for triggering the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Silencing of Nrf2 or OCTN1 (EGT carrier protein) signaling with siRNA showed no such protective effects of EGT against UVA-induced cell death, ROS, and apoptosis, which is evidence of the vitality of Nrf2 translocation and protective efficacy of EGT

  3. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime

    2014-03-01

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40% lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy[Symbol: see text]cm; P mAs were associated with 30.9% higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P mAs allowed 40% dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. • CT stress perfusion imaging (CTP) is increasingly used to assess myocardial function. • Dynamic CTP is feasible at 80-kV in patients with normal BMI. • An 80-kV/370-mAs protocol allows 40% dose reduction compared with 100-kV/300-mAs. • Contrast-to-noise ratio and myocardial blood flow of the two protocols were comparable.

  4. DETERMINAÇÃO DO TEOR DE POLIFENÓIS TOTAIS E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE EM SUCOS DE UVA COMERCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. VARGAS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cada vez mais, buscam-se nos alimentos substâncias capazes de ajudar a combater o processo oxidativo do organismo. Esse efeito protetor é atribuído aos compostos presentes em alguns alimentos, como na uva, destacando-se os polifenóis. Embora muitos componentes das frutas já tenham sua atividade antioxidante avaliada, tornase necessário testar em seus derivados como o suco. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o teor de polifenóis totais e a atividade antioxidante em sucos de uva comerciais disponíveis no comércio local. A determinação dos polifenóis totais foi efetuada pelo método Folin-Ciocalteau com leitura em espectrofotômetro de UV/VIS. Observouse uma variação de 311,9 a 508,4 mg equivalentes de Ácido Gálico/L. O poder antioxidante dos sucos de uva foi analisado segundo a metodologia de seqüestro de radical DPPH. Os percentuais de inibição variaram de 42% a 114%, sendo o menor valor encontrado no suco de uva branca. O suco de uva, fonte de polifenóis, pode auxiliar na prevenção de diversas patologias como aterosclerose, diabetes e câncer.

  5. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  6. Preferencias y disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la región del Maule, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Alberto Cerda Urrutia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las preferencias y disposición a pagar por consumo de uva de mesa orgánica. Específicamente, se buscó determinar la utilidad y jerarquizar los atributos más importantes que consideran los individuos al momento de la elección de uva de mesa y determinar la disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la Región del Maule, Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra probabilística y estratificada por niveles socioeconómico en los hogares en los principales centros urbanos de la región. Se utilizó el método de análisis conjunto a fin de determinar las preferencias de los individuos por los distintos atributos y el método de valoración contingente para determinar el monto medio de sobreprecio que una persona está dispuesta a pagar por un kilo de uva orgánica. Igualmente se calculó la disposición a pagar marginal vía el método de análisis conjunto. Se determinó que el atributo más importante a la hora de adquirir este bien es el precio, mientras que la mezcla de atributos que más tiene utilidad por orden de importancia es el sabor dulce, de producción orgánica, que no posea semillas y de piel delgada.Además, se estimó que las personas están dispuestas a pagar un sobreprecio por la uva de mesa orgánica, abriendo nuevas oportunidades de negocios para el sector frutícola.

  7. La internacionalizacion como objetivo explicito en la vision y mision declaradas de las 500 empresas mas grandes en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Rios-Molina, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio es de caracter empirico y busca establecer--mediante el analisis de contenido de la vision y la mision de las 500 empresas mas grandes de Colombia--si la internacionalizacion hace...

  8. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  9. Low-power broadband solid-state MAS NMR of 14N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Wegner, Sebastian; Pintacuda, Guido; Grey, Clare P.

    2017-05-01

    We propose two broadband pulse schemes for 14N solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that achieves (i) complete population inversion and (ii) efficient excitation of the double-quantum spectrum using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We give a comprehensive theoretical description of both schemes using a common framework that is based on the jolting-frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983)]. This formalism is used to determine for the first time that we can obtain complete population inversion of 14N under low-power conditions, which we do here using single-sideband-selective adiabatic pulses. It is then used to predict that double-quantum coherences can be excited using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We then proceed to design a new experimental scheme for double-quantum excitation. The final double-quantum excitation pulse scheme is easily incorporated into other NMR experiments, as demonstrated here for double quantum-single quantum 14N correlation spectroscopy, and 1H-14N dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation experiments. These pulses and irradiation schemes are evaluated numerically using simulations on single crystals and full powders, as well as experimentally on ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) at moderate MAS and glycine at ultra-fast MAS. The performance of these new NMR methods is found to be very high, with population inversion efficiencies of 100% and double-quantum excitation efficiencies of 30%-50%, which are hitherto unprecedented for the low radiofrequency field amplitudes, up to the spinning frequency, that are used here.

  10. Separation of 2H MAS NMR Spectra by Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J. H.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Nielsen, N. C.

    1999-08-01

    New methods for optimum separation of 2H MAS NMR spectra are presented. The approach is based on hypercomplex spectroscopy that is useful for sign discrimination and phase separation. A new theoretical formalism is developed for the description of hypercomplex experiments. This exploits the properties of Lie algebras and hypercomplex numbers to obtain a solution to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. The solution is expressed in terms of coherence transfer functions that describe the allowed coherence transfer pathways in the system. The theoretical formalism is essential in order to understand all the features of hypercomplex experiments. The method is applied to the development of two-dimensional quadrupole-resolved 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy. The important features of this technique are discussed and two different versions are presented with widely different characteristics. An improved version of two-dimensional double-quantum 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is developed. The conditions under which the double-quantum experiment is useful are discussed and its performance is compared with that observed for the quadrupole-resolved experiments. A general method is presented for evaluating the optimum pulse sequence parameters consistent with maximum sensitivity and resolution. This approach improves the performance of the experiments and is essential for any further development of the techniques. The effects of finite pulse width and hypercomplex data processing may lead to both intensity and phase distortions in the spectra. These effects are analyzed and general correction procedures are suggested. The techniques are applied to polycrystalline malonic-acid-2H4 for which the spinning sideband manifolds from the carboxyl and methylene deuterons are separated. The spinning sideband manifolds are simulated to determine the quadrupole parameters. The values are consistent with previous results, indicating that the techniques are both accurate and reliable.

  11. 1H HR-MAS NMR and S180 cells: metabolite assignment and evaluation of pulse sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Aline L.; Martinelli,Bruno César B.; Lião,Luciano M.; Pereira,Flávia C.; Silveira-Lacerda,Elisangela P.; Alcantara,Glaucia B.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR) is a useful technique for evaluation of intact cells and tissues. However, optimal NMR parameters are crucial in obtaining reliable results. To identify the key steps for the optimization of HR-MAS NMR parameters, we assessed different pulse sequences and NMR parameters using sarcoma 180 (S180) cells. A complete assignment of the metabolites of S180 is given to assist future studies.

  12. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  13. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  14. Solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS): an investigation of the effect of UV-A dose on inactivation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Navntoft, Christian; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Fernandez-Ibáñez, Pilar; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2009-05-01

    The effect of solar UV-A irradiance and solar UV-A dose on the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 using solar disinfection (SODIS) was studied. E. coli K-12 was seeded in natural well-water contained in borosilicate glass tubes and exposed to sunlight at different irradiances and doses of solar UV radiation. In addition, E. coli K-12 was also inoculated into poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET) bottles and in a continuous flow system (10 L min(-1)) to determine the effect of an interrupted and uninterrupted solar dose on inactivation. Results showed that inactivation from approximately 10(6) CFU mL(-1) to below the detection level (4 CFU/mL) for E. coli K-12, is a function of the total uninterrupted dose delivered to the bacteria and that the minimum dose should be >108 kJ m(-2) for the conditions described (spectral range of 0.295-0.385 microm). For complete inactivation to below the limit of detection, this dose needs to be received regardless of the incident solar UV intensity and needs to be delivered in a continuous and uninterrupted manner. This is illustrated by a continuous flow system in which bacteria were not fully inactivated (residual viable concentration approximately 10(2) CFU/mL) even after 5 h of exposure to strong sunlight and a cumulative dose of >108 kJ m(-2). This has serious implications for attempts to scale-up solar disinfection through the use of re-circulatory continuous flow reactors.

  15. Design and implementation of a multi-axis precision movement machine based on MAS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MA; Linlin CI; Genyan GE

    2009-01-01

    A model construction of a multi-agent system (MAS) and the basic function of the agent are described.The precision control method using the multi-CPU of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is introduced,and a distributed method using multiple CPUs to control different motion machines is given.The test results indicate that in industrial control fields,the combination of using the credible PLC to control the motion machine and multi-CPU task distributing methods can solve multi-axis machine linkage and implication,providing a more credible method for multi-axis motion units.

  16. Structural characteristics of marine sedimentary humic acids by CP/MAS sup(13)C NMR spectroscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Wahidullah, S.

    stream_size 34319 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Oceanol_Acta_21_543.pdf.txt stream_source_info Oceanol_Acta_21_543.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 OCEANOLOGICA ACTA... components of the: hydrolysate. 545 S. SARDESSAI, S. WAHlDULLAH 3.3 Nuclear magnetic resonance ~pe~t~Q~cQQy The cross-polarization technique with magic angle spin- ning (CP/MAS) was used to obtain 13C NMR spectra. Samples were thoroughly freeze...

  17. LA IDENTIDAD POLÍTICA DEL MAS-IPSP EN BOLIVIA. DE TRADICIONES, DEMANDAS Y ANTAGONISMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga (UNRC e UNC), María Virginia

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende analizar al MAS-IPSP en tanto identidad política que emergió en resistencia a la férrea aplicación de políticas neoliberales en Bolivia y se consolidó como una alternativa popular que triunfó en las elecciones nacionales de diciembre de 2005 y de diciembre de 2009. El análisis aquí propuesto arroja importantes claves para comprender el proceso boliviano actual, planteando novedosas articulaciones entre “lo social” y “lo político”.

  18. Recent Results from the MicroMAS Global Environmental MonitoringNanosatellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Cahoy, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a dual-spinning 3U CubeSat equipped with apassive microwave radiometer that observes in nine channels near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line.MicroMAS is designed to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a midinclinationorbit. The MicroMAS flight unit was developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the MIT Space SystemsLaboratory and was launched to the International Space Station on July 13, 2014, and scheduled for an earlySeptember deployment for a ~90-day mission. The payload is housed in the "lower" 1U of the dual-spinning 3UCubeSat and mechanically rotated approximately once per second as the spacecraft orbits the Earth, resulting in across-track scanned beam with a full-width half-max (FWHM) beamwidth of 2.4 degrees and an approximately 17-km diameter footprint at nadir incidence from a nominal altitude of 400 km. The relatively low cost of MicroMASenables the deployment of a constellation of sensors, spaced equally around several orbit planes. A small fleet ofMicroMAS systems could yield high-resolution global temperature and water vapor profiles, as well as cloudmicrophysical and precipitation parameters.Significant advancements were made in the Assembly, Integration, and Test phase of the project developmentlifecycle. The flight software and communications architecture was refined and tested in relevant lab facilities. Thepower subsystem was modified to include additional required inhibits for the ISS launch. Hardware in the loop testsas well as simulations of the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) were performed to validate theunique dual-spinning, local vertical, local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized flight design. ADCS algorithms were testedon a 3-axis air bearing and custom rig inside a 3-axis programmable Helmholtz cage. Finally, the integratedspacecraft underwent a series of environmental tests in order to verify the results of thermal modeling

  19. Obtenção e caracterização de farinha de bagaço de uva e sua utilização em cereais matinais expandidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Luiz Fernando Dias

    2010-01-01

    O bagaço da uva, subproduto da elaboração de vinho, representa cerca de 20% do peso original das uvas. É caracterizado pelo elevado conteúdo de fibra dietética alimentar e fenólicos, com capacidade antioxidante. O aproveitamento deste resíduo na alimentação humana pode representar uma forma de agregar valor a ele, convertendo-o em um alimento funcional. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o comportamento da secagem em camada delgada de bagaço de uva em secador por ar aquecido e reali...

  20. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of ACE-2/ANG1-7/Mas axis on lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopallawa, Indiwari; Uhal, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    An established body of recent literature has demonstrated potent inhibitory effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/ANG1-7/ Mas axis on acute lung injury and lung fibrogenesis. One of the mechanisms of this inhibition is the enzymatic action of ACE-2 to degrade its main substrate angiotensin (ANG) II, thereby reducing the injurious and profibrotic activities of this octapeptide. Another, potentially more important mechanism is the production by ACE-2 of the heptapeptide ANG1-7, which inhibits the actions of ANGII through its own receptor Mas, the product of the oncogene of the same name. Very recent efforts to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ANG1-7/Mas action have revealed a number of similar, but mechanistically distinct, pathways by which ANG1-7 and Mas act on various lung cell types to inhibit lung injury and fibrosis. In this review we summarize the beneficial actions of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway, specifically on lung cells in non-neoplastic lung injury. We also review the currently known downstream signaling mechanisms of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway in various lung cell types known to be key in acute injury and fibrogenesis.

  1. Vasoprotective effects of neurocompensatory response to balloon injury during diabetes involve the improvement of Mas signaling by TGFβ1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; Corrêa, Fernando M A; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Balloon injury in diabetic rats triggers a sensory neurocompensatory response that restores the blood flow in contralateral carotid. These vasoprotective effects result from H2O2-mediated relaxation that counteracts AT1-dependent contractile hyperreactivity. The most important mechanism from the renin-angiotensin-system in counteracting AT1-mediated effects is that one is mediated by Mas receptors. Thus, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective effects of balloon neurocompensation in diabetic rats could result from the improvement of Mas signaling by H2O2-mediated sensory mechanisms. NK1 receptors are sensory components whose activation could lead to H2O2 generation upon TGFβ1 release and ALK5-mediated Nox4 upregulation. Based on this, we aimed to investigate: (1) the role of the TGFβ1/ALK5-Nox4-H2O2 pathway on modulating Mas signaling in diabetic rat contralateral carotid; and (2) the contribution of Mas signaling in the control of local blood flow. Our results showed that balloon neurocompensation restored diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow by improving Mas signaling through NK1-mediated TGFβ1 release. TGFβ1/ALK5 activation enhanced Nox4 expression and Nox4-driven generation of H2O2. In turn, H2O2 enhanced the local Mas-mediated relaxation. Since restenosis impairs diabetic rat ipsilateral carotid flow, the restoration of diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow may prevent further damages in cerebral irrigation by carotid pathways after angioplasty during diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles.

  3. Nuevos datos en torno al escultor Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Samaniego, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 was one of the most distinguished Spanish sculptors of the Academy of Fine Arts of Barcelona during the first half of the 19th century. He had a major career as professional artist and teacher, which has been only partially studied. The author here assembles the scarce bibliographical information available on this sculptor and presents new data relating to his life and production, in order to provide a comprehensive interpretation of his works. Likewise, a renewed reflection on Spanish 19th -century academic sculpture is proposed.Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 fue uno de los más destacados escultores españoles de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Barcelona de la primera mitad del siglo XIX, desarrollando una interesante carrera como creador profesional y docente que, hasta el día de hoy sólo ha sido estudiada de forma fragmentaria. El presente artículo pretende reunir la escasa bibliografía publicada en torno al escultor y aportar numerosos datos nuevos relacionados con su vida y obra, facilitando la interpretación global de su trabajo. Asimismo, pretende sugerir una reflexión sobre la escultura académica decimonónica con el objetivo de contribuir a renovar la visión que de ésta se ha presentado hasta el momento.

  4. Renoprotective Effects of AVE0991, a Nonpeptide Mas Receptor Agonist, in Experimental Acute Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Corrêa Barroso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R is the major cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. Mechanisms underlying reperfusion-associated injury include recruitment and activation of leukocytes and release of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the renal effects of acute administration of AVE0991, an agonist of Mas, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, in a murine model of renal I/R. Male C57BL/6 wild-type or Mas−/− mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Administration of AVE0991 promoted renoprotective effects, as seen by improvement of function, decreased tissue injury, prevention of local and remote leucocyte infiltration, and release of the chemokine, CXCL1. I/R injury was similar in WT and Mas−/− mice, suggesting that endogenous activation of this receptor does not control renal damage under baseline conditions. In conclusion, pharmacological interventions using Mas receptor agonists may represent a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of renal I/R injury.

  5. STRESS RESPONSE TO NICKEL IN ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM L. AND DRYOPTERIS FILIX-MAS (L. SCHOTT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physiological response and the defensive potential in species Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Dryopteris filix-mas (L. Schott under the action of nickel. The following experimental variants were tested: 0, 250, 500, 1000, 1500 mg Ni kg-1soil. One month, and three months respectively, after the initiation of the experiment, the amount of assimilating pigments was determined. One month after the initiation of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the variants with Ni and the control as far as the content of chlorophyll (a and b and carotenoids was concerned. The results obtained three months after the inception of the experiment indicate that, at low concentrations, Ni stimulates the synthesis of chlorophyll. In the same period there occurred antioxidant mechanisms: increase in the amount of carotenoids and increased activity of catalase. In the species Dryopteris filix-mas, the variant with 1.000 mg Ni kg-1soil, the amount of chlorophyll was significantly reduced, and the catalase activity was 3 times higher than that obtained in the control group.

  6. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  7. “La iconografía masónica y sus fuentes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Sánchez Ferré

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El corpus iconográfico de la masonería es un elemento esencial en las prácticas rituales y un soporte privilegiado para transmitir sus doctrinas, su saber y su ciencia. Las imágenes y símbolos masónicos trascienden la experiencia estética para adentrarse en el terreno de lo iniciático, es decir, de lo espiritual; por lo tanto, el legado iconográfico que la Orden ha conservado es una representación del mundo sagrado a la que solamente se accede mediante su propio lenguaje: el simbólico, vehículo y fundamento de su sabiduría. Por ende, el objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar las fuentes en las que se ha inspirado el imaginario masónico a fin de comprender su significado primero y radical, su naturaleza original y los elementos que lo componen. Se intentará también poner de manifiesto el itinerario experimentado por este universo iconográfico desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad, lo cual revelará la naturaleza de la metamorfosis experimentada por la masonería moderna desde su fundación.

  8. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  9. Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA "Water Ser"

    OpenAIRE

    Strods, Jānis

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA „WATER SER””. Darba pētījuma mērķis ir SIA „WATER SER” uz ilgtermiņa attīstību balstītas vadības sistēmas pilnveidošanas pasākumu definēšana, izstrāde, un ieviešanas plāna prezentēšana. Darba pirmā nodaļa ir veltīta populārāko vadības sistēmu teorētiskajam aprakstam. Otrā nodaļa ir veltīta būvniecības nozares raksturojumam. Darba trešā nodaļa ir veltīta pētāmā uzņēmuma raksturošanai. Ceturtajā nodaļā, balstoties uz veikto datu anal...

  10. ISOLATION AND HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR FILIXIC ACID PBP FROM DRYOPTERIS FILIX-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Katekhaye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid and specific isolation and HPLC method has been develop for filixic acid PBP in Dryopteris filix-mas extract. HPLC analysis was performed on C18 column using a 90:10 (v/v mixtures of acetonitrile and methanol as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was at 254 nm for filixic acid PBP. Filixic acid shown retention time at 4.02 min. Method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.993 was obtained for calibration plots in the range tested. The limit of detection was 2.25 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 7.53 µg/ml for filixic acid PBP. Intra and inter-day relative standard deviation of precision was less than 1.50 %. Recovery was between 94.57 and 101.05 % filixic acid. The method can be successfully used for quantitative analysis of filixic acid PBP in D. filix-mas for day-to-day studies.

  11. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef; Rath, Detlef; Niemann, Heiner; Schellander, Karl; Rosenkranz, Christine; Hyttel, Poul Maddox; Grøndahl, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturation is improved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcine oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/l cysteine, 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 50 microM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 microM, 3 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM or 100 microM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded mechanically using a fine glass pipette under constant pH and in vitro fertilized with fresh semen (5 x 10(5) spermatozoa/ml). The presumptive zygotes were evaluated 18 h after fertilization. The addition of pFF increased the monospermic as well as the polyspermic penetration of oocytes. In the absence of pFF, the addition of FF-MAS decreased the polyspermic penetration rate, whereas FF-MAS in combination with pFF decreased monospermic and increased polyspermic penetration. The degeneration rate of ova decreased in the presence of FF-MAS irrespective of the presence or absence of pFF. In the absence of pFF, FF-MAS at 3-10 microM increased the number of zygotes with advanced maternal pronuclear stages. In supraphysiological doses, i.e. 30-100 microM, FF-MAS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited nuclear maturation in the absence of pFF.

  12. The Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Axis Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, Anika; Wolke, Carmen; Maczewsky, Jonas; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Tetzner, Anja; Drews, Gisela; Venz, Simone; Gürtler, Sarah; van den Brandt, Jens; Berg, Sabine; Döring, Paula; Dombrowski, Frank; Walther, Thomas; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system often opposes the detrimental effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor axis and has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, whereas underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here we investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and its receptor Mas on β-cell function. Isolated islets from Mas-deficient and wild-type mice were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) or its antagonists and effects on insulin secretion determined. Islets' cytoplasmic calcium and cAMP concentrations, mRNA amounts of Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, and Mafa and effects of inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling were determined. Ang-(1-7) was also applied to mice by osmotic pumps for 14 days and effects on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were assessed. Ang-(1-7) increased insulin secretion from wild-type islets, whereas antagonists and genetic Mas deficiency led to reduced insulin secretion. The Mas-dependent effects of Ang-(1-7) on insulin secretion did not result from changes in insulin gene expression or changes in the excitation-secretion coupling but from increased intracellular cAMP involving exchange protein activated directly by cAMP. Administration of Ang-(1-7) in vivo had only marginal effects on glucose tolerance in wild-type mice but still resulted in improved insulin secretion from islets isolated of these mice. Interestingly, although less pronounced than in wild types, Ang-(1-7) still affected insulin secretion in Mas-deficient islets. The data indicate a significant function of Ang-(1-7) in the regulation of insulin secretion from mouse islets in vitro and in vivo, mainly, but not exclusively, by Mas-dependent signaling, modulating the accessory pathway of insulin secretion via increase in cAMP.

  13. Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea--an overview and quality assessment of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ama; Fleming, Padhraig S; Manek, Seema; Marinho, Valeria C C

    2015-09-01

    To conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews concerning management of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) with mandibular advancement splint (MAS) and assess their methodological quality. PubMed and relevant Cochrane Library databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA) searches were performed (09.13) to identify systematic reviews investigating the response of adults with OSAHS to MAS therapy. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, a validated tool for assessing quality. Eight systematic reviews, four incorporating meta-analyses, were identified evaluating both objective and subjective outcome measures. The effectiveness of MAS therapy was compared to no treatment (n = 1), non-active appliance (n = 6), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP; n = 5), surgical intervention (n = 3) and a different MAS intervention (n = 4). The quality of the reviews was variable (median = 7, range = 3 to 11), with only two of higher quality (AMSTAR scores >10), one of them a Cochrane review. In this high quality and current review, the overall (pooled) effects for comparison of MAS therapy with inactive appliances, revealed significant benefits of MAS therapy in terms of both daytime sleepiness and objective apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) outcomes. In general, the results from the higher quality reviews concerning the effectiveness of MAS therapy for OSAHS highlight the ability of the intervention to improve OSAHS. Current reporting guidelines for systematic reviews (e.g. PRISMA) and sources of high-quality existing reviews should be closely followed to enhance the validity and relevance of future reviews.

  14. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  15. Dose reduction at abdominal CT imaging: reduced tension (kV) or reduced intensity (mAs)?; Diminuer la dose en tomodensitometrie abdominale: baisser la tension (kV) ou la charge (mAs)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, A.M.; Helie, O.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Berger, F.; Ott, D.; Spiegel, A. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Begin, Service de Medecine des Collectivites et d' Etudes Statistiques, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose. To compare low-dose protocols using either reduction of the tension (kV) or reduction of the intensity (mAs) at abdominal CT imaging, with reference to image quality. Materials and Methods. Fifty adult patients, weighing less than 55 kg, were prospectively included among patients referred for abdominal CT examination when the protocol required a non-contrast study. The images obtained with the standard protocol (120 kV, 200 mAs) were compared to 4 additional test images, two obtained with low intensity (120 kV, 100 mAs) and two obtained with low tension (100 kV, 200 mAs). Two senior radiologists blindly reviewed all images using both subjective (itemized list) and objective criteria (measure of standard deviation for density measurements obtained of the liver,parenchyma). Results. The image quality of the low kV protocol was better than the image quality of the low mAs protocol for both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion. For abdominal CT imaging of standard to thin adult patients or children, dose reduction using a low kV-protocol may be an alternative to a protocol using a, low intensity. This can easily be implemented and can be used in conjunction with a dose reducing software. (author)

  16. Influência do método de extração sobre a composição química de suco de uva bordô (vitis labrusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Bresolin Roldan

    2016-01-01

    O aumento no consumo de uva que vem ocorrendo nos últimos anos está relacionado em parte a divulgação das propriedades benéficas à saúde associadas ao consumo de suco de uva. Estes efeitos benéficos são atribuídos à elevada concentração de compostos fenólicos presentes no suco. A composição química (incluindo os compostos fenólicos) do suco de uva é afetada por vários fatores, tais como: variedade de uva, condições edafoclimáticas de cultivo e método de extração do suco. O método de extração ...

  17. Influência do método de extração sobre a composição química de suco de uva bordô (vitis labrusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Bresolin Roldan

    2016-01-01

    O aumento no consumo de uva que vem ocorrendo nos últimos anos está relacionado em parte a divulgação das propriedades benéficas à saúde associadas ao consumo de suco de uva. Estes efeitos benéficos são atribuídos à elevada concentração de compostos fenólicos presentes no suco. A composição química (incluindo os compostos fenólicos) do suco de uva é afetada por vários fatores, tais como: variedade de uva, condições edafoclimáticas de cultivo e método de extração do suco. O método de extração ...

  18. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the

  19. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100 kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  1. The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry: A case study at MAS holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, John; Illankoon, Prasanna

    2016-10-17

    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies. Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. 'MAS Operating System' (MOS) empowers training and development to employees. MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  2. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturaion is improved....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcien oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 cysteine, 10 ng....../ml epidermal growth factor and 50µM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 30 µM or 100 µM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded...

  3. Colgate MaxWhite reklāmas kampaņa un auditorijas attieksme pret to

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pētnieciskā darba tēma ir „Colgate Maxwhite” reklāmas kampaņa un klientu attieksme pret to. Darbā pētītas kampaņas reklāmas un noskaidrota potenciālo klientu attieksme. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot kādā veidā tiek reklamēts produkts „Colgate Maxwhite” un kā pašas reklāmas uztver patērētājs, kāda ir patērētāju attieksme, vai reklāmas kampaņa ir bijusi veiksmīga un prātā paliekoša vai tā ir bijusi neveiksmīga. Bakalaura darbā tika izvirzīta hipotēze: „Colgate Maxwhite ” reklāmas kampaņai t...

  4. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS TRANSFER DAN ANALISIS EKSPRESI GEN IMUNOGENIK TAHAN KOI HERPES VIRUS (KHV PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Syahputra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian transfer gen imunogenik tahan KHV (krt-GP11 pada ikan mas telah dilakukan dengan metode elektroporasi sperma menggunakan konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA optimal yang efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen pada ikan mas. Sperma dielektroporasi menggunakan tipe kejutan square wave dengan voltase 50 V dan jumlah kejutan tiga kali. Konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan adalah 10 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, dan 100 μg/mL. Deteksi transgen pada sperma, embrio, dan larva dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen krt-GP11. Ekspresi transgen pada embrio dan larva dianalisis secara semi-kuantitatif dengan metode reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen krt-GP11 terdeteksi pada sperma, embrio, dan larva. Pemberian konsentrasi DNA 10 μg/mL lebih efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen krt-GP11 pada ikan mas, sedangkan peningkatan konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan tidak memberikan hasil yang berbeda terhadap keberhasilan transfer gen pada ikan mas. Ekspresi gen krt-GP11 yang berhasil diintroduksikan pada ikan mas baru dapat teramati dengan baik pada fase embrio.

  6. Atributos sensoriais e aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Rio Branco Pontes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, incluindo questões sobre consumo e compra. Os resultados apontam que o suco integral apresentou cor e gosto amargo mais intensos; o suco concentrado (reconstituído apresentou baixa intensidade em todos os atributos; e o néctar de uva apresentou maior intensidade de gosto doce e sabor característico de uva. O teste de aceitação mostrou que o néctar de uva e o suco integral foram os mais aceitos. A maioria dos consumidores relatou consumir quatro ou mais copos suco de uva por mês. O suco integral recebeu maior intenção de compra e o néctar foi a bebida mais consumida. Concluiu-se que o consumidor aprecia o suco integral da uva, com equilibrada intensidade nos atributos sensoriais investigados, todavia, consume com maior frequência o néctar, bebida à qual são adicionadas água e sacarose.Grape juice contains phenolic compounds in considerable amounts, and it is fit for human consumption since it can increase the intake of natural antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensory attributes and to evaluate the acceptance of commercial grape juices. Three types of commercial grape juices were analyzed: pasteurized juice, concentrated juice, and sugar added pasteurized juice. A modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and an Acceptance Test with a structured nine-point hedonic scale were used including questions about consumption and purchase intention. The results indicated that the pasteurized

  7. Rendimento e composição das aguardentes de cana, laranja e uva com utilização de lecitina no processo fermentativo

    OpenAIRE

    Cleto, Francisco Vicente Gaiotto; Mutton,Márcia Justino Rossini

    2004-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de lecitina aos mostos de cana, laranja e uva sobre o rendimento e composição das aguardentes. O delineamento empregado para a análise estatística foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2x3, empregando-se dois fatores - lecitina e mosto - em dois níveis para lecitina: ausência (índice um) e presença (índice dois); e em três níveis para mosto: cana, laranja e uva. A metodologia empregada foi a recomend...

  8. Control de calidad de la maduración fenólica de la uva tinta mediante espectroscopia FT-MIR

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoso García, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis ha sido la puesta a punto de un método analítico rápido basado en la espectroscopia FT-MIR para determinar el estado de maduración fenólica de las uvas tintas con el que poder fijar la fecha de vendimia. Para ello se desarrollaron modelos de calibración multivariante PLS que permitieron la cuantificación simultánea de diferentes compuestos fenólicos en extractos de uva de forma rápida y fiable, utilizando la espectrofotometría UV-Vis como técnica de referencia. Para ob...

  9. Reduction of 8-oxodGTP in the nucleotide pool by hMTH1 leads to reduction in mutations in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 exposed to UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouhi, Asal; Skioeld, Sara; Shakeri-Manesh, Sara; Osterman-Golkar, Siv; Wojcik, Andrzej; Jenssen, Dag; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: siamak.haghdoost@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    UVA has been suggested to play an important role in UV-induced mutagenesis. The mechanisms by which UVA induces mutations are still a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the protective capacity of hMTH1, a nucleotide pool sanitization enzyme with 8-oxodGTPase activity. Human B lymphoblastoid cells were stably transfected with shRNA directed against hMTH1. Clonogenic survival, mutations, intracellular and extracellular levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and dG in the nucleotide pool of UVA-irradiated transfected and non-transfected cells were investigated. Mutations were determined in the thymidine kinase locus. Intracellular 8-oxodG and dG were measured using a modified ELISA and HPLC, respectively, after extraction of the nucleotide pool and conversion of nucleotides to their corresponding nucleosides. 8-oxodG in the medium was measured using ELISA. UVA-induced mutations were significantly higher while the survival was slightly lower in transfected compared to non-transfected cells. The increased mutation rate in transfected cells at increased exposure correlated with enhanced levels of 8-oxodG in the nucleotide pool, and a somewhat reduced level of 8-oxodG in the medium. The results indicate that the nucleotide pool is a significant target for UVA-induced mutations and implicates that hMTH1 plays an important role in protecting cells from UVA-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł; Pogoń, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits.

  11. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Łojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance.

  12. Assessing Heterogeneity of Osteolytic Lesions in Multiple Myeloma by 1H HR-MAS NMR Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette Tavel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of plasma cells characterized by multifocal osteolytic bone lesions. Macroscopic and genetic heterogeneity has been documented within MM lesions. Understanding the bases of such heterogeneity may unveil relevant features of MM pathobiology. To this aim, we deployed unbiased 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics to analyze multiple biopsy specimens of osteolytic lesions from one case of pathological fracture caused by MM. Multivariate analyses on normalized metabolite peak integrals allowed clusterization of samples in accordance with a posteriori histological findings. We investigated the relationship between morphological and NMR features by merging morphological data and metabolite profiling into a single correlation matrix. Data-merging addressed tissue heterogeneity, and greatly facilitated the mapping of lesions and nearby healthy tissues. Our proof-of-principle study reveals integrated metabolomics and histomorphology as a promising approach for the targeted study of osteolytic lesions.

  13. MAINTAINING THE EFFICIENCY OF MAS METHOD IN CEREALS WHILE REDUCING THE COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Moullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a powerful tool too rarely exploited in practical breeding applications mainly because of its prohibitive costs. A new manual protocol has been developed for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses which could increase the impact of this technology on the creation of new varieties. In this procedure, only the amount of DNA serving as template is extracted directly into PCR tubes. The method is reproducible (100 % and efficient (97.9 %. The overall cost is low in term of starting lab equipment (25000 €, chemicals and consumable materials (0.33 to 0.40 € per samples and labor (1500 sample analyses per person and per week.

  14. 1H MAS NMR spectra of hy- droxyl species on diatomite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High spinning speed 1H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) was used to detect surface hydroxyl groups of diatomite, which include isolated hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups, and water adsorbed on diatomite surface that include pore water and hydrogen-bonded water. The corresponding proton chemical shifts of above species are ca. 2.0, 6.0-7.1, 4.9 and 3.0 respectively. Accompanied by thermal treatment temperature ascending, the pore water and hydrogen-bonded water are desorbed successively. As a result, the relative intensities of the peaks assigned to protons of isolat-ed hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increase gradually and reach their maxima at 1000℃. After 1100℃ calcination, the hydroxyl groups that classified to strongly hydrogen-bonded ones and the isolated hydroxyl groups condense basically. But some weakly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups may still persist in the micropores.

  15. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云

    1994-01-01

    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  16. Adding real data to detect emotions by means of smart resource artifacts in MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime RINCÓN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an application of a social emotional model, which allows to extract, analyse, represent and manage the social emotion of a group of entities. Specifically, the application is based on how music can influence in a positive or negative way over emotional states. The proposed approach employs the JaCalIVE framework, which facilitates the development of this kind of environments. A physical device called smart resource offers to agents processed sensor data as a service. So that, agents obtain real data from a smart resource. MAS uses the smart resource as an artifact by means of a specific communications protocol. The framework includes a design method and a physical simulator. In this way, the social emotional model allows the creation of simulations over JaCalIVE, in which the emotional states are used in the decision-making of the agents.

  17. Advanced microscopy techniques used for comparison of UVA- and γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage in the cell nucleus and nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixová, L; Hrušková, T; Sehnalová, P; Legartová, S; Svidenská, S; Kozubek, S; Bártová, E

    2014-01-01

    Every day, genomes are affected by genotoxic factors that create multiple DNA lesions. Several DNA repair systems have evolved to counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage. These systems include a set of DNA repair mechanisms, damage tolerance processes, and activation of cell-cycle checkpoints. This study describes selected confocal microscopy techniques that investigate DNA damage-related nuclear events after UVA- and γ-irradiation and compare the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by the two experimental approaches. In both cases, we observed induction of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and formation of localized double-strand breaks (DSBs). This was confirmed by analysis of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in the DNA lesions and by increased levels of γH2AX and 53BP1 proteins in the irradiated genome. DNA damage by UVA-lasers was potentiated by either BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-sensitization and compared to non-photosensitized cells. DSBs were also induced without BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-treatment. Interestingly, no cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were detected after 405 nm UVA laser micro-irradiation in non-photosensitized cells. The effects of UVA and γ-irradiation were also studied by silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). This experimental approach revealed changes in the morphology of nucleoli after genome injury. Additionally, to precisely characterize DDR in locally induced DNA lesions, we analysed the kinetics of the 53BP1 protein involved in DDR by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP).

  18. Impacto da regulamentação SPS e TBT nas exportações brasileiras de uva no período de 1995 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greigiano José Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A cadeia produtiva da uva tem importância ímpar quanto à geração de renda e de emprego para diversas economias regionais. Todavia, nos últimos anos, o comércio internacional deste setor, assim como de todo o setor frutícola, tem enfrentado a imposição de diversas medidas não tarifárias, entre as quais, as sanitárias, fitossanitárias e técnicas. Assim, neste trabalho, são analisados os efeitos das normas sanitárias, fitossanitárias e técnicas impostas pelos países importadores de uva brasileira, no período de 1995 a 2009. Para este fim, foram feitas uma análise de inventário e uma abordagem econométrica, em que se fez uso do modelo gravitacional, com o objetivo de verificar o impacto de tais medidas na exportação de uva brasileira. Pelos resultados encontrados na análise de inventário, foi possível constatar relação positiva entre a evolução do número de notificações e a evolução das importações. Já pelo modelo econométrico, descartou-se a possibilidade de tais medidas terem afetado negativamente o comércio, tendo sido, no caso das medidas sanitárias e fitossanitárias, encontrada uma relação positiva com as exportações de uvas, ou seja, essas medidas auxiliaram o comércio, e os efeitos das medidas técnicas sobre as exportações foram nulos.

  19. Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory; Dead Sea Research Center, Neve Zohar (Israel); Lyubansky, V.; Ianetz, A. [Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan (Israel). Research Development Div.; Evseev, E.G. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    An inter-comparison of the clearness indices for the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing radiation data measured from January 1995 through December 2001 for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between the measurements, viz., any day for which a hourly value for one of the sites was missing is rejected and not included in the analysis for that particular radiation type. Beer Sheva is located ca. 65 km to the west and is approximately 700 m above Neve Zohar, which is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the lowest terrestrial point on the earth, approximately 400 m below mean sea level. The relative magnitudes of the global, UVB and UVA radiation intensities at the two sites can be attributed to the enhanced scattering at the Dead Sea due to the longer optical path length the solar radiation must traverse at the Dead Sea. The degree of attenuation due to scattering phenomena is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to some power and, consequently, it is greatest for UVB and very small for global radiation. The UVB and UVA solar constants were determined from the extraterrestrial radiation values tabulated by Froehlich and Wehrli [Spectral distribution of solar irradiance from 25000 nm to 250nm, in: M. Iqbal, An introduction to solar radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1981, Appendix C, pp. 380-381]. The clearness indices for global and UVA radiation were of similar magnitude, whereas those for UVB radiation were of two orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, the monthly average hourly UV Index at both sites has also been determined and an inter-comparison of the values has been performed for all available hourly values from January 1995 through August 2002 for both sites. It is observed that the monthly average hourly UV Index values at the Dead Sea are never in the extreme range. (author)

  20. Badania jakości regeneratu ze zużytych mas ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W publikacji przedstawiono uzupełniające metody badań oraz aparaturę do oceny jakości regeneratu i tych właściwości masformierskich ze spoiwami utwardzanymi chemicznie, przygotowywanych z regeneratem, które są istotne dla kompleksowej oceny procesurecyklingu osnowy. Nowoczesne systemy oceny mas formierskich wymagają bardziej wnikliwego podejścia do czynników decydującychzarówno o ich przydatności technologicznej jak również o wpływie na otaczające środowisko naturalne. W tym kontekście pełna ocenajakości zregenerowanej osnowy wykracza poza zwyczajowo stosowane metody instrumentalne i wymaga ich uzupełnienia o bardziejzaawansowane aparaturowo metody badawcze. Pozwala to szerzej spojrzeć na ocenę zregenerowanej osnowy, zarówno w aspekcie jejużycia do sporządzania mas formierskich, jako substytutu świeżego piasku, ale także pod kątem ochrony środowiska. Do takichnowoczesnych metod można zaliczyć między innymi analizę ziarnową regeneratu za pomocą dyfrakcji laserowej, a także ocenęgazotwórczości masy formierskiej oraz identyfikację rodzaju emitowanych gazów i zawartości w nich gazów z grupy BTEX, które sąszczególnie niebezpieczne z punktu widzenia BHP.

  1. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  2. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsu, Mie (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40 % lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy.cm; P < 0.001) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9 % higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2 % greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40 % dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. (orig.)

  3. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Kátia Daniela; Barroso, Lívia Corrêa; Vieira, Angélica Thomáz; Cisalpino, Daniel; Lima, Cristiano Xavier; Bader, Michael; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg) induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+) ) and Mas knockout (Mas (-/-)) mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+) , but not in Mas (-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  4. 强脉冲光对长波紫外线Ⅰ诱导成纤维细胞光损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of intense pulsed light on fibroblast injury induced by UVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 刘玮; 赵小忠; 田燕; 袁小英; 王瑞艳

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究强脉冲光(intense pulse light,IPL)对长波紫外线(ultraviolet A,UVA Ⅰ)诱导的正常离体人皮肤成纤维细胞(fibroblast,FB)损伤的保护作用,探讨以IPL为手段的光子嫩肤技术的理论基础.方法 分离并培养人FB,用不同剂量UVA Ⅰ照射FB以诱导细胞光损伤,CCK-8检测其增殖能力的情况,根据预实验结果确定IPL剂量进行照射,流式细胞仪技术枪测细胞周期,Western印迹法检测CylinD1和CDK2蛋白的表达水平.结果 不同剂量的UVA Ⅰ可造成FB的损伤,随着UVA Ⅰ剂量的增加,细胞增殖能力下降,11 J/cm2的剂量可明显导致细胞大量死亡,而7 J/cm2的UVAⅠ对细胞的增殖能力没有明显的影响;经UVA Ⅰ照射2 d后再进行IPL连续照射2 d,细胞增殖活性高于单独UVA Ⅰ处理组,差异具有统计学意义.流式细胞仪检测结果表明该组细胞增殖指数升高.细胞周期蛋白CyclinD1和CDK2的表达水平升高.结论 IPL可通过调节周期蛋白的表达而促进正常FB增殖,从而保护UVAⅠ诱导的FB光损伤,为应用IPL面部美容除皱即光子嫩肤术提供理论依据.%Objective To study the protective effects of intense pulse light (IPL) on the injury of normal human skin fibroblasts (FB) induced by ultraviolet A (UVA Ⅰ ) in vitro and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods The human skin fibroblasts were isolated and cultured, and then irradiated by UVA Ⅰ (9 J/cm2) and IPL (15 J/cm2), respectively. The proliferative ability of the cells were detected by CCK-8. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, and cylin D1 and CDK2 protein expression levels were detected by Western blot. Results Different doses of UVA Ⅰ irradiation caused certain damages of cultured fibroblasts. With the increasing of of UVA Ⅰ dose, cell proliferation was decreased. Cells went to death at the exposure to 11 J/cm2 UVA Ⅰ , while the proliferative activity did not change much at 7 J/cm2 UVA Ⅰ . Cells were treated with UVA

  5. 中国人头发纤维在 UVA 紫外光老化中的光谱学研究%Spectroscopic Investigation of Human Hair from Chinese Subjects During UVA Photoageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖; Gerald J.Smith

    2016-01-01

    生活中,日光中的紫外辐射是导致头发光老化/光损伤的重要环境因素。长时间光照可使染发和天然发出现包括颜色褪变在内的退行性变化。以中老年人的自然灰发为样本来源,通过分离和人工漂染处理,获得了包括自然发色、漂白和染黑的六种头发类型,经过 UVA (320~400 nm)紫外光老化,采用漫反射光谱、三维荧光光谱和衰减全反射傅里叶变换红外光谱对头发纤维的老化特征进行无损分析,结合头发中光产生过氧化氢的定量分析,探讨了不同发色和漂染处理对头发耐光性的影响。结果表明,UVA 辐照可通过Ⅱ型电子转移机制诱导头发中的光敏基团产生过氧化氢,导致纤维表面蛋白和色素分子的光氧化降解。自然发色与漂染发在光老化中的颜色变化不同:灰发和白发主要发生光黄化,人工染发和漂白发分别发生光褪色和光漂白。高湿度环境能加速头发的光降解。化学漂染处理会使头发中的光致过氧化氢水平升高,使纤维处于较高的氧化压力从而影响头发的光稳定性;而头发中的黑色素分子,包括天然黑色素和染发剂的人工黑色素,可能具有自由基产生与清除双重性。研究结果为建立中国人头发光损伤的光谱学评价方法和进一步研发针对国人发质的染护发产品提供了重要的实验基准数据。%Since ultraviolet radiation is one of the major environmental factors that cause photoageing /photodamage ,human hair , including both dyed and undyed hair ,are subject to color change following extended exposure to sunlight .In the work described in this paper ,six samples of human hair from Chinese volunteers that included untreated ,bleached and dyed were subjected to accelerated ageing by exposure to UVA (320 ~ 400 nm) radiation .Changes to their chemical compositions during photoageing were non‐destructively characterized by

  6. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-11-01

    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of cylindrospermopsin under UV-A, solar and visible light using TiO2. Mineralization and intermediate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are considered an important water quality problem, since several genera can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins that are harmful to human health. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid-like potent cyanotoxin that has been reported in water reservoirs and lakes worldwide. In this paper the removal of CYN from water by UV-A, solar and visible light photocatalysis was investigated. Two different commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts were used, i.e., Degussa P25 and Kronos-vlp7000. Complete degradation of CYN was achieved with both photocatalysts in 15 and 40 min under UV-A and 40 and 120 min under solar light irradiation, for Degussa P25 and Kronos vlp-7000 respectively. Experiments in the absence of photocatalysts showed that direct photolysis was negligible. Under visible light irradiation only the Kronos vlp-7000 which is a visible light activated catalyst was able to degrade CYN. A number of intermediates were identified and a complete degradation pathway is proposed, leading to the conclusion that hydroxyl radical attack is the main mechanism followed. TOC and inorganic ions (NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+) determinations suggested that complete mineralization of CYN was achieved under UV-A in the presence of Degussa P25. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Ultraviolet-A (UV-A and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C Light on Mechanical Properties of Oyster Mushrooms during Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindibale L. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-A (UV-A and ultraviolet-C (UV-C light on the mechanical properties in oyster mushrooms during the growth. Experiments were carried out with irradiation of the mushrooms with UV-A (365 nm and UV-C (254 nm light during growth. The exposure time ranged from 10 minutes to 60 minutes at intervals of 10 minutes and irradiation was done for three days. The samples for experimental studies were cut into cylindrical shapes of diameter 12.50 mm and thickness 3.00 mm. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples and control samples were determined for both UV bands and there was a significant difference between the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples by both UV bands with reference to the control sample, P<0.05. UV-C light irradiated samples had higher loss modulus and loss factor but low storage modulus as temperature increased from 35 to 100°C with respect to the control sample while UV-A light irradiated samples had lower loss modulus, low loss factor, and higher storage modulus than UV-C irradiated samples.

  9. Sistema geovitícola para a produção de uvas para vinho na região do Circuito das Frutas-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado aumento na produção de uvas destinadas à elaboração de vinhos na região do Circuito das Frutas, Estado de São Paulo, promovido principalmente pelo turismo rural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o potencial climático dessa região para produção de uvas para vinho, utilizando o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicritérios Geovitícola, baseado nos índices biometeorológicos: heliotérmico, de frio noturno e de seca, considerando as safras de verão e de inverno. Para a safra de verão, foram identificadas áreas com clima quente, úmidas e com noites quentes, situadas na região oeste do Circuito das Frutas; na região centro-leste, as noites foram caracterizadas como temperadas e, nas áreas de altitudes mais elevadas, o clima encontrado foi o temperado quente, sem período seco e com noites temperadas. Para a safra de inverno, os valores de umidade mantiveram-se elevados, com as classes climáticas variando entre quente, temperado quente e temperado, com noites muito frias. O Circuito das Frutas apresentou características que podem favorecer a obtenção de uvas para vinhos brancos e espumantes.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantis, T M; Fotiou, T; Kaloudis, T; Kontos, A G; Falaras, P; Dionysiou, D D; Pelaez, M; Hiskia, A

    2012-04-15

    In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2), Kronos and reference TiO(2) nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO(2) followed by N-TiO(2) with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO(2) nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO(2) for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO(2) displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  11. Corneal Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UV-A in the Mouse Cornea in Vivo: Morphological, Biochemical, and Physiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Hammer, Arthur; Conti, Alain; Hafezi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To morphologically, biochemically, and physiologically characterize corneal cross-linking with riboflavin and UV-A light (CXL) in a newly established in vivo murine model. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type mice (N = 67) were treated with various CXL protocols, with modification of the following parameters: total energy (fluence) used, duration of UV-A irradiation, continuous versus pulsed irradiation, and CXL under hypoxic conditions (contact lens). Corneas were evaluated biomicroscopically, histologically, and using optical coherence tomography. Conformational collagen changes were evaluated via changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion. Results A fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 induced scar formation, while fluences of scar formation. Changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion suggest that CXL in mice, when compared to humans, requires less UV-A energy than the difference in corneal thickness between the species would suggest. Conclusions We demonstrated the in vivo response of very strong and very weak CXL and identified the best suited range of UV fluence in murine corneas. The presented murine CXL model may be helpful in future research addressing cellular and molecular pathways associated to CXL treatment. Translational Relevance Adverse tissue reactions following CXL treatment were observed, if the administered UV energy was out of the treatment window—raising concern about novel CXL treatment protocols that have not been previously validated in an experimental setting. PMID:28149672

  12. Effect of intrapartum oropharyngeal (IP-OP) suction on meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in developing country: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Sushma; Pal, Mansi M; Saili, Arvind; Gupta, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Evidence about IP-OP suction and selective tracheal intubation in meconium stained neonates is from developed countries. Little information is available about their role in developing countries with high incidence of meconium staining and MAS. This randomized trial was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of IP-OP suction in meconium stained term neonates on prevention of MAS and reduction of its severity. Out of 540 meconium stained full term, cephalic presentation, singleton neonates without major congenital malformations born from June'08 to January'09, 31 were excluded and 509 randomized. In the intervention group IP-OP suction was done at the time of delivery of head using a 10 Fr suction catheter with a negative pressure of 100 mmHg. No IP-OP suction was performed in control group. All neonates with MSAF were assessed as vigorous or non-vigorous after birth and provided care as per NRP guidelines 2005. Two hundred and fifty three neonates were randomized to IP-OP suction and 256 to no IP-OP suction. Eighty-two neonates (16%) developed MAS, the primary outcome parameter, with 40 infants in the intervention group (15.8%) and 42 (16.4%) in the non-intervention group (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60-1.54). Incidence of severe MAS was comparable (3.55% vs. 2.34%) (P value=0.40). Other variables like requirement of oxygen >48 h (9.8% vs. 10.5%) and mortality (2.7% vs. 1.7%) were also comparable. IP-OP suctioning did not reduce the incidence or severity of MAS even in a setting of high incidence of MAS in a developing country. The mortality in two groups was comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Signaling Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced ADAM17 Shedding Activity and Apoptosis in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinhua; Xu, Daomiao; Ai, Yuhang; Zhao, Shuangping; Zhang, Lina; Ming, Guangfeng; Liu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, constitutively expressed in alveolar epithelium, is the pivotal shedding enzyme mediating acute lung inflammation. On the other hand, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to improve acute respiratory distress syndrome and protect alveolar epithelial cells from apoptosis. In this study, we explored the effect of Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling on the expression and activity of ADAM17 and assessed its impact on apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human alveolar epithelial cells. LPS markedly induced the shedding activity of ADAM17 in alveolar epithelial cells, which was blocked by selective c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced ADAM17 shedding activity, which was abolished by selective Mas blocker A779 and Mas shRNA. LPS and Ang-(1-7) showed no significant effect on the expression of ADAM17. Overexpression of ADAM17 synergized with LPS on increasing the shedding activity of ADAM17 and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells, counteracting the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7). In addition, LPS significantly increased the JNK activity in alveolar epithelial cells; Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced JNK activity, which was abolished by A779 and Mas shRNA. In conclusion, this study suggests that Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling inhibits LPS-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting LPS-induced shedding activity of ADAM17, likely by a JNK-dependent mechanism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. MasABK Proteins Interact with Proteins of the Type IV Pilin System to Affect Social Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fremgen; Amanda Williams; Gou Furusawa; Katarzyna Dziewanowska; Matthew Settles; Patricia Hartzell

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S...

  15. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  16. Assessing the fate and transformation of plant residues in the terrestrial environment using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Brian P.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2006-08-01

    Plant litter decomposition plays a fundamental role in carbon and nitrogen cycles, provides key nutrients to the soil environment and represents a potentially large positive feedback to atmospheric CO 2. However, the full details of decomposition pathways and products are unknown. Here we present the first application of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 13C and 15N labeled plant materials, and apply this approach in a preliminary study to monitor the environmental degradation of the pine and wheatgrass residues over time. In HR-MAS, is it possible to acquire very high resolution NMR data of plant biomass, and apply the vast array of multidimensional experiments available in conventional solution-state NMR. High levels of isotopic enrichment combined with HR-MAS significantly enhance the detection limits, and provide a wealth of information that is unattainable by any other method. Diffusion edited HR-MAS NMR data reveal the rapid loss of carbohydrate structures, while two-dimensional (2-D) HR-MAS NMR spectra demonstrate the relatively fast loss of both hydrolysable and condensed tannin structures from all plant tissues studied. Aromatic (partially lignin) and aliphatic components (waxes, cuticles) tend to persist, along with a small fraction of carbohydrate, and become highly functionalized over time. While one-dimensional (1-D) 13C HR-MAS NMR spectra of fresh plant tissue reflect compositional differences between pine and grass, these differences become negligible after decomposition suggesting that recalcitrant carbon may be similar despite the plant source. Two-dimensional 1H- 15N HR-MAS NMR analysis of the pine residue suggests that nitrogen from specific peptides is either selectively preserved or used for the synthesis of what appears to be novel structures. The amount of relevant data generated from plant components in situ using HR-MAS NMR is highly encouraging, and demonstrates that complete assignment will yield unprecedented structural knowledge of plant cell

  17. Supra-molecular structure and chemical reactivity of cellulose I studied using CP/MAS (sup)13 C-NMR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Supra-Molecular Structure and Chemical Reactivity of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR Viren Chunilall, Tamara Bush and Per Tomas Larsson Additional information is available at the end... of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR 71 1.1.2. Dissolving pulp The unbleached pulp that results after acid bi-sulphite pulping is used as raw material for dissolving pulp production. Lignin and hemicelluloses in the unbleached pulp are considered...

  18. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  19. Relation Between Acid and Catalytic Properties of Chlorinated Gamma-Alumina. a 31p Mas Nmr and Ftir Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume D.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the effect of chlorine on the surface properties of gamma-alumina, especially on their acid properties. The use of FTIR spectroscopy and 31P MAS NMR of adsorbed trimethylphosphine allows to propose a chlorination mechanism. To correlate the surface properties of these chlorinated gamma-alumina with their catalytic properties, we have used a model reaction, the cracking of n-heptane under reforming conditions. The analysis of the correlation between acid properties determined by 31P MAS NMR and the catalytic results (in terms of activities and selectivities allows to identify which sites are involved in the cracking reaction.

  20. UVA photoirradiation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induction of reactive oxygen species and formation of lipid peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-03-14

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors.

  1. UVA Photoirradiation of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons—Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Formation of Lipid Peroxides †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun J.; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P.; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors. PMID:23493032

  2. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE LAS LEVADURAS NATIVAS PRESENTES EN ZUMOS DE PIÑA, MORA Y UVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ ADRIANA MAMBUSCAY M.

    Full Text Available Las frutas son microhábitats importantes para una variedad de especies de levaduras en la naturaleza debido a su alta concentración de azúcares simples, bajo pH y la constante visita por insectos vectores. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo principal el aislamiento e identificación de las levaduras encontradas en los zumos de mora, piña y uva. La identificación de las cepas se realizó mediante el uso de técnicas moleculares. Primero se realizó el análisis RFLP del gen ribosomal 5,8s y sus espaciadores transcritos internos con las enzimas CfoI, HaeIII y HinfI, para establecer agrupaciones de acuerdo a los patrones de restricción. Posteriormente 28 cepas fueron seleccionadas como representantes de los grupos para secuenciar el dominio D1/D2 del gen ribosomal 26s y poder definir a que especie pertenecían los diferentes aislados. Adicionalmente se hizo una caracterización fisiológica parcial de cada una de las cepas. Finalmente se logró la identificación de 66 cepas levaduriformes, distribuidas en las siguientes especies: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Wickerhamomyces pijperi, Candida sp., Pichia kluyveri, Hansenia sporauvarum, Candida boidinii, Candida oleophila, Meyerozyma caribbica, Hanseniaspora pseudo guilliermondii, Pichia sp.1, Pichia sp.2, Candida pseudointermedia, Pichia membranifaciens, Issatchenkia terrícola y Candida azyma

  3. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  4. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx). Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular) and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance. PMID:28168010

  5. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx. Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T. [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Kaloudis, T. [Organic Micropollutants Laboratory, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), WTP Aharnon, Menidi (Greece); Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P. [Laboratory of Photo-redox Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Hiskia, A., E-mail: hiskia@chem.demokritos.gr [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-TiO{sub 2} exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}, Kronos and reference TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} followed by N-TiO{sub 2} with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO{sub 2} nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO{sub 2} for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO{sub 2} displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  7. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  8. Autolīzinga kompānijas AS "mogo" reklāmas kampaņu izstrāde, izmantojot Facebook reklāmas rīkus

    OpenAIRE

    Ābeltiņš, Elvis

    2017-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir “Autolīzinga kompānijas AS “mogo” reklāmas kampaņu izstrāde, izmantojot Facebook reklāmas rīkus”. Vadošais sociālais tīkls Facebook nodrošina plašas reklāmas izvietošanas iespējas un tā auditorijas apjoms ir sasniedzis tradicionālajiem medijiem līdzvērtīgu izmēru. Darba analītiskajā daļā tiek kategorizētas digitālā mārketinga metodes, kā arī apkopota sociālo tīklu lietotāju statistika Latvijā un pasaulē. Projekta daļā autors salīdzina un analizē Facebook reklāmas izvietoša...

  9. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapenko, A.Ya.; Sukhorukov, V.L. (Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-08-31

    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play a significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA.

  10. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow {sup 1}H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) {sup 1}H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic

  11. Proton detection of MAS solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P; Rossini, Aaron J

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection has found widespread application to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with spin-1/2 nuclei such as (13)C, (15)N and (29)Si, however, this approach is not yet routinely applied to half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Here we have investigated the feasibility of using fast MAS and proton detection to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. The previously described dipolar hetero-nuclear multiple quantum correlation (D-HMQC) and dipolar refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (D-RINEPT) pulse sequences were used for proton detection of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Quantitative comparisons of signal-to-noise ratios and the sensitivity of proton detected D-HMQC and D-RINEPT and direct detection spin echo and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) solid-state NMR spectra, demonstrate that one dimensional proton detected experiments can provide sensitivity similar to or exceeding that obtainable with direct detection QCPMG experiments. 2D D-HMQC and D-RINEPT experiments provide less sensitivity than QCPMG experiments but proton detected 2D hetero-nuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer nuclei can still be acquired in about the same time as a 1D spin echo spectrum. Notably, the rarely used D-RINEPT pulse sequence is found to provide similar, or better sensitivity than D-HMQC in some cases. Proton detected D-RINEPT benefits from the short longitudinal relaxation times (T1) normally associated with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei, it can be combined with existing signal enhancement methods for quadrupolar nuclei, and t1-noise in the indirect dimension can easily be removed by pre-saturation of the (1)H nuclei. The rapid acquisition of proton detected 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR spectra of a range of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei such as (17)O, (27)Al, (35)Cl and (71)Ga is demonstrated. Copyright

  12. Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida A “woman Methodist preacher” in 1775: capable of mobilizing an entire city, but – forgottenUna “predicadora metodista” en 1775: capaz de movilizar a toda una ciudad, pero – olvidada

  13. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Efect of T. harzianumand FitoMas-E® as bioestimulants of the germination y growth of seedlings of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoerlandy Santana Baños

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the combined effect of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on germination and growth of tomato seedlings. In the first test tomato seeds cv. Vyta they were used to treat with solutions FitoMas-E® (2.0 % v / v and T. harzianum strain A-34 concentration of the solid medium of 1.7 x 109 CFU mL-1 . Germination percentage every six hours by placing 50 seeds per Petri dish of 10 cm diameter with five replicates per treatment is evaluated. In a second test the effect of inoculation of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on the growth of tomato seedlings in conditions rootball was evaluated, using trays 264 alveoli and substrate made from peat: soil: rice husks (3:2:1. Speed and percentage germination of tomato seeds treated FitoMas-E® and T. harzianum was found, combined use increases the values of stem diameter and total and radical mass, which can be exploited for transplanting plants tomato, generating a possible diminution in production costs.

  15. EVALUASI DAYA TAHAN IKAN MAS HASIL SELEKSI BERDASARKAN MARKA MOLEKULER MHC-II TERHADAP INFEKSI KOI HERPES VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2015-03-01

    mengevaluasi daya tahan benih ikan mas F-1 terseleksi terhadap infeksi KHV melalui uji tantang. Sebagai pembanding, digunakan ikan mas populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi dan populasi benih ikan mas dari unit pembenihan rakyat (UPR. Ikan uji berupa benih ikan mas Rajadanu berumur dua bulan dengan bobot ratarata 5,5±0,5 g. Jumlah benih pada masing-masing wadah perlakuan sebanyak 30 ekor dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Wadah pengujian berupa akuarium berukuran 40 cm x 60 cm x 40 cm dengan kepadatan 1 ekor/L. Parameter yang diamati adalah sintasan, deteksi KHV, analisis ekspresi gen MHC-II, dan gambaran darah ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi benih F-1 terseleksi memiliki daya tahan lebih baik dengan sintasan 93,33% dibandingkan populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi sebesar 85,55% dan populasi benih dari UPR sebesar 81,11%. Daya tahan yang tinggi pada populasi benih F-1 terseleksi didukung oleh hasil deteksi KHV yang negatif dan ersentase jumlah limfosit yang lebih tinggi sebesar 91,67%; serta rendahnya persentase monosit dan heterofil, selain itu, tidak adanya eosinofil dan basofil. Ekspresi gen MHC-II terdeteksi pada berbagai organ, ekspresi tertinggi ditemukan pada organ limpa.

  16. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Regulates the Development of Pancreatic Endocrine Cells in Mouse Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Juan; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and Ang-(1-7) receptor Mas, have been shown to regulate organogenesis during embryonic development in various species. However, it is not known whether a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is present in the fetal pancreas. It is hypothesized that there is a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the embryonic pancreas in mice that is involved in regulating islet cell development. To address this issue, the endogenous expression profile of axis constituents in embryonic mouse pancreata was examined. Involvement of the ACE2 axis in the regulation of pancreatic development was also examined. The present experiments showed in an in vivo animal model that endogenous expression levels of ACE2 and the Mas receptor were upregulated in mouse pancreata in late embryogenesis, peaking on embryonic day E16.5, when it reached 3 folds compared to that seen at E12.5. Consistently, endogenous expression of Ang-(1-7) also peaked at E16.5. Treatment with the ACE2 inhibitor DX600 did not alter islet development. However, prenatal treatment with A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, reduced the β-cell to α-cell ratio in neonatal islets, impaired islet insulin secretory function, and impaired the pups' glucose tolerance. In ex vivo pancreas explant cultures, A779 again decreased the β-cell to α-cell ratio, apparently through its effects on β-cell proliferation (reduced proliferation shown with Ki67 staining), and also decreased Insulin and Ngn3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment of explant cultures with Ang-(1-7) increased mRNA levels of Insulin and pancreatic progenitor marker Ngn3, as well as Nox4, the ROS generation enzyme; these stimulatory effects were attenuated by co-treatment with A779, suggesting that Ang-(1-7), via Mas receptor signaling, may promote differentiation of pancreatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species. These data together suggest that a Mas

  17. MAS-based production scheduling system for manufacturing cell-based workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hong-yan; CAO Quan-jun; FEI Ren-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The task of production scheduling is to determine the detailed machining path,time,machine tool,etc.,for every work piece,according to the production objective and constraints.It is also an important part of the manufacturing system.In this paper,the manufacturing cell-based workshop is described and its scheduling system structure is established based on MAS (multi-agent system) technology.Through the negotiation and communication of each agent,the machining path is determined and the machining sequence and start time are calculated by GA (genetics algorithm).The communication among agents uses the CORBA (common object request broker architecture) technology of the OMG (Object Management Group).The CORBA-based architecture of the communication is designed and some interfaces for the communication are listed.For the genetics algorithm,chromosome coding,fitness function,parameters selection,and the basic genetics operation including selection,crossover and aberrance,are described.The scheduling system also can deal with some abnormal conditions,such as machine tool failure and urgent tasks.Finally,two scheduling examples are given.

  18. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  19. Evidence for cross-linking in tomato cutin using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ashish P; Simpson, André J; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-11-01

    Cutin is a polyester biopolymer component of plant leaf and fruit cuticles, most often associated with waxes and cuticular polysaccharides, and sometimes with another aliphatic biopolymer called cutan. Insolubility of these cuticular biopolymers has made it difficult to apply traditional analytical techniques for structure determination, because most techniques providing molecular level details require solubility. By using the relatively new technique of one and two-dimensional high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, with added information from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, detailed through-bond connectivities and assignments are made for cutin from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit. Based on the data obtained, tomato cutin is found to be predominantly an aliphatic polyester with some olefinic and aromatic moieties, consistent with previous studies that employed various degradative approaches. Aside from esters, there are free primary and secondary alcohol groups, as well as free fatty acids. A significant finding is the presence of alpha-branched fatty acids/esters. Mid-chain hydroxyls appear to be generally unesterified, but esters of mid-chain hydroxyls have been identified. The alpha-branched fatty acids/esters and esters of mid-chain hydroxyls could point towards cross-linking.

  20. Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal; Roberts, Carl; Sluse, Dominique; Stacey, Hannah; Vives-Arias, Hector; Wucknitz, Olaf; Volino, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    We present VLA detections of radio emission in four four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS0810+2554, RXJ0911+0511, HE0435$-$1223 and SDSSJ0924+0219, and e-MERLIN observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5$\\mu$Jy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini-AGN, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the req...

  1. Quantitative and Structure Analysis of Cellulose in Tobacco by 13C CP / MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaolan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method utilizing 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination and structure analysis of tobacco cellulose from hot water or acid detergent extraction. A reference spectrum of tobacco noncellulose components was subtracted from the spectrum of each sample to obtain a subspectrum of the cellulose components. The NMR spectra in combination with spectral fitting were analyzed in detail and some parameters, such as the content of cellulose, crystallinity, allomorph composition and lateral dimensions for cellulose elementary fibrils and microfibrils were determined. The quantitative results showed that the average recovery was 94.0% with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 4.6–4.8%. The structure results obtained by the spectral fitting for the cellulose C1-region showed that the main allomorph composition in tobacco cellulose was Iβ. The cellulose crystallinity calculated by the spectral fitting in C4 -region was about 50%. The lateral dimensions for cellulose elementary fibrils and microfibrils were in the range of 3.0–6.0 nm and 6.0–13.0 nm, respectively. Therefore, this NMR method could provide important information on both amount and structure of cellulose in tobacco.

  2. 1H HR-MAS NMR of carotenoids in aqueous samples and raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, M L; Lamanna, R

    2006-07-01

    Carotenoids are linear C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons and represent a wide category of natural pigments. They are components of the pigment system of chloroplasts and are involved in the primary light absorption and the photon canalization of photosynthesis. Moreover, they also behave as quenchers of singlet oxygen, protecting cells and organisms against lipid peroxidation. Carotenoids have a strong lipophilic character and are usually analyzed in organic solvents. However, because of their biological activity, the characterization of these compounds in an aqueous environment or in the natural matrix is very important. One of the most important dietary carotenoids is beta-carotene, which has been extensively studied both in vivo and in model systems, but because of the low concentration and strong interaction with the biological matrix, beta-carotene has never been observed by NMR in solid aqueous samples.In the present work, a model system has been developed for the detection and identification of beta-carotene in solid aqueous samples by 1H HR-MAS NMR. The efficiency of the model has led to the identification of beta-carotene in a raw vegetable matrix.

  3. 1MAS NMR spectra of kao linite/formamide intercalation compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high spinning speed 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) technique was employed to distinguish the two groups of surface hydroxyls of kaolinite and investigate the intercalation mechanism of kaolinite/formamide compound. The proton chemical shifts of the inner hydroxyl and inner surface hydroxyl of kaolinte are in the range of δ-1.3-0.9 and δ 2.4-3.0 respectively. After formamide intercalation three proton peaks were detected. The proton peak of the inner surface hydroxyls of the intercalation compound shifts to high-field with δ 2.3-2.7, which is assigned to the formation of the hydrogen bond between the inner surface hydroxyl and formamide carbonyl group. Whereas, the proton peak of the inner hydroxyl shifts to δ-0.3 toward low-field, that is attributed to van der Waal's effect between the inner hydroxyl proton and the amino group proton of the formamide which may be keyed into the ditrigonal hole of the kaolinite. The third peak, additional proton peak, is in the range of δ5.4-5.6, that is ascribed to the hydrogen bond formation between the amino group proton of formimide and SiO4 tetrahedral oxygen of the kaolinite.

  4. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  5. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  6. Conformational analysis of capsaicin using 13C, 15N MAS NMR, GIAO DFT and GA calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudem, Paweł; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Bukowicki, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Capsaicin produced by plants from genus Capsicum exerts multiple pharmacological effects and has found applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. The alkaloid was studied by a combined approach: solid-state NMR, GA conformational search and GIAO DFT methods. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded using variable contact time and dipolar dephasing experiments. The results of cross-polarization (CP) kinetics, such as TCP values and long T1ρH (100-200 ms), indicated that the capsaicin molecule is fairly mobile, especially at the end of the aliphatic chain. The15N MAS NMR spectrum showed one narrow signal at -255 ppm. Genetic algorithm (GA) search with multi modal optimization was used to find low-energy conformations of capsaicin. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations were performed using different basis sets to characterize five selected conformations. 13C CPMAS NMR was used as a validation method and the experimental chemical shifts were compared with those calculated for selected stable conformers. Conformational analysis suggests that the side chain can be bent or extended. A comparison of the experimental and the calculated chemical shifts indicates that solid capsaicin does not have the same structure as those established by PWXRD.

  7. HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē "X".

    OpenAIRE

    Šķestere, Ineta

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē „X” ”. Šajā darbā tiek apskatīts viens no veidiem, kā pārtikas apritē iesaistītiem uzņēmumiem sakārtot savu darbību atbilstoši Eiropas Savienībā un Latvijā pastāvošās likumdošanas prasībām. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Kas ir pārtikas nekaitīguma nodrošināšanas sistēma HACCP, Kāpēc būtu jāievieš šī sistēma un kādus ieguvumus tā dod. Otrajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Vispārējās higiē...

  8. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is (1 to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2 to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by qualitative descriptive and SWOT. The result of this study is that Banjar Nyuh Kuning has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism on the basis of physical and non physical grounds. The perception of the community and tourists are in agreement to the developement of ecotourism activity which incorporate local community, nature oriented activity and has the potential to increase their income, thus resulting in a destination for leisure and recreation. There are a few results of alternative strategies such as; development strategies of ecotourism products, development strategies of human resources, development strategies of management and strategies in upgrading security. To make Banjar Nyuh Kuning as an attraction for ecotourism activity which is based on nature then the strategy for development has to be efficient and limited. Further study has to be taken for the marketing aspect and managing ecotourism object to further the developent in a comprehensive manner.

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  11. Dynamic scheduling model of computing resource based on MAS cooperation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiJin; ZHANG LianMei; WANG Pu

    2009-01-01

    Allocation of grid resources aims at improving resource utility and grid application performance. Currently, the algorithms proposed for this purpose do not fit well the autonomic, dynamic, distributive and heterogeneous features of the grid environment. According to MAS (multi-agent system) cooperation mechanism and market bidding game rules, a model of allocating allocation of grid resources based on market economy is introduced to reveal the relationship between supply and demand. This model can make good use of the studying and negotiating ability of consumers' agent and takes full consideration of the consumer's behavior, thus rendering the application and allocation of resource of the consumers rational and valid. In the meantime, the utility function of consumer Is given; the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution are discussed. A dynamic game algorithm of allocating grid resources is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm diminishes effectively the unnecessary latency, improves significantly the smoothness of response time, the ratio of throughput and resource utility, thus rendering the supply and demand of the whole grid resource reasonable and the overall grid load balanceable.

  12. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO; 等

    1996-01-01

    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  13. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  14. Heating and temperature gradients of lipid bilayer samples induced by RF irradiation in MAS solid-state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Weijing; Wang, Liying; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-09

    The MAS solid-state NMR has been a powerful technique for studying membrane proteins within the native-like lipid bilayer environment. In general, RF irradiation in MAS NMR experiments can heat and potentially destroy expensive membrane protein samples. However, under practical MAS NMR experimental conditions, detailed characterization of RF heating effect of lipid bilayer samples is still lacking. Herein, using (1) H chemical shift of water for temperature calibration, we systematically study the dependence of RF heating on hydration levels and salt concentrations of three lipids in MAS NMR experiments. Under practical (1) H decoupling conditions used in biological MAS NMR experiments, three lipids show different dependence of RF heating on hydration levels as well as salt concentrations, which are closely associated with the properties of lipids. The maximum temperature elevation of about 10 °C is similar for the three lipids containing 200% hydration, which is much lower than that in static solid-state NMR experiments. The RF heating due to salt is observed to be less than that due to hydration, with a maximum temperature elevation of less than 4 °C in the hydrated samples containing 120 mmol l(-1) of salt. Upon RF irradiation, the temperature gradient across the sample is observed to be greatly increased up to 20 °C, as demonstrated by the remarkable broadening of (1) H signal of water. Based on detailed characterization of RF heating effect, we demonstrate that RF heating and temperature gradient can be significantly reduced by decreasing the hydration levels of lipid bilayer samples from 200% to 30%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em suco de uva Total phenolics and anthocyanins in grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia R. Malacrida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As concentrações de compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em sucos de uva reconstituídos e simples, de diferentes marcas, disponíveis no comércio varejista da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais foram quantificadas. Também se determinou a contribuição das antocianinas poliméricas à cor e o índice de degradação das antocianinas. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 0,27 e 2,41 g/L e as concentrações de antocianinas de 1,17 a 66,80 mg/L. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (Teste de Duncan, pTotal phenolics and anthocyanins contents were quantified in simple and reprocessed grape juices of different brands, commercially available in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil metropolitan area. The contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color and the anthocyanins degradation index were also determined. Total phenolics levels varied from 0,27 to 2,41 g/L and anthocyanin concentrations from 1,17 to 66,80 mg/L. Significant differences were found (Duncan's test, p<0,05 in total phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations among different brands of reprocessed grape juice as well as the simple juice. The percent contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color also varied significantly among different brands, the simple grape juice showing a higher percentage (81,6% than the reprocessed one (77,5%. The latter presented total mean value of anthocyanins degradation (3,92 higher than the former one (3,44.

  16. Insight into photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter in UVA/TiO₂ systems revealed by fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Diep Dinh; Hur, Jin

    2015-12-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) using TiO2 as a catalyst and UVA as a light source was examined under various experimental settings with different TiO2 doses, solution pH, and the light intensities. The changes in UV absorbance and fluorescence with the irradiation time followed a pseudo-first order model much better than those of dissolved organic carbon. In general, the degradation rates were increased by higher TiO2 doses and light intensities. However, the exact photocatalytic responses of DOM to the irradiation were affected by many other factors such as aggregation of TiO2, light scattering, hydroxyl radicals produced, and DOM sorption on TiO2. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the DOM changes in fluorescence could be described by the combinations of four dissimilar components including one protein-like, two humic-like, and one terrestrial humic-like components, each of which followed well the pseudo-first order model. The photocatalytic degradation rates were higher for protein-like versus humic-like component, whereas the opposite order was displayed for the degradation rates in the absence of TiO2, suggesting different dominant mechanisms operating between the systems with and without TiO2. Our results based on EEM-PARAFAC provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms associated with the photocatalytic degradation of DOM as well as the potential environmental impact of the treated water. This study demonstrated a successful application of EEM-PARAFAC for photocatalytic systems via directly comparing the kinetic rates of the individual DOM components with different compositions.

  17. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuchici Camelia V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its richness in biologically active substances such as: tocopherols, flavonoids, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the chlorophyll pigment, all substances with strong antioxidant activity, that modify the oxidative stress, mainly by reducing the prooxidant processes and enhancing the antioxidant ones. These substances participate in the synthesis of prostaglandins and phosp