Sample records for 8-mop mas uva

  1. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de


    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  2. Effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA on human lymphocytes. [Psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischka, G.; Bohnert, E.; Baechtold G.; Jung, E.G.


    Peripheral lymphocytes of 37 psoriatic patients are tested before and under PUVA treatment using as parameter the non specific stimulation effect of HgCl2 (10 microgram/ml) in culture, measuring the 3H-thymidine incorporation after the last 16 h of a 5-days culture. Oral 8-MOP in therapeutic doses is decreasing the lymphocyte stimulation as well as 8-MOP together with UVA irradiation during the first week of treatment. After 1 week, the stimulation is, on the contrary, significantly enhanced after irradiation. Lymphocytes isolated by centrifugation over Lymphoprep are submitted to PUVA conditions in petri dishes (Hank's solution 8-MOP 1 microgram/ml, irradiation with 350 nm, 93 to 372 mJ/cm2). The total cell number, the E-rosette formation (as marker for T-lymphocytes) and the EAC-rosette formation (as marker for B-lymphocytes) are determined. PUVA conditions have an energy dependent decreasing effect on the cell number, while the T- and B-cell proportions remain constant. UVA irradiation alone has such an effect only with high energies. 8-MOP without UVA has no significant influence on the cell number.

  3. Establishment of Mus Skin Photo-damage Model by 8-MOP plus UVA Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong; LI Jiawen; ZHANG Li


    To establish a simple and reliable animal model of skin photo-damage, 20 mice were treated with 8-MOP and exposed to UVA (UVA 320-400 nm) for 24 h. After irradiation, the structure of the epidermis and dermis, collagen fibers, elastic fibers were observed by using HE staining and Weigert technique and compared with the normal controls. The acanthosis and epidemis proliferation with accompanying hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were observed. Inflammatory infiltration was noted in the dermis. The elastic fibers became coarse, irregularly arranged and clustered, with their number increased. The collagen fibers showed obvious degeneration and some amorphous materials could also be observed. The blood vessels were irregularly dilated and vascular walls were thickened, with infiltration of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that murine photodamage model can be quickly, conveniently and reliably established by means of 8-MOP/UVA.

  4. A comparison of systemic photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP and with trimethylpsoralen (TMP in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaske Vandana


    Full Text Available Oral 8-MOP and TMP were compared in the PUVA therapy for vitiligo. Group A (25 cases was initiated on 0.3 mg/kg of 8-MOP with 1/2 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1/2 Joule/ cm2 and Group B was started on 0.6 mg/kg of TMP with 1 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1 Joule/cm2. Therapy was given thrice a week. Repigmentation was evaluated by using a 0-6 scale. At the end of 60 sittings, on acceptable cosmetic response was seen over the face, neck and upper extremities in both groups, while trunk and lower extremities showed lesser response. 8-MOP gave earlier response, needing a lower cumulative UVA dose i.e. 75 J/cm2 as compared to TMP i.e. 106 J/cm2. Phototoxicity was seen more often with 8-MOP. In conclusion, in Indians, 8-MOP is the drug of choice in PUVA therapy of vitiligo provided precautions against phototoxicity are adequate.

  5. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingying Cheng; Fungwin Shen; Ronghwa Lin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)


    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ``male`` 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ``male`` 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author).

  6. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light; Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.


    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ({sup h}ot spots{sup )}. (author)

  7. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light. Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.


    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ([sup h]ot spots[sup )]. (author)

  8. Relationships between chromatin remodeling and DNA damage repair induced by 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavínia Almeida Cruz


    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms to prevent genomic instability, such as DNA damage detection and repair, control of cell cycle progression and cell death induction. The bifunctional compound furocumarin 8-methoxy-psoralen (8-MOP is widely used in the treatment of various inflammatory skin diseases. In this review, we summarize recent data about the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA damage induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (8-MOP+UVA, focusing on repair proteins in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an established model system for studying DNA repair pathways. The interstrand crosslinks (ICL formed by the 8-MOP+UVA treatment are detrimental lesions that can block transcription and replication, leading to cell death if not repaired. Current data show the involvement of different pathways in ICL processing, such as nucleotide excision repair (NER, base excision repair (BER, translesion repair (TLS and double-strand break repair. 8-MOP+UVA treatment in yeast enhances the expression of genes involved in the DNA damage response, double strand break repair by homologous replication, as well as genes related to cell cycle regulation. Moreover, alterations in the expression of subtelomeric genes and genes related to chromatin remodeling are consistent with structural modifications of chromatin relevant to DNA repair. Taken together, these findings indicate a specific profile in 8-MOP+UVA responses related to chromatin remodeling and DNA repair.

  9. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism. (United States)

    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba; Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles; Kövér, Katalin E; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László


    A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5J/cm(2)) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ-34+UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and -8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ-34+UVA causes DNA damage and caspase-mediated cell death independently of PARP-1 inhibition.

  10. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Kövér, Katalin E. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szabó, Éva [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Virág, László, E-mail: [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA-DE Cell Biology and Signaling Research Group, Debrecen (Hungary)


    Highlights: • PARP-1 is not a key regulator of photochemotherapy. • The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism. • Photosensitization by PJ-34 is associated with increased ROS production and DNA damage. • Cells sensitized by PJ-34 undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis. - Abstract: A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5 J/cm{sup 2}) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ–34 + UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and −8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ–34 + UVA causes DNA damage and caspase

  11. Preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad mutants after induction of interstrand cross-links by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA. (United States)

    Meniel, V; Magaña-Schwencke, N; Averbeck, D


    The gene specific induction and the incision step of the removal of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA-induced interstrand cross-links (ICL) was measured in repair mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Events were examined at the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci in mutants deficient in the repair of ICL, namely rad1, rad2 delta, rad52, pso2 and the rad16 mutant which is impaired in the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent HML alpha locus. Previously, we observed in a wild-type strain (K107) preferential repair concerning the incision of 8-MOP photo-induced ICL. The present study indicates that the two mutants rad1 and rad2 delta show no repair in either locus, due presumably to their deficiency in the incision step of ICL repair. The rad52 mutant which is defective in recombination, is proficient in the preferential incision of ICL at the MAT alpha locus versus the HML alpha locus. The same is true for the pso2 mutant which also lacks the ability to perform complete repair of ICL. The rad16 mutant is unable to repair ICL in the silent locus HML alpha but is proficient in repair (i.e. the incision of ICL) in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus.

  12. Main: 1UVA [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. Photopheresis with UV-A light and 8-methoxypsoralen leads to cell death and to release of blebs with anti-inflammatory phenotype in activated and non-activated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, K. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Frey, B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Munoz, L.E.; Finzel, S.; Rech, J. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Hueber, A. [Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gaipl, U.S., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)


    Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis is a therapy for treatment of autoimmune diseases, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, organ graft rejection as well as graft-versus-host diseases. The exact mechanism how the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen plus UV-A irradiation (PUVA) acts is still unclear. We investigated the cell death of activated and non-activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment as well as the rate of released blebs and their antigen composition. Results: In presence of 8-MOP, UV-A light highly significantly increased the cell death of activated lymphocytes. The same was observed to a lesser extent in non-activated cells. Blebs derived from activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment showed the highest surface exposition of phosphatidylserine. These blebs also displayed a high exposure of the antigens CD5 and CD8 as well as a low exposure of CD28 and CD86. Conclusion: PUVA treatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inducing apoptosis and apoptotic cell-derived blebs with immune suppressive surface composition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. VEDANA


    Full Text Available

    As vitaminas C, E e os flavonóides são consideradas excelentes antioxidantes, capazes de seqüestrar os radicais livres com grande eficiência. Vários são os métodos para testar a atividade antioxidante, podendo ser usados para compostos isolados e extratos. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que a uva é fonte natural de antioxidantes e rica em compostos fenólicos, mas muito pouco estudada quanto ao efeito do seu processamento nesses compostos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a determinação e comparação da capacidade antioxidante (radicais ABTS e DPPH de extratos elaborados a partir de uva da cultivar Isabel e de dois produtos dessa fruta: o suco e a geléia, assim como correlacionar com a quantidade de fenólicos totais e de antocianinas totais. Apesar das diferenças entre os métodos DPPH e ABTS, foi possível obter conclusões semelhantes quanto à atividade antioxidante das amostras testadas. O tratamento térmico favoreceu a extração dos compostos fenólicos e conseqüentemente o aumento da atividade antioxidante, mas provocou uma diminuição no teor de antocianinas totais nos produtos elaborados a partir da uva.

  15. High Tech M&As

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav


    of findings are not applicable to the high-tech industry; in fact this industry has many additional challenges. In this study, we aim to explore the process of M&A in the high-tech industry by drawing on extant literature and empirical field work. The paper outlines a research project in progress which...... intends to provide theoretical, empirical and practical contributions in answering the research question: what role does Operations and IT play in creating value in high-tech M&As? The research adds a needed perspective on M&A literature by unveiling unique challenges and opportunities faced by the M...

  16. Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures. (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J


    The influence of cloud on the solar UVA (320-400 nm) exposures over five minute periods on a horizontal plane has been investigated. The first approach used cloud modification factors that were evaluated using the influence of clouds on the global solar exposures (310-2800 nm) and a model developed to apply these to the clear sky UVA exposures to allow calculation of the five minute UVA exposures for any cloud conditions. The second approach established a relationship between the UVA and the global solar exposures. The models were developed using the first six months of data in 2012 for SZA less than or equal to 70° and were applied and evaluated for the exposures in the second half of 2012. This comparison of the modelled exposures for all cloud conditions to the measured data provided an R(2) of 0.8 for the cloud modification model, compared to an R(2) of 0.7 for the UVA/global model. The cloud modification model provided 73% of the five minute exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures. This was improved to 89% of the exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures for the cases of cloud with the sun not obscured.

  17. Psoralen-UVA-treated psoriatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K. (Univ. of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences, Memphis); Kohda, H.; Kumakiri, M.; Blender, S.L.; Willis, I.


    Psoralen-ultraviolet light (PUVA)-treated psoriatic lesions were studied for ultrastructural changes. In early stages of treatment, sunburn cells in the epidermis and bizarre giant cells in the dermis were more frequently observed. When clinical improvement was apparent, these changes had subsided. Dermal abnormality in long-term therapy consisted of a thick perivascular cost of amorphous substance. No abnormality was found in the epidermal keratinocytes in long-term therapy, except a clustering and giant cell formation of melanocytes, a heavy melanization of keratinocytes, and hyperkeratosis. Low-dose initiation and slow increment of both 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA is probably a reasonable regimen for benign dermatoses such as psoriasis because it will allow enough time for the skin to become more protected, while the therapeutic results are as satisfactory as in a high-dose schedule.

  18. Microvascular leakage of plasma proteins after PUVA and UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Rossing, N.; Brodthagen, H.


    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), is a parameter of the leakage of macromolecules from the total microvasculature. In patients with psoriasis short-term PUVA treatment induces an increase in TERalb. In this study TERalb was measured in 3 groups of normal humans treated with PUVA, UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen. Treatment with PUVA and UVA caused a statistically significant increase in TERalb, whereas treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen did not induce any measurable changes. It is concluded that the UVA irradiation causes the abnormal leakage of macromolecules, whereas psoralen is not the responsible component. Furthermore the phenomenon can be elicited in normals and is not based on a preexisting psoriasis.

  19. UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuckmann Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-band UVA, long-wave UVA1 and PUVA treatment have been described as an alternative/adjunct therapeutic option in a number of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Nevertheless, controlled studies investigating the efficacy of UVA irradiation in connective tissue diseases and related disorders are rare. Methods Searching the PubMed database the current article systematically reviews established and innovative therapeutic approaches of broad-band UVA irradiation, UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in a variety of different connective tissue disorders. Results Potential pathways include immunomodulation of inflammation, induction of collagenases and initiation of apoptosis. Even though holding the risk of carcinogenesis, photoaging or UV-induced exacerbation, UVA phototherapy seems to exhibit a tolerable risk/benefit ratio at least in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease, lupus erythematosus and a number of sclerotic rarities. Conclusions Based on the data retrieved from the literature, therapeutic UVA exposure seems to be effective in connective tissue diseases and related disorders. However, more controlled investigations are needed in order to establish a clear-cut catalogue of indications.

  20. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank


    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  1. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana


    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  2. UVA Light-mediated Ascorbate Oxidation in Human Lenses. (United States)

    Rakete, Stefan; Nagaraj, Ram H


    Whether ascorbate oxidation is promoted by UVA light in human lenses and whether this process is influenced by age and GSH levels are not known. In this study, we used paired lenses from human donors. One lens of each pair was exposed to UVA light, whereas the other lens was kept in the dark for the same period of time as the control. Using LC-MS/MS analyses, we found that older lenses (41-73 years) were more susceptible to UVA-induced ascorbate oxidation than younger lenses (18-40 years). Approximately 36% of the ascorbate (relative to control) was oxidized in older lenses compared to ~16% in younger lenses. Furthermore, lenses with higher levels of GSH were less susceptible to UVA-induced ascorbate oxidation compared to those with lower levels, and this effect was not dependent on age. The oxidation of ascorbate led to elevated levels of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds. In summary, our study showed that UVA light exposure leads to ascorbate oxidation in human lenses and that such oxidation is more pronounced in aged lenses and is inversely related to GSH levels. Our findings suggest that UVA light exposure could lead to protein aggregation through ascorbate oxidation in human lenses.

  3. Efficient DNA interstrand crosslinking by 6-thioguanine and UVA radiation. (United States)

    Brem, Reto; Daehn, Ilse; Karran, Peter


    Patients taking the immunosuppressant and anticancer thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine or 6-thioguanine (6-TG), develop skin cancer at a very high frequency. Their DNA contains 6-TG which absorbs ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, and their skin is UVA hypersensitive, consistent with the formation of DNA photodamage. Here we demonstrate that UVA irradiation of 6-TG-containing DNA causes DNA interstrand crosslinking. In synthetic duplex oligodeoxynucleotides, the interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) can form between closely opposed 6-TG bases and, in a less favoured reaction, between 6-TG and normal bases on the opposite strand. In vivo, UVA irradiation of cultured cells containing 6-TG-substituted DNA also causes ICL formation and induces the chromosome aberrations that are characteristically associated with this type of DNA lesion. 6-TG/UVA activates the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway via monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 protein. Cells defective in the FA pathway or other factors involved in ICL processing, such as XPF and DNA Polζ, are all hypersensitive to killing by 6-TG/UVA-consistent with a significant contribution of photochemical ICLs to the cytotoxicity of this treatment. Our findings suggest that sunlight-exposed skin of thiopurine treated patients may experience chronic photochemical DNA damage that requires constant intervention of the FA pathway.

  4. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han


    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  5. A social-democracia do MAS boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Simões Reis


    Full Text Available O partido MAS, que governa a Bolívia e é liderado pelo presidente Evo Morales, geralmente é classificado como populista ou como revolucionário. Este artigo contesta ambos os diagnósticos, e sustenta que o MAS é um partido social-democrata. Tanto em sua gênese, como em seu comportamento na oposição, como em suas políticas no governo, o MAS apresenta todas as características necessárias para ser classificado como um representante da social-democracia. Para contestar os diagnósticos predominantes na literatura, o argumento desenvolve-se aplicando três distintas abordagens sobre a social-democracia. Uma comparação histórico-ideológica com os partidos tradicionalmente apontados como social-democratas mostra que o MAS assemelha-se a eles tanto em sua origem fortemente sindical como no tipo de mudança que introduziu na política do país. Uma análise institucional mostra que não procedem as acusações de que é antissistema e contrário à democracia, características associadas tanto aos "populistas", de acordo com "teóricos das duas esquerdas latino-americanas", como aos partidos adeptos da "revolução violenta". Por fim, uma análise das políticas adotadas pelo MAS no governo indica que estão alinhadas com aquelas consideradas como social-democráticas no contexto de integração dos mercados globais. Argumenta-se no texto que o MAS não é em geral classificado como social-democrata, em parte devido a uma visão equivocada sobre suas práticas, e em parte por uma tendência dos estudiosos a chamarem a atenção para o que lhe é específico, e não para o que ele tem em comum com outros partidos de esquerda, como é feito com quaisquer partidos ao catalogá-los em famílias.

  6. 一个多Agent系统规范--MAS/KIB%MAS/KIB--a Multiagent System Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡舜耕; 钟义信



  7. Impactos socioambientais e de segurança do alimento na gestão da produção integrada de uvas finas de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Este artigo procurou identificar e analisar os impactos socioambientais e de Segurança do
    Alimento do processo de certificação da produção de uvas finas de mesa no programa de
    Produção Integrada de Uva (PI-UVA recentemente implantado na região do Submédio do
    Vale do rio São Francisco, no município de Petrolina. A metodologia adotada baseou-se em
    um estudo de caso, analisando-se o processo de certificação vivenciado por uma média
    empresa da região. Os resultados obtidos apontam que a certificação não é só
    compensadora em termos de abertura e manutenção de importantes fatias do mercado
    externo, mas, mesmo internamente apresenta vantagens ao nível do controle operacional e
    satisfação no trabalho entre seus funcionários

  8. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël


    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  9. Efeito da safra vitícola na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor


    Full Text Available Entre os fatores que interferem na composição e na qualidade do vinho, destaca-se a safra vitícola, com suas variações climáticas. Com este objetivo, avaliou-se o efeito das safras de 1999, 2000 e 2001 na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha. Nesse sentido, foram selecionados vinte e dois produtores de uva Isabel de onze municípios dessa região. Por ocasião da maturação, para as avaliações da uva e do mosto e a elaboração das microvinificações, foram colhidos 60kg de uva de cada viticultor. A safra vitícola interferiu significativamente no peso do cacho e da baga, mas não alterou a relação peso da ráquis/peso do cacho. No mosto, observaram-se diferenças em todas as variáveis, exceto para a relação degreesBrix/acidez total. No vinho, teve efeito na maior parte das variáveis avaliadas, com exceção aos cátions K, Mn, Cu e Rb. Em geral, a safra de 1999 foi a melhor, pois apresentou parâmetros mais adequados de acidez total, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, alcalinidade das cinzas, taninos, antocianinas e glicerol, variáveis essas que determinam a estrutura e a cor dos vinhos, importantes fatores para sua qualidade.

  10. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.


    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, beca

  11. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Chung


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress.

  12. UVA experimental and high energy physics. Final grant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.


    The period 1992--1997 was a mixture of frustrations and of accomplishments for the UVa HEP group. The experimental HEP group began this period with the completion of a truncated run of Experiment E771 at Fermilab in 1992. This experiment was designed to measure the cross section for beauty production in 800 GeV/c pN interactions. It succeeded in this goal as well as in obtaining one of the best limits on FCNC in charm decays by setting an upper limit on D{sup 0} {r_arrow} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}. In addition, they were able to measure {Psi}, {Psi}, {chi}{sub 1},{chi}{sub 2} and upsilon production. Three UVa PhD theses have resulted from this experiment (as well as 12 other PhD's at other institutions). At the same time, the UVa experimental group was vigorously pursuing the goal of studying CP violation in B production. This took the form of a proposal to the SSC for a super fixed target facility, the SFT, which would focus on studies of B mesons. B. Cox was the spokesman of this experiment that had over thirty institutions. This proposal EOI-14 had a good reception by the SSC PAC. A R and D activity to prove the technique of crystal channeling was undertaken to prove the accelerator aspects of this proposal. This activity, known as E853 or CEX at Fermilab, resulted in proof of the crystal channeling technique as viable for the extraction of 20 TeV beam at the SSC. In addition to this activity, the UVa group investigated many other aspects of B physics at the SSC. They were among the leaders of the 1993 Snowmass meeting on B Physics at Hadronic Accelerators. The UVa HEP group worked vigorously on developing the ideas for B physics at the SSC, as evidenced by the many different studies listed in the publication list given, up to the very day the SSC was terminated by an act of Congress.

  13. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by Fe(III)/UVA and Fe(III)/polycarboxylate/UVA photocatalysis. (United States)

    Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; Fernández, G; Beltrán, F J


    The photodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) under UVA irradiation in the presence of Fe(III) or Fe(III)-polycarboxylate systems was studied. The effect of Fe(III) concentration, aqueous pH and the presence of four carboxylic acids (oxalic, malic, tartaric and citric) were investigated. The Fe(III)/UVA system was able to effectively degrade BPA at pH 3 but failed at pH > 4. At any rate, no mineralization of BPA was achieved with the Fe(III)/UVA system. The presence of carboxylic acids greatly enhanced the BPA degradation rate because of the formation of photoactive Fe(III)-polycarboxylate complexes. Aqueous pH in the 3-7 range exerted a negative effect on the BPA degradation rate and TOC conversion in the presence of oxalic, malic and tartaric acids. Only slight effect of pH was observed in the presence of citric acid, being the BPA degradation rate significant even at pH 7.

  14. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  15. Effect of UVA Fluence Rate on Indicators of Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hoerter, Christopher S. Ward, Kyle D. Bale, Admasu N. Gizachew, Rachelle Graham, Jaclyn Reynolds, Melanie E. Ward, Chesca Choi, Jean-Leonard Kagabo, Michael Sauer, Tara Kuipers, Timothy Hotchkiss, Nate Banner, Renee A. Chellson, Theresa Ohaeri, L


    Full Text Available During the course of a day human skin is exposed to solar UV radiation that fluctuates in fluence rate within the UVA (290-315 nm and UVB (315-400 nm spectrum. Variables affecting the fluence rate reaching skin cells include differences in UVA and UVB penetrating ability, presence or absence of sunscreens, atmospheric conditions, and season and geographical location where the exposure occurs. Our study determined the effect of UVA fluence rate in solar-simulated (SSR and tanning-bed radiation (TBR on four indicators of oxidative stress---protein oxidation, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and reactive oxygen species--in human dermal fibroblasts after receiving equivalent UVA and UVB doses. Our results show that the higher UVA fluence rate in TBR increases the level of all four indicators of oxidative stress. In sequential exposures when cells are exposed first to SSR, the lower UVA fluence rate in SSR induces a protective response that protects against oxidative stress following a second exposure to a higher UVA fluence rate. Our studies underscore the important role of UVA fluence rate in determining how human skin cells respond to a given dose of radiation containing both UVA and UVB radiation.

  16. UVA causes dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L underlying lysosomal dysfunction in human dermal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T


    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.

  17. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.


    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  18. Governance of Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis by Chronic UVA-Exposed Dermal Fibroblasts (United States)


    fibroblasts and determine if bystander oxidative stress is induced by UVA irradiation and abrogated by antioxidants . In initial studies, we selected...primary human skin cells in order to avoid untoward effects of immortalization or transformation. Initial experiments determined direct effects...of UVA on normal human melanocytes (NHMs), fibroblasts (NHFs) and keratinocytes (NHKs). Figure 1A shows dose- dependent toxicity for three skin

  19. Essential role of Nrf2 in keratinocyte protection from UVA by quercetin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shintarou [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Warabi, Eiji, E-mail: [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yanagawa, Toru; Ma, Dongmei [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Itoh, Ken [Department of Stress Response Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki (Japan); Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Tetsuro [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Much of the cell injury caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin is a major natural polyphenol that is known to protect cells from UVA-induced damage. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this protection. Quercetin pretreatment strongly suppressed UVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, markedly increased protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the expression of antioxidative genes, and dramatically reduced the production of reactive oxygen species following UVA irradiation. Importantly, these beneficial effects were greatly attenuated by downregulating Nrf2 expression. Thus, quercetin protects cells from UVA damage mainly by elevating intracellular antioxidative activity via the enhanced accumulation of a transcription factor for antioxidant genes, Nrf2.

  20. Phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on rabbit corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Basu, P.K.; Hasany, S.M.; Persad, S.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))


    The phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) were investigated using the rabbit corneal endothelium in organ culture. The corneas were divided into four groups: (a) irradiated with a mercury vapor lamp (emitting UVA and visible radiation) in the presence of 8-MOP (experimental), (b) irradiated without 8-MOP (control A), (c) incubated with 8-MOP (control B) and (d) incubated without 8-MOP (control C). Specular and light microscopic examination showed that the experimental corneas had greater cellular damage compared to the control corneas. The effects of 8-MOP were restricted to certain localized areas of the cornea. However there was no significant difference in the amounts of 51Cr released from the labelled experimental and control corneas. These results show phototoxic damage of the corneal endothelial cells.

  1. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts (United States)

    Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto


    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm-2) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined. PMID:27401663

  2. Involvement of lipid peroxidation and organic peroxides in UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression. (United States)

    Polte, Tobias; Tyrrell, Rex M


    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation causes human skin aging and skin cancer at least partially through the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-1, the interstitial collagenase, is responsible for the degradation of collagen and is involved in tumor progression in human skin. The present study uses human skin fibroblast cells (FEK4) to investigate the involvement of lipid peroxidation and the role of peroxides as possible mediators in MMP-1 activation by UVA. Preincubation with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox reduced UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation, suggesting that peroxidation of membrane lipids is involved. Blocking the iron-driven generation of lipid peroxides and hydroxyl radicals by different iron chelators led to a decrease in UVA-induced MMP-1 mRNA accumulation. Moreover, modulation of glutathione peroxidase activity by use of the specific inhibitor mercaptosuccinate (MS) or by the depletion of glutathione (using buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO), enhanced the UVA-dependent MMP-1 response. Finally, UVA irradiation generated a significant increase in intracellular peroxide levels which is augmented by pretreatment of the cells with BSO or MS. Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation and the production of peroxides are important events in the signalling pathway of MMP-1 activation by UVA.

  3. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto


    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  4. A Construction Way of MAS Based on Organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang


    With emphasizing that the integration of autonomy and coordination is the basis for constructing multi-agent systems (MAS), we analyze the organizational characters inherent with MAS and point out that it's a natural and essential way to construct MAS based on organization theory. We consider that the emphasis of the theory is the process of system analyzing. Then we present an analysis frame to expound the process, which includes the process of organization definition, the process of role definition, the process of organizational structure definition and the process of interaction protocol definition. Lastly, we discuss some issues associated with the processes of system design and implementation.

  5. Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation


    Morales Suárez, Luis Orlando


    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabido...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josalba Vidigal de Castro


    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho avaliou-se o uso de filmes plásticos (polietileno de 0,05 e 0,08 mm de espessura, 'Everfreshbag' e sacolinhas sanfonadas, de caixas de madeira e de papelão ondulado na qualidade de uvas Itália, durante armazenamento refrigerado. Os cachos de uva foram avaliados semanalmente quanto a percentagem de perda de peso, a taxa de desgrana, a mudança de cor das bagas, a ocorrência de bagas deterioradas, ao aspecto do cacho e a qualidade do engaço. Considerando-se em conjunto os vários parâmetros de qualidade da uva avaliados, constatou-se que a embalagem sacolinha plástica demonstrou ser adequada para conservar uvas Itália por até seis semanas em refrigeração.

  7. A multifunctional, light-activated prochelator inhibits UVA-induced oxidative stress. (United States)

    Franks, Andrew T; Wang, Qin; Franz, Katherine J


    UVA radiation can damage cells and tissues by direct photodamage of biomolecules as well as by initiating metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. In order to alleviate both concerns simultaneously, we synthesized a multifunctional prochelator PC-HAPI (2-((E)-1-(2-isonicotinoylhydrazono)ethyl)phenyl (trans)-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate) that contains a trans-(o-hydroxy)cinnamate ester photocleavable protecting group that is cleaved upon UVA exposure to release a coumarin, umbelliferone, and an aroylhydrazone metal chelator, HAPI (N'-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyliden]isonicotinoylhydrazide). While the prochelator PC-HAPI exhibits negligible affinity for iron, it responds rapidly to UVA irradiation and converts to an iron-binding chelator that inhibits iron-catalyzed formation of reactive oxygen species and protects cells from UVA damage.

  8. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, A.


    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  9. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud [New York Blood Center, NY (United States); Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 {mu}g/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm{sup 2} UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; {>=} 5.5 log{sub 10}) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter ({<=} 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author).

  10. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice (United States)

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi


    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Rivera Camelo


    Full Text Available Las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y peroxidasa (POD fueron extraídas de la pulpa de uva caimarona (Pouroumacecropiifolia y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para PFO se encontró un pH óptimo de 7,0, temperatura óptima de 45 °C y KM de 0,42 mM con L-Dopa como sustrato. Para POD se halló un pH óptimode 6,0, temperatura óptima de 37 °C y valores de KM de 2,0mMpara guayacol y 0,72 mM para H2O2. El perfil electroforéticomostró cinco iso-PFO y tres iso- POD. POD fue más termorresistente que PFO. De cuatro inhibidores estudiados el ácido ascórbico fue el inhibidor más potente, seguido por el bisulfito de sodio, mientras que el ácido cítrico y el cloruro de sodio fueron los menos potentes.

  12. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry. (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  13. Treatment of T. cruzi infected human platelet concentrates with aminomethyltrimethyl psoralen (AMT and ultravioleta (UV-A light: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Moraes-Souza


    Full Text Available The present measures adopted to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease include screening of blood donors. and/or the inactivation of T. cruzi in collected blood using gentian violet (GV as a trypanocidal agent. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined use of AMT and UV-A in inactirating T. cruzi in infected human platelet cuncentrates. Human platelet concentrates were infected with T. cruzi (2x10/ml of the Y strain transfered to PL 269 (Fenwal Laboratories containers and treated with GV (250řg,/ml. and ascorbic acid (1 mg/ml; GV. ascorbic acid and UV-A; GV and UV-A; AMT (40/tG/ml and ascorbic acid; AMT, ascorbic acid and UV-A; AMT and UV-A; UV-A alone; and untreated (control. All UV-A treated platelet concentrates were exposed to UV-A doses of 24, 92, 184, 276, 368 and 644 kj/m². and the microscopical research of active T. cruzi was performed, using the microhematocrit technique, 1, 6 and 24 hours after each treatment. A high number of active forms of T. cruzi was observed in all condictions, except when GV was used as the trypanocidal agent, providing evidence of the failure of AMT and UV-A in inactivating T cruzi in infected human platelet concentrates.

  14. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in UVA-irradiated human skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treina, G.; Scaletta, C.; Frenk, E.; Applegate, L.A. [University Hospital-CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Laboratory of Photobiology; Fourtanier, A.; Seite, S. [L`Oreal-Centre de Recherche Charles Zviak (France). Recherche Avancee Biologie


    Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation represents an important oxidative stress to human skin and certain forms of oxidative stress have been shown to modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important part in many immune reactions and the perturbations of this molecule by ultraviolet radiation could have implications in many inflammatory responses. An enhancement immunohistochemical method with avidin/biotin was used for analysing the early effects of UVA radiation on human cell cultures and human skin (340-400 nm). Both in vitro and in vivo data show that ICAM-1 staining in epidermal keratinocytes, which was expressed constitutively, decreased in a UVA dose-dependent manner. The decrease was most noted at 3-6 h following UVA radiation with some ICAM-1 staining returning by 48 h post-UVA. ICAM-1 positive staining in the dermis was specific for vascular structures and was increased 24 h after UVA radiation. Cultured dermal fibroblasts exhibited ICAM-1 staining which increased slightly within 6-48 h post-UVA radiation. As epidermal ICAM-1 expression is depleted following UVA radiation and dermal expression increases due to an increase in the vascular structures, ICAM-1 provides a valuable marker following UVA radiation in human skin that can be readily measured in situ. (author).

  15. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Chan


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  16. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut


    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  17. O sentido argumentativo do articulador mas no discurso oral


    Nesello, Marcela Cristiane


    Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo estudar o sentido do articulador mas no discurso oral pela Teoria da Argumentação na Língua de Oswald Ducrot e colaboradores. Temos o propósito de identificar e analisar os sentidos que o articulador mas assume no discurso oral, bem como suas diferentes funções, por isso trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa. Também é objetivo desta pesquisa identificar os encadeamentos precedentes e subseqüentes ao articulador. Para esses fins, apresentamos estudos sobre o artic...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Arief Bangun Sanjaya


    Full Text Available Pesona Daun Mas Asri is a company in cut flowers  and leaves cultivation. The  achievement is shown by the performance of the company. The overall company’s performance contributes in developing the company’s vision. Balanced score card is a management tool used to observe and maintain the stability between financial indicators (financial perspective and non financial indicators (customer, business internal process, growth and learning.  The objective of the journal is to plan the performance of the company using balanced scorecard approach, analyze and calculate the vision, mission and strategy implemented by Pesona Daun Mas in it business activity..  The result for every strategic target shows that the performance of Pesona Daun Mas is excellent with the achieved score of 78,04%.  However the target for the selling growth level and marketing activities are classified as average which means that it still needs to be developed.   Keywords:  balanced scorecard, performance evaluation, KPI performance index, ornamental plants cutAbstrakPesona Daun Mas Asri merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang budi daya bunga potong dan daun potong. Pencapaian dalam menjalankan sebuah perusahaan dapat dilihat dari kinerja perusahaan tersebut.Kinerja perusahaan Pesona Daun Mas Asri secara keseluruhan dapat berkontribusi untuk mengembangkan perusahaan dalam mencapai visi. Balanced scorecard adalah salah satu alat manajemen yang dapat melihat dan menjaga keseimbangan antara indikator keuangan (perspektif keuangan dan indikator non-keuangan (pelanggan, proses bisnisinternal, pertumbuhan dan pembelajaran. Tujuan dari jurnal ini adalah untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan pendekatan Balanced scorecard. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan menganalisis dan mengukur pelaksanaan visi, misi dan strategi yang dijalankan oleh Pesona Daun Mas Asri dalam kegiatan bisnisnya. Selain itu, memberikan saran dan rekomendasi, serta merumuskan implikasi

  19. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication. (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie


    UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  20. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie


    UVA radiation (320–400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:26485711

  1. Transglutaminase involvement in UV-A damage to the eye lens. (United States)

    Weinreb, O; Dovrat, A


    Solar radiation is believed to be one of the major environmental factors involved in lens cataractogenesis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the mechanisms by which UV-A at 365 nm causes damage to the eye lens. Bovine lenses were placed in special culture cells for pre-incubation of 24 hr. The lenses were positioned so that the anterior surface faced the incident UV-A radiation source and were maintained in the cells during irradiation. After irradiation, lens optical quality was monitored throughout the culture period and lens epithelium, cortex and nuclear samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Transglutaminase activity in the lens was affected by the radiation. The activity of transglutaminase in lens epithelium cortex and nucleus increased as a result of the irradiation and then declined towards control levels during the culture period, as the lens recovered from the UV-A damage. Specific lens proteins, alpha B and beta B1 crystallins (the enzyme substrates) were analyzed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Seventy-two hours after irradiation of 44.8 J cm-2 UV-A, alpha B crystallins were affected as was shown by the appearance of aggregation and degradation products. Some protein changes seem to be reversible. It appears that transglutaminase may be involved in the mechanism by which UV-A causes damage to the eye lens.

  2. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram


    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how innov

  3. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds. (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo


    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  4. Size-exclusion chromatographic NMR under HR-MAS. (United States)

    Lucena Alcalde, Guillermo; Anderson, Natalie; Day, Iain J


    The addition of stationary phases or sample modifiers can be used to modify the separation achievable in the diffusion domain of diffusion NMR experiments or provide information on the nature of the analyte-sample modifier interaction. Unfortunately, the addition of insoluble chromatographic stationary phases can lead to line broadening and degradation in spectral resolution, largely because of differences in magnetic susceptibility between the sample and the stationary phase. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) techniques can be used to remove this broadening. Here, we attempt the application of HR-MAS to size-exclusion chromatographic NMR with limited success. Observed diffusion coefficients for polymer molecular weight reference standards are shown to be larger than those obtained on static samples. Further investigation reveals that under HR-MAS it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients, using either full rotor synchronisation or sophisticated pulse sequences. The requirement for restricting the sample to the centre of the MAS rotor to ensure homogeneous magnetic and RF fields is also tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chronic UVA (365-nm) irradiation induced scratching in hairless mice: dose-time dependency and the effect of ketanserin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laat, J.M.T. de; Groenendijk, M.; Vloten, W.A. van; Gruijl, F.R. de [Univ. Hospital Utrecht, Dept. of Dermatology (Netherlands); Seite, S. [L`Oreal-Centre de Recherche Charles Zviak, Recherche Avancee Biologie (France)


    In a study on the dose-response relationship for longwave UVA (UVA1; 340-400 nm) carcinogenesis in hairless mice scratch marks appeared after months of daily exposure as an unwanted side effect. Tumor induction in the highest of the 4 tested dose groups (receiving a daily dose of 430 kJ/m{sup 2} of 365-nm radiation) could not be determined because extensive scarification occurred prior to the development of any tumors. The induction of scratch marks could be scored and quantified in all 4 dose groups tested. The UVA1 dose-dependencies for the induction of tumors and scratch marks were compared. We found that the induction of scratch marks depended mainly on the cumulative UVA1 exposure, whereas tumor induction showed a lesser dose-dependency. An attempt was made to prevent the apparent pruritogenic effect of UVA1 irradiation and to understand its mechanism. The influence of ketanserin, a serotonin/histamine antagonist, on the UVA1 induction of scratch marks was tested in groups of 8 mice daily irradiated with 430 kJ/m{sup 2}. No difference was found between treated and untreated animals. Histological examination of skin biopsies from irradiated mice from the 430-kJ/m{sup 2} dose group from the UVA1 carcinogenic experiment, showed no changes in numbers of mast cells or other inflammatory features when compared to skin biopsies from unirradiated control mice. This indicated that UVA1-induced scratching is not mediated through mast cell release of serotonin and/or histamine. An adequate therapeutic treatment which can prevent UVA1-induced scratching would enable us to test tumor induction with UVA1 over a larger dose range, and may provide additional insight in how this radiation damages the skin. It remains conjectural whether there exists and analogous UVA-induced pruritus in human skin. (au) 26 refs.

  6. [Hepatic manifestation of a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)]. (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Schwarting, Andreas; Straub, Beate K; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim


    Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure. In addition to genetic causes, MAS is commonly associated with infections and rheumatic diseases. We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient suffering from MAS as a rare cause of elevated liver enzymes. Methods Patient characteristics, laboratory values, liver histology, bone marrow and radiological imaging were documented and analyzed. Case Report After an ordinary upper airway infection with bronchitis, a rheumatic arthritis appeared and was treated with leflunomide und methotrexate. In the further course of the disease, the patient developed an acute hepatitis with fever, pancytopenia and massive hyperferritinemia. Immunohistochemistry of the liver biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis and activation of CD68-positive macrophages. In the radiological and histological diagnostics of the liver and bone marrow, an MAS was diagnosed as underlying disease of the acute hepatitis. Under therapy with prednisolone, the fever disappeared and transaminases and ferritin rapidly normalized. Conclusion Aside from the frequent causes of elevated liver values in younger patients, such as nutritive toxic, drug induced liver injury, viral or autoimmune hepatitis, especially in case of massive hyperferritinemia, a MAS should be considered as a rare cause of acute liver disease.

  7. FESTA DA UVA DE CAXIAS DO SUL/RS: A mémoria de uma festa através de seus cartazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zottis


    /RS industrializou-se e o evento não deixou de sentir esses reflexos. A uva, ligada à imagem da cidade e símbolo da Festa, cedia lugar aos produtos da indústria. Ato contínuo, a Feira Agroindustrial, promovida conjuntamente à Festa, assumiu maiores proporções e suplantaria o caráter festivo. Os slogans presentes nos cartazes reforçavam com evocações da “maior das festas” e “feira internacional”. O resgate da presença dos cartazes e a análise do seu significado resultaram na dissertação intitulada “b”, defendida em 2003, no Mestrado em Turismo/UCS. O objetivo do presente texto, mais do que retomar a dissertação propriamente, é o de socializar as imagens arroladas como corpus da pesquisa, por sua importância histórica e significado, tanto para o Turismo como para a Comunicação. Os textos sobre cada deles visam, apenas, contextualizar para o leitor o contexto da produção de cada uma das peças, para que possam a vir embasar novas e frutíferas pesquisas. O levantamento das peças foi realizado de setembro de 2001 a janeiro de 2003, exigindo uma busca exaustiva, diante da precariedade, na época, dos arquivos iconográficos. O ponto de partida foi o site oficial e o acervo da festa. Outro importante auxílio veio da memória de pessoas envolvidas com a história da Festa da Uva, como ex-presidentes e ex-prefeitos. Em seguida, a consulta passou para o Arquivo Municipal João Spadari Adami. Após uma primeira seleção, onde foram identificados 17 cartazes, foi necessário verificar se esses correspondiam às peças oficiais utilizadas no evento. Para esse delineamento, se tornou necessário consultar outros documentos, como os jornais dos períodos correspondentes. Sugiram, então, outras peças que eram citadas pela imprensa, mas não figuravam no arquivo municipal, ou, ainda, não correspondiam ao cartaz oficialmente adotado. Também se recorreu a dois arquivos particulares: ao da família Andreazza e do ex-prefeito Mário David Vanin. Não foram

  8. Chrysin protects epidermal keratinocytes from UVA- and UVB-induced damage. (United States)

    Wu, Nan-Lin; Fang, Jia-You; Chen, Marcelo; Wu, Chia-Jung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Hung, Chi-Feng


    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid occurring in various plants and foods such as propolis and honey, reportedly opposes inflammation and carcinogenesis, but has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the roles of chrysin in protection against UV-induced damage in HaCaT keratinocytes. Results showed that chrysin can attenuate apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression induced by UVB and UVA. Chrysin predominantly reversed the down-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) by UVB. It predominantly reversed JNK activation and also mildly inhibited p38 activation triggered by UVA and UVB. Animal studies revealed that chrysin's topical application demonstrated efficient percutaneous absorption and no skin irritation. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of chrysin on the protection of keratinocytes against UVA- and UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  9. 1H MAS and 1H --> 31P CP/MAS NMR study of human bone mineral. (United States)

    Kaflak-Hachulska, A; Samoson, A; Kolodziejski, W


    Chemical structure of human bone mineral was studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Trabecular and cortical bone samples from adult subjects were compared with mineral standards: hydroxyapatite (HA), hydrated and calcined, carbonatoapatite of type B with 9 wt% of CO3(2-) (CHA-B), brushite (BRU) and mixtures of HA with BRU. Proton spectra were acquired with excellent spectral resolution provided by ultra-high speed MAS at 40 kHz. 2D 1H-31P NMR heteronuclear correlation was achieved by cross-polarization (CP) under fast MAS at 12 kHz. 31P NMR was applied with CP from protons under slow MAS at 1 kHz. Appearance of 31P rotational sidebands together with their CP kinetics were analyzed. It was suggested that the sidebands of CP spectra are particularly suitable for monitoring the state of apatite crystal surfaces. The bone samples appeared to be deficient in structural hydroxyl groups analogous to those in HA. We found no direct evidence that the HPO4(2-) brushite-like ions are present in bone mineral. The latter problem is extensively discussed in the literature. The study proves there is a similarity between CHA-B and bone mineral expressed by their similar NMR behavior.

  10. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (United States)

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi


    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish.

  11. Changes of MMP-1 and collagen type Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA are differentially regulated by Trx-1. (United States)

    Buechner, Nicole; Schroeder, Peter; Jakob, Sascha; Kunze, Kerstin; Maresch, Tanja; Calles, Christian; Krutmann, Jean; Haendeler, Judith


    Exposure of human skin to solar radiation, which includes ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB) visible light and infrared radiation, induces skin aging. The effects of light have been attributed to irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, but the specific signaling pathways are not well understood. Detrimental effects of solar radiation are dermal diseases and photoaging. Exposure of cultured human dermal fibroblasts to UVA, UVB or IRA increased ROS formation in vitro. One important redox regulator is the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx). Trx is ubiquitously expressed and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides its function to reduce H(2)O(2), Trx binds to and regulates transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Trx influences the regulation of MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA. We irradiated human dermal fibroblasts with UVA, UVB and IRA. UVA, UVB and IRA upregulated MMP-1 expression. Trx inhibited UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation in a NFkappaB dependent manner. UVA, UVB and IRA reduced collagen Ialpha1 expression. Incubation with Trx inhibited the effects of UVB and IRA on collagen Ialpha1 expression. In conclusion, MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1, which play important roles in aging processes, seems to be regulated by different transcriptional mechanisms and Trx can only influence distinct signaling pathways induced by UVA, UVB and probably IRA. Thus, Trx may serve as an important contributor to an "anti-aging therapeutic cocktail".

  12. UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA: a direct photochemical mechanism? (United States)

    Mouret, Stéphane; Philippe, Coralie; Gracia-Chantegrel, Jocelyne; Banyasz, Akos; Karpati, Szilvia; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Douki, Thierry


    The carcinogenic action of UVA radiation is commonly attributed to DNA oxidation mediated by endogenous photosensitisers. Yet, it was recently shown that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), well known for their involvement in UVB genotoxicity, are produced in larger yield than oxidative lesions in UVA-irradiated cells and skin. In the present work, we gathered mechanistic information on this photoreaction by comparing formation of all possible bipyrimidine photoproducts upon UVA irradiation of cells, purified genomic DNA and dA(20):dT(20) oligonucleotide duplex. We observed that the distribution of photoproducts, characterized by the sole formation of CPD and the absence of (6-4) photoproducts was similar in the three types of samples. The CPD involving two thymines represented 90% of the amount of photoproducts. Moreover, the yields of formation of the DNA lesions were similar in cells and isolated DNA. In addition, the effect of the wavelength of the incident photons was found to be the same in isolated DNA and cells. This set of data shows that UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are formed via a direct photochemical mechanism, without mediation of a cellular photosensitiser. This is possible because the double-stranded structure increases the capacity of DNA bases to absorb UVA photons, as evidenced in the case of the oligomer dA(20):dT(20). These results emphasize the need to consider UVA in the carcinogenic effects of sunlight. An efficient photoprotection is needed that can only be complete by completely blocking incident photons, rather than by systemic approaches such as antioxidant supplementation.

  13. Desarrollo de nuevas variedades de uva (Vitis vinifera L.) sin semilla mediante rescate de embriones


    Martín Ernesto Tiznado Hernández; Alejandro Miranda Jiménez; Ángel J. Ojeda Contreras; Alberto Sánchez Estrada; Héctor J. Arreola Ortiz; Gerardo Martínez Díaz


    Uno de los objetivos principales de un programa de mejoramiento genético de uva es el desarrollo de variedades sin semilla. Sin embargo, para lograr esto se requiere combinar la técnica de rescate de embriones con la genética tradicional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar híbridos de cruzas con las siguientes variedades de uva sin semilla: Perlette, Black Seedless, Crimson Seedless, Crispy, Flame, Superior, Princesa, Red Globe, Fiesta, Fresno y Thompson, utilizadas como padre y como...

  14. Effects of UV-A Radiation on Desmodesmus armatus: Changes in Growth Rate, Pigment Content and Morphological Appearance (United States)

    Pálffy, Károly; Vörös, Lajos


    Laboratory cultures of Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chod.) Hegew. were grown under different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with 3.75 mW . cm-2 UV-A radiation. Growth rate was monitored daily, chlorophyl-a concentration, total carotenoid content, cell number and the relative abundance of different coenobial forms was determined at the end of each experiment. Exposure to UV-A radiation resulted in an increasing inhibition of growth towards higher PAR levels, reaching 100% at 400 μmol . m-2 . s-1. Cellular carotenoid content was higher in the presence of UV-A radiation, on the other hand no differences were observed in cellular chlorophyll-a concentration. UV-A radiation also induced changes in coenobium formation with a decreasing proportion of 4-celled coenobia and an increase in the abundance of 2-celled and teratologic coenobia, suggesting that high intensity UV-A radiation may influence cell cycle events or morphology development.

  15. Pilot Study for UVA-LED Disinfection of Escherichia coli in Water for Space and Earth Applications (United States)

    Ragolta, Carolina


    To test the efficacy of UVA-LED disinfection, a solution of Escherichia coli was pumped through a modified drip flow reactor at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment chamber to ensure that temperature did not cause disinfection. The reactor featured three wells with different treatments: UVA-LED irradiation, UVA-LEDs with Ti02, and UVA-LEDs with nanosilver. Samples from each well were taken throughout a 340 hour period, inactivated, assayed, and analyzed for E. coli disinfection. Results of the duplicate experiments indicated longer exposure times are needed for UVA-LED disinfection of E. coli in water. Further research would consider a longer sampling period and different test conditions, such as increased contact area and various flow rates.

  16. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection. (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo


    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range.

  17. Differential sensitivity of T lymphocytes and hematopoietic precursor cells to photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light. (United States)

    Mabed, Mohamed; Coffe, Christian; Racadot, Evelyne; Angonin, Regis; Pavey, Jean-Jaques; Tiberghien, Pierre; Herve, Patrick


    The combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) has immunomodulatory effects and might abolish both graft-vs-host and host-vs-graft reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we have confirmed the sensitivity of T lymphocytes to 8-MOP treatment plus UV-A exposure as evidenced by the abrogation of the alloreactivity in mixed lymphocyte cultures as well as the inhibition of the response to phytohemagglutinin A. However, the clonogenic capacity of the bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors was inhibited with UV-A doses lower than the doses needed to inhibit T-lymphocytes alloreactivity. Moreover, long-term bone marrow cultures showed that 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment had detrimental effects on the more immature bone marrow stem cells. These data were confirmed when murine bone marrow graft was treated with 8-MOP, exposed to UV-A, then transplanted into semiallogeneic recipient mice. The treated cells could not maintain their clonogenic capacity in vivo resulting in death of all animals. Taken together, these data show that ex vivo 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment of the marrow graft cannot be used to prevent post-bone marrow transplantation alloreactivity.

  18. Cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.A.; Pryor, D.V. [Superconducting Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Frock, C.K. [and others


    In a signal processing environment, cross ambiguity functions are often used to detect when one signal is a time and/or frequency shift of another. They consist of multiple cross-correlations, which can be computed efficiently using complex valued FFTs. This paper discusses the implementation of cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2, a SIMD processor array. Two different implementations are developed. The first computes each cross ambiguity function serially, using FFT code that parallelizes across the complete set of processors. The second uses the MasPar IORAM to realign the data so that the cross ambiguity functions can be computed in parallel. In this case, multiple FFTs are executed in parallel on subsets of the processors, which lowers the overall amount of communication required.

  19. ERP sistēmas ieviešana


    Proskurins, Aleksandrs


    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Radona


    Full Text Available Ikan mas rajadanu mempunyai karakter cepat tumbuh dan tahan penyakit. Selective breeding merupakan salah satu upaya dalam peningkatan mutu induk dan benih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respons pertumbuhan dan nilai heritabilitas pada ikan mas rajadanu (F-3 yang berpotensi tumbuh lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan generasi sebelumnya (F-2. Pembentukan ikan mas rajadanu F-3 dilakukan dengan metode hierarki (satu jantan membuahi empat betina. Pengujian respons seleksi dilakukan terhadap benih hasil pemijahan induk ikan mas rajadanu F-2 yang terseleksi. Terbentuk sebanyak 25 famili dan dipelihara secara terpisah selama 160 hari pada kolam beton ukuran 1,5 m x 1 m dengan ketinggian air 60 cm. Kolam digunakan sebanyak 25 buah. Respons seleksi dihitung dengan melihat nilai rata-rata pertumbuhan F-3 dibandingkan dengan F-2. Hasil penelitian menunjukan performa ikan mas rajadanu F-3 memiliki nilai respons seleksi (14,20 g; nilai heritabilitas (0,60; pertambahan bobot (41,63 ± 10,51 g; dan pertambahan panjang (9,86 ± 1,43 cm. Rajadanu carp strain have character of fast growing and disease resistant. Selective breeding is one of an attempts can be appllied to improve the broodstock and seed quality genetically. This research was aims to see response of growth and heritability value of F-3 on carp rajadanu that potentially grow faster compared with previous generation (F-2. The F-3 carp rajadanu was designated with hierarchy method (one males fertilize four female. The F-3 was derived from F-2 and formed 25 families. Those families were maintained for 160 days on pond with size of 1.5 m x 1 m and water depth of 60 cm. The response selection was calculated by choosing the best individuals of each based on ADG (averange daily growth. The research result show that the values of response selection was 14.20 g, heritability value of 0.60, weight, and length gain were 41.63 g and 9.86 cm, respectively.

  1. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.


    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by cultur

  2. Smartphone-Based Android app for Determining UVA Aerosol Optical Depth and Direct Solar Irradiances. (United States)

    Igoe, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio; Carter, Brad


    This research describes the development and evaluation of the accuracy and precision of an Android app specifically designed, written and installed on a smartphone for detecting and quantifying incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 and 380 nm. Earlier studies demonstrated that a smartphone image sensor can detect UVA radiation and the responsivity can be calibrated to measured direct solar irradiance. This current research provides the data collection, calibration, processing, calculations and display all on a smartphone. A very strong coefficient of determination of 0.98 was achieved when the digital response was recalibrated and compared to the Microtops sun photometer direct UVA irradiance observations. The mean percentage discrepancy for derived direct solar irradiance was only 4% and 6% for observations at 380 and 340 nm, respectively, lessening with decreasing solar zenith angle. An 8% mean percent difference discrepancy was observed when comparing aerosol optical depth, also decreasing as solar zenith angle decreases. The results indicate that a specifically designed Android app linking and using a smartphone image sensor, calendar and clock, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate both direct solar UVA irradiance and low aerosol optical depths for areas with low aerosol loads.

  3. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.


    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  4. A study of the photodegradation of leukotriene B sub 4 by ultraviolet irradiation (UVB, UVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, B.; Green, C.; Ferguson, J.; Raffle, E.J.; Macleod, T.M. (Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (UK))


    In view of the presence of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemoattractant Leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) in surface scale of the psoriatic lesion and the known therapeutic effect of phototherapy in psoriasis, the photostability of LTB{sub 4} was investigated. LTB{sub 4} was irradiated with UVB (290-320 nm) from 100-1500 mJ cm{sup -2} and UVA (320-400 nm) from 5-40 J cm{sup -2}. Topical application of UVB irradiated LTB{sub 4} to forearm skin of normal volunteers showed marked reduction in cutaneous erythema, paralleled by reduced transepidermal PMN migration compared with sites of application of unirradiated and UVA irradiated LTB{sub 4}. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated a dose-dependent photodegradation of LTB{sub 4} by UVB irradiation. UVA irradiation produced no such effect. The wavelengths responsible lie within the absorption spectrum of LTB{sub 4}. In vitro chemotaxis studies, using an under agarose technique, showed a statistically significant reduction in the migration of PMN from psoriatic and non-psoriatic subjects to the UVB irradiated LTB{sub 4} compared with unirradiated LTB{sub 4}, whilst UVA irradiated LTB{sub 4} produced a normal PMN chemotactic response. (author).

  5. Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Motta


    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnCl2 and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+ had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii UVA+SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA+ SnCl2.

  6. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.


    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan.

  7. Immunoprotective UVA (320-400 nm) irradiation upregulates heme oxygenase-1 in the dermis and epidermis of hairless mouse skin. (United States)

    Allanson, Munif; Reeve, Vivienne E


    The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) radiation provides a protective cellular defence against oxidative stress, and has been well demonstrated in cultured human skin fibroblasts, although keratinocytes were unreactive. The UVA responsiveness of HO-1 however, has not been confirmed in intact skin. Previously, we reported that UVA-inducible HO enzyme activity in mouse skin is protective against UVB-induced immunosuppression. This study identifies the induced HO isoform and its localization in mouse skin irradiated in vivo with such an immunoprotective UVA dose. We found that HO-1 mRNA was expressed in UVA-irradiated skin, but not in normal or UVB-irradiated skin, whereas constitutive HO-2 was always present. UVA-irradiated skin had increased HO enzyme activity and bilirubin content, and decreased heme content, consistent with HO-1 induction. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining localized HO-1 mRNA and protein to both epidermis and dermis, with strongest expression in basal keratinocytes and weaker expression in dermal fibroblast-like and other cells, in contrast with UVA-induced HO-1 in cultured human skin fibroblasts. This suggests that cultured skin cells may not fully represent skin functions in vivo, or that there may be inherent differences between human and hairless mouse skin HO-1 responses.

  8. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.


    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  9. Effect of surface modification and UVA photoactivation on antibacterial bioactivity of zinc oxide powder (United States)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Hasan, Habsah; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul


    The effects of surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) powder and UVA illumination on the powder towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. FESEM-EDS results showed that oxygen annealing increased the O:Zn ratio on the surface of ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate samples. Surface conductances of ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate pellets were reduced from 1.05 nS to 0.15 nS and 1.34 nS to 0.23 nS, respectively. Meanwhile, UVA illumination on the surface of the ZnO-rod and ZnO-plate samples was found to improve surface conductance to 7.08 nS and 6.51 nS, respectively, due to the release of charge carrier. Photoluminescence results revealed that oxygen annealing halved the UV emission intensity and green emission intensity, presumably caused by oxygen absorption in the ZnO lattice. The antibacterial results showed that oxygen-treated ZnO exhibited slightly higher growth inhibition on E. coli and S. aureus compared with unannealed ZnO. UVA illumination on ZnO causes the greatest inhibition toward E. coli and S. aureus. Under the UVA excitation, the inhibition of E. coli increased by 18% (ZnO-rod) and 13% (ZnO-plate) while the inhibition of S. aureus increased by 22% (ZnO-rod) and 21% (ZnO-plate). Release of reactive oxygen species were proposed in antibacterial mechanisms, which were aided by surface modification and UVA photoactivation. The reactive oxygen species disrupted the DNA and protein synthesis of the bacterial cell, causing bacteriostatic effects toward E. coli and S. aureus.

  10. Application of UVA-riboflavin crosslinking to enhance the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels. (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Coyle, Aron


    Hydrogels derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have become increasing popular in recent years, particularly for use in tissue engineering. One limitation with ECM hydrogels is that they tend to have poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues they are trying to replicate. To address this problem, a UVA (ultraviolet-A) riboflavin crosslinking technique was applied to ECM hydrogels to determine if it could be used to improve their elastic modulus. Hydrogels fabricated from corneal, cardiac and liver ECM were used in this study. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using a spherical indentation technique. The microstructure of the hydrogels and the cytotoxic effect of crosslinking on cell seeded hydrogels were also evaluated. The combination of UVA light and riboflavin solution led to a significant increase in elastic modulus from 6.8kPa to 24.7kPa, 1.4kPa to 6.9kPa and 0.9kPa to 1.6kPa for corneal, cardiac and liver ECM hydrogels respectively. The extent of this increase was dependent on a number of factors including the UVA exposure time and the initial hydrogel concentration. There were also a high percentage of viable cells within the cell seeded hydrogels with 94% of cells remaining viable after 90min exposure to UVA light. These results suggest that UVA-riboflavin crosslinking is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties of ECM hydrogels without resulting in a significant reduction of cell viability.

  11. MAS及其相关概念%MAS and Correlation Conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显毅; 董红斌


    The researching of MAS originates from distributed artificial intelligence ,because new theory framework is provided for solving some problems in complex and distributed environment ,MAS is valued increasingly by computer ,automatic control and management science.

  12. Propolis Inhibits UVA-Induced Apoptosis of Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells by Scavenging ROS



    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees from several plant sources. This research aimed at showing its protective effect against UVA-induced apoptosis of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Using Hoechst staining, it was demonstrated that propolis (5 and 10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the apoptosis of HaCaT cells induced by UVA-irradiation. Propolis also showed the protective effect against loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by UVA-irradiaiton in HaCaT cells. Propo...

  13. Nacionalismo e indigenismo en el gobierno del MAS


    Mayorga, Fernando; Rodríguez, Benjamín


    En los últimos años se ha modificado el mapa político de América latina con resultados electorales que indican una idea genérica de “giro a la izquierda”, imponiendo paulatinamente una taxonomía que distingue gobiernos socialdemócratas y gobiernos populistas. En Bolivia el arribo al gobierno del Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) en enero de 2006 y la reelección presidencial de Evo Morales, despliega el proceso de una profunda reforma estatal que articula las demandas sociales en torno al naciona...

  14. MAS-SCM for Auto Sector-The Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sindhu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe in detail the development status of the innovative Multi -Agent based supply chain management (MAS-SCMAS for auto sector. This study was undertaken in view of the significance of improvement in efficiency of automobile sector and the development of a good multi-agent system framework to achieve that. The factors affecting the efficiency or OEE of the industry and the efficiency properties were identified. It was clearly revealed that the available model do not fulfill the needs in the supply chain management of automobile industry and there is a scope for evolving new model resulting in better efficiency.

  15. What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galamhussen, Mohamed; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel


    Using a gravity model, we analyze the determinants of the probability that commercial banks in 89 acquiring countries and 118 target countries will undertake M&As over a 30-year period (1981–2010) and of the value of these M&As. We find that the value of cross-border M&As increases with the size of

  16. 基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤


    BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.

  17. Treatment of T. cruzi infected human platelet concentrates with aminomethyltrimethyl psoralen (AMT and ultravioleta (UV-A light: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Moraes-Souza


    Full Text Available The present measures adopted to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease include screening of blood donors. and/or the inactivation of T. cruzi in collected blood using gentian violet (GV as a trypanocidal agent. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined use of AMT and UV-A in inactirating T. cruzi in infected human platelet cuncentrates. Human platelet concentrates were infected with T. cruzi (2x10/ml of the Y strain transfered to PL 269 (Fenwal Laboratories containers and treated with GV (250řg,/ml. and ascorbic acid (1 mg/ml; GV. ascorbic acid and UV-A; GV and UV-A; AMT (40/tG/ml and ascorbic acid; AMT, ascorbic acid and UV-A; AMT and UV-A; UV-A alone; and untreated (control. All UV-A treated platelet concentrates were exposed to UV-A doses of 24, 92, 184, 276, 368 and 644 kj/m². and the microscopical research of active T. cruzi was performed, using the microhematocrit technique, 1, 6 and 24 hours after each treatment. A high number of active forms of T. cruzi was observed in all condictions, except when GV was used as the trypanocidal agent, providing evidence of the failure of AMT and UV-A in inactivating T cruzi in infected human platelet concentrates.As medidas adotadas atualmente para prevenir a doença de Chagas transfusional incluem a seleção dos doadores de sangue e/ou a inativação do T. cruzi no sangue coletado através do uso da violeta de genciana (VG como agente tripanosomicida. Neste estudo, nós investigamos a eficácia do uso combinado do AMTe da UV-A para a neutralização do T. cruzi em concentrados de plaquetas humanas infectados. Os concentrados de plaquetas infectados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (2x10/ml foram transferidos para recipientes PL. 269 (Fenwal Laboratories e tratados com VG (250/ml e ácido ascórbico (1mg/ml VG. ácido ascórbico e UV-A; GV e UV-A; AMT (40 G/ml e ácido ascórbico; AMT, ácido ascórbico e UV-A; AMT e UV-A; somente UV-A; e não tratado (controle. Todos os concentrados

  18. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zerbinati


    Full Text Available Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues.

  19. Effects of supplemental UV-A on the development, anatomy and metabolite production of Phyllanthus tenellus cultured in vitro. (United States)

    Victório, Cristiane Pimentel; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro


    Phyllanthus tenellus is widely used for its antiviral, analgesic and hepatoprotective properties. Although the production of several chemical classes of secondary metabolites is influenced by UV radiation, particularly phenolic compounds, we also know that UV radiation can result in anatomical and developmental damage. However, the morphological, anatomical and phytochemical changes in response to UV-A exposure are generally understudied in the Phyllanthaceae. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of UV-A radiation on plant development and leaf anatomy, as well as the production of secondary metabolites and the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b, in P. tenellus. To accomplish this, in vitro cultures of P. tenellus were maintained for 60 days under white light (WL) and WL plus UV-A radiation. Results showed different phenotypic responses under additional UV-A, such as high phenolic metabolite production, increasing dimensions of abaxial epidermis and thickness of palisade parenchyma. Compared to plants cultured under WL, UV-A radiation caused damage to plant morphogenesis, including a reduced number of branches and shoots, consequently reducing the rate of proliferation. On the other hand, geraniin, ellagic acid and carotenoid contents increased after UV-A exposure, indicating that this light source is an important resource for inducing phenolic compounds.

  20. Crosslinking of DNA repair and replication proteins to DNA in cells treated with 6-thioguanine and UVA. (United States)

    Gueranger, Quentin; Kia, Azadeh; Frith, David; Karran, Peter


    The DNA of patients taking immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory thiopurines contains 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and their skin is hypersensitive to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. DNA 6-TG absorbs UVA and generates reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and proteins. Here, we show that the DNA damage includes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. An oligonucleotide containing a single 6-TG is photochemically crosslinked to cysteine-containing oligopeptides by low doses of UVA. Crosslinking is significantly more efficient if guanine sulphonate (G(SO3))--an oxidized 6-TG and a previously identified UVA photoproduct--replaces 6-TG, suggesting that G(SO3) is an important reaction intermediate. Crosslinking occurs via oligopeptide sulphydryl and free amino groups. The oligonucleotide-oligopeptide adducts are heat stable but are partially reversed by reducing treatments. UVA irradiation of human cells containing DNA 6-TG induces extensive heat- and reducing agent-resistant covalent DNA-protein crosslinks and diminishes the recovery of some DNA repair and replication proteins from nuclear extracts. DNA-protein crosslinked material has an altered buoyant density and can be purified by banding in cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients. PCNA, the MSH2 mismatch repair protein and the XPA nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor are among the proteins detectable in the DNA-crosslinked material. These findings suggest that the 6-TG/UVA combination might compromise DNA repair by sequestering essential proteins.

  1. Avaliação da uva cv. Isabel para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZZON Luiz Antenor


    Full Text Available A uva Isabel, originária do Sul dos Estados Unidos, é uma das principais cultivares de Vitis labrusca. Atualmente é a cultivar mais difundida na Serra Gaúcha, representando aproximadamente 45% de toda a uva produzida nessa região. Além da elaboração de vinho tinto comum, a Isabel é utilizada para elaboração de vinho rosado e suco e comercializada como uva de mesa. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Isabel, para elaboração de vinho tinto comum. Para isso, avaliou-se a maturação da uva e realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto, nas safras de 1988 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a uva Isabel tem cacho pequeno, solto, formado por bagas e sementes grandes. O mosto apresenta cor rosada pouco intensa, tem bom teor de açúcar e baixo nível de ácido málico e acidez total. O vinho tem cor vermelha viva; o aroma é intenso e com acentuada tipicidade varietal; a análise sensorial evidencia que geralmente falta ao vinho equilíbrio e maciez.

  2. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal;


    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...... similarities. Moreover, in some instances, antagonists for one receptor are able to inhibit the action of agonists for the respective other receptor. These observations suggest that there may be a functional or even physical interaction of both receptors. This article discusses potential mechanisms underlying...... the phenomenon of blockade of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] actions by AT2R antagonists and vice versa. Such mechanisms may comprise dimerization of the receptors or dimerization-independent mechanisms such as lack of specificity of the receptor ligands used in the experiments or involvement of the Ang-(1...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar


    Full Text Available Penggunaan moluskisida untuk menanggulangi hama dalam budidaya tanaman padi yang semakin meningkat berpotensi mencemari lingkungan perairan, karena mengandung residu dari bahan aktifnya. Moluskisida niklosamida (C13H8Cl2N2O4 merupakan bahan aktif pestisida yang digunakan untuk memberantas hama keong mas atau siput murbei (Pomacea sp. di sawah. Dengan demikian, bahan tersebut memiliki potensi untuk mencemari lahan tempat usaha budidaya ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi toksisitas akut niklosamida terhadap benih ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 24, 48, dan 96 jam. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi, Cibalagung-Bogor. Menggunakan ikan mas dengan bobot individu 2,47 ± 0,13 g. Moluskisida yang digunakan mengandung bahan aktif niklosamida 250g/L. Wadah pengujian berupa 21 unit akuarium kaca berukuran 40 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm yang dilengkapi aerasi serta saluran pemasukan dan pengeluaran. Jumlah ikan uji setiap wadah 10 ekor dengan peubah yang diukur adalah mortalitas ikan. Selama penelitian ikan tidak diberi makan. Tahapan penelitian terdiri atas penentuan nilai ambang atas-bawah, nilai lethal time dan LC50 -24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam. Data diolah dengan analisis probit program LC50. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50-24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam terhadap benih ikan mas adalah 0,8012 (0,7140—0,8990; 0,5999 (0,5356—0,6719; 0,4511 (0,4067—0,5004; dan 0,3849 mg/L (0,3684—0,4061. Hal ini menunjukkan niklosamida termasuk pestisida yang memiliki toksisitas sangat tinggi (golongan A. The use of molluscicide in aquatic as well as in terresterial agro ecosystem without properly controlled may produce detrimental effects on freshwater fisheries. Molluscicide utilization for golden apple snail (Pomacea sp. control in rice field has increased. The ingredient potencially has a possibility to pollute aquaculture water. The

  4. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.


    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  5. Bacteria and fungi inactivation by photocatalysis under UVA irradiation: liquid and gas phase. (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Miranda, Sandra M; Lopes, Filipe V S; Silva, Mário; Dezotti, Márcia; Silva, Adrián M T; Faria, Joaquim L; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia


    In the last decade, environmental risks associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become a concern in the scientific community due to the absence of specific legislation governing the occupational exposure limits (OEL) for microorganisms present in indoor air. Thus, it is necessary to develop techniques to effectively inactivate microorganisms present in the air of WWTPs facilities. In the present work, ultraviolet light A radiation was used as inactivation tool. The microbial population was not visibly reduced in the bioaerosol by ultraviolet light A (UVA) photolysis. The UVA photocatalytic process for the inactivation of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, ATCC strains and isolates from indoor air samples of a WWTP) using titanium dioxide (TiO2 P25) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was tested in both liquid-phase and airborne conditions. In the slurry conditions at liquid phase, P25 showed a better performance in inactivation. For this reason, gas-phase assays were performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolithic structures coated with P25. The survival rate of microorganisms under study decreased with the catalyst load and the UVA exposure time. Inactivation of fungi was slower than resistant bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Graphical abstract Inactivation of fungi and bacteria in gas phase by photocatalitic process performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolith structures coated with TiO2.

  6. Copper resistance of the evergreen dwarf shrub Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: an experimental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salemaa, Maija; Monni, Satu


    The copper (Cu) resistance of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi was tested in a pot experiment (lasting 8 weeks) using rooted cuttings originating from an area near the Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter, SW Finland. The fine roots were moderately infected by arbutoid mycorrhizae. The plants were exposed to five Cu levels (1, 10, 22, 46 and 100 mg l{sup -1}) given repeatedly together with a nutrient solution. The critical Cu concentration in the nutrient solution inhibiting the growth of A. uva-ursi was below 10 mg l{sup -1} Cu (EC{sub 50} value for biomass production 3.3 mg l{sup -1} Cu). This concentration was clearly lower than the value we have found earlier for other dwarf shrubs under similar experimental conditions. Most of the Cu given accumulated in the roots and old stems. The results suggest that A. uva-ursi cuttings were relatively sensitive to Cu despite the ability of the adult clones to grow in Cu-contaminated soil. The adult clones extend their roots into the less toxic deeper soil layers, which may facilitate the avoidance of heavy metals. - Root extension into deeper layers of soil may aid in avoidance of heavy metals.

  7. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen


    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  8. The Role of JNK and p38 MAPK Activities in UVA-Induced Signaling Pathways Leading to AP-1 Activation and c-Fos Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Silvers


    Full Text Available To further delineate ultraviolet A (UVA signaling pathways in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, we examined the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in UVA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression. UVA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK proteins was detected immediately after irradiation and disappeared after approximately 2 hours. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly inhibited for up to 1 hour post-UVA irradiation. To examine the role of p38 and JNK MAPKs in UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations, the selective pharmacologic MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 (p38 inhibitor and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor, were used to independently treat stably transfected HaCaT cells in luciferase reporter assays. Both SB202190 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations. SB202190 (0.25–0.5 MM and SP600125 (62-125 nM treatments also primarily inhibited UVA-induced c-Fos expression. These results demonstrated that activation of both JNK and p38 play critical role in UVA-mediated AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression in these human keratinocyte cells. Targeted inhibition of these MAPKs with their selective pharmacologic inhibitors may be effective chemopreventive strategies for UVA-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  9. Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis. (United States)

    Panich, Uraiwan; Kongtaphan, Kamolratana; Onkoksoong, Tassanee; Jaemsak, Kannika; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Thaworn, Athiwat; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak


    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is suggested to contribute to melanogenesis through promoting cellular oxidative stress and impairing antioxidant defenses. An overproduction of melanin can be associated with melanoma skin cancer and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, developing effective antimelanogenic agents is of importance. Alpinia galanga (AG) and Curcuma aromatica (CA) are traditional medicinal plants widely used for skin problems. Hence, this study investigated the antimelanogenic effects of AG and CA extracts (3.8-30 microg/ml) by assessing tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA levels, and melanin content in human melanoma cells (G361) exposed to UVA. The roles in protecting against melanogenesis were examined by evaluating their inhibitory effects on UVA-induced cellular oxidative stress and modulation of antioxidant defenses including antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In addition, possible active compounds accountable for biological activities of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric analysis. Our study demonstrated that UVA (8 J/cm(2)) induced both tyrosinase activity and mRNA levels and UVA (16 J/cm(2))-mediated melanin production were suppressed by the AG or CA extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations. Both extracts were able to protect against UVA-induced cellular oxidant formation and depletion of CAT and GPx activities and GSH content in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TLC-densitometric analysis detected the presence of eugenol and curcuminoids in AG and CA, respectively. This is the first report representing promising findings on AG and CA extract-derived antityrosinase properties correlated with their antioxidant potential. Inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defenses might be the mechanisms by which the extracts yield the protective effects on UVA-dependent melanogenesis.

  10. UVA1治疗皮肤病的现状%Ultraviolet A1 for the treatment of cutaneous diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利红; 郑捷


    在过去的30年中,UVA1因能进入皮肤深层诱导T细胞凋亡,下调多种细胞因子,激活内皮细胞并促进血管新生,逐渐被用于治疗各种皮肤疾病.目前有随机对照队列研究证据的疾病包括特应性皮炎、局限性硬皮病、系统性红斑狼疮,其他的适应证还有皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤、系统性硬皮病、胫前黏液性水肿、结节性痒疹等.相比其他光疗法,UVA1的近期不良反应相对较少,远期副作用目前尚无报道,仍需跟踪随访.%Since ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) can penetrate into deep layers of the skin,induce the apoptosis of T cells,down-regulate multiple cytokines,activate endothelial cells and promote neovascularization,it has been used to treat many dermatoses over the last three decades.There have been evidences from randomized control and cohort studies for the application of UVA1 phototherapy in atopic dermatitis,localized scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus.Other indications of UVA1 phototherapy are cutaneous T cell lymphoma,systemic scleroderma,pretibial myxedema,prurigo nodularis,etc.Compared with the other phototherapy regimens,UVA1 phototherapy shows less short-term side effects.However,little is known about long-term side effects of UVA1 phototherapy,and long-term follow-up studies are required.

  11. MAS based coordinated scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based on a distribu......A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based...... on a distributed optimization algorithm to minimize power flow from/to a virtual microgrid over a transformer substation. A cooperative low-level MAS scheme, which is based on the consensus algorithm is introduced. It is shown that using a cooperative MAS, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility...... be used, for example by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to control grid load profiles of virtual microgrids....

  12. COMPOZER-based longitudinal cross-polarization via dipolar coupling under MAS. (United States)

    Kamihara, Takayuki; Murakami, Miwa; Noda, Yasuto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K


    We propose a cross polarization (CP) sequence effective under magic-angle spinning (MAS) which is tolerant to RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. Its key feature is that spin locking is not used, as CP occurs among the longitudinal (Z) magnetizations modulated by the combination of two pulses with the opposite phases. We show that, by changing the phases of the pulse pairs synchronized with MAS, the flip-flop term of the dipolar interaction is restored under MAS.

  13. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang


    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi‐robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS‐MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS‐Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content‐FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM‐FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi‐robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi‐robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi‐robot collaboration.

  14. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). (United States)

    Wenneker, M; Kanne, J


    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, because powdery mildew infections may result in a total loss of the crop. In organic currant growing the number of adequate control methods is very limited. Sulphur as a fungicide against powdery mildew in e.g. gooseberry or table grape growing is not recommendable due to possible bleaching of berries and scorching of tender shoots. Various bicarbonate salts are suggested as a good option to control powdery mildew. In a field trial the effect of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the on the control of powdery mildew of gooseberry was evaluated. Four treatments; i.e. two preventive strategies and two curative strategies, were applied. PLants were sprayed until runoff. The percent of infected fruits and disease severity were assessed. In the unsprayed control plots very high disease incidences were observed; on average more than 90% of the berries were infected with powdery mildew. The weekly (preventive) spray applications with potassium carbonate reduced the disease incidences on fruits significantly. On average approximately 10% of the fruits were affected by powdery mildew. However, the number of spray applications was high. In conclusion, our results indicate that applications of potassium bicarbonate (as Armicarb) are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of American powdery mildew in gooseberry. Early spray applications are necessary to protect berries against powdery mildew infections. Future research will focus on reducing the number of applications, e.g. warning models based on powdery mildew of rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa).

  15. Solar-UV-signature mutation prefers TCG to CCG: extrapolative consideration from UVA1-induced mutation spectra in mouse skin. (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Kumagai, Jun; Ono, Tetsuya; Morita, Akimichi


    UVA1 exerts its genotoxicity on mammalian skin by producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA and preferentially inducing solar-UV-signature mutations, C → T base substitution mutations at methylated CpG-associated dipyrimidine (Py-mCpG) sites, as demonstrated previously using a 364 nm laser as a UVA1 source and lacZ-transgenic mice that utilize the transgene as a mutational reporter. In the present study, we confirmed that a broadband UVA1 source induced the same mutation profiles in mouse epidermis as the UVA1 laser, generalizing the previous result from a single 364 nm to a wider wavelength range of UVA1 (340-400 nm). Combined with our previous data on the mutation spectra induced in mouse epidermis by UVB, UVA2 and solar UVR, we proved that the solar-UV-signature mutation is commonly observed in the wavelength range from UVB to UVA, and found that UVA1 induces this mutation more preferentially than the other shorter wavelength ranges. This finding indicates that the solar-UV-signature mutation-causing CPDs, which are known to prefer Py-mCpG sites, could be produced with the energy provided by the longer wavelength region of UVR, suggesting a photochemical reaction through the excitation of pyrimidine bases to energy states that can be accomplished by absorption of even low-energy UVR. On the other hand, the lower proportions of solar-UV-signature mutations observed in the mutation spectra for UVB and solar UVR indicate that the direct photochemical reaction through excited singlet state of pyrimidine bases, which can be accomplished only by high-energy UVR, is also involved in the mutation induction at those shorter wavelengths of UVR. We also found that the solar-UV signature prefers 5'-TCG-3' to 5'-CCG-3' as mutational target sites, consistent with the fact that UVA induces CPDs selectively at thymine-containing dipyrimidine sites and that solar UVR induces them preferably at Py-mCpG sites. However, the mutation spectrum in human p53 gene from non

  16. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV). (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho


    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  17. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. (United States)

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F


    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  18. Thymol and Thymus Vulgaris L. activity against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in NCTC 2544 cell line. (United States)

    Calò, Rossella; Visone, Clementina M; Marabini, Laura


    Many authors focused on the research of natural compounds in order to protect skin from indirect (UVA) and direct (UVB) ultraviolet radiation side effects. The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of a dry extract from T. vulgaris L. and of its major synthetic compound thymol (about 60%), against oxidative and genotoxic UVA- and UVB damage. Experiments were reproduced in a low differentiated keratinocytes cell line (NCTC 2544) Cells were pretreated for 1h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1μg/mL) or T. vulgaris L. (1.82μg/mL) then exposed to different UVA (8-24J/cm(2)) or UVB doses (0.016-0.72J/cm(2)). Immediately after the UV exposure the intracellular redox status was evaluated by ROS quantification and by LPO. Genotoxic aspects were evaluated 24h after the end of irradiations using the alkaline comet assay, the micronucleus formation assay and the immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX histone protein (detected 1h after the end of UV exposure). Thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract inhibited ROS generation in UVA and UVB-irradiated cells. On the contrary, MDA formation was reduced only in UVA treated cells. Both agents decreased the DNA damage evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, but not in the micronucleus and H2AX tests probably because of the severity of damage (double strands) detected.

  19. An ascorbic acid-enriched tomato genotype to fight UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Del Giudice, Rita; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Monti, Daria Maria


    UVA radiations contribute up to 95% of the total UV exposure and are known to induce cell damage, leading to apoptosis. Since the benefic effects of ascorbic acid on human health are well known, a new tomato genotype (named DHO4), highly rich in ascorbic acid, has been recently obtained. Here, we compared the effects of ascorbic acid and hydrophilic DHO4 extracts in protecting human keratinocytes exposed to UVA stress. Keratinocytes were pre-incubated with ascorbic acid or with extracts from the ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype and irradiated with UVA light. Then, ROS production, intracellular GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified. Western blots were carried out to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade, activation of caspase-3 and inflammation levels. We demonstrated that ROS, GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were not altered in cell exposed to UVA stress when cells were pre-treated with ascorbic acid or with tomato extracts. In addition, no evidence of apoptosis and inflammation were observed in irradiated pre-treated cells. Altogether, we demonstrated the ability of an ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype to counteract UVA-oxidative stress on human keratinocytes. This protective effect is due to the high concentration of vitamin C that acts as free radical scavenger. This novel tomato genotype may be used as genetic material in breeding schemes to produce improved varieties with higher antioxidant levels.

  20. Effects of UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1照射对增生性瘢痕动物模型瘢痕形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷


    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响情况.方法 18只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成3组,每组6只兔,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻、1个月、2个月开始用不同剂量大功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组.各照射组又分为两个剂量照射组,兔耳分别每次照射UVA1 60 J/cm2、110 J/cm2,连续30次.结果 创伤建模1个月、2个月后开始照射UVA1组,与照射前比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处真表皮厚度(282.32±58.60;336.50±98.34)和真皮胶原含量(24.91±16.88;34.47±8.90)均显著降低(P<0.05);照射组与非照射组在UVA1照射前后差值的比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处表真皮厚度差值(-143.52±42.91;-142.44±49.96)和真皮胶原含量差值(-56.39±15.04;-48.35±10.44)的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各照射组UVA1对瘢痕皮肤厚度(811.68±79.03;659.08±178.98)和胶原含量(67.80±9.06;61.35±12.91)的影响均存在剂量依赖性(P<0.05).而创伤建模的同时照射UVA1组,两种剂量的UVA1照射后瘢痕处皮肤厚度和胶原含量较非照射耳均显著增加(P<0.05).结论 上皮化后开始UVA1照射可使瘢痕变软,皮肤变薄,胶原含量降低.创伤同时照射UVA1不仅不能阻止瘢痕模型的建立,反而加重瘢痕.%Objective To study the effects of different doses of UVA1 on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin. Methods A hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin (2 cm×5 cm) on the ventral surface of rabbit ears. A total of 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 equal groups to receive UVA1 radiation on the left ears immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after the excision, respectively, and every group were classified into two subgroups to be irradiated with 60 and 110 J/cm2 of UVA1, respectively

  1. Drying rates of Rubi grapes submitted to chemical pretreatments for raisin production Taxas de secagem de uva Rubi submetida a pré-tratamentos químicos para a produção de passas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis


    50ºC, o que resultou em tempos de secagem próximos aos do pré-tratamento com 2,5% de azeite de oliva, mas com um menor consumo dessa substância. Além disso, a imersão das uvas em uma suspensão aquosa de 2% de lecitina de soja, a 50ºC, por 5 minutos, resultou em um tempo de secagem total apenas levemente superior ao do pré-tratamento mais efetivo.

  2. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts. (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa


    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  3. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A. (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane


    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

  4. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice. (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana


    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS.

  5. Psoralen/UVA treatment and chromosomes. II. Analyses of psoriasis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broegger, A.; Waksvik, H.; Thune, P.


    Five psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA (PUVA) were studied by lymphocyte cultures at the 1st, 5th, 10th and 20th treatment and at a maintenance treatment 6 months later. Abnormal amounts of chromosome aberrations were not found, and the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (examined at the last treatment) was not increased. In vitro experiments with nanogram doses of psoralen (similar to plasma levels in patients) showed no increase in chromosome aberration or SCE frequency. The results indicate that therapeutic doses of PUVA have no clastogenic effect.

  6. The selects of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l. spreng. from natural populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Malinowska


    Full Text Available Five plants of bearberry selected from natural stands in Poland and one from a Botanical Garden were propagated by cuttings. The clonal plants were first kept under observation for two years planted on different substrates in containers and were afterwards field cultivated for three subsequent years. The existence of a significant differentiation within these Arctostaphylos uva-ursi clones was proved. Two selects of good ornamental features as well as with high concentration of medicinal substance - arbutin were chosen. Plants started fruiting in the fourth year of growth and the area covered by a single plant exceeded 2 m2 after five years of cultivation.

  7. Chronic Exposure to Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Extract Lycogen™ Prevents UVA-Induced Malondialdehyde Accumulation and Procollagen I Down-Regulation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Hsiu Yang


    Full Text Available UVA contributes to the pathogenesis of skin aging by downregulation of procollagen I content and induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-associated responses. Application of antioxidants such as lycopene has been demonstrated as a convenient way to achieve protection against skin aging. Lycogen™, derived from the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exerts several biological effects similar to that of lycopene whereas most of its anti-aging efficacy remains uncertain. In this study, we attempted to examine whether Lycogen™ could suppress malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation and restore downregulated procollagen I expression induced by UVA exposure. In human dermal fibroblasts Hs68 cells, UVA repressed cell viability and decreased procollagen I protein content accompanied with the induction of MMP-1 and MDA accumulation. Remarkably, incubation with 50 µM Lycogen™ for 24 h ameliorated UVA-induced cell death and restored UVA-induced downregulation of procollagen in a dose-related manner. Lycogen™ treatment also prevented the UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation and intracellular MDA generation in Hs68 cells. Activation of NFκB levels, one of the downstream events induced by UVA irradiation and MMP-1 induction, were also prevented by Lycogen™ administration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Lycogen™ may be an alternative agent that prevents UVA-induced skin aging and could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. The Tryptophan-Derived Endogenous Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]Carbazole Is a Nanomolar UVA Photosensitizer in Epidermal Keratinocytes. (United States)

    Park, Sophia L; Justiniano, Rebecca; Williams, Joshua D; Cabello, Christopher M; Qiao, Shuxi; Wondrak, Georg T


    Endogenous UVA chromophores may act as sensitizers of oxidative stress underlying cutaneous photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, but the molecular identity of non-DNA key chromophores displaying UVA-driven photodyamic activity in human skin remains largely undefined. Here we report that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct and endogenous high-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, acts as a nanomolar photosensitizer potentiating UVA-induced oxidative stress irrespective of AhR ligand activity. In human HaCaT and primary epidermal keratinocytes, photodynamic induction of apoptosis was elicited by the combined action of solar-simulated UVA and FICZ, whereas exposure to the isolated action of UVA or FICZ did not impair viability. In a human epidermal tissue reconstruct, FICZ/UVA cotreatment caused pronounced phototoxicity inducing keratinocyte cell death, and FICZ photodynamic activity was also substantiated in a murine skin exposure model. Array analysis revealed pronounced potentiation of cellular heat shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress response gene expression observed only upon FICZ/UVA cotreatment. FICZ photosensitization caused intracellular oxidative stress, and comet analysis revealed introduction of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-sensitive oxidative DNA lesions suppressible by antioxidant cotreatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the endogenous AhR ligand FICZ displays nanomolar photodynamic activity representing a molecular mechanism of UVA-induced photooxidative stress potentially operative in human skin.

  9. Bagaço de uva como ingrediente alternativo no arraçoamento de coelhos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão do bagaço de uva em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e parâmetros morfohistológicos do trato gastrointestinal de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de bagaço de uva; e pelas dietas com 25% e 50% de substituição de alfafa por bagaço de uva nas respectivas rações experimentais. A inclusão de bagaço de uva causou aumento linear no consumo total de ração e no ganho de peso. A presença em maior proporção dos ácidos graxos essenciais ômega3 e ômega6 nos tratamentos T25BU e T50BU promoveu melhores respostas zootécnicas, uma vez que esses nutrientes agem positivamente no equilíbrio homeostático. Os resultados morfohistológicos demonstraram que a altura das vilosidades intestinais do ceco aumentou com a inclusão de bagaço de uva na dieta, possuindo correlação positiva. A inclusão de bagaço de uva em dietas para coelhos na fase de crescimento altera o desempenho dos animais, aumentando o consumo total de ração e o ganho de peso. Evidenciou-se também que o aumento desse co-produto melhora as características morfológicas das vilosidades intestinais referentes ao ceco.

  10. The utility of MAS5 expression summary and detection call algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Claire L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used alone, the MAS5.0 algorithm for generating expression summaries has been criticized for high False Positive rates resulting from exaggerated variance at low intensities. Results Here we show, with replicated cell line data, that, when used alongside detection calls, MAS5 can be both selective and sensitive. A set of differentially expressed transcripts were identified that were found to be changing by MAS5, but unchanging by RMA and GCRMA. Subsequent analysis by real time PCR confirmed these changes. In addition, with the Latin square datasets often used to assess expression summary algorithms, filtered MAS5.0 was found to have performance approaching that of its peers. Conclusion When used alongside detection calls, MAS5 is a sensitive and selective algorithm for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  11. Monitorización molecular de la ecología levaduriforme de la uva al vino


    López Enríquez, Lorena


    La calidad y singularidad de un vino están estrechamente relacionadas con las poblaciones de levaduras asociadas al proceso de transformación desde la uva al vino. El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el estudio de la sucesión natural de especies de levaduras propio de un proceso de vinificación, realizado mediante fermentación espontánea, a partir de uva de variedad Verdejo, recolectada de una parcela de orientación sur, localizada en la D. O. Rueda. Para ello, se ana...

  12. Base pairing enhances fluorescence and favors cyclobutane dimer formation induced upon absorption of UVA radiation by DNA. (United States)

    Banyasz, Akos; Vayá, Ignacio; Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Gustavsson, Thomas; Douki, Thierry; Markovitsi, Dimitra


    The photochemical properties of the DNA duplex (dA)(20)·(dT)(20) are compared with those of the parent single strands. It is shown that base pairing increases the probability of absorbing UVA photons, probably due to the formation of charge-transfer states. UVA excitation induces fluorescence peaking at ∼420 nm and decaying on the nanosecond time scale. The fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime, and the quantum yield for cyclobutane dimer formation increase upon base pairing. Such behavior contrasts with that of the UVC-induced processes.

  13. Suco de uva enriquecido com soro: elaboração e aceitabilidade sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma


    Full Text Available Estudos têm sido realizados em diversos países visando oferecer ao mercado novas formas de utilização do soro de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver suco de uva enriquecido com soro lácteo e avaliar a aceitação sensorial utilizando a escala hedônica facial e a técnica Mapa de Preferência. As diferentes formulações foram avaliadas por 111 crianças com idade entre 7 e 11 anos, no período de setembro a novembro de 2009, em uma escola pública do município de Rio Pomba, MG. Para o preparo da bebida foram adicionados 250 mL de suco de uva concentrado em 1750 mL da mistura de água e soro nas proporções de 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% de soro e 7% de açúcar. As amostras que continham 40% e 60% de soro na mistura de água e soro foram classificadas pelas crianças entre os termos hedônicos "gostei extremamente" e "gostei moderadamente", respectivamente, indicando a boa aceitação pela maioria dos consumidores. Entretanto, do total de provadores, 44 classificaram a amostra contendo 100% de soro na mistura entre os termos hedônicos "desgostei moderadamente" e "desgostei extremamente" indicando rejeição.

  14. Design of P-Type Cladding Layers for Tunnel-Injected UVA Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuewei; Akyol, Fatih; Allerman, Andrew A; Moseley, Michael W; Armstrong, Andrew M; Rajan, Siddharth


    We discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62% were achieved for tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be used to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs, and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.

  15. UVA radiation is highly mutagenic in cells that are unable to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Kozmin, S; Slezak, G; Reynaud-Angelin, A; Elie, C; de Rycke, Y; Boiteux, S; Sage, E


    UVA (320-400 nm) radiation constitutes >90% of the environmentally relevant solar UV radiation, and it has been proposed to have a role in skin cancer and aging. Because of the popularity of UVA tanning beds and prolonged periods of sunbathing, the potential deleterious effect of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. Although generally accepted, the impact of DNA damage on the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of yeast mutants affected in the processing of DNA damage to the lethal and mutagenic effect of UVA radiation. The data show that none of the major DNA repair pathways, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, and postreplication repair, efficiently protect yeast from the lethal action of UVA radiation. In contrast, the results show that the Ogg1 DNA glycosylase efficiently prevents UVA-induced mutagenesis, suggesting the formation of oxidized guanine residues. Furthermore, sequence analysis of UVA-induced canavanine-resistant mutations reveals a bias in favor of GC-->TA events when compared with spontaneous or H(2)O(2)-, UVC-, and gamma-ray- induced canavanine-resistant mutations in the WT strain. Taken together, our data point out a major role of oxidative DNA damage, mostly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, in the genotoxicity of UVA radiation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the capacity of skin cells to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine may be a key parameter in the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation in humans.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  17. A New Algebraic Modelling Approach to Distributed Problem-Solving in MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅典勋; 邓志东


    This paper is devoted to a new algebraic modelling approach to distributed problem-solving in multi-agent systems (MAS), which is featured by a unified framework for describing and treating social behaviors, social dynamics and social intelligence. A conceptual architecture of algebraic modelling is presented. The algebraic modelling of typical social behaviors, social situation and social dynamics is discussed in the context of distributed problemsolving in MAS. The comparison and simulation on distributed task allocations and resource assignments in MAS show more advantages of the algebraic approach than other conventional methods.

  18. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.


    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves, pet

  19. The ideal table grapes for the Spanish market A uva de mesa ideal para o mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore a survey of consumers in Spain. The survey explores the attributes of quality that consumers are seeking and promotion of grapes via "quality" marks, which are indicators of possible ways to increase demand. The reason consumers are switching to other foods, such as dairy based snacks, is that grapes are not easy to eat, can be unreliable in terms of their quality attributes, and their price more variable. Consumers are also generally unaware of the marks quality currently used.Este trabalho busca explorar o mercado da uva de mesa na Espanha, do ponto de vista do consumidor. O estudo explora os atributos de qualidade que os consumidores estão buscando e a promoção da uva de mesa via marcas de "qualidade" com a possibilidade de incremento de demanda. A importância deste estudo reside na mudança que vem ocorrendo no hábito de consumo de alimentos, onde as frutas e verduras em geral, e a uva de mesa em particular têm perdido espaço para produtos prontos para o consumo, como os derivados lácteos , doces e sobremesas. Em contraste, a uva de mesa não se apresenta pronta para o consumo, possui qualidade de fruta e preços mais variáveis, e o conceito de marca comercial encontra-se ainda pouco estabelecido, ao contrário dos produtos industrializados.

  20. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Tulipani, Sara; Gonzàles-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio


    Exposure to UV-A radiation is known to induce discrete lesions in DNA and the generation of free radicals that lead to a wide array of skin diseases. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Because the major representative components of strawberry are anthocyanins, these may significantly contribute to its properties. To test this hypothesis, methanolic extracts from the Sveva cultivar were analyzed for anthocyanin content and for their ability to protect human dermal fibroblasts against UV-A radiation, as assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide and Comet assays. Five anthocyanin pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Moreover, the strawberry extract showed a photoprotective activity in fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation, increasing cellular viability, and diminishing DNA damage, as compared to control cells. Overall, our data show that strawberry contains compounds that confer photoprotective activity in human cell lines and may protect skin against the adverse effects of UV-A radiation.

  1. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso. (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  2. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup Iran Open 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    This year the task of the UvA Rescue Team is to break up the monolith architecture of the control architecture. On the one hand this will make the existing modules reusable by other researchers; on the other hand it opens the possibility to incorporate efficient modules from other research groups. A

  3. Potentiating effect of UVA irradiation on anticancer activity of Carboplatin derivatives involving 7-azaindoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Štarha

    Full Text Available The moderate-to-high in vitro cytotoxicity against ovarian A2780 (IC50 = 4.7-14.4 μM, prostate LNCaP (IC50 = 18.7-30.8 μM and prostate PC-3 (IC50 = 17.6-42.3 μM human cancer cell lines of the platinum(II cyclobutane-1,1'-dicarboxylato complexes [Pt(cbdc(naza2] (1-6; cbdc = cyclobutane-1,1'-dicarboxylate(2-; naza = halogeno-substituted 7-azaindoles, derived from the anticancer metallodrug carboplatin, are reported. The complexes containing the chloro- and bromo-substituted 7-azaindoles (1, 2, and 4-6 showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05 cytotoxicity against A2780 cell line as compared to cisplatin used as a reference drug. Addition of the non-toxic concentration (5.0 μM of L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO, an effective inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase markedly increases the in vitro cytotoxicity of the selected complex 3 against A2780 cancer cell line by a factor of about 4.4. The cytotoxicity against A2780 and LNCaP cells, as well as the DNA platination, were effectively enhanced by UVA light irradiation (λmax = 365 nm of the complexes, with the highest phototoxicity determined for compound 3, resulting in a 4-fold decline in the A2780 cells viability from 25.1% to 6.1%. The 1H NMR and ESI-MS experiments suggested that the complexes did not interact with glutathione as well as their ability to interact with guanosine monophosphate. The studies also confirmed UVA light induced the formation of the cis [Pt(H2O2(cbdc`(naza] intermediate, where cbdc` represents monodentate-coordinated cbdc ligand, which is thought to be responsible for the enhanced cytotoxicity. This is further supported by the results of transcription mapping experiments showing that the studied complexes preferentially form the bifunctional adducts with DNA under UVA irradiation, in contrast to the formation of the less effective monofunctional adducts in dark.

  4. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers (United States)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.


    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (290-320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  5. TrustMAS: Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Cabaj, Krzysztof; Radziszewski, Pawel


    The paper presents TrustMAS - Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems, which provides trust and anonymity for mobile agents. The platform includes anonymous technique based on random-walk algorithm for providing general purpose anonymous communication for agents. All agents, which take part in the proposed platform, benefit from trust and anonymity that is provided for their interactions. Moreover, in TrustMAS there are StegAgents (SA) that are able to perform various steganographic communication. To achieve that goal, SAs may use methods in different layers of TCP/IP model or specialized middleware enabling steganography that allows hidden communication through all layers of mentioned model. In TrustMAS steganographic channels are used to exchange routing tables between StegAgents. Thus all StegAgents in TrustMAS with their ability to exchange information by using hidden channels form distributed steganographic router (Stegrouter).

  6. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.


    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  7. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract. (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza


    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  8. UVA-UVB Photoprotective Activity of Topical Formulations Containing Morinda citrifolia Extract (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza


    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  9. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid upon skin photoreaction to UVA. (United States)

    Birgin, Bahar; Fetil, Emel; Ilknur, Turna; Tahsin Güneş, Ali; Ozkan, Sebnem


    Various agents which can be used in combination can also interfere with phototherapy. In this study, the effects of topical petrolatum and 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum upon skin photoreaction to UVA were investigated, in an in vivo test. Minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) test was performed on 31 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thin 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum and sunscreen. The effect of each agent on MPD was investigated. MPD was increased with thin and thick applications of all agents. Also, MPD was increased with 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum when compared with pure petrolatum, in the same thickness. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid in petrolatum just before PUVA therapy is not recommended because of their blocking effects.

  10. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence. (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J


    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  11. UVA mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles in pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium solutions (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, M. Del P.; Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Olmos-López, M.; Salas, P.; Gutiérrez, Clara


    A photochemical-based method in which UVA light (λ=366 nm) is used for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is presented by irradiating gold (III) chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) in the presence of pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium (PGHEP) as a reducing and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Different HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratios were exposed to UVA for up to seven hours. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pH measurements. The synthesized AuNPs present spherical as well as anisotropic shapes, such as oval, triangular, hexagonal sheets, rods, and some other faceted forms, with dimensions ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm. All obtained products show good temporal stability in solution. Surface plasmons differ when varying HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio. The obtained samples exhibit two absorption peaks, one in the region between 500-600 nm, and another one in the near-IR between 900-1200 nm; both peaks shift to longer wavelengths and increase their absorption intensity as the HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio increase. TEM images show the change in nanoparticles yield as well as the shape and sizes change depending on HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio variation. Ph measurements suggest that acidic media promote anisotropic nanoparticle formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to find out which heparin sodium main groups attached to the nanoparticles surface, and in what amount. In summary, it is found that when modifying the reactants concentrations and keeping the UV exposition time as the only fixed parameter, different nanoparticles with distinctive characteristics can be attained.

  12. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán


    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  13. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu


    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  14. Determination of residual 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and mutagenicity testing following psoralen plus UVA treatment of platelet suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S.J.; Robinette, D.; Dodd, R.Y. (American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Jerome H. Holland Lab. for Biomedical Sciences); White, R.; Wolf, L.; Chapman, J. (Baxter Biotech, Round Lake, IL (United States). Fenwal Labs.); Lawlor, T.E. (Hazleton Labs., Vienna, VA (United States). Molecular and Cellular Toxicology)


    Psoralens and UVa light have been used in the laboratory to study the inactivation of viruses that may be infrequently present in platelet concentrates prepared for transfusion. In order to evaluate safety aspects of the treatment of platelet suspensions with 4'-aminomethyl-4,5'8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), the authors have investigated the residual levels and mutagenic potential of AMT after UVA phototreatment. The results suggest that residual available AMT is mutagenic in the AMES test and that the observed frameshift mutations may be caused by binding of AMt or its metabolites to nucleic acids in the absence of UVA light. (Author).

  15. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef


    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturaion is improved...

  16. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection. (United States)

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S


    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  17. Tendências climáticas e produção de uva na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências nas séries climáticas e nos índices agroclimáticos para o cultivo da videira na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe, em Santa Catarina. A região apresenta clima mesotérmico úmido. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura máxima e mínima do ar, do período de 1924 a 2010, e de precipitação pluvial, de 1955 a 2010. O teste de Mann‑Kendall foi utilizado para avaliar a tendência nas séries, cuja magnitude foi estimada pela declividade mediana determinada pelo teste de Theil-Sen. Foi observada tendência de aumento nas séries de temperatura mínima do ar, em escala anual, bem como nas estações do ano. Quanto à temperatura máxima, somente houve tendência de aumento na série de verão. Em relação aos índices agrometeorológicos, foi observada tendência de diminuição do número de geadas, diminuição do período entre a brotação e a colheita, aumento da soma térmica e dos índices de Huglin e de frio. Foram evidenciadas tendências de aumento da precipitação pluvial total anual e da precipitação no período de crescimento da videira, bem como aumento do número de dias, com chuva igual ou superior a 20 mm, e aumento na temperatura mínima e noturna.

  18. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation. (United States)

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos


    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation.

  19. Norovirus and MS2 inactivation kinetics of UV-A and UV-B with and without TiO2. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo


    Germicidal ultraviolet, such as 254-nm UV-C, is a common method of disinfection of pathogenic enteric viruses. However, the disinfection efficacies of UV-A or -B in terms of inactivating waterborne viruses such as norovirus have not been characterized. We evaluated the inactivation kinetics of MS2 bacteriophage and murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate of human norovirus (NoV), by UV-A and -B. In addition to UV disinfection, we further investigated whether the presence of TiO2 could enhance the virus inactivation kinetics of UV-A and -B. Both MS2 and MNV were highly resistant to UV-A. However, the addition of TiO2 enhanced the efficacy of UV-A for inactivating these viruses. UV-A dose of 1379 mJ/cm(2) resulted in a 4 log10 reduction. In comparison, UV-B alone effectively inactivated both MS2 and MNV, as evidenced by the 4 log10 reduction by 367 mJ/cm(2) of UV-B. The addition of TiO2 increased the inactivation of MS2; however, it did not significantly increase the efficacy of UV-B disinfection for inactivating MNV. When these treatments were applied to field water such as groundwater, the results were generally consistent with the laboratory findings. Our results clearly indicated that UV-B is useful for the disinfection of waterborne norovirus. However, MNV was quite resistant to UV-A, and UV-A effectively inactivated the tested viruses only when used in combination with TiO2.

  20. Influence of Seed pre-treatment by UV-A and UV-C radiation on germination and growth of Mung beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Hamid


    Full Text Available The consequence of pre-treatment of UV-A (366 nm and UV-C (254 nm radiation on seed germination and growth of Vigna radiata was investigated at three different exposure period (2, 4 and 6 hours. Supplementation of UV-A enhanced the germination rate, specific leaf area, root and shoot length and dry weight than the UV-C supplemented plants.

  1. Phototherapy and photopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Chan, G.; Edelson, R.L.


    The activation of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) by long-wavelength ultraviolet A light (UVA, 320-400 nm) induces the formation of interstrand cross-links in DNA. Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis, a hyperproliferative disease of the skin. A new psoralen plus UVA therapy has been developed in which the 8-MOP-containing blood of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients is irradiated with UVA light extracorporeally (i.e., extracorporeal photopheresis). The first group of patients had the leukemic variant of CTCL. A regimen of two treatments on successive days at monthly intervals produced a clinical response in eight of 11 patients. In this review the properties of several psoralens (both naturally occurring and synthetic derivatives) are compared, using several assays (DNA cross-linking, inhibition of lymphocyte response to mitogen stimulation, and cell viability). The development of a panel of monoclonal antibodies that recognize 8-MOP-modified DNA is also described. These antibodies have been used to quantitate 8-MOP photoadduct levels in human DNA samples. In addition to the psoralens, the light activation of two other compounds, gilvocarcin and an insulin-psoralen conjugate, is described.

  2. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M


    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  3. Altered heart rate and blood pressure variability in mice lacking the Mas protooncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walther


    Full Text Available Heart rate variability is a relevant predictor of cardiovascular risk in humans. A significant genetic influence on heart rate variability is suggested, although the genes involved are ill-defined. The Mas-protooncogene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains highly expressed in testis and brain. Since this receptor is supposed to interact with the signaling of angiotensin II, which is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed in Mas-deficient mice. Using a femoral catheter the blood pressure of mice was measured for a period of 30 min and 250 data values per second were recorded. The mean values and range of heart rate and blood pressure were then calculated. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure were significantly different between knockout mice and controls. However, high resolution recording of these parameters and analysis of the data by non-linear dynamics revealed significant alterations in cardiovascular variability in Mas-deficient animals. In particular, females showed a strong reduction of heart rate variability. Furthermore, the data showed an increased sympathetic tone in knockout animals of both genders. The marked alterations detected in Mas-deficient mice of both genders suggest that the Mas-protooncogene is an important determinant of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

  4. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W;


    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting.......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...

  5. Studies on singlet oxygen formation and UVA light-mediated photobleaching of the yellow chromophores in human lenses. (United States)

    Ortwerth, Beryl J; Chemoganskiy, Vitaliy; Olesen, P R


    The protein-bound chromophores, which increase with aging in the human lens, act as UVA sensitizers, producing almost exclusively singlet oxygen in vitro. Direct irradiation of whole, aged human lenses with high intensity UVA light (200 mW cm(-2) for 24 hr), however, failed to produce singlet oxygen damage, as evidenced by the lack of either His or Trp photodestruction. Total homogenates of human lenses prepared in a cuvette under air did show destruction of His and Trp residues by UVA light, but no destruction was seen when equivalent homogenates were prepared under argon. These data are consistent with the idea that the low oxygen levels in the lens prevent singlet oxygen damage in vivo.UVA irradiation of aged human lenses in culture caused an extensive photobleaching of the yellow chromophores. A time course indicated that the photobleaching increased with time, with significant color loss apparent after 6 hr. Homogenization of the irradiated and dark control lenses in 6 M guanidine-HCl, followed by determination of the difference spectrum, showed approximately 50% bleaching of compounds with a lambda(max) at 355 nm. Similarly, fluorophores with a lambda(max) for excitation of 355 nm and for emission of 420 nm were 50% destroyed by the UVA light. Similar results were obtained in vitro by the anaerobic irradiation of a sonication-solubilized WI fraction from type II brunescent cataracts and from aged human lenses. In this system, there was an initial bleaching of 15% after 30 min of irradiation, followed by a slow increase over the next 6 hr to a final bleaching of 30%. The addition of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid, but not 1.0 m M glutathione (GSH), increased the photobleaching to 60% under argon, and the loss of ascorbate could be detected under these anaerobic conditions. In the presence of air, UVA light produced no photobleaching, but rather caused a three-fold increase in absorbance at 345 nm, which was prevented by the inclusion of 1.0 m M ascorbic acid and almost

  6. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc


    Rizzon Luiz Antenor; Miele Alberto


    A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera) da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinho...

  7. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia


    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  8. Avaliação sensorial de suco de uva cv. Isabel em cortes com diferentes cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Sá Borges


    Full Text Available As videiras americanas constituem a base varietal do suco de uva brasileiro, com destaque para a cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação de consumidores por meio de avaliação sensorial de sucos de uva de 'Isabel' combinados em cortes com sucos de outras cultivares. Foram preparadas em panela extratora seis amostras de suco de uva integral: Isabel (100%; Isabel (80% + Concord (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Rúbea (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Cora (20%; Isabel (80% + BRS Violeta (20% e Isabel (80% + BRS Carmem (20%. Foram avaliados o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total e pH das amostras. Para a avaliação sensorial, contou-se com cinquenta julgadores que avaliaram os atributos Cor, Aroma, Sabor, Corpo e Aceitação Global, usando uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. Tanto o suco puro de 'Isabel' como os cortes tiveram aceitação sensorial satisfatória. Com relação à cor, os cortes contendo 'BRS Rúbea', 'BRS Cora', 'BRS Violeta' e 'BRS Carmem' apresentaram as maiores médias, 7,98; 8,10; 7,96 e 8,22, respectivamente. Para os demais atributos, como aroma, sabor, corpo e aceitação global, os cortes de suco de 'Isabel' com outras cultivares não diferiram do suco puro dessa cultivar, 6,84; 6,56; 6,80 e 6,74, respectivamente. Na avaliação do consumidor, todas as cultivares avaliadas, com exceção da 'Concord', podem ser usadas em cortes com a 'Isabel', na proporção de 4:1, para melhorar a coloração do suco de uva, sem alterar as demais características.

  9. Apigenin inhibits UVA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prevents signs of skin aging in vivo. (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Youn, Jeungyeun; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; An, In-Sook; Kwon, Seungbin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun


    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin on skin and found that, in experiments using cells, apigenin restored the viability of normal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs), which had been decreased by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the UVA range. Using a senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal assay, we also demonstrate that apigenin protects against the UVA-induced senescence of nHDFs. Furthermore, we found that apigenin decreased the expression of the collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in UVA-irradiated nHDFs. UVA, which has been previously identified as a photoaging-inducing factor, has been shown to induce MMP-1 expression. The elevated expression of MMP-1 impairs the collagen matrix, leading to the loss of elasticity and skin dryness. Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of apigenin on aged skin, using an apigenin‑containing cream for clinical application. Specifically, we measured dermal density, skin elasticity and the length of fine wrinkles in subjects treated with apigenin cream or the control cream without apigenin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the apigenin-containing cream on skin texture, moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). From these experiments, we found that the apigenin‑containing cream increased dermal density and elasticity, and reduced fine wrinkle length. It also improved skin evenness, moisture content and TEWL. These results clearly demonstrate the biological effects of apigenin, demonstrating both its cellular and clinical efficacy, and suggest that this compound holds promise as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient.

  10. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  11. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation


    Giuchici Camelia V; Butnariu Monica V


    Abstract Background The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its ri...

  12. Treatment of crystallized-fruit wastewater by UV-A LED photo-Fenton and coagulation-flocculation. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, Jorge; Amor, Carlos; Fernandes, José R; Tavares, Pedro B; Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A


    This work reports the treatment of crystallized-fruit effluents, characterized by a very low biodegradability (BOD5/COD UV-A LED photo-Fenton process. Firstly, a Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology was applied to achieve the optimal conditions for the UV-A LED photo-Fenton process, trying to maximize the efficiency by saving chemicals and time. Under the optimal conditions ([H2O2] = 5459 mg/L; [Fe(3+)] = 286 mg/L; time >180 min), a COD removal of 45, 64 and 74% was achieved after 360 min, using an irradiance of 23, 70 and 85 W/m(2) respectively. Then a combination of UV-A LED photo-Fenton with coagulation-flocculation-decantation attained a higher COD removal (80%), as well as almost total removal of turbidity (99%) and total suspended solids (95%). Subsequent biodegradability of treated effluents increased, allowing the application of a biological treatment step after the photochemical/CFD with 85 W/m(2).

  13. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)


    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki


    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  15. Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens. (United States)

    Dubertret, L; Serraf-Tircazes, D; Jeanmougin, M; Morlière, P; Averbeck, D; Young, A R


    As part of an international cooperative study of the photophysical, photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic properties of bergamot oil and the effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens, the phototoxic properties of model perfumes containing 5, 15 and 50 ppm 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in bergamot oil with and without a sunscreen have been investigated on human skin. It has been confirmed that the photosensitivity of human skin is maximal 2 h after perfume application. Interestingly the addition of a UVA sunscreen is more efficient for decreasing the phototoxic properties of bergamot oil than is a UVB sunscreen. The addition of sunscreens in a model perfume containing 50 ppm 5-MOP in bergamot oil can reduce the phototoxic properties of this perfume to a toxicity equivalent to that produced by the application of a model perfume containing 15 ppm 5-MOP without sunscreens. However, despite their promising protective effect in vitro, UVB and UVA sunscreens at low concentration (0.5%-1%) in perfumes cannot suppress the phototoxicity of bergamot oil on human skin.

  16. The Effect of NaCl and CMA on the Growth and Morphology of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Young


    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described the negative effects of the commonly used deicer, NaCl, on plants; this has led to research on less toxic alternatives, for example, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA. The present research investigated the native ground cover species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick, as a possible candidate for landscaping in high salt conditions. The effect of NaCl and CMA on the growth, morphology, and survival of A. uva-ursi plants was examined to explore the use of CMA as a potential environmentally friendly alternative deicing agent to that of NaCl. The influence of these deicing agents on selected soil properties was also investigated. It was found that this ground cover species was able to tolerate moderate-to-high levels of NaCl and even greater concentrations of CMA. Therefore, A. uva-ursi proved to be a candidate for landscaping use in a north central city of Canada, where deicing agents are used in winter months.

  17. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence. (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas


    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells.

  18. Evidence for a systematic offset of $-$0.25~mas in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G


    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres (2016). We find a clear average offset of $-$0.25$\\pm$0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The documented Gaia systematic uncertainty is 0.3 mas, which the eclipsing binary sample corroborates. The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color, brightness, or spatial position. However, with a statistical significance of 99.7%, nearer stars possibly exhibit larger offsets according to $\\Delta\\pi \\approx -0.16 -0.02 \\times \\pi$ mas.

  19. Technology Enhanced Learning for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Cerebral Paralysis: The MAS Platform (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.

  20. Factor analysis of 27Al MAS NMR spectra for identifying nanocrystalline phases in amorphous geopolymers. (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri


    Nanostructured materials offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of the large interfacial area. Typically, geopolymers with specifically synthesized nanosized zeolites are a promising material for the sorption of pollutants. The structural characterization of these aluminosilicates, however, continues to be a challenge. To circumvent complications resulting from the amorphous character of the aluminosilicate matrix and from the low concentrations of nanosized crystallites, we have proposed a procedure based on factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra. The capability of the proposed method was tested on geopolymers that exhibited various tendencies to crystallize (i) completely amorphous systems, (ii) X-ray amorphous systems with nanocrystalline phases, and (iii) highly crystalline systems. Although the recorded (27)Al MAS NMR spectra did not show visible differences between the amorphous systems (i) and the geopolymers with the nanocrystalline phase (ii), the applied factor analysis unambiguously distinguished these materials. The samples were separated into the well-defined clusters, and the systems with the evolving crystalline phase were identified even before any crystalline fraction was detected by X-ray powder diffraction. Reliability of the proposed procedure was verified by comparing it with (29)Si MAS NMR spectra. Factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra thus has the ability to reveal spectroscopic features corresponding to the nanocrystalline phases. Because the measurement time of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra is significantly shorter than that of (29)Si MAS NMR data, the proposed procedure is particularly suitable for the analysis of large sets of specifically synthesized geopolymers in which the formation of the limited fractions of nanocrystalline phases is desired.

  1. Dibujo y pensamiento en la obra de Rafael Masó


    Marañón González, Rafael Carlos


    Rafael Masó, arquitecto noucentista, es además, el artista adecuado para el análisis de una obra totalmente gráfica.Dibujos, escritos, gráficos y bocetos, son los elementos idóneos para que las ideas sobre la expresión gráfica, queden reflejados en esta Tesis Doctoral.Para conocer su obra gráfica, es necesario llegar a lo más profundo de sus pensamientos transmitidos por historiadores y la Familia Masó. Tanto su obra arquitectónica, como sus dibujos, son conocidos por expertos y estudiosos ...

  2. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  3. “Logias masónicas en la Nueva España”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Martínez Moreno


    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar que en la Nueva España hubo logias masónicas autorizadas por la Gran Logia del Estado de Louisiana para ser establecidas en Veracruz, Campeche y Mérida Yucatán entre 1816 y 1820. La evidencia documental se presenta por primera vez con su transcripción y traducción, con un estudio hermenéutico del contexto político y masónico de la época, y de algunas reflexiones acerca de la composición de los miembros de las tres logias.

  4. Solid-phase enolate chemistry investigated using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Fruchart, Jean-Sébastien; Lippens, Guy; Kuhn, Cyrille; Gras-Masse, Hélène; Melnyk, Oleg


    Supported P4-t-Bu enolate chemistry of phenylacetyloxymethyl polystyrene (PS) resin was investigated using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Direct analysis of the crude reaction suspensions through the use of a diffusion filter (DF) allowed a rapid selection of the optimal experimental conditions, but also the characterization of the enolate on the solid phase. Comparison with solution experiments and literature data allowed us to address partially the structure of the enolate. HR-MAS NMR spectra of the enolate revealed also a tight interaction of P4-t-Bu base with the polymer matrix.

  5. Phenylmercury degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis assisted by UV-A light. (United States)

    Miranda, Cristian; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Zaror, Claudio; Mansilla, Héctor D


    Photocatalytic degradation of phenylmercury was studied using TiO2 in aqueous suspension assisted by UV-A irradiation. Reaction conditions, such as pH and amount of TiO2 were set using a factorial design of experiments resulting in a greater influence of pH on phenylmercury degradation. Hg (II) reduction and simultaneous oxidation of aromatic group was observed. Optimum reaction conditions were obtained under nitrogen atmosphere at pH 10 and 0.35 g/L(-1) TiO2. Under these conditions almost 100% reduction of mercury was reached after 30 min UV irradiation. Total mercury reduction was achieved after 40 min reaction under saturated oxygen. Furthermore, phenol and diphenylmercury were identified as intermediate products of oxidation. It was observed that a major fraction of the reduced mercury was removed as metallic vapor by gas stripping, whereas a minor fraction was adsorbed on the catalyst surface, probably as Hg(OH)2. Under optimal conditions obtained by multivariable analysis, total mineralization of organic matter was achieved after about 60-min irradiation.

  6. Low-flow transport models for conservative and sorbed solutes; Uvas Creek, near Morgan Hill, California (United States)

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.


    Models describing low-flow transport of conservative (nonreactive) and reactive solutes, which adsorb on the streambed, are developed and tested. Temporary storage within the bed plays an important role in solute movement. Three different models of bed-storage processes are developed for conservative solutes. One model assumes the bed is a well-mixed, nondiffusing, nonreacting zone. Solute flux into the bed is then proportional to the difference between stream and bed-solute concentrations. A second model assumes that solute is transported within the bed by a vertical diffusion process. The bed-solute concentration, which matches the stream concentration at the interface, varies with depth in the bed according to Fick 's law. A third model assumes convection in the downstream direction occurs in certain parts of the bed, while the mechanism of the first model functions elsewhere. Storage of absorbing species is assumed to occur by equilibrium adsorption within streambed particles. Uptake rate is described by an intraparticle diffusion process. Model equations were solved using finite element numerical methods. Models were calibrated using data from a 24-hour injection of conservative chloride and adsorptive Sr ions at Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California. All models predict well except for some overestimation by the adsorption model during dieaway. (USGS)

  7. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie


    Full Text Available UVA irradiation of glass mounted dye-sensitized solar cells without UV filtration causes failure within 400 hours of light exposure. The failure mode is shown to relate to consumption of I3−, which is directly related to TiO2 photo-catalysis. The onset of failure is easily determined from electrochemical impedance data where the recombination resistance of the TiO2/electrolyte back reaction drops markedly prior to the onset of degradation. At the point of complete cell failure this impedance value then dramatically increases as there is no longer an interfacial reaction possible between the TiO2 and the I3− depleted electrolyte. Device failure is most rapid for cells under electrical load indicating that the degradation of the electrolyte is related to photogenerated hole production by excitation of the TiO2. Once depleted by UV exposure, the I3− can be regenerated by simple application of a reverse bias which can restore severely UV degraded devices to near original working conditions.

  8. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light. (United States)

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D


    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min.

  9. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K


    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm.

  10. Temporal variation of erythemally effective UVB/UVA ratio at Chilton, UK. (United States)

    Hooke, R J; Pearson, A J; O'Hagan, J B


    An analysis of the temporal variation in the erythemally weighted UVB/UVA irradiance ratio using spectral data collected from a monitoring site in Chilton, UK (51°N) for the 5-y period from 2004 to 2008 is presented. The variation in the diurnal ratio was found to be bell-shaped, with minima on average 1 h after sunrise and before sunset. The minima were found to be indicative of the point at which UVB becomes undetectable by the spectroradiometer and therefore the outer boundary of useful data. A potential flaw entailed in the erythemal weighting of low-level spectral UV data is described. The peak daily ratio value was found to have a bell-shaped distribution over the course of a year with a maximum in July rather than at the summer solstice-a result explained by the ozone cycle. The peak daily ratio was found to vary by a factor of 4 over the course of the year; this range of variation was also found to occur over a single day in the summer.

  11. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  12. Activation of Nrf2 Reduces UVA-Mediated MMP-1 Upregulation via MAPK/AP-1 Signaling Cascades: The Photoprotective Effects of Sulforaphane and Hispidulin (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Lohakul, Jinaphat; Soontrapa, Kitipong; Sampattavanich, Somponnat; Akarasereenont, Pravit


    UVA irradiation plays a role in premature aging of the skin through triggering oxidative stress-associated stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) responsible for collagen degradation, a hallmark of photoaged skin. Compounds that can activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor regulating antioxidant gene expression, should therefore serve as effective antiphotoaging agents. We investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2 could relieve UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling using human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Antiphotoaging effects of hispidulin (HPD) and sulforaphane (SFN) were assessed on their abilities to activate Nrf2 in controlling MMP-1 and collagen expressions in association with phosphorylation of MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38), c-Jun, and c-Fos, using the skin of BALB/c mice subjected to repetitive UVA irradiation. Our findings suggested that depletion of Nrf2 promoted both mRNA expression and activity of MMP-1 in the UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells. Treatment of Nrf2 knocked-down HaCaT cells with MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed UVA-induced MMP-1 and AP-1 activities. Moreover, pretreatment of the mouse skin with HPD and SFN, which could activate Nrf2, provided protective effects against UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction and collagen depletion in correlation with the decreased levels of phosphorylated MAPKs, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the mouse skin. In conclusion, Nrf2 could influence UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation through the MAPK/AP-1 signaling cascades. HPD and SFN may therefore represent promising antiphotoaging candidates. PMID:28011874

  13. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao


    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  14. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...... problem....

  15. Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy


    The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.

  16. Project MAS, 1982-1983. O.E.E. Evaluation Report. (United States)

    Villegas, Ana; Villegas, Jose

    This multi-site instructional program, in its first year of a three-year funding cycle, provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native language arts, as well as bilingual instruction in various content areas, to 400 Spanish speaking students of limited English proficiency in grades 3-8. The functional goal of Project MAS,…

  17. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p. at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p. 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05, an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  18. Nivel de aceptabilidad para cinco variedades de uva de mesa en el mercado español Nivel de aceitabilidade para cinco variedades de uva de mesa no mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel de aceptabilidad con relación a distintas variedades de uva de mesa, la Unidad de Comercialización y Divulgación Agraria del Departamento de Economía y Ciencias Sociales Agrarias (E.T.S.I.Agrónomos, de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, realizó la presente investigación en julio de 1999. Se utilizó el análisis sensorial en Sala de Catas como herramienta para la evaluación del nivel de aceptabilidad de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Se puso énfasis en conocer las posibles diferencias de carácter sensorial entre las variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble, variedades que coinciden en su época de cosecha en España. En los análisis hechos, las variedades Cardinal y Superior Seedless fueron las más preferidas en comparación con Flame Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble. La variedad Superior Seedless fue muy valorada por su ausencia de semillas, además de su buen sabor, lo que la torna de gran potencial para el mercado español. El sabor, seguido de la jugosidad, fueron los elementos determinantes en el proceso de aceptación de la uva.Com o objetivo de avaliar o nível de aceitabilidade de distintas variedades de uva de mesa, a Unidade de Comercialização e Divulgação Agrária do Departamento de Economia y Ciências Sociales Agrárias (E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, da Universidade Politécnica de Madri, realizou o presente estudo em julho de 1999. Empregou-se a análise sensorial para a avaliação do nível de aceitabilidade de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Procurou-se determinar especial atenção em conhecer as possíveis diferenças de caráter sensorial entre as variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria e Redgloble. Nos pomares espanhóis, essas variedades atingem a maturação de colheita na mesma época. Nas análises realizadas, as variedades Cardinal e Superior Seedless foram as mais preferidas em comparação com Flame Seedless

  19. Impact of UV-A radiation on the performance of aphids and whiteflies and on the leaf chemistry of their host plants. (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moreno, Aránzazu; Winters, Ana; Fereres, Alberto


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly regulates a multitude of herbivore life processes, in addition to indirectly affecting insect success via changes in plant chemistry and morphogenesis. Here we looked at plant and insect (aphid and whitefly) exposure to supplemental UV-A radiation in the glasshouse environment and investigated effects on insect population growth. Glasshouse grown peppers and eggplants were grown from seed inside cages covered by novel plastic filters, one transparent and the other opaque to UV-A radiation. At a 10-true leaf stage for peppers (53 days) and 4-true leaf stage for eggplants (34 days), plants were harvested for chemical analysis and infested by aphids and whiteflies, respectively. Clip-cages were used to introduce and monitor the insect fitness and populations of the pests studied. Insect pre-reproductive period, fecundity, fertility and intrinsic rate of natural increase were assessed. Crop growth was monitored weekly for 7 and 12 weeks throughout the crop cycle of peppers and eggplants, respectively. At the end of the insect fitness experiment, plants were harvested (68 days and 18-true leaf stage for peppers, and 104 days and 12-true leaf stage for eggplants) and leaves analysed for secondary metabolites, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, total proteins and photosynthetic pigments. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that UV-A modulates plant chemistry with implications for insect pests. Both plant species responded directly to UV-A by producing shorter stems but this effect was only significant in pepper whilst UV-A did not affect the leaf area of either species. Importantly, in pepper, the UV-A treated plants contained higher contents of secondary metabolites, leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and total content of protein. Such changes in tissue chemistry may have indirectly promoted aphid performance. For eggplants, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid levels decreased with supplemental UV-A over the entire

  20. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae, E-mail: [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)


    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in {phi}X174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  1. Avaliação de mosto de uva fermentado Evaluation of fermented grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a concentração de compostos voláteis nos mostos de uva Chardonnay e Pinot Noir fermentados pela Pichia membranaefaciens, como também analisar as fases de crescimento da levedura durante a fermentação a 15 e 20 °C. Compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação como: etanol, acetato de etila, acetato de isoamila, acetaldeido, 1-propanol, isobutanol e álcool isoamílico foram isolados e quantificados pelo sistema de "Purge and Trap". A fermentação conduzida a 15 °C mostrou ser mais adequada na produção de acetato de etila, com valores inferiores a 200 mg.L-1 (131,3 e 147,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente, enquanto que a 20 °C a produção foi de 286,0 e 270,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente.The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of volatile compounds in Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape musts. The study also aims to analyze yeast growth phases during fermentation at 15 and 20 °C. Major volatile compounds of fermentation such as ethanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 3-methyl butanol and 2-methyl butanol were isolated and quantified using the Purge and Trap system. Fermentation carried out at 15 °C was more appropriate in the production of ethyl acetate (131.3 and 147.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts, respectively, whilst at 20 °C the production was of 286.0 and 270.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts respectively.

  2. The role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO₂ disinfection. (United States)

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Hu, Jiangyong; Chen, MinDong


    Inorganic nitrogen species have three states including ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)/NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and are often found in the disinfection system. However, no available literature could be found on their role and fate in photocatalytic disinfection systems. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate bacteria inactivation, H2O2 generated and inorganic nitrogen variation to understand the role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO2 disinfection and evaluate effects of initial pH and bacteria levels on the role and fate. NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) inhibited the photocatalytic disinfection process obviously. It could be confirmed through that H2O2 yield used for pathogen inactivation was dependent on NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) levels. The NH4(+)/NH3 remaining, NH4(+) remaining and NO3(-) yields in only NH4(+)/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation experiments were obviously different from the corresponding values in the photocatalytic disinfection experiments with NH4(+)/NH3, which confirmed that photocatalytic disinfection had an obvious effect on the fate of NH4(+)/NH3. However, photocatalytic disinfection had slight effects on the fate of NO2(-) and NO3(-). Escherischia coli inactivation rate was the highest in neutral solutions (Initial pH 7) while the lowest in alkaline solutions (Initial pH 8.5). The decrease of NH4(+)/NH3 in alkaline solutions was the most significant. In turn, the photocatalysis of NO2(-) was more evident in acidic solutions. E. coli inactivation was reduced with the increase of initial E. coli concentrations. The initial bacteria concentrations significantly influenced the increase of NH4(+)/NH3, NH4(+) and NO3(-), but slightly impacted the decrease of NO2(-).

  3. Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways Contribute to Porphyra-334-Mediated Inhibition of UVA-Induced Inflammation in Skin Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Nam, Taek-Jeong


    In this study, we examined the protective effects of porphyra-334 against UVA-irradiated cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Porphyra-334 prevented UVA-induced cell death and exhibited scavenging activities against intracellular oxidative stress induced by UVA irradiation in skin fibroblasts. We found that porphyra-334 significantly reduced the secretion and expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, reduced nuclear expression of Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and sustained NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Further mechanism research revealed that porphyra-334 promoted the Nrf2 signaling pathway in UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of porphyra-334 is due to the direct scavenging of oxidative stress and its inhibitory effects on NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes, such as IL-6 and TNF-κ. Therefore, we hypothesize that boosting the Nrf2- NF-κB-dependent response to counteract environmental stress is a promising strategy for the prevention of UVA-related damage.

  4. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) architecture and design accommodations (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term “ hyperspectral microwave” is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth's atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4 - 9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the s- an head

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7 attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Morales


    Full Text Available Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7 in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7 and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT and Mas-knockout (Mas KO mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7 immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7 prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7 increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  6. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan


    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  7. The molecular characterization by SSRs reveals a new South Italian kinship and the origin of the cultivar Uva di Troia. (United States)

    Bergamini, C; Perniola, R; Cardone, M F; Gasparro, M; Pepe, R; Caputo, A R; Antonacci, D


    Vitis vinifera L. varieties were spread through cuttings following historic migrations of people, trades, or after biological crises due to pests outbreaks. Some today's varieties could be more than a 1000 years old and, although over the centuries these varieties generated most of the remaining cultivars, their origin could be impossible to track back. The Italian grapevine biodiversity is one of most important, most likely due to its strategic position in the middle of the Mediterranean sea. Unravelling of its structure is challenging because of its complexity and the lack of historical documentation. In this paper molecular data are compared with historical documentations. Simple Sequence Repeats fingerprinting are molecular markers best suited to investigate genetic relationships and identify pedigrees. South-Italian germplasm was studied with 54 nuclear microsatellites. A family was identified, consisting of two parents and three siblings and further genetically characterized with six nuclear and five chloroplast microsatellites and described with ampelographic and phylometric analysis. Although these latter were not informative for the kinship identification. The common Bombino bianco was the female parent and the previously unknown Uva rosa antica was the male parent. Bombino nero, Impigno and the popular Uva di Troia, all typical of the south-east Italy, were the offspring. Further research showed that the Uva rosa antica was a synonym of Quagliano and Bouteillan noir, both minor varieties. Quagliano was considered to be autochthonous of some alpine valleys in the north-west of Italy and Bouteillan noir is a neglected variety of Vancluse in France. This finding uncovers the intricate nature of Italian grape cultivars, considered peculiar of an area, but possibly being the remains of ancient latin founding varieties. Consequently, intriguing new hypotheses are discussed and some conclusions are drawn, based on the peculiar geographical origin of the parents

  8. A novel BN–MAS system composite ceramics with greatly improved mechanical properties prepared by low temperature hot-pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua, E-mail:; Duan, Xiaoming; Liang, Bin; Li, Qian; Jia, Dechang, E-mail:; Zhou, Yu


    A novel composite ceramics with excellent mechanical properties was fabricated by means of low temperature hot-pressing using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as raw materials. The influences of starting MAS content on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicate that the effective enhancement of relative density of composites has been achieved, which shows that MAS is an effective liquid-phase sintering aid during the hot-pressing. MAS also can improve the structural ordering of h-BN flakes. On the other hand, h-BN exhibits significant inhibiting effect on the crystallization of α-Cordierite. Furthermore, h-BN flakes with layered structure can play a role in strengthening the MAS matrix. So h-BN and MAS are considered to be co-enhanced by each other, resulting in better sintering ability and the mechanical properties of composite ceramics are better than that of both h-BN and MAS. Composite ceramics incorporated with 50 wt% MAS exhibits the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of 213±25 MPa and 2.49±0.35 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively.

  9. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  10. Desidratação osmótica e secagem convectiva de uvas da cultivar Crimson


    Almeida, Luis Carlos Pita de


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2013. A uva passa é um alimento amplamente consumido no Brasil, como consumo direto e também quando aplicadas em produtos alimentícios, como panetones, bolos, sorvetes, barras de cereais, entre outros, além de refinados pratos da alta gastronomia. Entretanto, o Brasil não possui produção suficiente para atender a toda esta demanda, import...

  11. Elaboración de vinos dulces de Andalucía a partir de uvas secadas artificialmente


    Ruiz-Bejarano, María Jesús


    Los vinos dulces naturales de Andalucía gozan de una fama considerable estando basada su elaboración tradicional en el asoleo de las uvas a fin de elevar su contenido en azúcar y en el sistema de envejecimiento por soleras y criaderas. Pero la etapa del asoleo natural, que implica un cierto periodo de tiempo, conlleva junto a importantes cambios en la composición, importantes riesgos, entre los que destaca la posible lluvia o el aumento de la humedad durante la noche, que puede...

  12. Evidence for preferential repair of 3-carbethoxypsoralen plus UVA induced DNA lesions in the active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the UvrABC assay. (United States)

    Méniel, V; Brouwer, J; Averbeck, D


    The occurrence of preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus was confirmed after 254 nm UV irradiation. Experiments carried out using the UvrABC excinuclease assay with the monofunctional furocoumarin 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) plus UVA radiation which induce mainly monoadducts in DNA demonstrated preferential repair of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus in a SIR+ strain. However, as after 254 nm UV irradiation, no difference in the rate of removal of 3-CPs plus UVA induced lesions was observed between the two loci in the sir-3 mutant in which both loci are active. Thus, it appears that 3-CPs plus UVA induced monoadducts as well as pyrimidine dimers are subject to preferential repair.

  13. Evolución y análisis de la producción y exportación de uvas de mesa: 2000-2012


    López Llave, Luis Jefferson


    El propósito del presente trabajo de investigación titulado “Evolución y Análisis de la Producción y Exportación de Uvas de Mesa : 2000-2012” consiste en conocer y analizar el mercado mundial de la uva de mesa y evaluar en qué medida una adecuada política económica hace posible la producción y el ingreso de la uva de mesa al mercado mundial con la finalidad de contribuir a mantener una balanza comercial global en equilibrio durante el periodo 2000-2012 en el Perú; asimismo, se evaluó en qué m...

  14. Rehabilitación de una masía de Sentmenat


    Souto Béjar, Carla; Hormigo Morales, Miriam


    El siguiente Proyecto Final de Carrera trata del estudio de evolución histórica, diagnosis, intervención y propuesta de rehabilitación de la masía “Can Padró” de Sentmenat, municipio de la comarca del Vallés Occidental. La masía “Can Padró” es un edificio aislado que consta de 1195,67 m2 útiles y 1501,98 m2 construidos distribuidos en 3 plantas más la azotea que forma esta casa rural. Aparte, se ha edificado 261,6 m2 en las construcciones anexas sin incluir la balsa adyacente. ...

  15. Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana


    Marco Antonio Flores Zavala


    En este artículo se analiza la presencia del general Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana. Para la redacción de este texto se recurrió a las obras de José María Mateos (Historia de la masonería en México desde 1806 hasta 1884), Richard Chism (Una contribución a la historia masónica de México) y Luis J. Zalce (Apuntes para la historia de la masonería en México, de mis lecturas y mis recuerdos). El cuestionario es básico: ¿Qué fuentes documentales utilizaron los autores para red...

  16. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  17. Le Kāmasūtra et la « pulsion shastrique » en Inde


    Naudou, Elizabeth


    Le mot « shastrique » fait référence au traité (śāstra) d’où sont issus les Kāmasūtra, (plus généralement appelé le Kāmasūtra), « aphorismes sur l’amour » : le Kāmaśāstra, « traité sur l’amour ». Qui dit śāstra, dit, en Inde, exposé religieux ou scientifique, d’où l’expression « pulsion shastrique » que l’on pourrait rendre par « pulsion encyclopédique énumérative et classificatoire ». Le but de cet exposé est de replacer le texte dans cette structure mentale typiquement indienne, qui reflète...

  18. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by 31P MAS NMR. (United States)

    Columbus, Ishay; Waysbort, Daniel; Shmueli, Liora; Nir, Ido; Kaplan, Doron


    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) {(DES)2}. Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed.

  19. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples (United States)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano


    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues.

  20. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan [Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel). Departments of Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry


    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien


    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  2. Investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics by 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kristensen, J H; Hoatson, G L; Vold, R L


    The technique of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is presented for the investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics. To evaluate the effects of discrete random reorientation a Lie algebraic formalism based on the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is developed. The solution to the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is obtained both in the presence and absence of rf irradiation. This allows effects of molecular dynamics to be evaluated during rf pulses and extends the applicability of the formalism to arbitrary multiple pulse experiments. Theoretical methods are presented for the description of multiaxial dynamics with particular emphasis on the application of vector parameters to represent molecular rotations. Numerical time and powder integration algorithms are presented that are both efficient and easy to implement computationally. The applicability of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy for investigating molecular dynamics is evaluated from theoretical spectra. To demonstrate the potential of the technique the dynamics of thiourea-2H4 is investigated experimentally. From a series of variable temperature MAS and quadrupole echo spectra it has been found that the dynamics can be described by composite rotation about the CS and CN bonds. Both experiments are sensitive to the fast CS rotation which is shown to be described by the Arrhenius parameters E(CS) = 46.4 +/- 2.3 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CS))= 32.6 +/- 0.9. The MAS experiment represents a significant improvement by simultaneously allowing the dynamics of the slow CN rotation to be fully characterized in terms of E(CN) = 56.3 +/- 3.4 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CN)) = 25.3 +/- 1.1.

  3. Trends and Determinants in the Japanese Cross-Border M&As


    Filobok, Natalia


    This paper provides an overview of the recent trends in the Japanese cross-border M&A activity in 1988-2004 and investigates the factors influencing them. We develop classifications of theoretical foundations and factors of M&A activity and their application for the Japanese case. The article examines two categories of the Japanese M&As - transactions with Japanese companies as a target (sales) and transactions with Japanese companies as an acquirer (purchases). In the Japanese cr...

  4. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin. (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I


    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  5. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asgharzadeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  6. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit (United States)

    West, Brett J.; Jensen, C. Jarakae


    Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity. PMID:24228188

  7. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng


    Full Text Available Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity.

  8. Indirect detection of infinite-speed MAS solid-state NMR spectra (United States)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P.; Goh, Tian Wei; Huang, Wenyu; Rossini, Aaron J.; Pruski, Marek


    Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic 1H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic "infinite-MAS" spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides. For these nuclides, the combination of fast MAS and 1H detection provides a high sensitivity, which rivals the DNP-enhanced ultra-wideline SSNMR. The new pulse sequences were used to determine the Pt coordination environments in a complex mixture of decomposition products of transplatin and in a metal-organic framework with Pt ions coordinated to the linker ligands.

  9. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien


    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  10. Infrared and MAS NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Al18B4O33

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The IR spectrum and 11B and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of Al18B4O33 are presented and discussed in relation to the possible existence of boron atoms substituting for aluminum atoms. TheIR spectrum shows that the strong vibrations of the BO3 groups are present in the 1 500~1 200em-1 region, and very weak bands of BO4 units are present in the region from 1 000 to 1 100cm-1. 11B MAS NMR spectrum indicates that the strong signal for BO3 units appears in the region from δ +5 to δ +20, and the very weak signal for BO4 units is at about δ-1, while 27AlMAS NMR spectrum shows five peaks at about δ +62, +42. 1, +14,-4.7 and-6.4, originating from AlO4, AlO4, A1O5, AlO6 and AlO6, respectively. These results reveal that there areminor BO4 units in Al18B4O33, indicating that a small amount of B atoms substitute for Al atomsin the 4-fold coordination.

  11. Processing of CP MAS kinetics: Towards NMR crystallography for complex solids (United States)

    Dagys, Laurynas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Balevicius, Vytautas


    Variable temperature and high data point density measurements of 1H-31P cross-polarization kinetics in the powdered ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) have been carried out in the range of -40 °C to +90 °C upon 7 and 10 kHz MAS. The advanced route of processing CP MAS kinetic data has been developed. It is based on reducing the incoherent far range order spin couplings and extracting the CP oscillatory term with the sequent mathematical treatment. The proper replica has been found, which allowed to reduce the Fourier-Bessel (Hankel) transform calculating the angularly averaged and purely distance-depending spin distribution profile to the routine Fourier transform. The shortest 31P-1H distances determined by CP MAS kinetics get between the values obtained by neutron and X-ray diffraction, whereas those for more remote protons are slightly larger. The changes in P⋯H distances are hardly noticeable, though a certain trend to increase upon the heating can be deduced. The clearly pronounced effect was the increase of the spin-diffusion rate constant upon heating. It allows to state that the communication between interacting spins is the process extremely easy to activate.

  12. Seguimiento de la maduración de variedades de uva mediante colorimetría y análisis de imagen de semillas


    Rodríguez Pulido, Francisco José; González-Miret Martín, María Lourdes; Gómez Robledo, Luis; Heredia Mira, Francisco José


    El seguimiento de la maduración de la uva se realiza mediante análisis fisicoquímico y organoléptico del mosto, siendo el momento de la vendimia un aspecto que repercute directamente en la calidad de un vino. La visión artificial proporciona una alternativa automatizable y de bajo coste al análisis convencional, pudiendo así, caracterizar de manera efectiva la variedad de uva y el estado de maduración a partir de las características de una imagen. Se han podido discriminar con éxito variedade...

  13. Avaliação econômica de alternativas de investimentos no agronegócio da uva no meio oeste Catarinense



    Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio uva para vinho e para suco, no Meio Oeste Catarinense. Detalham-se os investimentos, os custos de produção e a rentabilidade financeira inerentes a esta atividade, tendo-se por base a produção de uva para vinho e para suco, em três sistemas de sustentação: latada, manjedoura e espaldeira. A metodologia utilizada, baseada no fluxo de caixa descontado, consistiu na geração de indicadores de retorno e risco. Apesar da leve ...

  14. Enhancement of photoprotection potential of catechin loaded nanoemulsion gel against UVA induced oxidative stress. (United States)

    Harwansh, Ranjit K; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kar, Amit; Bahadur, Shiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, V


    The present study was aimed to develop a catechin (CA) loaded nanoemulsion based nano-gel for the protection of skin against ultraviolet radiation (UV) induced photo-damage and to ensure its enhanced skin permeability as well as bioavailability through transdermal route. The optimized nanoemulsion (CA-NE4) was prepared by spontaneous nano-emulsification method. It was composed of oil (ethyl oleate), Smix [surfactant (span 80) and co-surfactant (transcutol CG)] and aqueous system in an appropriate ratio of 15:62:23% w/w respectively. The CA-NE4 was characterized through assessment of droplet size, zeta potential, refractive index, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The average droplet size and zeta potential of CA-NE4 were found to be 98.6±1.01nm and -27.3±0.20mV respectively. The enhanced skin permeability was better with CA-NE4 based nano-gel (CA-NG4) [96.62%] compared to conventional gel (CA-CG) [53.01%] for a period of 24h. The enhanced % relative bioavailability (F) of CA (894.73), Cmax (93.79±6.19ngmL(-1)), AUC0-t∞ (2653.99±515.02nghmL(-1)) and Tmax (12.05±0.02h) was significantly obtained with CA-NG4 as compared to oral suspension for extended periods (72h). CA-NG4 could improve the level of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and reduce the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) against oxidative stress induced by UVA. Nano-gel formulation of CA showed sustained release profile and enhanced photoprotection potential due to its improved permeability as well as bioavailability (Pgel. Therefore, transdermal administration of nano-gel (CA-NG4) of CA offers a better way to develop the endogenous cutaneous protection system and thus could be an effective strategy for decreasing UV-induced oxidative damage in the skin tissues.

  15. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects on TiO2-anatase upon UV-A and UV-A/VIS threshold irradiation. (United States)

    Wu, Yanyun; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank


    Photocatalysis mediated by the anatase modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has shown antibacterial effects in medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of expanding the excitation wavelengths for photocatalytic antibacterial effects from ultraviolet (UV) into the visible light range. After deposition of salivary pellicle and adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii on anatase, different irradiation protocols were applied to induce photocatalysis: ultraviolet A (UV-A) > 320 nm; ultraviolet/visible (UV-A/VIS) light > 380 nm and > 390 nm; and VIS light 400-410 nm. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) tests and microscopic examination were used to observe the photoinduced antibacterial effects. Salivary pellicle could be photocatalytically decomposed under all irradiation protocols. In contrast, effective photocatalytic attack of bacteria could be observed by UV-A as well as by UV-A/VIS at 380 nm < λ < 390 nm only. Wavelengths above 380 nm show promise for in situ therapeutic antifouling applications.

  16. Inactivation/reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by a novel UVA/LED/TiO2 system. (United States)

    Xiong, Pei; Hu, Jiangyong


    In this study, an effective photocatalytic disinfection system was established using the newly emerged high power UVA/LED lamp. Crystallizing dish coated with TiO2 was prepared by 32-times impregnation-drying processes, and served as the supporting container for water samples. This study focused on the application of this UVA/LED system for the photocatalytic disinfection of selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 700891. The disinfection performances were studied under various light intensities and illumination modes. Results show that higher light intensity could reach more significant inactivation of E. coli ATCC 700891. With the same UV dose, log-removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria decreased with circle time in the studied range, while increased with duty circle. A "residual disinfecting effect" was found in the following dark period for bacteria collected at different phases of photocatalytic process. Residual disinfecting effect was found not significant for bacteria with 30 min periodic illumination. While residual disinfecting effect could kill almost all bacteria after 90 min UV periodic illumination within the following 240 min dark period.

  17. Highly sensitive UVA and violet photodetector based on single-layer graphene-TiOsub>2sub> heterojunction. (United States)

    Liang, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Deng-Yue; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Kong, Wei-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Yi; Luo, Lin-Bao


    A highly sensitive ultraviolet A (UVA) and violet photodetector based on p-type single-layer graphene (SLG)-TiOsub>2sub> heterostructure was fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposition derived SLG on the surface of commercial single-crystal TiOsub>2sub> wafer. Optoelectronic analysis reveals the as-fabricated Schottky junction PD was highly sensitive to light illumination in UVA and violet range, with peak sensitivity at 410 nm and excellent stability and reproducibility, but virtually blind to illumination with wavelength less than 350 nm or more than 460 nm. The on/off ratio of the device was calculated to be 6.8 × 104, which is better than the majority of previously reported TiOsub>2sub> based PDs. What is more, the rise/fall time were estimated to be 0.74/1.18 ms, much faster than other TiOsub>2sub> based counterparts. The totality of the above result signifies that the present SLG-TiOsub>2sub> Schottky junction photodetector may have promising application in future high-speed, high-sensitivity optoelectronic nanodevices and systems.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of SnO2-ZnO composite under UV-A light. (United States)

    Kuzhalosai, V; Subash, B; Senthilraja, A; Dhatshanamurthi, P; Shanthi, M


    The SnO2 loaded ZnO (SnO2-ZnO) was successfully synthesized by precipitation-decomposition method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of SnO2-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Orange 10 (AO 10) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. SnO2-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO, bare ZnO, TiO2-P25 and TiO2 (Merck) at pH 12 for the mineralization of AO 10 dye. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of AO 10 dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of AO 10 has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of AO 10 with SnO2-ZnO under UV-A light. This catalyst is found to be reusable.

  19. Characterization of Mas-7-induced pore formation in SK-N-BE(2)C human neuroblastoma cells. (United States)

    Suh, B C; Lee, I S; Chae, H D; Han, S; Kim, K T


    Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venome, mimics receptors by stimulating the GTPase activity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and the G-protein-coupled phospholipase C (PLC). By using Mas-7, the active analog of mastoparan, we showed that it makes pores in the plasma membrane. Treatment with Mas-7 but not Mas-17, the inactive analog, produced a concentration-dependent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and facilitated the uptake of ethidium bromide (EtBr) (314 Da) to a sustained level during the stimulation. In addition, Mas-7 triggered the influx of lucifer yellow (457 Da), while it did not induce the influx of fura-2 (831 Da) and Evans blue (961 Da). However, the Mas-7-induced permeability was selectively prevented by the addition of La3+, Ni2+, and Co2+, but not Cd2+. This blocking activity was concentration-dependent. While the stimulatory effect of Mas-7 on PLC activity was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, the pore forming activity of Mas-7 was not effected by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These results, therefore, suggest that the mastoparan's action in pore formation is independent from its action in PLC stimulation and is negatively effected by inorganic cations.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure. (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L


    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development.

  1. Roles of reactive oxygen species in UVA-induced oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid-melanin as studied by differential spectrophotometric method. (United States)

    Ito, Shosuke; Kikuta, Marina; Koike, Shota; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Sarna, Tadeusz; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa


    Eumelanin photoprotects pigmented tissues from ultraviolet (UV) damage. However, UVA-induced tanning seems to result from the photooxidation of preexisting melanin and does not contribute to photoprotection. We investigated the mechanism of UVA-induced degradation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-melanin taking advantage of its solubility in a neutral buffer and using a differential spectrophotometric method to detect subtle changes in its structure. Our methodology is suitable for examining the effects of various agents that interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to determine how ROS is involved in the UVA-induced oxidative modifications. The results show that UVA radiation induces the oxidation of DHICA to indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylic acid in eumelanin, which is then cleaved to form a photodegraded, pyrrolic moiety and finally to form free pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. The possible involvement of superoxide radical and singlet oxygen in the oxidation was suggested. The generation and quenching of singlet oxygen by DHICA-melanin was confirmed by direct measurements of singlet oxygen phosphorescence.

  2. Effects of UV-A exposures on longevity and reproduction in Helicoverpa armigera, and on the development of its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yu Zhang; Jian-Yu Meng; Xiao-Ping Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei


    Helicoverpa armigera adults display a conspicuous positive phototacdc behavior to light stimuli,and are especially sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light.The effects of UV-A (longwave) exposures on adult longevity and reproduction in H.armigera were investigated,as well as the development of the F1 generation.Paired adults were exposed to UV-A for various time periods (0,1,5 and 9 h/day),until the end of adult life.The results showed that adult longevity decreased with increasing exposure time for both sexes,and a significant decrease was observed after exposure for 5 and 9 h/day.Fecundity increased when adults were exposed for 1 and 5 h/day,and a significant difference was observed in the 5 h/day group.Oviposition rates of females in all treatments were significantly higher than in the control.Exposure to UV-A for longer periods (5 and 9 h/day) caused a decline in cumulative survival of F1 immature stages,but no significant differences were found in egg hatch,pupation and eclosion.The developmental periods of F1 larvae were significantly prolonged after exposure to UV-A for 5 and 9 h/day.UV-A radiation had no significant effects on F1 pupal period.

  3. 1H NMR characterization of the intermediate formed upon UV-A excitation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin in O 2-free aqueous solutions (United States)

    Vignoni, Mariana; Salum, M. Laura; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Thomas, Andres H.; Cabrerizo, Franco M.


    Pterins belong to a family of heterocyclic compounds present in a wide range of living systems and participate in relevant biological functions. Under anaerobic conditions, the unstable red intermediate generated by UV-A irradiation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin was identified by 1H NMR analysis, in alkaline D 2O solutions, as 5,8-dihydro-6-formylpterin.

  4. Qualidade sensorial e físico-química de uvas finas de mesa cultivadas no submédio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uvas Vitis vinifera L. das variedades comerciais: Brasil, Benitaka, Itália e Red Globe, quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os teores de sólidos solúveis, diâmetro e comprimento das bagas, cujos resultados apresentaram conformidade com os padrões comerciais, foram determinados. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa - ADQ. Foram selecionados e treinados os julgadores que, sob orientação de um líder, estabeleceram os atributos sensoriais capazes de descrever com fidedignidade as características das uvas, conforme se segue: tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, aroma característico, firmeza, gosto doce, gosto amargo, gosto ácido, adstringência, sabor e qualidade global. Constatou-se que as médias obtidas nos atributos tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, firmeza, sabor e qualidade global diferiram estatisticamente dentre as uvas avaliadas e, ainda, que os atributos do sabor, seguido do gosto doce e da tonalidade da cor, apresentaram as correlações mais fortes com a qualidade global, determinantes, portanto, das características sensoriais das uvas.

  5. Separation of 2H MAS NMR Spectra by Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kristensen, J. H.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Nielsen, N. C.


    New methods for optimum separation of 2H MAS NMR spectra are presented. The approach is based on hypercomplex spectroscopy that is useful for sign discrimination and phase separation. A new theoretical formalism is developed for the description of hypercomplex experiments. This exploits the properties of Lie algebras and hypercomplex numbers to obtain a solution to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. The solution is expressed in terms of coherence transfer functions that describe the allowed coherence transfer pathways in the system. The theoretical formalism is essential in order to understand all the features of hypercomplex experiments. The method is applied to the development of two-dimensional quadrupole-resolved 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy. The important features of this technique are discussed and two different versions are presented with widely different characteristics. An improved version of two-dimensional double-quantum 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is developed. The conditions under which the double-quantum experiment is useful are discussed and its performance is compared with that observed for the quadrupole-resolved experiments. A general method is presented for evaluating the optimum pulse sequence parameters consistent with maximum sensitivity and resolution. This approach improves the performance of the experiments and is essential for any further development of the techniques. The effects of finite pulse width and hypercomplex data processing may lead to both intensity and phase distortions in the spectra. These effects are analyzed and general correction procedures are suggested. The techniques are applied to polycrystalline malonic-acid-2H4 for which the spinning sideband manifolds from the carboxyl and methylene deuterons are separated. The spinning sideband manifolds are simulated to determine the quadrupole parameters. The values are consistent with previous results, indicating that the techniques are both accurate and reliable.



    Quiroga (UNRC e UNC), María Virginia


    En este artículo se pretende analizar al MAS-IPSP en tanto identidad política que emergió en resistencia a la férrea aplicación de políticas neoliberales en Bolivia y se consolidó como una alternativa popular que triunfó en las elecciones nacionales de diciembre de 2005 y de diciembre de 2009. El análisis aquí propuesto arroja importantes claves para comprender el proceso boliviano actual, planteando novedosas articulaciones entre “lo social” y “lo político”.

  7. Design and implementation of a multi-axis precision movement machine based on MAS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MA; Linlin CI; Genyan GE


    A model construction of a multi-agent system (MAS) and the basic function of the agent are described.The precision control method using the multi-CPU of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is introduced,and a distributed method using multiple CPUs to control different motion machines is given.The test results indicate that in industrial control fields,the combination of using the credible PLC to control the motion machine and multi-CPU task distributing methods can solve multi-axis machine linkage and implication,providing a more credible method for multi-axis motion units.

  8. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes. (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S


    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  9. Dermato-protective properties of ergothioneine through induction of Nrf2/ARE-mediated antioxidant genes in UVA-irradiated Human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Lo, Heng-Wei; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Tang, Meng-Ju; Yang, Hsin-Ling


    UVA irradiation-induced skin damage and redox imbalance have been shown to be ameliorated by ergothioneine (EGT), a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid. However, the responsible molecular mechanism with nanomolar concentrations of EGT remains unclear. We investigated the dermato protective efficacies of EGT (125-500nM) against UVA irradiation (15J/cm(2)), and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. We found that EGT treatment prior to UVA exposure significantly increased the cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium. UVA-induced ROS and comet-like DNA formation were remarkably suppressed by EGT with a parallel inhibition of apoptosis, as evidenced by reduced DNA fragmentation (TUNEL), caspase-9/-3 activation, and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, EGT alleviated UVA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Dose-dependent increases of antioxidant genes, HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCLC and glutathione by EGT were associated with upregulated Nrf2 and downregulated Keap-1 expressions. This was confirmed by increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and inhibition of Nrf2 degradation. Notably, augmented luciferase activity of ARE may explain Nrf2/ARE-mediated signaling pathways behind EGT dermato-protective properties. We further demonstrated that Nrf2 translocation was mediated by PI3K/AKT, PKC, or ROS signaling cascades. This phenomenon was confirmed with suppressed nuclear Nrf2 activation, and consequently diminished antioxidant genes in cells treated with respective pharmacological inhibitors (LY294002, GF109203X, and N-acetylcysteine). Besides, increased basal ROS by EGT appears to be crucial for triggering the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Silencing of Nrf2 or OCTN1 (EGT carrier protein) signaling with siRNA showed no such protective effects of EGT against UVA-induced cell death, ROS, and apoptosis, which is evidence of the vitality of Nrf2 translocation and protective efficacy of EGT

  10. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. (United States)

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah


    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and frank squamous cell carcinomas (+4 responses). AC-11 retarded, but did not stop, carcinogenesis progression. It is possible that if AC-11 was continuously applied tumors would not have in mice treated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMO Videiras ‘Isabel’ enxertadas em porta-enxerto ‘SO4’ e ‘IAC 766’, e em pé-franco plantadas sobre Nitossolo foram tratadas anualmente com doses crescentes de K2O, a 0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1, durante 5 safras vitícolas (2007/2008; 2008/2009; 2009/2010; 2010/2011; 2011/2012. O delineamento experimental foi em faixas, com cinco repetições, sendo seis plantas por repetição, e os tratamentos, dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x3, com 12 tratamentos, correspondentes às quatro doses de adubação potássica e aos três portaenxertos. No estádio de mudança de cor da casca das bagas, coletaram-se pecíolos para determinar o teor de nutrientes no tecido foliar das uvas. Na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliados comportamentos vegetativos e produtivos, como produtividade, peso de poda, índice de Ravaz e características químicas da polpa das bagas, como sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH. O aumento da adubação potássica não representa ganho na produtividade na cv. Isabel nem no acúmulo de sólidos solúveis totais nas uvas. K e Mg nos pecíolos de uvas são influenciados pela forma de cultivo (enxertada ou pé-franco. Videiras ‘Isabel’ cultivadas em pé-franco têm menor capacidade de acúmulo de K e maior acúmulo de Mg nos pecíolos. Nas condições do solo em que foi desenvolvido o trabalho, não se justifica a adubação potássica do vinhedo.

  12. 1H HR-MAS NMR and S180 cells: metabolite assignment and evaluation of pulse sequence


    Oliveira, Aline L.; Martinelli,Bruno César B.; Lião,Luciano M.; Pereira,Flávia C.; Silveira-Lacerda,Elisangela P.; Alcantara,Glaucia B.


    High resolution magic angle spinning ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR) is a useful technique for evaluation of intact cells and tissues. However, optimal NMR parameters are crucial in obtaining reliable results. To identify the key steps for the optimization of HR-MAS NMR parameters, we assessed different pulse sequences and NMR parameters using sarcoma 180 (S180) cells. A complete assignment of the metabolites of S180 is given to assist future studies.

  13. Preferencias y disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la región del Maule, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Alberto Cerda Urrutia


    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las preferencias y disposición a pagar por consumo de uva de mesa orgánica. Específicamente, se buscó determinar la utilidad y jerarquizar los atributos más importantes que consideran los individuos al momento de la elección de uva de mesa y determinar la disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la Región del Maule, Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra probabilística y estratificada por niveles socioeconómico en los hogares en los principales centros urbanos de la región. Se utilizó el método de análisis conjunto a fin de determinar las preferencias de los individuos por los distintos atributos y el método de valoración contingente para determinar el monto medio de sobreprecio que una persona está dispuesta a pagar por un kilo de uva orgánica. Igualmente se calculó la disposición a pagar marginal vía el método de análisis conjunto. Se determinó que el atributo más importante a la hora de adquirir este bien es el precio, mientras que la mezcla de atributos que más tiene utilidad por orden de importancia es el sabor dulce, de producción orgánica, que no posea semillas y de piel delgada.Además, se estimó que las personas están dispuestas a pagar un sobreprecio por la uva de mesa orgánica, abriendo nuevas oportunidades de negocios para el sector frutícola.

  14. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang


    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. VARGAS


    Full Text Available

    Cada vez mais, buscam-se nos alimentos substâncias capazes de ajudar a combater o processo oxidativo do organismo. Esse efeito protetor é atribuído aos compostos presentes em alguns alimentos, como na uva, destacando-se os polifenóis. Embora muitos componentes das frutas já tenham sua atividade antioxidante avaliada, tornase necessário testar em seus derivados como o suco. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o teor de polifenóis totais e a atividade antioxidante em sucos de uva comerciais disponíveis no comércio local. A determinação dos polifenóis totais foi efetuada pelo método Folin-Ciocalteau com leitura em espectrofotômetro de UV/VIS. Observouse uma variação de 311,9 a 508,4 mg equivalentes de Ácido Gálico/L. O poder antioxidante dos sucos de uva foi analisado segundo a metodologia de seqüestro de radical DPPH. Os percentuais de inibição variaram de 42% a 114%, sendo o menor valor encontrado no suco de uva branca. O suco de uva, fonte de polifenóis, pode auxiliar na prevenção de diversas patologias como aterosclerose, diabetes e câncer.

  16. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua


    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles.

  17. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats. (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F


    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  18. Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA "Water Ser"


    Strods, Jānis


    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA „WATER SER””. Darba pētījuma mērķis ir SIA „WATER SER” uz ilgtermiņa attīstību balstītas vadības sistēmas pilnveidošanas pasākumu definēšana, izstrāde, un ieviešanas plāna prezentēšana. Darba pirmā nodaļa ir veltīta populārāko vadības sistēmu teorētiskajam aprakstam. Otrā nodaļa ir veltīta būvniecības nozares raksturojumam. Darba trešā nodaļa ir veltīta pētāmā uzņēmuma raksturošanai. Ceturtajā nodaļā, balstoties uz veikto datu anal...

  19. Renoprotective Effects of AVE0991, a Nonpeptide Mas Receptor Agonist, in Experimental Acute Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Corrêa Barroso


    Full Text Available Renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R is the major cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. Mechanisms underlying reperfusion-associated injury include recruitment and activation of leukocytes and release of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the renal effects of acute administration of AVE0991, an agonist of Mas, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, in a murine model of renal I/R. Male C57BL/6 wild-type or Mas−/− mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Administration of AVE0991 promoted renoprotective effects, as seen by improvement of function, decreased tissue injury, prevention of local and remote leucocyte infiltration, and release of the chemokine, CXCL1. I/R injury was similar in WT and Mas−/− mice, suggesting that endogenous activation of this receptor does not control renal damage under baseline conditions. In conclusion, pharmacological interventions using Mas receptor agonists may represent a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of renal I/R injury.

  20. “La iconografía masónica y sus fuentes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Sánchez Ferré


    Full Text Available El corpus iconográfico de la masonería es un elemento esencial en las prácticas rituales y un soporte privilegiado para transmitir sus doctrinas, su saber y su ciencia. Las imágenes y símbolos masónicos trascienden la experiencia estética para adentrarse en el terreno de lo iniciático, es decir, de lo espiritual; por lo tanto, el legado iconográfico que la Orden ha conservado es una representación del mundo sagrado a la que solamente se accede mediante su propio lenguaje: el simbólico, vehículo y fundamento de su sabiduría. Por ende, el objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar las fuentes en las que se ha inspirado el imaginario masónico a fin de comprender su significado primero y radical, su naturaleza original y los elementos que lo componen. Se intentará también poner de manifiesto el itinerario experimentado por este universo iconográfico desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad, lo cual revelará la naturaleza de la metamorfosis experimentada por la masonería moderna desde su fundación.

  1. Nuevos datos en torno al escultor Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Samaniego, Cristina


    Full Text Available Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 was one of the most distinguished Spanish sculptors of the Academy of Fine Arts of Barcelona during the first half of the 19th century. He had a major career as professional artist and teacher, which has been only partially studied. The author here assembles the scarce bibliographical information available on this sculptor and presents new data relating to his life and production, in order to provide a comprehensive interpretation of his works. Likewise, a renewed reflection on Spanish 19th -century academic sculpture is proposed.Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 fue uno de los más destacados escultores españoles de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Barcelona de la primera mitad del siglo XIX, desarrollando una interesante carrera como creador profesional y docente que, hasta el día de hoy sólo ha sido estudiada de forma fragmentaria. El presente artículo pretende reunir la escasa bibliografía publicada en torno al escultor y aportar numerosos datos nuevos relacionados con su vida y obra, facilitando la interpretación global de su trabajo. Asimismo, pretende sugerir una reflexión sobre la escultura académica decimonónica con el objetivo de contribuir a renovar la visión que de ésta se ha presentado hasta el momento.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physiological response and the defensive potential in species Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Dryopteris filix-mas (L. Schott under the action of nickel. The following experimental variants were tested: 0, 250, 500, 1000, 1500 mg Ni kg-1soil. One month, and three months respectively, after the initiation of the experiment, the amount of assimilating pigments was determined. One month after the initiation of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the variants with Ni and the control as far as the content of chlorophyll (a and b and carotenoids was concerned. The results obtained three months after the inception of the experiment indicate that, at low concentrations, Ni stimulates the synthesis of chlorophyll. In the same period there occurred antioxidant mechanisms: increase in the amount of carotenoids and increased activity of catalase. In the species Dryopteris filix-mas, the variant with 1.000 mg Ni kg-1soil, the amount of chlorophyll was significantly reduced, and the catalase activity was 3 times higher than that obtained in the control group.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Katekhaye


    Full Text Available Simple, rapid and specific isolation and HPLC method has been develop for filixic acid PBP in Dryopteris filix-mas extract. HPLC analysis was performed on C18 column using a 90:10 (v/v mixtures of acetonitrile and methanol as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was at 254 nm for filixic acid PBP. Filixic acid shown retention time at 4.02 min. Method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.993 was obtained for calibration plots in the range tested. The limit of detection was 2.25 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 7.53 µg/ml for filixic acid PBP. Intra and inter-day relative standard deviation of precision was less than 1.50 %. Recovery was between 94.57 and 101.05 % filixic acid. The method can be successfully used for quantitative analysis of filixic acid PBP in D. filix-mas for day-to-day studies.

  4. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)


    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  5. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele


    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  6. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.


    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  7. Obtenção e caracterização de farinha de bagaço de uva e sua utilização em cereais matinais expandidos


    Ferreira,Luiz Fernando Dias


    O bagaço da uva, subproduto da elaboração de vinho, representa cerca de 20% do peso original das uvas. É caracterizado pelo elevado conteúdo de fibra dietética alimentar e fenólicos, com capacidade antioxidante. O aproveitamento deste resíduo na alimentação humana pode representar uma forma de agregar valor a ele, convertendo-o em um alimento funcional. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o comportamento da secagem em camada delgada de bagaço de uva em secador por ar aquecido e reali...

  8. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro. (United States)

    Faerge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef; Rath, Detlef; Niemann, Heiner; Schellander, Karl; Rosenkranz, Christine; Hyttel, Poul Maddox; Grøndahl, Christian


    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturation is improved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcine oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/l cysteine, 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 50 microM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 microM, 3 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM or 100 microM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded mechanically using a fine glass pipette under constant pH and in vitro fertilized with fresh semen (5 x 10(5) spermatozoa/ml). The presumptive zygotes were evaluated 18 h after fertilization. The addition of pFF increased the monospermic as well as the polyspermic penetration of oocytes. In the absence of pFF, the addition of FF-MAS decreased the polyspermic penetration rate, whereas FF-MAS in combination with pFF decreased monospermic and increased polyspermic penetration. The degeneration rate of ova decreased in the presence of FF-MAS irrespective of the presence or absence of pFF. In the absence of pFF, FF-MAS at 3-10 microM increased the number of zygotes with advanced maternal pronuclear stages. In supraphysiological doses, i.e. 30-100 microM, FF-MAS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited nuclear maturation in the absence of pFF.

  9. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice. (United States)

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S


    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  10. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)


    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Moullet


    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a powerful tool too rarely exploited in practical breeding applications mainly because of its prohibitive costs. A new manual protocol has been developed for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses which could increase the impact of this technology on the creation of new varieties. In this procedure, only the amount of DNA serving as template is extracted directly into PCR tubes. The method is reproducible (100 % and efficient (97.9 %. The overall cost is low in term of starting lab equipment (25000 €, chemicals and consumable materials (0.33 to 0.40 € per samples and labor (1500 sample analyses per person and per week.

  12. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云


    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  13. 1H MAS NMR spectra of hy- droxyl species on diatomite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    High spinning speed 1H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) was used to detect surface hydroxyl groups of diatomite, which include isolated hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups, and water adsorbed on diatomite surface that include pore water and hydrogen-bonded water. The corresponding proton chemical shifts of above species are ca. 2.0, 6.0-7.1, 4.9 and 3.0 respectively. Accompanied by thermal treatment temperature ascending, the pore water and hydrogen-bonded water are desorbed successively. As a result, the relative intensities of the peaks assigned to protons of isolat-ed hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increase gradually and reach their maxima at 1000℃. After 1100℃ calcination, the hydroxyl groups that classified to strongly hydrogen-bonded ones and the isolated hydroxyl groups condense basically. But some weakly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups may still persist in the micropores.

  14. Adding real data to detect emotions by means of smart resource artifacts in MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime RINCÓN


    Full Text Available This article proposes an application of a social emotional model, which allows to extract, analyse, represent and manage the social emotion of a group of entities. Specifically, the application is based on how music can influence in a positive or negative way over emotional states. The proposed approach employs the JaCalIVE framework, which facilitates the development of this kind of environments. A physical device called smart resource offers to agents processed sensor data as a service. So that, agents obtain real data from a smart resource. MAS uses the smart resource as an artifact by means of a specific communications protocol. The framework includes a design method and a physical simulator. In this way, the social emotional model allows the creation of simulations over JaCalIVE, in which the emotional states are used in the decision-making of the agents.

  15. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Łojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro


    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance.

  16. Assessing Heterogeneity of Osteolytic Lesions in Multiple Myeloma by 1H HR-MAS NMR Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette Tavel


    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of plasma cells characterized by multifocal osteolytic bone lesions. Macroscopic and genetic heterogeneity has been documented within MM lesions. Understanding the bases of such heterogeneity may unveil relevant features of MM pathobiology. To this aim, we deployed unbiased 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics to analyze multiple biopsy specimens of osteolytic lesions from one case of pathological fracture caused by MM. Multivariate analyses on normalized metabolite peak integrals allowed clusterization of samples in accordance with a posteriori histological findings. We investigated the relationship between morphological and NMR features by merging morphological data and metabolite profiling into a single correlation matrix. Data-merging addressed tissue heterogeneity, and greatly facilitated the mapping of lesions and nearby healthy tissues. Our proof-of-principle study reveals integrated metabolomics and histomorphology as a promising approach for the targeted study of osteolytic lesions.

  17. Badania jakości regeneratu ze zużytych mas ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko


    Full Text Available W publikacji przedstawiono uzupełniające metody badań oraz aparaturę do oceny jakości regeneratu i tych właściwości masformierskich ze spoiwami utwardzanymi chemicznie, przygotowywanych z regeneratem, które są istotne dla kompleksowej oceny procesurecyklingu osnowy. Nowoczesne systemy oceny mas formierskich wymagają bardziej wnikliwego podejścia do czynników decydującychzarówno o ich przydatności technologicznej jak również o wpływie na otaczające środowisko naturalne. W tym kontekście pełna ocenajakości zregenerowanej osnowy wykracza poza zwyczajowo stosowane metody instrumentalne i wymaga ich uzupełnienia o bardziejzaawansowane aparaturowo metody badawcze. Pozwala to szerzej spojrzeć na ocenę zregenerowanej osnowy, zarówno w aspekcie jejużycia do sporządzania mas formierskich, jako substytutu świeżego piasku, ale także pod kątem ochrony środowiska. Do takichnowoczesnych metod można zaliczyć między innymi analizę ziarnową regeneratu za pomocą dyfrakcji laserowej, a także ocenęgazotwórczości masy formierskiej oraz identyfikację rodzaju emitowanych gazów i zawartości w nich gazów z grupy BTEX, które sąszczególnie niebezpieczne z punktu widzenia BHP.

  18. Influência do método de extração sobre a composição química de suco de uva bordô (vitis labrusca)


    Bruna Bresolin Roldan


    O aumento no consumo de uva que vem ocorrendo nos últimos anos está relacionado em parte a divulgação das propriedades benéficas à saúde associadas ao consumo de suco de uva. Estes efeitos benéficos são atribuídos à elevada concentração de compostos fenólicos presentes no suco. A composição química (incluindo os compostos fenólicos) do suco de uva é afetada por vários fatores, tais como: variedade de uva, condições edafoclimáticas de cultivo e método de extração do suco. O método de extração ...

  19. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Saberi


    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  20. Colgate MaxWhite reklāmas kampaņa un auditorijas attieksme pret to



    Pētnieciskā darba tēma ir „Colgate Maxwhite” reklāmas kampaņa un klientu attieksme pret to. Darbā pētītas kampaņas reklāmas un noskaidrota potenciālo klientu attieksme. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot kādā veidā tiek reklamēts produkts „Colgate Maxwhite” un kā pašas reklāmas uztver patērētājs, kāda ir patērētāju attieksme, vai reklāmas kampaņa ir bijusi veiksmīga un prātā paliekoša vai tā ir bijusi neveiksmīga. Bakalaura darbā tika izvirzīta hipotēze: „Colgate Maxwhite ” reklāmas kampaņai t...

  1. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsu, Mie (Japan)


    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40 % lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112; P < 0.001) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9 % higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2 % greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40 % dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. (orig.)

  2. Rendimento e composição das aguardentes de cana, laranja e uva com utilização de lecitina no processo fermentativo


    Cleto, Francisco Vicente Gaiotto; Mutton,Márcia Justino Rossini


    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de lecitina aos mostos de cana, laranja e uva sobre o rendimento e composição das aguardentes. O delineamento empregado para a análise estatística foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2x3, empregando-se dois fatores - lecitina e mosto - em dois níveis para lecitina: ausência (índice um) e presença (índice dois); e em três níveis para mosto: cana, laranja e uva. A metodologia empregada foi a recomend...

  3. Control de calidad de la maduración fenólica de la uva tinta mediante espectroscopia FT-MIR


    Fragoso García, Sandra


    El objetivo de la tesis ha sido la puesta a punto de un método analítico rápido basado en la espectroscopia FT-MIR para determinar el estado de maduración fenólica de las uvas tintas con el que poder fijar la fecha de vendimia. Para ello se desarrollaron modelos de calibración multivariante PLS que permitieron la cuantificación simultánea de diferentes compuestos fenólicos en extractos de uva de forma rápida y fiable, utilizando la espectrofotometría UV-Vis como técnica de referencia. Para ob...

  4. Reduction of 8-oxodGTP in the nucleotide pool by hMTH1 leads to reduction in mutations in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 exposed to UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouhi, Asal; Skioeld, Sara; Shakeri-Manesh, Sara; Osterman-Golkar, Siv; Wojcik, Andrzej; Jenssen, Dag; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)


    UVA has been suggested to play an important role in UV-induced mutagenesis. The mechanisms by which UVA induces mutations are still a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the protective capacity of hMTH1, a nucleotide pool sanitization enzyme with 8-oxodGTPase activity. Human B lymphoblastoid cells were stably transfected with shRNA directed against hMTH1. Clonogenic survival, mutations, intracellular and extracellular levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and dG in the nucleotide pool of UVA-irradiated transfected and non-transfected cells were investigated. Mutations were determined in the thymidine kinase locus. Intracellular 8-oxodG and dG were measured using a modified ELISA and HPLC, respectively, after extraction of the nucleotide pool and conversion of nucleotides to their corresponding nucleosides. 8-oxodG in the medium was measured using ELISA. UVA-induced mutations were significantly higher while the survival was slightly lower in transfected compared to non-transfected cells. The increased mutation rate in transfected cells at increased exposure correlated with enhanced levels of 8-oxodG in the nucleotide pool, and a somewhat reduced level of 8-oxodG in the medium. The results indicate that the nucleotide pool is a significant target for UVA-induced mutations and implicates that hMTH1 plays an important role in protecting cells from UVA-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. (United States)

    Silveira, Kátia Daniela; Barroso, Lívia Corrêa; Vieira, Angélica Thomáz; Cisalpino, Daniel; Lima, Cristiano Xavier; Bader, Michael; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins


    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg) induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+) ) and Mas knockout (Mas (-/-)) mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+) , but not in Mas (-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  6. Impacto da regulamentação SPS e TBT nas exportações brasileiras de uva no período de 1995 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greigiano José Alves


    Full Text Available A cadeia produtiva da uva tem importância ímpar quanto à geração de renda e de emprego para diversas economias regionais. Todavia, nos últimos anos, o comércio internacional deste setor, assim como de todo o setor frutícola, tem enfrentado a imposição de diversas medidas não tarifárias, entre as quais, as sanitárias, fitossanitárias e técnicas. Assim, neste trabalho, são analisados os efeitos das normas sanitárias, fitossanitárias e técnicas impostas pelos países importadores de uva brasileira, no período de 1995 a 2009. Para este fim, foram feitas uma análise de inventário e uma abordagem econométrica, em que se fez uso do modelo gravitacional, com o objetivo de verificar o impacto de tais medidas na exportação de uva brasileira. Pelos resultados encontrados na análise de inventário, foi possível constatar relação positiva entre a evolução do número de notificações e a evolução das importações. Já pelo modelo econométrico, descartou-se a possibilidade de tais medidas terem afetado negativamente o comércio, tendo sido, no caso das medidas sanitárias e fitossanitárias, encontrada uma relação positiva com as exportações de uvas, ou seja, essas medidas auxiliaram o comércio, e os efeitos das medidas técnicas sobre as exportações foram nulos.

  7. Advanced microscopy techniques used for comparison of UVA- and γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage in the cell nucleus and nucleolus. (United States)

    Stixová, L; Hrušková, T; Sehnalová, P; Legartová, S; Svidenská, S; Kozubek, S; Bártová, E


    Every day, genomes are affected by genotoxic factors that create multiple DNA lesions. Several DNA repair systems have evolved to counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage. These systems include a set of DNA repair mechanisms, damage tolerance processes, and activation of cell-cycle checkpoints. This study describes selected confocal microscopy techniques that investigate DNA damage-related nuclear events after UVA- and γ-irradiation and compare the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by the two experimental approaches. In both cases, we observed induction of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and formation of localized double-strand breaks (DSBs). This was confirmed by analysis of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in the DNA lesions and by increased levels of γH2AX and 53BP1 proteins in the irradiated genome. DNA damage by UVA-lasers was potentiated by either BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-sensitization and compared to non-photosensitized cells. DSBs were also induced without BrdU or Hoechst 33342 pre-treatment. Interestingly, no cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were detected after 405 nm UVA laser micro-irradiation in non-photosensitized cells. The effects of UVA and γ-irradiation were also studied by silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). This experimental approach revealed changes in the morphology of nucleoli after genome injury. Additionally, to precisely characterize DDR in locally induced DNA lesions, we analysed the kinetics of the 53BP1 protein involved in DDR by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP).

  8. Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory; Dead Sea Research Center, Neve Zohar (Israel); Lyubansky, V.; Ianetz, A. [Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan (Israel). Research Development Div.; Evseev, E.G. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory


    An inter-comparison of the clearness indices for the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing radiation data measured from January 1995 through December 2001 for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between the measurements, viz., any day for which a hourly value for one of the sites was missing is rejected and not included in the analysis for that particular radiation type. Beer Sheva is located ca. 65 km to the west and is approximately 700 m above Neve Zohar, which is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the lowest terrestrial point on the earth, approximately 400 m below mean sea level. The relative magnitudes of the global, UVB and UVA radiation intensities at the two sites can be attributed to the enhanced scattering at the Dead Sea due to the longer optical path length the solar radiation must traverse at the Dead Sea. The degree of attenuation due to scattering phenomena is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to some power and, consequently, it is greatest for UVB and very small for global radiation. The UVB and UVA solar constants were determined from the extraterrestrial radiation values tabulated by Froehlich and Wehrli [Spectral distribution of solar irradiance from 25000 nm to 250nm, in: M. Iqbal, An introduction to solar radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1981, Appendix C, pp. 380-381]. The clearness indices for global and UVA radiation were of similar magnitude, whereas those for UVB radiation were of two orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, the monthly average hourly UV Index at both sites has also been determined and an inter-comparison of the values has been performed for all available hourly values from January 1995 through August 2002 for both sites. It is observed that the monthly average hourly UV Index values at the Dead Sea are never in the extreme range. (author)

  9. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  10. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (United States)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.


    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  11. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;


    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  12. Assessing the fate and transformation of plant residues in the terrestrial environment using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Kelleher, Brian P.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Simpson, Andre J.


    Plant litter decomposition plays a fundamental role in carbon and nitrogen cycles, provides key nutrients to the soil environment and represents a potentially large positive feedback to atmospheric CO 2. However, the full details of decomposition pathways and products are unknown. Here we present the first application of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 13C and 15N labeled plant materials, and apply this approach in a preliminary study to monitor the environmental degradation of the pine and wheatgrass residues over time. In HR-MAS, is it possible to acquire very high resolution NMR data of plant biomass, and apply the vast array of multidimensional experiments available in conventional solution-state NMR. High levels of isotopic enrichment combined with HR-MAS significantly enhance the detection limits, and provide a wealth of information that is unattainable by any other method. Diffusion edited HR-MAS NMR data reveal the rapid loss of carbohydrate structures, while two-dimensional (2-D) HR-MAS NMR spectra demonstrate the relatively fast loss of both hydrolysable and condensed tannin structures from all plant tissues studied. Aromatic (partially lignin) and aliphatic components (waxes, cuticles) tend to persist, along with a small fraction of carbohydrate, and become highly functionalized over time. While one-dimensional (1-D) 13C HR-MAS NMR spectra of fresh plant tissue reflect compositional differences between pine and grass, these differences become negligible after decomposition suggesting that recalcitrant carbon may be similar despite the plant source. Two-dimensional 1H- 15N HR-MAS NMR analysis of the pine residue suggests that nitrogen from specific peptides is either selectively preserved or used for the synthesis of what appears to be novel structures. The amount of relevant data generated from plant components in situ using HR-MAS NMR is highly encouraging, and demonstrates that complete assignment will yield unprecedented structural knowledge of plant cell

  13. 强脉冲光对长波紫外线Ⅰ诱导成纤维细胞光损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of intense pulsed light on fibroblast injury induced by UVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 刘玮; 赵小忠; 田燕; 袁小英; 王瑞艳


    目的 研究强脉冲光(intense pulse light,IPL)对长波紫外线(ultraviolet A,UVA Ⅰ)诱导的正常离体人皮肤成纤维细胞(fibroblast,FB)损伤的保护作用,探讨以IPL为手段的光子嫩肤技术的理论基础.方法 分离并培养人FB,用不同剂量UVA Ⅰ照射FB以诱导细胞光损伤,CCK-8检测其增殖能力的情况,根据预实验结果确定IPL剂量进行照射,流式细胞仪技术枪测细胞周期,Western印迹法检测CylinD1和CDK2蛋白的表达水平.结果 不同剂量的UVA Ⅰ可造成FB的损伤,随着UVA Ⅰ剂量的增加,细胞增殖能力下降,11 J/cm2的剂量可明显导致细胞大量死亡,而7 J/cm2的UVAⅠ对细胞的增殖能力没有明显的影响;经UVA Ⅰ照射2 d后再进行IPL连续照射2 d,细胞增殖活性高于单独UVA Ⅰ处理组,差异具有统计学意义.流式细胞仪检测结果表明该组细胞增殖指数升高.细胞周期蛋白CyclinD1和CDK2的表达水平升高.结论 IPL可通过调节周期蛋白的表达而促进正常FB增殖,从而保护UVAⅠ诱导的FB光损伤,为应用IPL面部美容除皱即光子嫩肤术提供理论依据.%Objective To study the protective effects of intense pulse light (IPL) on the injury of normal human skin fibroblasts (FB) induced by ultraviolet A (UVA Ⅰ ) in vitro and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods The human skin fibroblasts were isolated and cultured, and then irradiated by UVA Ⅰ (9 J/cm2) and IPL (15 J/cm2), respectively. The proliferative ability of the cells were detected by CCK-8. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, and cylin D1 and CDK2 protein expression levels were detected by Western blot. Results Different doses of UVA Ⅰ irradiation caused certain damages of cultured fibroblasts. With the increasing of of UVA Ⅰ dose, cell proliferation was decreased. Cells went to death at the exposure to 11 J/cm2 UVA Ⅰ , while the proliferative activity did not change much at 7 J/cm2 UVA Ⅰ . Cells were treated with UVA

  14. 中国人头发纤维在 UVA 紫外光老化中的光谱学研究%Spectroscopic Investigation of Human Hair from Chinese Subjects During UVA Photoageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖; Gerald J.Smith


    生活中,日光中的紫外辐射是导致头发光老化/光损伤的重要环境因素。长时间光照可使染发和天然发出现包括颜色褪变在内的退行性变化。以中老年人的自然灰发为样本来源,通过分离和人工漂染处理,获得了包括自然发色、漂白和染黑的六种头发类型,经过 UVA (320~400 nm)紫外光老化,采用漫反射光谱、三维荧光光谱和衰减全反射傅里叶变换红外光谱对头发纤维的老化特征进行无损分析,结合头发中光产生过氧化氢的定量分析,探讨了不同发色和漂染处理对头发耐光性的影响。结果表明,UVA 辐照可通过Ⅱ型电子转移机制诱导头发中的光敏基团产生过氧化氢,导致纤维表面蛋白和色素分子的光氧化降解。自然发色与漂染发在光老化中的颜色变化不同:灰发和白发主要发生光黄化,人工染发和漂白发分别发生光褪色和光漂白。高湿度环境能加速头发的光降解。化学漂染处理会使头发中的光致过氧化氢水平升高,使纤维处于较高的氧化压力从而影响头发的光稳定性;而头发中的黑色素分子,包括天然黑色素和染发剂的人工黑色素,可能具有自由基产生与清除双重性。研究结果为建立中国人头发光损伤的光谱学评价方法和进一步研发针对国人发质的染护发产品提供了重要的实验基准数据。%Since ultraviolet radiation is one of the major environmental factors that cause photoageing /photodamage ,human hair , including both dyed and undyed hair ,are subject to color change following extended exposure to sunlight .In the work described in this paper ,six samples of human hair from Chinese volunteers that included untreated ,bleached and dyed were subjected to accelerated ageing by exposure to UVA (320 ~ 400 nm) radiation .Changes to their chemical compositions during photoageing were non‐destructively characterized by

  15. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2. (United States)

    Triantis, T M; Fotiou, T; Kaloudis, T; Kontos, A G; Falaras, P; Dionysiou, D D; Pelaez, M; Hiskia, A


    In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2), Kronos and reference TiO(2) nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO(2) followed by N-TiO(2) with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO(2) nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO(2) for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO(2) displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  16. Effect of Ultraviolet-A (UV-A and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C Light on Mechanical Properties of Oyster Mushrooms during Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindibale L. Edward


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-A (UV-A and ultraviolet-C (UV-C light on the mechanical properties in oyster mushrooms during the growth. Experiments were carried out with irradiation of the mushrooms with UV-A (365 nm and UV-C (254 nm light during growth. The exposure time ranged from 10 minutes to 60 minutes at intervals of 10 minutes and irradiation was done for three days. The samples for experimental studies were cut into cylindrical shapes of diameter 12.50 mm and thickness 3.00 mm. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples and control samples were determined for both UV bands and there was a significant difference between the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the irradiated samples by both UV bands with reference to the control sample, P<0.05. UV-C light irradiated samples had higher loss modulus and loss factor but low storage modulus as temperature increased from 35 to 100°C with respect to the control sample while UV-A light irradiated samples had lower loss modulus, low loss factor, and higher storage modulus than UV-C irradiated samples.

  17. Corneal Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UV-A in the Mouse Cornea in Vivo: Morphological, Biochemical, and Physiological Analysis (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Hammer, Arthur; Conti, Alain; Hafezi, Farhad


    Purpose To morphologically, biochemically, and physiologically characterize corneal cross-linking with riboflavin and UV-A light (CXL) in a newly established in vivo murine model. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type mice (N = 67) were treated with various CXL protocols, with modification of the following parameters: total energy (fluence) used, duration of UV-A irradiation, continuous versus pulsed irradiation, and CXL under hypoxic conditions (contact lens). Corneas were evaluated biomicroscopically, histologically, and using optical coherence tomography. Conformational collagen changes were evaluated via changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion. Results A fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 induced scar formation, while fluences of scar formation. Changes in the speed of enzymatic digestion suggest that CXL in mice, when compared to humans, requires less UV-A energy than the difference in corneal thickness between the species would suggest. Conclusions We demonstrated the in vivo response of very strong and very weak CXL and identified the best suited range of UV fluence in murine corneas. The presented murine CXL model may be helpful in future research addressing cellular and molecular pathways associated to CXL treatment. Translational Relevance Adverse tissue reactions following CXL treatment were observed, if the administered UV energy was out of the treatment window—raising concern about novel CXL treatment protocols that have not been previously validated in an experimental setting. PMID:28149672

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of cylindrospermopsin under UV-A, solar and visible light using TiO2. Mineralization and intermediate products. (United States)

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia


    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are considered an important water quality problem, since several genera can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins that are harmful to human health. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid-like potent cyanotoxin that has been reported in water reservoirs and lakes worldwide. In this paper the removal of CYN from water by UV-A, solar and visible light photocatalysis was investigated. Two different commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts were used, i.e., Degussa P25 and Kronos-vlp7000. Complete degradation of CYN was achieved with both photocatalysts in 15 and 40 min under UV-A and 40 and 120 min under solar light irradiation, for Degussa P25 and Kronos vlp-7000 respectively. Experiments in the absence of photocatalysts showed that direct photolysis was negligible. Under visible light irradiation only the Kronos vlp-7000 which is a visible light activated catalyst was able to degrade CYN. A number of intermediates were identified and a complete degradation pathway is proposed, leading to the conclusion that hydroxyl radical attack is the main mechanism followed. TOC and inorganic ions (NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+) determinations suggested that complete mineralization of CYN was achieved under UV-A in the presence of Degussa P25.

  19. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system (United States)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.


    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  20. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)


    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow {sup 1}H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) {sup 1}H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic

  1. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapenko, A.Ya.; Sukhorukov, V.L. (Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))


    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play a significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA.

  2. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies. (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav


    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  3. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosav Palić


    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  4. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation (United States)

    Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Paula


    Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx). Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular) and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance. PMID:28168010

  5. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek


    Full Text Available Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx. Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T. [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Kaloudis, T. [Organic Micropollutants Laboratory, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), WTP Aharnon, Menidi (Greece); Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P. [Laboratory of Photo-redox Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Hiskia, A., E-mail: [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-TiO{sub 2} exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}, Kronos and reference TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} followed by N-TiO{sub 2} with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO{sub 2} nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO{sub 2} for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO{sub 2} displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  7. MAS-based production scheduling system for manufacturing cell-based workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hong-yan; CAO Quan-jun; FEI Ren-yuan


    The task of production scheduling is to determine the detailed machining path,time,machine tool,etc.,for every work piece,according to the production objective and constraints.It is also an important part of the manufacturing system.In this paper,the manufacturing cell-based workshop is described and its scheduling system structure is established based on MAS (multi-agent system) technology.Through the negotiation and communication of each agent,the machining path is determined and the machining sequence and start time are calculated by GA (genetics algorithm).The communication among agents uses the CORBA (common object request broker architecture) technology of the OMG (Object Management Group).The CORBA-based architecture of the communication is designed and some interfaces for the communication are listed.For the genetics algorithm,chromosome coding,fitness function,parameters selection,and the basic genetics operation including selection,crossover and aberrance,are described.The scheduling system also can deal with some abnormal conditions,such as machine tool failure and urgent tasks.Finally,two scheduling examples are given.

  8. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  9. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik


    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  11. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó


    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  12. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.


    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  13. 1MAS NMR spectra of kao linite/formamide intercalation compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The high spinning speed 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) technique was employed to distinguish the two groups of surface hydroxyls of kaolinite and investigate the intercalation mechanism of kaolinite/formamide compound. The proton chemical shifts of the inner hydroxyl and inner surface hydroxyl of kaolinte are in the range of δ-1.3-0.9 and δ 2.4-3.0 respectively. After formamide intercalation three proton peaks were detected. The proton peak of the inner surface hydroxyls of the intercalation compound shifts to high-field with δ 2.3-2.7, which is assigned to the formation of the hydrogen bond between the inner surface hydroxyl and formamide carbonyl group. Whereas, the proton peak of the inner hydroxyl shifts to δ-0.3 toward low-field, that is attributed to van der Waal's effect between the inner hydroxyl proton and the amino group proton of the formamide which may be keyed into the ditrigonal hole of the kaolinite. The third peak, additional proton peak, is in the range of δ5.4-5.6, that is ascribed to the hydrogen bond formation between the amino group proton of formimide and SiO4 tetrahedral oxygen of the kaolinite.

  14. Dynamic scheduling model of computing resource based on MAS cooperation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiJin; ZHANG LianMei; WANG Pu


    Allocation of grid resources aims at improving resource utility and grid application performance. Currently, the algorithms proposed for this purpose do not fit well the autonomic, dynamic, distributive and heterogeneous features of the grid environment. According to MAS (multi-agent system) cooperation mechanism and market bidding game rules, a model of allocating allocation of grid resources based on market economy is introduced to reveal the relationship between supply and demand. This model can make good use of the studying and negotiating ability of consumers' agent and takes full consideration of the consumer's behavior, thus rendering the application and allocation of resource of the consumers rational and valid. In the meantime, the utility function of consumer Is given; the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution are discussed. A dynamic game algorithm of allocating grid resources is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm diminishes effectively the unnecessary latency, improves significantly the smoothness of response time, the ratio of throughput and resource utility, thus rendering the supply and demand of the whole grid resource reasonable and the overall grid load balanceable.

  15. 1H HR-MAS NMR of carotenoids in aqueous samples and raw vegetables. (United States)

    Miglietta, M L; Lamanna, R


    Carotenoids are linear C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons and represent a wide category of natural pigments. They are components of the pigment system of chloroplasts and are involved in the primary light absorption and the photon canalization of photosynthesis. Moreover, they also behave as quenchers of singlet oxygen, protecting cells and organisms against lipid peroxidation. Carotenoids have a strong lipophilic character and are usually analyzed in organic solvents. However, because of their biological activity, the characterization of these compounds in an aqueous environment or in the natural matrix is very important. One of the most important dietary carotenoids is beta-carotene, which has been extensively studied both in vivo and in model systems, but because of the low concentration and strong interaction with the biological matrix, beta-carotene has never been observed by NMR in solid aqueous samples.In the present work, a model system has been developed for the detection and identification of beta-carotene in solid aqueous samples by 1H HR-MAS NMR. The efficiency of the model has led to the identification of beta-carotene in a raw vegetable matrix.

  16. Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal; Roberts, Carl; Sluse, Dominique; Stacey, Hannah; Vives-Arias, Hector; Wucknitz, Olaf; Volino, Filomena


    We present VLA detections of radio emission in four four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS0810+2554, RXJ0911+0511, HE0435$-$1223 and SDSSJ0924+0219, and e-MERLIN observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5$\\mu$Jy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini-AGN, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the req...

  17. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu


    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this study is (1 to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2 to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by qualitative descriptive and SWOT. The result of this study is that Banjar Nyuh Kuning has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism on the basis of physical and non physical grounds. The perception of the community and tourists are in agreement to the developement of ecotourism activity which incorporate local community, nature oriented activity and has the potential to increase their income, thus resulting in a destination for leisure and recreation. There are a few results of alternative strategies such as; development strategies of ecotourism products, development strategies of human resources, development strategies of management and strategies in upgrading security. To make Banjar Nyuh Kuning as an attraction for ecotourism activity which is based on nature then the strategy for development has to be efficient and limited. Further study has to be taken for the marketing aspect and managing ecotourism object to further the developent in a comprehensive manner.

  19. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel


    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  20. HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē "X".


    Šķestere, Ineta


    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē „X” ”. Šajā darbā tiek apskatīts viens no veidiem, kā pārtikas apritē iesaistītiem uzņēmumiem sakārtot savu darbību atbilstoši Eiropas Savienībā un Latvijā pastāvošās likumdošanas prasībām. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Kas ir pārtikas nekaitīguma nodrošināšanas sistēma HACCP, Kāpēc būtu jāievieš šī sistēma un kādus ieguvumus tā dod. Otrajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Vispārējās higiē...

  1. Evidence for cross-linking in tomato cutin using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ashish P; Simpson, André J; Hatcher, Patrick G


    Cutin is a polyester biopolymer component of plant leaf and fruit cuticles, most often associated with waxes and cuticular polysaccharides, and sometimes with another aliphatic biopolymer called cutan. Insolubility of these cuticular biopolymers has made it difficult to apply traditional analytical techniques for structure determination, because most techniques providing molecular level details require solubility. By using the relatively new technique of one and two-dimensional high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, with added information from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, detailed through-bond connectivities and assignments are made for cutin from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit. Based on the data obtained, tomato cutin is found to be predominantly an aliphatic polyester with some olefinic and aromatic moieties, consistent with previous studies that employed various degradative approaches. Aside from esters, there are free primary and secondary alcohol groups, as well as free fatty acids. A significant finding is the presence of alpha-branched fatty acids/esters. Mid-chain hydroxyls appear to be generally unesterified, but esters of mid-chain hydroxyls have been identified. The alpha-branched fatty acids/esters and esters of mid-chain hydroxyls could point towards cross-linking.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas


    mengevaluasi daya tahan benih ikan mas F-1 terseleksi terhadap infeksi KHV melalui uji tantang. Sebagai pembanding, digunakan ikan mas populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi dan populasi benih ikan mas dari unit pembenihan rakyat (UPR. Ikan uji berupa benih ikan mas Rajadanu berumur dua bulan dengan bobot ratarata 5,5±0,5 g. Jumlah benih pada masing-masing wadah perlakuan sebanyak 30 ekor dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Wadah pengujian berupa akuarium berukuran 40 cm x 60 cm x 40 cm dengan kepadatan 1 ekor/L. Parameter yang diamati adalah sintasan, deteksi KHV, analisis ekspresi gen MHC-II, dan gambaran darah ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi benih F-1 terseleksi memiliki daya tahan lebih baik dengan sintasan 93,33% dibandingkan populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi sebesar 85,55% dan populasi benih dari UPR sebesar 81,11%. Daya tahan yang tinggi pada populasi benih F-1 terseleksi didukung oleh hasil deteksi KHV yang negatif dan ersentase jumlah limfosit yang lebih tinggi sebesar 91,67%; serta rendahnya persentase monosit dan heterofil, selain itu, tidak adanya eosinofil dan basofil. Ekspresi gen MHC-II terdeteksi pada berbagai organ, ekspresi tertinggi ditemukan pada organ limpa.

  3. Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders


    Full Text Available Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida A “woman Methodist preacher” in 1775: capable of mobilizing an entire city, but – forgottenUna “predicadora metodista” en 1775: capaz de movilizar a toda una ciudad, pero – olvidada

  4. Efect of T. harzianumand FitoMas-E® as bioestimulants of the germination y growth of seedlings of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoerlandy Santana Baños


    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the combined effect of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on germination and growth of tomato seedlings. In the first test tomato seeds cv. Vyta they were used to treat with solutions FitoMas-E® (2.0 % v / v and T. harzianum strain A-34 concentration of the solid medium of 1.7 x 109 CFU mL-1 . Germination percentage every six hours by placing 50 seeds per Petri dish of 10 cm diameter with five replicates per treatment is evaluated. In a second test the effect of inoculation of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on the growth of tomato seedlings in conditions rootball was evaluated, using trays 264 alveoli and substrate made from peat: soil: rice husks (3:2:1. Speed and percentage germination of tomato seeds treated FitoMas-E® and T. harzianum was found, combined use increases the values of stem diameter and total and radical mass, which can be exploited for transplanting plants tomato, generating a possible diminution in production costs.

  5. 玉米秸秆木质素降解过程的CP/MAS13CNMR和SEM表征%CP/MAS13CNMR and SEM Characterization of Corn Stover Lignin Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张全; 孟雪松; 凌凤香


    利用黄孢原毛平革茵对玉米秸秆木质素进行降解处理,通过CP/MAS 13CNMR和SEM研究降解过程中木质素的结构变化.CP/MAS 13CNMR结果表明:玉米秸秆木质素降解过程中,作为木质素结构单元主要连接方式的β-O-4键基本上没有被降解;木质素单位苯环的甲氧基含量稍有增加;S/G值降低,推断反应过程中紫丁香基优先参与反应.SEM结果表明:降解后的木质素空穴增多且增大、颗粒物质减少,主要是由于酶解木质素中大量碳水化合物的降解(所)致;比木质素更容易降解的纤维素和半纤维素也存在于样品中.CP/MAS13CNMR为木质纤维原料结构的定性和初步定量提供了可能,是传统定量表征手段的有力补充,具有一定的研究意义.%The structure changes of corn stover lignin treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied by CP/MAS 13CNMR and SEM.CP/MAS 13CNMR Results showed that bond β-O-4 didn't be degraded,the content of-OCH3 increased after degradation,S/G value decreased,and syringyl structure was priority to take part in the reaction.SEM Results showed that the surface holes of corn stover lignin increased both in number and in volume,and the particle matters reduced,mainly due to the degradation caused by carbohydrate,there were cellulose and hemicellulose more easily degraded than lignin in the sample.CP/MAS 13CNMR Provides the possibility of qualitative and quantitative characterization for wood materials structure,which is a strong supplement to the traditional quantitative characterization methods,and has some research significance.

  6. Molecular dynamics of spider dragline silk fiber investigated by 2H MAS NMR. (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyan; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L


    The molecular dynamics of the proteins that comprise spider dragline silk were investigated with solid-state (2)H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR line shape and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis. The experiments were performed on (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-enriched N. clavipes dragline silk fibers. The silk protein side-chain and backbone dynamics were probed for Ala-rich regions (β-sheet and 31-helical domains) in both native (dry) and supercontracted (wet) spider silk. In native (dry) silk fibers, the side chains in all Ala containing regions undergo similar fast methyl rotations (>10(9) s(-1)), while the backbone remains essentially static (silk is wet and supercontracted, the presence of water initiates fast side-chain and backbone motions for a fraction of the β-sheet region and 31-helicies. β-Sheet subregion 1 ascribed to the poly(Ala) core exhibits slower dynamics, while β-sheet subregion 2 present in the interfacial, primarily poly(Gly-Ala) region that links the β-sheets to disordered 31-helical motifs, exhibits faster motions when the silk is supercontracted. Particularly notable is the observation of microsecond backbone motions for β-sheet subregion 2 and 31-helicies. It is proposed that these microsecond backbone motions lead to hydrogen-bond disruption in β-sheet subregion 2 and helps to explain the decrease in silk stiffness when the silk is wet and supercontracted. In addition, water mobilizes and softens 31-helical motifs, contributing to the increased extensibility observed when the silk is in a supercontracted state. The present study provides critical insight into the supercontraction mechanism and corresponding changes in mechanical properties observed for spider dragline silks.

  7. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz


    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  8. 13C CP/MAS NMR and DFT studies of thiazides (United States)

    Latosińska, J. N.


    The 13C MAS solid state NMR spectra of four sulphonamide derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides, commonly known as thiazides, were recorded and the chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) were measured. Analysis of the experimental 13C shielding parameters was supported by DFT theoretical calculations carried out within the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO), semiempirical Typed Neglect of Differential Overlap (TNDO/2) approach and by the spectra estimations performed by ChemNMR Pro 6.0, ACD-I/LAB, SpecInfo and gNMR. It was found that the chemical shifts obtained with ChemNMR Pro 6.0, ACD-I/LAB, SpecInfo and gNMR were insensitive to the substitution effects, whereas the semiempirical TNDO/2 and density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) methods allowed estimation of the influence of substituents on the chemical shielding and consequently, the chemical shift. The influence of the substituents at C3 position of the ring on the chemical shifts was analysed on the basis of the experimental data and results of the DFT calculations. The values of the chemical shifts and the low values of the anisotropy parameter for the C3 atom in HCTZ, TCTZ and ATZ, strongly indicated that three thiazides HCTZ, TCTZ and ATZ occurred in the form of HCTZ type with the C3 carbon atom participating in a single bond. The following ordering of the substituents according to the increasing electron accepting properties was found: -H<-CH 2SCH 2CHCH 2<-CHCl 2. A detailed analysis of the inductive and coupling effects was made on the basis of 13C chemical shifts and chemical shielding tensor asymmetry parameters on the C3 and C6 carbon atoms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová


    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  10. Insight into photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter in UVA/TiO₂ systems revealed by fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC. (United States)

    Phong, Diep Dinh; Hur, Jin


    Photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) using TiO2 as a catalyst and UVA as a light source was examined under various experimental settings with different TiO2 doses, solution pH, and the light intensities. The changes in UV absorbance and fluorescence with the irradiation time followed a pseudo-first order model much better than those of dissolved organic carbon. In general, the degradation rates were increased by higher TiO2 doses and light intensities. However, the exact photocatalytic responses of DOM to the irradiation were affected by many other factors such as aggregation of TiO2, light scattering, hydroxyl radicals produced, and DOM sorption on TiO2. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the DOM changes in fluorescence could be described by the combinations of four dissimilar components including one protein-like, two humic-like, and one terrestrial humic-like components, each of which followed well the pseudo-first order model. The photocatalytic degradation rates were higher for protein-like versus humic-like component, whereas the opposite order was displayed for the degradation rates in the absence of TiO2, suggesting different dominant mechanisms operating between the systems with and without TiO2. Our results based on EEM-PARAFAC provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms associated with the photocatalytic degradation of DOM as well as the potential environmental impact of the treated water. This study demonstrated a successful application of EEM-PARAFAC for photocatalytic systems via directly comparing the kinetic rates of the individual DOM components with different compositions.

  11. Compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em suco de uva Total phenolics and anthocyanins in grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia R. Malacrida


    Full Text Available As concentrações de compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em sucos de uva reconstituídos e simples, de diferentes marcas, disponíveis no comércio varejista da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais foram quantificadas. Também se determinou a contribuição das antocianinas poliméricas à cor e o índice de degradação das antocianinas. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 0,27 e 2,41 g/L e as concentrações de antocianinas de 1,17 a 66,80 mg/L. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (Teste de Duncan, pTotal phenolics and anthocyanins contents were quantified in simple and reprocessed grape juices of different brands, commercially available in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil metropolitan area. The contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color and the anthocyanins degradation index were also determined. Total phenolics levels varied from 0,27 to 2,41 g/L and anthocyanin concentrations from 1,17 to 66,80 mg/L. Significant differences were found (Duncan's test, p<0,05 in total phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations among different brands of reprocessed grape juice as well as the simple juice. The percent contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color also varied significantly among different brands, the simple grape juice showing a higher percentage (81,6% than the reprocessed one (77,5%. The latter presented total mean value of anthocyanins degradation (3,92 higher than the former one (3,44.

  12. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers (United States)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco


    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Mufidah


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode ELISA untuk deteksi antibodi anti Aeromonas hydrophila dan membuat alat deteksi cepat terhadap antibodi anti A. hydrophila dengan menggunakan imunostik. Sebanyak enam ekor ikan mas digunakan sebagai hewan uji untuk memproduksi serum seronegatif (baseline dan seropositif. Hewan uji tersebut divaksinasi dengan antigen A. hydrophila dan dikoleksi serumnya tiap minggu. Optimasi metode ELISA dilakukan hingga mendapatkan rasio serum seronegatif dan seropositif yang terbaik. Hasil optimasi metode ELISA kemudian digunakan untuk merakit imunostik dan kemudian mengaplikasikannya pada serum ikan mas. Hasil uji optimasi metode ELISA didapatkan hasil bahwa metode ELISA yang dikembangkan dapat mendeteksi antibodi anti A. hydrophila pada semua serum positif dan menyatakan negatif pada serum seronegatif. Hasil yang sama juga ditunjukkan oleh uji imunostik yang telah dirakit.

  14. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat. (United States)

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (pword, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  15. Dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi video reklāmas vēstījumos 2006 - 2007


    Koka-Rašmane, Linda


    Bakalaura darba temats un nosaukums ir „Dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi video reklāmas vēstījumos 2006-2007”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kādā mērā un kādi dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi tiek izmantoti TV reklāmas komunikācijā. Darba ietvaros tiek apskatītas teorētiskās pieejas televīzijas reklāmai un patērniecībai, stereotipiem TV reklāmā, sīkāk pievēršoties dzimtes un etniskajiem stereotipiem, kultūras pētniecībai, simboliskajam interakcionismam un biheiviorismam. Pētījums tiek veikts...

  16. Sinergia da radiação ionizante e do aquecimento na vida de prateleira da uva ?Itália?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domarco Rachel Elisabeth


    Full Text Available O comportamento de uva cv. Itália, aquecida e irradiada com diferentes doses de radiação ionizante, foi estudado através de análises químicas (teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH e análise sensorial (aparência e firmeza. Para o experimento, foram utilizados aproximadamente 500g de uva por amostra e 4 repetições por tratamento. Uma parte foi aquecida por imersão em água (50°C por 5 minutos, antes da irradiação, outra parte foi irradiada à temperatura ambiente (22-25°C. Para a irradiação, utilizou-se uma fonte de Cobalto-60, tipo Gammabeam-650, a uma taxa de dose de 1,89 kGy/h. As doses utilizadas foram, 0 (controle, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 kGy. Após a irradiação as amostras foram acondicionadas em caixas de papelão e armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração (6°C - 8°C. As análises químicas e sensorial foram realizadas após 60 dias de armazenamento. Observou-se um aumento na acidez titulável e no pH, em função das doses de radiação. O teor de sólidos solúveis e a relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foram maiores nas amostras aquecidas. O tratamento térmico e a radiação gama, isolados ou combinados, não promoveram o aumento de vida de prateleira de uva Itália.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Paula Dias


    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo diário de vinho tinto já são bem conhecidos e descritos, e incluem a diminuição da probabilidade de ocorrência de doenças coronárias e de complicações cardiovasculares. Atribui-se esta ação benéfica e “protetora” à presença de compostos flavonoides encontrados na casca da uva (Vitis vinifera, principalmente antocianidinas e do derivado fenólico resveratrol. Apesar disto, o vinho é caracterizado por apresentar entre 5 a 12% de álcool e o seu consumo diário pode trazer, juntamente aos benefícios cardíacos grandes prejuízos à saúde. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar se o consumo frequente de suco de uva tinto seria capaz de trazer os mesmos efeitos protetores do vinho tinto.  Observou-se nestas análises que a atividade antioxidante dos vinhos amostrados foi superior a dos sucos. Não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os teores de compostos fenólicos totais nas amostras de suco e de vinho. Uma vez que a atividade antioxidante está muito relacionada à proteção cardiovascular, conclui-se que o consumo do suco de uva tinto não é capaz de substituir o vinho em sua ação protetora


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMO O suco de uva ‘Isabel’ apresenta deficiência de cor e uma alternativa é o uso de ácido abscísico para aumentar a coloração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação do suco integral de uva ‘Isabel’ tratada com ácido abscísico (S-ABA em diferentes concentrações e épocas, por meio da análise sensorial, obtido em duas safras consecutivas (2011 e 2012. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos: Testemunha; S-ABA 200 mg L-1aplicado sete dias após o início da maturação (DAIM; S-ABA 400 mg L-1 aplicado aos sete DAIM; S-ABA 200 mg L-1 aplicado aos sete DAIM + 200 mg L-1 aplicado aos 15 dias após a primeira aplicação (DAPA; e S-ABA 400 mg L-1 aplicado aos sete DAIM + 400 mg L-1, aplicado aos 15 DAPA. Os sucos integrais dos tratamentos foram obtidos pelo processo ‘Welch’, em panela extratora por arraste de vapor. Para a avaliação sensorial, contou-se com 70 julgadores não treinados, que avaliaram os atributos: coloração, aroma, sabor, corpo e aceitação global, empregando-se uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. Verificou-se que todos os sucos integrais de uva ‘Isabel’ tratada com S-ABA apresentaram maior aceitação pelos julgadores quanto aos atributos sensoriais avaliados, sendo a concentração de 400 mg L-1 em uma única aplicação, aos sete DAIM, suficiente para propiciar esses resultados.

  19. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells. (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil


    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  20. The hazard assessment of nanostructured CeO{sub 2}-based mixed oxides on the zebrafish Danio rerio under environmentally relevant UV-A exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemec, Anita, E-mail: [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Djinović, Petar; Črnivec, Ilja Gasan Osojnik; Pintar, Albin [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    The effect of nanomaterials on biota under realistic environmental conditions is an important question. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how different illumination conditions alter the toxicity of some photocatalytic nanomaterials. We have investigated how environmentally relevant UV-A exposure (intensity 8.50 ± 0.61 W/m{sup 2}, exposure dose 9.0 J/cm{sup 2}) affected the toxicity of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2})-based nanostructured materials to the early-life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Pure cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), copper–cerium (CuO–CeO{sub 2}) (with a nominal 10, 15 and 20 mol.% CuO content), cerium–zirconium (CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}) and nickel and cobalt (Ni–Co) deposited over CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} were tested. It was found that under both illumination regimes, none of the tested materials affected the normal development or induced mortality of zebrafish early-life stages up to 100 mg/L. Only in the case of CuO–CeO{sub 2}, the growth of larvae was decreased (96 h LOEC values for CuCe10, CuCe15 and CuCe20 were 50, 50 and 10 mg/L, respectively). To conclude, CeO{sub 2}-based nanostructured materials are not severely toxic to zebrafish and environmentally relevant UV-A exposure does not enhance their toxicity. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} nanomaterials and pure CeO{sub 2} (up to 100 mg/L) were not harmful to zebrafish. • Only CuO modified CeO{sub 2} affected the growth of zebrafish larvae. • UV-A radiation did not enhance the toxicity of tested nanomaterials.

  1. 1H MAS NMR characterization of hydrogen over silica-supported rhodium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hydrogen species in both SiO2 and Rh/SiO2 catalysts pretreated indifferent atmospheres (H2, O2, helium or air) at different temperatures (773 or 973 K) were investigated by means of 1H MAS NMR. In SiO2 and O2-pretreated catalysts, a series of downfield signals at ~7.0, 3.8-4.0, 2.0 and 1.5-1.0 were detected. The first two signals can be attributed to strongly adsorbed and physisorbed water and the others to terminal silanol (SiOH) and SiOH under the screening of oxygen vacancies in SiO2 lattice, respectively. Besides the above signals, both upfield signal at ~-110 and downfield signals at 3.0 and 0.0 were also detected in H2-pretreated catalyst, respectively. The upfield signal at ~-110 originated from the dissociative adsorption of H2 over rhodium and was found to consist of both the contributions of reversible and irreversible hydrogen. There also probably existed another dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen over rhodium, which was known to be b hydrogen and in a unique form of "delocalized hydrogen". It was presumed that the b hydrogen had an upfield shift of ca. -20- -50, though its 1H NMR signals, which, having been masked by the spinning sidebands of Si-OH, failed to be directly detected out. The downfield signal at 3.0 was assigned to spillover hydrogen weakly bound by the bridge oxygen of SiO2. Another downfield signal at 0.0 was assigned to hydrogen held in the oxygen vacancies of SiO2 (Si-H species), suffering from the screening of trapped electrons. Both the spillover hydrogen and the Si-H resulted from the migration of the reversible hydrogen and the b hydrogen from rhodium to SiO2 in the close vicinity. It was proved that the above migration of hydrogen was preferred to occur at higher temperature than at lower temperature.

  2. Effects of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas on cell proliferation and on the population of doublecortin positive cells within the dentate gyrus and the piriform cortex. (United States)

    Freund, M; Walther, T; von Bohlen Und Halbach, O


    Aside from the well-known biologically active angiotensin II, other biologically active angiotensins have been discovered, including angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7). Some years ago, we and others discovered that the Mas proto-oncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor being essential for angiotensin-(1-7) signaling. Mas is not only expressed in the periphery but also within the brain, e.g. in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the piriform cortex (PC). Since the DG is capable of adult neurogenesis, we examined the impact of a deletion of Mas upon adult neurogenesis. Deletion of Mas did not alter cell proliferation in the adult DG (as monitored with phosphohistone H3) and did not alter cell death (as monitored with activated Caspase 3). However, Mas deficiency resulted in an increase in the number of doublecortin (DCX) positive cells, indicating that lack of Mas increases the number of this cell population. Concerning the PC, it is discussed whether adult neurogenesis occurs under physiological conditions in this area. We could demonstrate that Mas deficiency has an impact on cell division and on the population of DCX-positive cells within the PC. Since Mas is not expressed before birth within the brain, our data may suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenesis occurring during prenatal development share several common mechanisms, but are, at least in part, differentially regulated. Moreover, since deficiency for Mas increases the numbers of DCX-positive young neurons, blockage of Mas might be beneficial in stimulating neurogenesis in adults.

  3. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  4. Agent及Multi-Agent System的理论和应用%Theories and Application of Agent/MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东云; 郭素娜


    Agent和Multi-Agent System(MAS)是人工智能的主要研究方向之一.回顾了Agent及MAS的发展历史,总结了目前Agent及MAS的研究现状,探讨了Agent及MAS的理论与应用,提出了目前Agent和MAS发展所需要解决的问题.

  5. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study. (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Sturcova, Adriana; Brus, Jiri; Benes, Hynek; Skorepova, Eliska; Kratochvil, Bohumil; Cejka, Jan; Sedenkova, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianova, Olivia; Sturc, Antonin


    Analysis of C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction data of trospium chloride (TCl) products crystallized from different mixtures of water-ethanol [φ(EtOH) = 0.5-1.0] at various temperatures (0°C, 20°C) and initial concentrations (saturated solution, 30%-50% excess of solvent) revealed extensive structural variability of TCl. Although (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated broad variety of structural phases arising from molecular disorder, temperature-modulated DSC identified presence of two distinct components in the products. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the hydrogen bonding network (ionic hydrogen bond formation), whereas the X-ray diffraction reflected unchanged unit cell parameters. These results were explained by a two-component character of TCl products in which a dominant polymorphic form is accompanied by partly separated nanocrystalline domains of a secondary phase that does not provide clear Bragg reflections. These phases slightly differ in the degree of molecular disorder, in the quality of crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding network. It is also demonstrated that, for the quality control of such complex products, (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis (FA) can satisfactorily be used for categorizing the individual samples: FA of (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra found clear relationships between the extent of molecular disorder and crystallization conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013.

  6. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization (United States)

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio


    Summary The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  7. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mallard


    Full Text Available The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3 of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: TCH (the CP time constant and T1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame. The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that TCH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of TCH and T1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices.

  8. High-resolution (19)F MAS NMR spectroscopy: structural disorder and unusual J couplings in a fluorinated hydroxy-silicate. (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Yates, Jonathan R; Berry, Andrew J; Wimperis, Stephen; Ashbrook, Sharon E


    High-resolution (19)F magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is used to study disorder and bonding in a crystalline solid. (19)F MAS NMR reveals four distinct F sites in a 50% fluorine-substituted deuterated hydrous magnesium silicate (clinohumite, 4Mg(2)SiO(4)·Mg(OD(1-x)F(x))(2) with x = 0.5), indicating extensive structural disorder. The four (19)F peaks can be assigned using density functional theory (DFT) calculations of NMR parameters for a number of structural models with a range of possible local F environments generated by F(-)/OH(-) substitution. These assignments are supported by two-dimensional (19)F double-quantum MAS NMR experiments that correlate F sites based on either spatial proximity (via dipolar couplings) or through-bond connectivity (via scalar, or J, couplings). The observation of (19)F-(19)F J couplings is unexpected as the fluorines coordinate Mg atoms and the Mg-F interaction is normally considered to be ionic in character (i.e., there is no formal F-Mg-F covalent bonding arrangement). However, DFT calculations predict significant (19)F-(19)F J couplings, and these are in good agreement with the splittings observed in a (19)F J-resolved MAS NMR experiment. The existence of these J couplings is discussed in relation to both the nature of bonding in the solid state and the occurrence of so-called "through-space" (19)F-(19)F J couplings in solution. Finally, we note that we have found similar structural disorder and spin-spin interactions in both synthetic and naturally occurring clinohumite samples.

  9. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mancebo


    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  10. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content (United States)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, Govind P.; Montagne, Lionel; Delevoye, Laurent


    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li 2O-(72- x)SiO 2- xZnO-5.1Na 2O-1.3P 2O 5-4.1B 2O 3, 5.5⩽ x⩽17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. 29Si and 31P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q2, Q3 and Q4 sites are identified from 29Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q3 and Q4 resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From 31P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-( Q0) and pyro-phosphate ( Q1) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li 3Zn 0.5SiO 4), tridymite (SiO 2) and cristobalite (SiO 2) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using 29Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, 31P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li 3PO 4 and (Na,Li) 3PO 4 in the glass-ceramics.

  11. Fast- and drift-ice communities in the Bothnian Bay and the impact of UVA radiation on the Baltic Sea ice ecology


    Piiparinen, Jonna


    The aim of this thesis was to study ecology of Baltic Sea ice from two perspectives. In the first two studies, sea-ice ecology from riverine-influenced fast ice to drift ice in the Bothnian Bay was investigated, whereas the last two studies focus on the sensitivity of sea-ice bacteria and algae to UVA examined in situ. The seasonal sea ice cover is one of the main characteristics of the Baltic Sea, and despite the brackish parental water, the ice structure is similar to polar ice with sa...

  12. Detection of the pediocin gene pedA in strains from human faeces by real-time PCR and characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici UVA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cereghetti Tania


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as natural protective cultures. Among them, strains of the genus Pediococcus are particularly interesting for their ability to produce pediocin, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide with a strong antagonistic activity against the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in isolating new bacteriocin-producing strains of human intestinal origin that could be developed for probiotic effects and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. In this work, we typed a new strain, co-isolated from baby faeces together with a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain, and characterized its proteinaceous compound with strong antilisterial activity. Results The newly isolated strain UVA1 was identified as a Pediococcus acidilactici by carbohydrate fermentation profile, growth at 50°C and 16S rDNA sequencing. The partially purified bacteriocin was heat resistant up to 100°C, active over a wide range of pH (2 to 9 and susceptible to proteolytic enzymes. The molecular weight, estimated by SDS-PAGE, was similar to that of pediocin AcH/PA-1 (4.5 kDa. P. acidilactici UVA1 harboured a 9.5-kb plasmid that could be cured easily, which resulted in the loss of the antimicrobial activity. Southern hybridization using the DIG-labelled pedA-probe established that the bacteriocin gene was plasmid-borne as for all pediocin described so far. Nucleotide sequence of the whole operon (3.5 kb showed almost 100 % similarity to the pediocin AcH/PA-1 operon. The mRNA transcript for pedA could be detected in P. acidilactici UVA1 but not in the cured derivative, confirming the expression of the pedA-gene in UVA1. Using a new real-time PCR assay, eleven out of seventeen human faecal samples tested were found to contain pedA-DNA. Conclusion We identified and characterised the first pediocin produced by a human intestinal Pediococcus acidilactici isolate and

  13. Wykonywanie odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowych z ekologicznych mas formierskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka


    Full Text Available Artykuł zawiera wyniki uzyskane podczas badań wykonywanych w ramach projektu celowego w odlewni Hardtop w Charsznicy.Celem badań było opracowanie technologii wykonania dobrej jakości odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego przy jednoczesnym zachowaniuskutecznych technik ochrony środowiska. Przedstawiono badania wykonywania odlewów o masie od 1 do 300 kg z żeliwa sferoidalnegogatunek 400-15, 500-7 z zastosowaniem form dwuwarstwowych, gdzie masę przymodelową i rdzeniową stanowi masa z alkalicznymspoiwem organicznym, a masę wypełniającą – masa ze spoiwem nieorganicznym - geopolimerowym.Zastosowano uproszczoną regenerację masy z możliwością wykorzystania odzyskanego regeneratu do masy wypełniającej.Przeprowadzono dobór metody sferoidyzacji i modyfikacji żeliwa odpowiednich dla warunków odlewni Hardtop. Wykonano serię próbnąodlewów i przeprowadzono badania poprawności konstrukcji układów zalewania i zasilania z zastosowaniem otulin egzotermicznych nanadlewy. Badania potwierdziły słuszność przyjętej koncepcji wykonywania odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowychprzy zachowaniu maksymalnie 15% udziału mas ze spoiwem organicznym.

  14. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter


    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.

  15. Effect of combination of renin inhibitor and Mas-receptor agonist in DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats. (United States)

    Singh, Yogendra; Singh, Kulwinder; Sharma, P L


    To investigate the combined effect of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, and AVE 0991, a Mas-receptor agonist, in experimental hypertension (HT) in rats. HT was produced by administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was assessed by tail-cuff method. Treatments were started from 4th week onwards and were continued for 9 days. A significant increase in MABP was noted after 1 week in DOCA control rats, as compared with the base line value. A stable HT developed after 4 weeks of DOCA administration. Treatments with aliskiren and AVE 0991 alone, dose-dependently decreased MABP in DOCA-treated rats. Further, combination of low doses of aliskiren and AVE 0991 significantly reduced MABP, as compared with DOCA control rats and with either drug alone in low doses. It may be concluded that treatment with aliskiren produced down-regulation of both harmful Ang II-AT1-receptor and survival Ang(1-7)/Mas-receptor axis of RAAS. Treatment with combination of low doses of aliskiren and AVE 0991, for the first time, has been shown to produce synergistic blood pressure lowering effect. Therefore, combination of renin inhibitor with Mas-receptor agonist may prove beneficial for the treatment of hypertensive patients.

  16. Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Philips


    Full Text Available In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives, through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally, III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.

  17. Reciclado del orujo de uva como medio sólido de fermentación para la producción de enzimas hidrolíticas de interés industrial


    Díaz Sánchez, Ana Belén


    En la presente tesis se pretende profirndizar en el desarrollo de un nuevo proceso, de bajo impacto medioambiental y de costes muy reducidos, para aprovechar el principal subproducto de la industria vitivinícola: el orujo de uva. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que mediante la fermentación en estado sólido (FES) del hongo Aspergillus awamori sobre el orujo de uva se secretan las enzimas pectinasas, xilanasas y celulasas. Sin embargo, la composición de este sustrato natura...

  18. Influencia de la madurez de la uva y de ciertas prácticas vitivinícolas sobre el color, los compuestos fenólicos y los polisacáridos del vino tinto


    Gil Cortiella, Mariona


    La madurez de la uva ejerce una gran influencia sobre la composición química del vino tinto, lo que a su vez condiciona severamente propiedades organolépticas como el color, la astringencia y el amargor. La enorme heterogeneidad de la uva, así como la variabilidad de los factores que condicionan el proceso de maduración y que pueden conducir a una madurez inadecuada, van en detrimento de la calidad de los vinos tintos de alta gama. Con el fin de paliar los efectos de dicha madurez inadecuada,...

  19. Efectos del extracto de semillas de uva sobre la cistopatia diabética inducida por estreptozotocina en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Arruzazabala


    Full Text Available La diabetes por estreptozotocina (STZ en ratas se produce como consecuencia de la necrosis subtotal de los islotes pancreáticos y provoca hiperglicemia, hipoinsulinemia, disminución de la ganancia en peso y aumento del peso de la vejiga, así como hipercontractilidad al carbacol por sobreexpresión de los ARNm-receptores muscarínicos M2 y M3 del detrusor y el urotelio. El extracto de semillas de uva (ESU, rico en flavonoides, ha mostrado efectos antioxidantes y neuroprotectores en modelos experimentales. Por tanto, este estudio investigó si el tratamiento con ESU atenuaba la cistopatía inducida por STZ en ratas. Los animales se distribuyeron en tres grupos: un grupo control no diabético y dos grupos tratados con STZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal. Cuatro semanas después, tanto el grupo control negativo como uno de los tratados con STZ (control positivo recibió el vehículo por vía oral (p.o., mientras el tercer grupo recibió ESU (200 mg/(kg · d, p.o. durante cuatro semanas. Al concluir este período se cuantificó el peso corporal y las concentraciones séricas de glucosa y creatinina. La actividad funcional de la vejiga se investigó usando carbacol (10 -7- 10 -5 mol/L y KCl (100 mmol/L para inducir las contracciones en cada preparación aislada. Las ratas diabéticas por STZ mostraron disminución de la ganancia en peso corporal y aumento de las concentraciones de glucosa y creatinina, así como del peso de las vejigas con relación al grupo control negativo. Las contracciones máximas (Emáx. inducidas por el carbacol en vejigas aisladas fueron significativamente mayores (hiperreactividad en las ratas diabéticas que en los controles negativos. El tratamiento con ESU [200 mg/(kg · d] no modificó la reducción del aumento de peso corporal ni la hiperglicemia en ratas con diabetes inducida por STZ. Además, el ESU no afectó la hiperreactividad al carbacol (E máx. ni la respuesta contráctil del KCl 100 mmol/l de las preparaciones

  20. The influence of light spectra, UV-A, and growth regulators on the in vitro seed germination of Senecio cineraria DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of light spectra, additional UV-A, and different growth regulators on the in vitro germination of Senecio cineraria DC. Seeds were surface-sterilized and inoculated in MS medium to evaluate the following light spectra: white, white plus UV-A, blue, green, red or darkness. The maximum germinability was obtained using MS0 medium under white light (30% and MS + 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 in the absence of light (30.5%. S. cineraria seeds were indifferent to light. Blue and green lights inhibited germination. Different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.1; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 and indole-3-acetic acid IAA (0.1; 0.3 and 1.0 mg L-1 were evaluated under white light and darkness. No concentration of GA3 enhanced seed germination percentage under white light. However, when the seeds were maintained in darkness, GA3 improved germination responses in all tested concentrations, except at 1.0 mg L-1. Under white light, these concentrations also increased the germination time and reduced germination rate. Germination rate, under light or darkness, was lower using IAA compared with GA3.

  1. An approach to utilize the artificial high power LED UV-A radiation in photoreactors for the degradation of methylene blue. (United States)

    Betancourt-Buitrago, L A; Vásquez, C; Veitia, L; Ossa-Echeverry, O; Rodriguez-Vallejo, J; Barraza-Burgos, J; Marriaga-Cabrales, N; Machuca-Martínez, F


    Utilization of UV LED light is trending in the development of photoreactors for pollutant treatment. In this study, two different geometries were studied in the degradation of methylenebBlue (MB) using high power UVA LED as a source of light. The dosage, initial concentration, electric power, and H2O2 addition were evaluated in the two geometries: a mini CPC (Cilindrical Parabolic Collector) and a vertical cylindrical with external irradiation both coupled with LED UVA. Best degradation was obtained for 0.3 g L(-1) TiO2, 40 min, and 15 ppm of MB of initial concentration in the standard batch reactor. It was found that the best system was a cpc geometry. Also, hydrogen peroxide was used as an electron acceptor and 97% degradation was obtained in 30 min with 10 mM H2O2 and 0.4 g TiO2/L. Power of the LEDs was also evaluated and it was found that 20 W m(-2) is the best operational condition to achieve the best MB degradation avoiding the oxidant species recombination.

  2. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves. (United States)

    Morales, Luis O; Tegelberg, Riitta; Brosché, Mikael; Keinänen, Markku; Lindfors, Anders; Aphalo, Pedro J


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities; however, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Here, we report differential effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors. Plants were exposed for 30 days to six UV treatments created using three types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. In addition, the concentrations of six flavonoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. UV-A linearly regulated the accumulation of quercetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside and had a quadratic effect on HYH expression. Furthermore, there were strong positive correlations between PAL expression and accumulation of four flavonols under the UV treatments. Our findings in silver birch contribute to a more detailed understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels.

  3. Preparation and characterization of p–n heterojunction CuBi2O4/CeO2 and its photocatalytic activities under UVA light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Elaziouti


    Full Text Available CuBi2O4/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by the solid state method and were characterized by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated under UVA light and assessed using Congo red (CR dye as probe reaction. The efficiency of the coupled CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst was found to be related to the amount of added CuBi2O4 and to the pH medium. The CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst exhibited the high efficiency as a result of 83.05% of degradation of CR under UVA light for 100 min of irradiation time with 30 wt% of CuBi2O4 at 25 °C and pH 7, which is about 6 times higher than that of CeO2. The photodegradation reactions satisfactorily correlated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was explained by the heterojunction model.

  4. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation. (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo


    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights.

  5. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.


    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  6. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh


    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min.

  7. Photodegradation kinetics of formaldehyde using light sources of UVA, UVC and UVLED in the presence of composed silver titanium oxide photocatalyst. (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Lee, Chia-Hsiang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Chang, Chang-Tong; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan


    This study investigated the surface modification of photocatalyst and photodecomposition of formaldehyde from indoor pollution source. This study explored the feasibility of the application of the ultraviolet light emitting diode (UVLED) instead of the traditional ultraviolet (UV) lamp to treat the formaldehyde. The photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde at various initial concentrations was elucidated according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The reaction rate constant (k) and adsorption equilibrium constant (K(L)) over 0.334 g silver titanium oxide photocatalyst (Ag/TiO2) coated on glass sticks with 254 nm ultraviolet lamp (UVC), 365 nm ultraviolet lamp (UVA), and UVLED are 650 ppmv min(-1) and 2 x 10(-4)ppmv(-1), 500 ppmv min(-1) and 1.04 x 10(-4)ppmv(-1), and 600 ppmv min(-1) and 2.52 x 10(-5)ppmv(-1), respectively. A comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data was also made, indicating good agreement. The magnitudes of energy effectiveness (E(e)) are in the order of UVLED (0.6942 mg kW(-1)h(-1))>UVA (0.007 mg kW(-1)h(-1))>UVC (0.0053 mg kW(-1)h(-1)). The E(e) of UVLED is 131 times larger than that of UVC. The UVLED can save a lot of energy in comparison with the traditional UV lamps. Thus, this study showed the feasible and potential use of UVLED in photocatalysis.

  8. Comparing the effects of mitochondrial targeted and localized antioxidants with cellular antioxidants in human skin cells exposed to UVA and hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Oyewole, Anne O; Wilmot, Marie-Claire; Fowler, Mark; Birch-Machin, Mark A


    Skin cancer and aging are linked to increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly following exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in sunlight. As mitochondria are the main source of cellular ROS, this study compared the protective effects of mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (MitoQ and tiron, respectively) with cellular antioxidants against oxidative stress-induced [UVA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human dermal fibroblasts. With the use of a long quantitative PCR assay, tiron (EC50 10 mM) was found to confer complete (100%) protection (Pantioxidants investigated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway provides cellular protection against oxidative stress. An ELISA assay for the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and studies using Nrf2 small interfering RNA both indicated that tiron's mode of action was Nrf2 independent. The comet assay showed that tiron's protective effect against H2O2-induced nuclear DNA damage was greater than the cellular antioxidants and MitoQ (Pantioxidants.

  9. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in grape (Vitis vinifera L. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em uva (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Pieri Troiani


    uvas (Vitis vinifera L. cultivadas em Marialva, PR. Os extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa e da casca das cultivares de uvas Rubi, Borbon e Benitaka. A atividade da peroxidase foi de 53,00 unid./100 g no extrato da casca da cultivar Rubi, e da cultivar Benitaka foi de 327,00 unid./100 g, valores esses superiores aos encontrados nos extratos da polpa das mesmas cultivares, que foram de 7,67 unid./100 g e 44,00 unid/100 g, respectivamente. Porém, na cultivar Borbon, o resultado observado foi inverso, mostrando para o extrato da polpa 141,11 unid./100 g e para o extrato da casca, 11,50 unid./100 g. O resultado da atividade da polifenoloxidase na cultivar Borbon foi de 100,18 unid./100 g; na polpa e na casca, 102,60 unid./100 g, e na cultivar Rubi e Benitaka foram 60,40 unid./100 g, 48,62 unid./100 g na polpa e 17,40 unid./100 g, 26,20 unid./100 g na casca, respectivamente. Determinação de proteína foi feita para cada extrato, e os resultados apresentados para as cultivares foram para Benitaka 0,56 e 0,64 mg/100 g, Rubi 1,38 e 6,45 mg/100 g e Borbon 21,38 e 5,68 mg/100 g, respectivamente. Os extratos foram submetidos a tratamentos térmicos (60°C, 65°C, 70°C e 75°C para um período de 1 a 10 minutos, observando o comportamento da atividade enzimática da peroxidase e polifenoloxidase, sendo verificada uma diminuição contínua das atividades de peroxidase e de polifenoloxidase diante do tratamento térmico. Os extratos da cultivar Rubi e Benitaka foram mais termoestáveis que o extrato do cultivar Borbon para ambas as enzimas. Porém, as temperaturas usadas não foram suficientes para inativação total das enzimas.

  10. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Niagara Rosada' Modified atmosphere and cold storage for postharvest conservation of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita da uva 'Niagara Rosada' armazenada sob refrigeração, em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o acondicionamento de cachos nas seguintes embalagens: papelão ondulado (testemunha; tereftalato de polietileno (PET; cloreto de polivinila (PVC 17 μm; polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PELBD 25 μm; e PELBD 50 μm. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os sistemas de acondicionamento: sacolas de plástico abertas (testemunha; polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD 25 μm; PEBD 25 μm, com injeção de mistura gasosa (21% O2/5% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/10% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/20% CO2. Os cachos foram armazenados a 1±1°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR por 28 dias, seguido de armazenamento em condições do ambiente (25±2°C e 80±5% UR. Os cachos foram avaliados quanto à perda de massa de matéria fresca, firmeza, cor das bagas, esbagoamento, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, relação SST/AT e incidência de podridões. O filme PELBD 50 μm, a partir do 14º dia a 1°C, seguido por mais três dias a 25°C, causou a fermentação dos cachos. As embalagens PELBD 25 μm, com ou sem injeção de mistura gasosa, e PVC 17 μm reduzem a perda de massa de matéria fresca dos cachos, mas não reduzem o esbagoamento e a incidência de podridões.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the modified atmosphere, on the storage life of 'Niagara Rosada' Table grape kept under refrigeration in two experiments. In the first one, grape clusters stored in different package materials were evaluated: corrugated cardboard boxes, polyethylene tereftalate (PET; 17-μm polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 25-μm low density linear polyethylene film (PELDB; and 50-μm PELDB. On a second assay, different packaging systems were evaluated: opened plastic bags; 25-μm low density polyethylene film (PEBD; 25-μm PEBD, with

  11. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.


    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  12. Benito Juárez: ¿más que un Aprendiz de Masón?


    Martínez Moreno, Carlos F.


    El estudio historiográfico muestra que es una idea ampliamente aceptada que Benito Juárez fue iniciado en la masonería en el Rito Nacional Mexicano; sin embargo, hay quien afirma que es improbable que Juárez haya recibido más allá del grado de Aprendiz de Masón, a causa de los movimientos bélicos que provocaron sus constantes viajes por la República Mexicana y el extranjero. El objetivo central del presente artículo es analizar algunas hipótesis para buscar dilucidar si Juárez pudo haber reci...

  13. Improved quantification of alite and belite in anhydrous Portland cements by 29Si MAS NMR: Effects of paramagnetic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Kocaba, Vanessa; Le Saoût, Gwenn;


    The applicability, reliability, and repeatability of 29Si MAS NMR for determination of the quantities of alite (Ca3SiO5) and belite (Ca2SiO4) in anhydrous Portland cement was investigated in detail for 11 commercial Portland cements and the results compared with phase quantifications based...... on powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld analysis and with Taylor-Bogue calculations. The effects from paramagnetic ions (Fe3+) on the spinning sideband intensities, originating from dipolar couplings between 29Si and the spins of the paramagnetic electrons, were considered and analyzed in spectra...

  14. High-resolution and high-temperature {sup 19} F MAS NMR study of fluorozirconate glasses and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngman, R.E.; Sem, S. [Corning Inc., NY (United States)


    This paper reports the first results of a high-resolution and high-temperature {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectroscopic study of the atomic structure and its temperature dependence in two binary Zr F{sub 4} (Z B) glasses with 62 and 70 mol % Zr F{sub 4} and a multicomponent ZBLAN (51.7% Zr-F{sub 4}-20.7% Ba F{sub 2}-4.5% La F{sub 3}-3.4% Al F{sub 3}-19.7% Na F) glass.

  15. Mas, afinal, o que é Educação Física?: um exemplo do simplismo intelectual


    Taffarel,Celi Nelza Zulke; Ortega Escobar, Micheli


    O trabalho expõe uma crítica às concepções idealistas que se constituem em referências para o autor do artigo "Mas, afinal, o que é educação física?" e procura responder aos problemas, de ordem filosófica, epistemológica, metodológica e política, levantados pela pergunta. As contribuições das autoras surgem da radicalização da crítica a partir do marco teórico e metodológico materialista-histórico-dialético.

  16. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard


    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced...... by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and β-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic α-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility...

  17. Microscopic structural analysis of fractured silk fibers from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini using 13C CP/MAS NMR with a 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead

    KAUST Repository

    Yamauchi, Kazuo


    Conformational changes have been studied in silk fibers from the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori and a wild silkworm Samia cynthia ricini as a result of fractured by stretching. About 300 samples consisting of only the fractured regions of [1-13C]Ala or [1-13C]Gly labeled silk fibers were collected and observed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. The total amount of these fractured fibers is only about 1 mg and therefore we used a home-built 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead. A very small increase in the fraction of random coil was noted for the alanine regions of both silk fibroins and for the glycine region of B. mori silk fibroin. However, there is no difference in the spectra before and after fractured for the glycine region of S. c. ricini silk fibroin. Thus, the influence of fracture occurs exclusively at the Ala region for S. c. ricini. The relationship between sequence, fracture and structure is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, O. [Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest, Romania and National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch (Romania); Filip, C.; Tripon, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Nagy, E. M. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch, RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  19. Application of 119Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural 119Sn Isotope Abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Kolyagin, Yury; V. Yakimo, Alexander; Tolborg, Søren


    119Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5–40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders......-BEA zeolites with natural 119Sn isotope abundance using conventional MAS NMR equipment....

  20. Potencial climático para a produção de uvas em sistema de dupla poda anual no estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian da Silva Ricce


    Full Text Available A cultura da videira tem potencial para produção contínua logo após pequeno período de descanso entre safras, porém os riscos climáticos podem limitar essa prática. O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial climático para o cultivo de duas safras anuais e a estimativa da severidade de míldio, em função de diferentes épocas de poda, e da exigência em graus-dia de diferentes genótipos de uvas (Vitis spp., no estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados os riscos de geada, o balanço hídrico climatológico normal e a severidade potencial de ocorrência de míldio utilizando dados de 21 estações meteorológicas do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. A ocorrência de geadas limita a época de cultivo da videira nas regiões centro, sul e leste. O excesso hídrico é observado em todo o estado. Genótipos que necessitam 1.800°C dia entre a poda e a colheita somente podem ser utilizados em sistema de dupla safra anual nas regiões mais quentes do estado. Não é possível a obtenção de duas safras anuais quando se utilizam genótipos de videiras que exigem mais de 2.000°C dia. Nas regiões mais frias, somente genótipos que necessitam 1.000 a 1.200°C dia podem ser utilizados. Em função do potencial de severidade do míldio, indica-se o cultivo de uvas rústicas ou americanas para as regiões centro, sul e leste, enquanto nas regiões sudoeste, oeste, norte e noroeste indica-se o cultivo das uvas finas ou europeias, porém sem descartar a necessidade de controle da doença nas fases fenológicas mais suscetíveis.

  1. Produtividade e qualidade de uva, cv. Isabel, em dois sistemas de produção Vineyard yield and grape quality in two diferent cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valmor Rombaldi


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produtividade e a qualidade da uva, cv. Isabel, produzida em dois sistemas de produção, convencional e alternativo. O sistema convencional corresponde àquele empregado pela maioria dos produtores dessa cultivar, que consiste no controle de plantas concorrentes com o emprego de capinas e/ou herbicidas e no controle de doenças com fungicidas sintéticos orgânicos e não orgânicos. O sistema alternativo corresponde àquele onde se manteve a cobertura do solo e se inseriu a aveia como complemento, e o controle de doenças foi feito apenas com o emprego de calda bordalesa. Essas práticas foram realizadas desde 1998 e, nas safras 2001-2002 e 2002-2003, avaliaram-se a produtividade e a qualidade da uva produzida nos dois sistemas. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a produtividade e a qualidade da uva são mais afetadas pelas condições climáticas de safra do que pelo sistema de produção, indicando que o sistema de produção alternativo, onde se empregou menor número de pulverizações, não se usou herbicida, nem fungicida orgânico sintético, tem elevado potencial de adoção para essa cultivar.Vineyards of Vitis labrusca, cv. Isabel, were evaluated for yield and grape quality in two different cultivation systems: conventional and alternative. In the conventional cultivation system diseases and plant weeds are controlled by synthetic organic fungicides and herbicides, respectively. In the alternative system, diseases and plant weeds are controlled by cupric solution and oat mulching, respectively. The two production systems have been under general evaluation since 1998. In 2002 and 2003 the vineyards were evaluated in terms of yield and grape quality and none differences were found between cultivation systems despite the evident impact of climatic conditions. It suggests that the alternative system, where was used less aplications, it wasn't used herbicide and fungicidal organic synthetic, has a potential to be adopted for

  2. Mecanismos moleculares de ação anti-inflamatória e antioxidante de polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto na aterosclerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Séfora-Sousa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa investigar os possíveis mecanismos moleculares de ação dos polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto contra os processos oxidativos e inflamatórios envolvidos na aterosclerose. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão de literatura realizado por meio de buscas nas bases de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect utilizando os seguintes descritores: vinho tinto, uva, polifenóis, resveratrol, aterosclerose, LDL-oxidada, inflamação, estresse oxidativo, NF-kB, AP-1, Nrf2, SIRT-1, MicroRNA. Embora tais mecanismos ainda não estejam totalmente esclarecidos, os estudos indicam que compostos fenólicos presentes em uvas podem se complexar com metais (como ferro e cobre que provocam peroxidação dos lipídios, aumentam a atividade antioxidante do plasma, associam-se com a LDL-c aumentando sua resistência à oxidação, preservam a atividade da enzima paraoxonase, neutralizam radicais livres, e ativam fatores de transcrição como o Nrf2, que aumenta a expressão de genes que codificam proteínas importantes na defesa antioxidante, como a superóxido dismutase e a glutationa peroxidase. Além disso, os polifenóis inibem a fosforilação de MAP quinases, inibindo assim os fatores de transcrição NF-kB e AP-1 e, consequentemente, reduzindo a síntese do TNF-á, interleucinas, moléculas de adesão e quimiocinas. Também inibem a atividade das enzimas cicloxigenase e lipoxigenase. Outro mecanismo proposto é a ação do resveratrol sobre a atividade de deacetilases de histonas, como a SITR-1. Estas ações em conjunto reduzem a oxidação da LDL-c e o processo inflamatório, atenuando o processo aterogênico.

  3. Site-resolved 2H relaxation experiments in solid materials by global line-shape analysis of MAS NMR spectra (United States)

    Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.


    We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.

  4. Satura pārvaldības sistēmas izmantošana augstskolā


    Dzelmītis, Jānis


    Bakalaura darbā “Satura pārvaldības sistēmas izmantošana augstskolā” ir apskatītas vairākas satura pārvaldības sistēmu klasifikācijas, iedalījumi, kā arī tieši apskatītas tādas satura pārvaldības sistēmas, kā WordPress, Joomla!, Drupal. Bakalaura darbā ir arī apskatītas iespējas uzstādīt satura pārvaldības programmas un izveidot ar to palīdzību pilnvērtīgas pasniedzēju vietnes, kur students varētu iegūt visu viņam vajadzīgo informāciju.

  5. 1H and 13C HR-MAS NMR investigations on native and enzymatically digested bovine nasal cartilage. (United States)

    Schiller, J; Naji, L; Huster, D; Kaufmann, J; Arnold, K


    Rheumatic diseases are accompanied by a progressive destruction of the cartilage layer of the joints. Despite the frequency of the disease, degradation mechanisms are not yet understood and methods for early diagnosis are not available. Although some information on pathogenesis could be obtained from the analysis of degradation products of cartilage supernatants, the most direct information on degradation processes would come from the native cartilage as such. We have used 1H as well as 13C HR-MAS (high resolution magic angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy to obtain suitable line-widths of NMR resonances of native cartilage. 1D and 2D NMR spectra of native cartilage were compared with those of enzymatically-treated (collagenase and papain) samples. In the 1H NMR spectra of native cartilage, resonances of polysaccharides, lipids and a few amino acids of collagen were detectable, whereas the 13C NMR spectra primarily indicated the presence of chondroitin sulfate. Treatment with papain resulted only in small changes in the 1H NMR spectrum, whereas a clear diminution of all resonances was detectable in the 13C NMR spectra. On the other hand, treatment with collagenase caused the formation of peptides with an amino acid composition typical for collagen (glycine, proline, hydroxyproline and lysine). It is concluded that the HR-MAS NMR spectra of cartilage may be of significance for the investigation of cartilage degradation since they allow the fast evaluation of cartilage composition and only very small amounts of sample are required.

  6. Surface Characterization of Some Novel Bonded Phase Packing Materials for HPLC Columns Using MAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Abia


    Full Text Available Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and 13C nuclei. These packing materials were: Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica, hybrid packing materials XTerra MS C18, and XBridge Prep. C18. The spectra obtained using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS on the Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica show the surface to be densely populated with hydride groups (Si-H, with a relative surface coverage exceeding 80%. The hybrid packing materials XTerra and XBridge gave spectra that reveal the silicon atoms to be bonded to organic moieties embedded in the molecular structure of these materials with over 90% of the alkyl silicon atoms found within the completely condensed silicon environments. The hydrolytic stability of these materials were investigated in acidic aqueous solutions at pHs of 7.0 and 3.0, and it was found that while the samples of XTerra and XBridge were not affected by hydrolysis at this pH range, the sample of Cogent lost a significant proportion of its Si-H groups after five days of treatment in acidic aqueous solution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono


    Full Text Available Hormon pertumbuhan (Growth Hormone/GH pada ikan berperan untuk memacu pertumbuhan, di samping terlibat juga dalam fungsi osmoregulasi, pengaturan keseimbangan cairan elektrolit, dan proses-proses metabolisme. Metode CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide digunakan untuk mengisolasi DNA sel ikan (DNA genomik dari sirip ekor ikan mas Majalaya dan nila GIFT. Isolasi gen hormon pertumbuhan dari DNA genomik kedua jenis ikan dapat disintesis dengan primer cGH (carp Growth Hormone dan TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone menggunakan metode PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Hasil elektroforegram produk amplifikasi PCR untuk sebagian gen hormon pertumbuhan ikan mas Majalaya dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran fragmen DNA sebesar 615 bp dan 349 bp. Fragmen DNA hormon pertumbuhan ikan nila GIFT dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran 597 bp. The roles of growth hormones in fish are for growth promotion. They are also involved in osmoregulation function, balance regulation of liquid electrolite, and correlated with metabolism processes. CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide methods was used to isolate fish cell DNA (genomic DNA from caudal fin of Majalaya carp and GIFT nile. Growth hormone gene isolates from two kinds of genomic DNA can be synthesized with primers cGH (carp Growth Hormone and TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction method. Electroforegram product of the PCR amplification for partial growth hormone gene of Majalaya carp fish can be detected with DNA fragment size of 615 bp and 349 bp. DNA fragment of growth hormone of GIFT nile tilapia can be detected with size of 597 bp.

  8. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami


    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  9. Sensitivity gains, linearity, and spectral reproducibility in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional MAS NMR spectra of high dynamic range (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David


    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C, 15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high-quality artifact-free datasets. PMID:24752819

  10. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.


    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  11. 1H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Corsaro


    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication.

  12. Asynchronous through-bond homonuclear isotropic mixing: application to carbon–carbon transfer in perdeuterated proteins under MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulminskaya, Natalia; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)


    Multiple-bond carbon–carbon homonuclear mixing is a hurdle in extensively deuterated proteins and under fast MAS due to the absence of an effective proton dipolar-coupling network. Such conditions are now commonly employed in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Here, we introduce an isotropic homonuclear {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C through-bond mixing sequence, MOCCA, for the solid state. Even though applied under MAS, this scheme performs without rotor synchronization and thus does not pose the usual hurdles in terms of power dissipation for fast spinning. We compare its performance with existing homonuclear {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C mixing schemes using a perdeuterated and partially proton-backexchanged protein. Based on the analysis of side chain carbon–carbon correlations, we show that particularly MOCCA with standard 180-degree pulses and delays leading to non-rotor-synchronized spacing performs exceptionally well. This method provides high magnetization transfer efficiency for multiple-bond transfer in the aliphatic region compared with other tested mixing sequences. In addition, we show that this sequence can also be tailor-made for recoupling within a selected spectral region using band-selective pulses.

  13. Transport Properties of Ibuprofen Encapsulated in Cyclodextrin Nanosponge Hydrogels: A Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy Study. (United States)

    Ferro, Monica; Castiglione, Franca; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Panzeri, Walter; Rossi, Barbara; Trotta, Francesco; Mele, Andrea


    The chemical cross-linking of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTA) led to branched polymers referred to as cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNSEDTA). Two different preparations are described with 1:4 and 1:8 CD-EDTA molar ratios. The corresponding cross-linked polymers were contacted with 0.27 M aqueous solution of ibuprofen sodium salt (IP) leading to homogeneous, colorless, drug loaded hydrogels. The systems were characterized by high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Pulsed field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the mean square displacement (MSD) of IP inside the polymeric gel at different observation times td. The data were further processed in order to study the time dependence of MSD: MSD = f(td). The proposed methodology is useful to characterize the different diffusion regimes that, in principle, the solute may experience inside the hydrogel, namely normal or anomalous diffusion. The full protocols including the polymer preparation and purification, the obtainment of drug-loaded hydrogels, the NMR sample preparation, the measurement of MSD by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the final data processing to achieve the time dependence of MSD are here reported and discussed. The presented experiments represent a paradigmatic case and the data are discussed in terms of innovative approach to the characterization of the transport properties of an encapsulated guest within a polymeric host of potential application for drug delivery.

  14. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfei Li


    Full Text Available The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on tricalcium silicate (C3S hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H, which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C3S. Based on the Ca L3,2-edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C3S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl2 in hydrated C3S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups (Q2 and branch sites (Q3 in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.

  15. Prediction of daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance using the Ktuv and Kt clearness index; Prediccion de valores diarios de radiacion solar UV-A (295-385 nm) utilizando los indices de transparencia K{sub t}uv y K{sub t} y tecnicas de resdes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Batlles, F. J.


    In this work we compare two methodologies in order to estimate daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance measurements. The first one is based on standard statistical procedures for relating the daily clearness indices Ktuv and Kt and the relative air mass, whereas the second methodology is based on the novel techniques of artificial neuronal networks. In both cases, we employed data recorded at the radiometric station located at the University of Almeria between 1993 and 1996. Both models are checked against data for years not previously used. (Author)

  16. Efecto del almacenamiento de uva caimarona (pourouma cecropiifolia) a diferentes temperaturas sobre los sólidos solubles y la actividad de catalasa


    Narvaez Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Restrepo, Patricia


    La uva caimarona fue almacenada durante seis días entre 1 y 25 °C. Los frutos manifestaron lesiones por frío a l , 10 y 15 °C, estos daños se hicieron mayores al incrementar el tiempo de exposición al frío y al disminuir la temperatura. Tanto a 20 como a 25 °C los frutos maduraron de manera adecuada. La disminución de la temperatura de almacenamiento de 25 a 20 °C inhibió el metabolismo de azúcares y ácidos carboxílicos. Las lesiones por frío en los frutos refrigerados a 1 °C estuvieron re...

  17. Efecto del almacenamiento de Uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia) a diferentes temperaturas sobre los sólidos solubles y la actividad de catalasa


    Carlos Eduardo Narvaez Cuenca; Patricia Restrepo


    La uva caimarona fue almacenada durante seis días entre 1 y 25 °C. Los frutos manifestaron lesiones por frío a l , 10 y 15 °C, estos daños se hicieron mayores al incrementar el tiempo de exposición al frío y al disminuir la temperatura. Tanto a 20 como a 25 °C los frutos maduraron de manera adecuada. La disminución de la temperatura de almacenamiento de 25 a 20 °C inhibió el metabolismo de azúcares y ácidos carboxílicos. Las lesiones por frío en los frutos refrigerados a 1 °C estuvieron re...

  18. Efecto del almacenamiento de Uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia a diferentes temperaturas sobre los sólidos solubles y la actividad de catalasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narvaez Cuenca


    Full Text Available La uva caimarona fue almacenada durante seis días entre 1 y 25 °C. Los frutos manifestaron lesiones por frío a l , 10 y 15 °C, estos daños se hicieron mayores al incrementar el tiempo de exposición al frío y al disminuir la temperatura. Tanto a 20 como a 25 °C los frutos maduraron de manera adecuada. La disminución de la temperatura de almacenamiento de 25 a 20 °C inhibió el metabolismo de azúcares y ácidos carboxílicos. Las lesiones por frío en los frutos refrigerados a 1 °C estuvieron relacionadas con menores valores de pH, sólidos solubles y actividades de catalasa.

  19. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdim, Esra [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Environmental Engineering Department, Marmara University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Badireddy, Appala Raju [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)


    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composite device for multi-ROS generation. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} (UV-A independent) and {sup 1}O{sub 2} (UV-A dependent) are generated at neutral pH. • At low Fe concentration, ZVI/nC{sub 60} device is a better ROS generator than ZVI alone. • C{sub 60} mediates electron transfer from ZVI surface to dissolved O{sub 2} to produce O{sub 2}·{sup −}. • Bacteria are rapidly inactivated by O{sub 2}·{sup −} even at low ZVI/nC{sub 60} ratio. - Abstract: A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C{sub 60} fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC{sub 60}) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1 mM and 2 mM) but not nC{sub 60} (2.5 mg-C/L), and (2) nC{sub 60} (0–25 mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1 mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L C{sub 60} generated 3.74-fold higher O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1 mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L nC{sub 60} showed negligible improvement over 2 mM ZVI in terms of O{sub 2}·{sup −} generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC{sub 60} in the range of 0–25 mg-C/L in 0.1 mM ZVI/nC{sub 60} led to increased O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC{sub 60} device delivers (1) enhanced O{sub 2}·{sup −} with nC{sub 60} as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) {sup 1}O{sub 2} (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions.

  20. Relación entre el contenido hormonal y la calidad fenólica de la uva (cvs. Tempranillo y Graciano) en condiciones de riego deficitario



    La producción de metabolitos secundarios en vid puede mejorar en situaciones de factores de estrés abiótico como la sequía edáfica, pero la sensibilidad de las plantas a estas condiciones varía en función del momento de imposición de la limitación hídrica. En estudios anteriores hemos observado una estrecha relación entre el régimen hídrico de la cepa, los niveles hormonales de la baya y la maduración de la uva (Antolín y col. 2006, 2008). Por lo tanto, el objetivo general de este trabajo ha ...

  1. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation. (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J


    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors.

  2. Designing MAS-based Modern Information Processing System: Ideas and Discussions%基于MAS设计现代信息处理系统:思路与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁力力; 胡可云; 陆玉昌; 石纯一


    This paper discusses the ideas for designing modern information processing system,in which we emphasize the observation about the advantages and disadvantages while designing large-scale open system using MAS theory. After brief review and analysis about the study situations or limitations of present information processing techniques and DAI/MAS,this paper discusses many problems in the combination between MAS and information processing. Finally,a brand new MAS organization structural model and new ideas for devising information processing systems are put forward with the consideration about the limitations of MAS' organization structure and the strong requirements of feasibility and efficiency.

  3. Disinfection of water and wastewater by UV-A and UV-C irradiation: application of real-time PCR method. (United States)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Droumpali, Ariadni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Venieri, Danae


    The disinfection efficiency of synthetic and real wastewater by means of UV-A and UV-C irradiation in the presence or absence of TiO(2) was investigated. A reference strain of Escherichia coli suspended in sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solution was used as a synthetic wastewater, while real wastewater samples were collected from the outlet of the secondary treatment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. E. coli inactivation was monitored both by the conventional culture technique and by the real-time PCR method. Culture method showed that UV-C irradiation (11 W lamp) achieved total E. coli inactivation of 100% within 3 min of photolytic treatment. On the other hand, UV-A (9 W lamp)/TiO(2); [TiO(2)]=200 mg L(-1) (i.e. best operating conditions) required 60 min to achieve total disinfection of the synthetic wastewater. Real time PCR revealed compatible results, regarding the better efficiency of UV-C. However, it showed different times of bacterial inactivation, probably due to the phenomenon of "viable but not culturable bacteria". Disinfection durability tests in the dark and under natural sunlight irradiation showed that there is cell repair when UV-C irradiation is used for synthetic wastewater disinfection. Regarding real wastewater it was observed that only UV-C irradiation was capable of totally inactivating E. coli population in short time. Comparing results obtained from both methods, real time PCR proved to be more reliable and accurate, concerning the bacterial detection and enumeration in aquatic samples after the application of UV irradiation.

  4. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination. (United States)

    Erdim, Esra; Badireddy, Appala Raju; Wiesner, Mark R


    A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C60 fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC60) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1mM and 2mM) but not nC60 (2.5mg-C/L), and (2) nC60 (0-25mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC60 nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1mM ZVI/2.5mg-C/L C60 generated 3.74-fold higher O2(-) concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2mM ZVI/2.5mg-C/L nC60 showed negligible improvement over 2mM ZVI in terms of O2(-) generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC60 in the range of 0-25mg-C/L in 0.1mM ZVI/nC60 led to increased O2(-) concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC60 device delivers (1) enhanced O2(-) with nC60 as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) (1)O2 (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions.

  5. Aplicação de AG3 e CPPU na qualidade da uva 'Itália' em Porto Feliz-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues


    Full Text Available A videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L. é a cultivar de uva fina para mesa mais consumida no Brasil. A qualidade dos cachos é uma característica fundamental, sendo o tamanho das bagas o componente mais valorizado pelos consumidores. Uma das alternativas para incrementar a qualidade das bagas é o uso de biorreguladores. Avaliaram-se, em três ciclos de produção, os efeitos de doses de ácido giberélico (AG3 isolado e associado com forchlorfenuron (CPPU, na qualidade dos cachos de uva Itália produzida em Porto Feliz-SP. A aplicação dos biorreguladores foi realizada aos 25 dias após o florescimento, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4X4 (zero, 10; 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 5; 10 e 15 mg L-1 CPPU, com oito repetições para o primeiro ciclo, e fatorial 3X3 (zero, 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 10 e 20 mg L-1 CPPU com dez repetições para o segundo e terceiro ciclos. A mistura de 20 mg L-1 de AG3 com 10 mg L-1 de CPPU promoveu o incremento do comprimento e do diâmetro das bagas sem prejuízo da massa dos cachos, melhorando sua qualidade, em Porto Feliz-SP. O uso de CPPU isoladamente acarretou em redução do teor de sólidos solúveis das bagas.

  6. Expression and function of the ACE2/angiotensin(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS. (United States)

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Dallmer, Andrea; Lässig, Florian; Lendeckel, Uwe; Wolke, Carmen


    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), via its classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-axis, is associated with proliferation and metastasis of numerous types of solid tumor. AT1R blockers reduce tumor volume and decrease liver and lung metastasis in murine models of osteosarcoma. Expression and function of the alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma is yet to be studied. In the present study, the basic and interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated expression of components of this alternative RAS axis were analyzed and the impact of Mas on proliferation and/or migration of U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma cells was studied. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the two cell lines expressed the Ang(1‑7)-generating peptidases ACE2, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and prolyl-endopeptidase together with the putative receptor for Ang(1-7), Mas. IL-1β provoked an induction of Mas mRNA and protein expression which was associated with a reduction of proliferation and migration. By contrast, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Mas expression led to increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells express a functional active alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis. The induction and reinforcement of this axis may be beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma by reducing growth and preventing cancer metastasis. These effects may be achieved directly by the administration of Mas agonists or, indirectly, via blocking the classical AngII RAS axis via ACE inhibitors or AT1R antagonists.

  7. Charakterystyka tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z udziałem zużytych mas odlewniczych ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel


    Full Text Available Referat zawiera wyniki badań tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z mas plastycznych, w których składnikiem przeznaczonym doschudzania surowca ilastego były zużyte masy odlewnicze. Wprawdzie masy te pochodziły z różnych odlewni, to jednak wspólną ichcechą był rodzaj spoiwa wykorzystywanego do ich przygotowania. Spoiwa te należały do grupy spoiw organicznych, opartych nażywicach furanowych lub fenolowo-formaldehydowych. Ze względu na potencjalną możliwość emisji do atmosfery szkodliwychsubstancji gazowych w postaci wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych (WWA, mogących się uwalniać w warunkachwysokich temperatur charakterystycznych dla procesu wypalania wyrobów ceramicznych, podjęte badania stanowią próbę utylizacjijednego z najbardziej niebezpiecznych rodzajów zużytych mas odlewniczych.Koncepcja badań przewiduje otrzymanie zasadniczo dwóch rodzajów tworzyw ceramicznych. Pierwszy rodzaj stanowi tworzyworeferencyjne otrzymane z masy ceramicznej, w której rolę dodatku schudzającego surowiec ilasty spełnia tradycyjny dodatek w postacipiasku kwarcowego pochodzenia naturalnego. Drugi rodzaj stanowią tworzywa eksperymentalne otrzymywane również z masceramicznych, lecz w tym przypadku dodatkiem schudzającym był materiał krzemionkowy otrzymany w wyniku odpowiedniegoprzetworzenia zużytych mas odlewniczych zawierających pozostałości spoiw organicznych, wprowadzany w ekwiwalentnej ilościw stosunku do piasku kwarcowego. Ocenę przydatności tego rodzaju surowca wtórnego we wspomnianym kierunku utylizacji,przeprowadzono w oparciu o wynik analizy porównawczej obu rodzajów tworzyw, obejmującej swym zakresem ich podstawowe cechyużytkowe oraz wybrane elementy mikrostruktury. Uzyskane wyniki badań świadczą o braku negatywnego oddziaływania na środowiskonaturalne związane z potencjalną możliwością emisji WWA w trakcie produkcji tworzyw ceramicznych z udziałem zużytych masodlewniczych zawieraj

  8. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage Características analíticas e discriminação de suco, néctar e bebida de uva comerciais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon


    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.A produção e a comercialização de suco de uva brasileiro estão aumentando anualmente devido a sua tipicidade, qualidade e valor nutritivo. Por isso, realizou-se este trabalho em face de sua importância para a agroindústria de vinho e de suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição e discriminação do suco de uva em relação a outras bebidas dele derivadas. Avaliaram-se 24 amostras de sucos de uva −integral, adoçado e reprocessado −, néctar de uva e bebida de uva. As variáveis clássicas foram determinadas por meio de métodos físico-químicos; os ácidos tartárico e málico, por HPLC; o metanol, por cromatografia gasosa; e os minerais, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Esses produtos foram

  9. “La simbología masónica en el Cementerio de Colón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Iglesias Cruz


    Full Text Available Los monumentos funerarios son parte de la vida de los pueblos. Una puesta en escena, a través de la piedra, de sus sueños, cumplidos o no. Al transitar por el cementerio de Colón de la Ciudad de La Habana, asistimos a la petrificación de parte del “imaginario colectivo” capitalino. En este ensayo centramos nuestra atención en la presencia de la simbología masónica, a partir de algunos monumentos mortuorios presentes en este recinto. Uno de nuestros objetivos fue registrar la presencia de las logias en el Cementerio y constatar las diversas maneras en que su simbología está presente en sus monumentos funerarios.

  10. The History and the Current Situation on the Research of MAS%MAS研究的历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛丽; 殷建平; 赵建民; 毛晓青


    @@ 1引言 MAS(Multi Agent System)是人工智能的一个分支领域.有人把Agent翻译成"主体",也有人把它翻译成"智能体".不管如何翻译,总可把它看成是一个有"感觉"会"思考"有"自主行为"的东西,比如机器人.这时,机器人的"感觉"靠摄像机传感器,"思考"靠逻辑推理,"自主行为"靠规划.Agent是一类在特定环境下能感知环境,并能自治地运行以实现一系列目标的计算实体或程序.其特性有:反应性、自治性、面向目标性和针对环境性.

  11. Residual dipolar couplings in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of PPh sub 3 substituted cobalt complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Szalontai, G


    Residual dipolar couplings between sup 3 sup 1 P- sup 5 sup 9 Co spin pairs were studied in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of mono- and dinuclear cobalt-triphenylphosphine complexes. These spectra can provide important information such as the scalar coupling between the dipolar phosphorus and the quadrupolar cobalt nuclei normally not available from solution phase studies. In case of complementary (NQR or x-ray) data even the relative orientation of the interacting shielding, dipolar, scalar couplings, and electric field gradient tensors or internuclear distances can be determined. Examples are shown both for well resolved and practically unresolved cases, factors which possibly control the spectral resolution are discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the Renin Angiotensin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Robson AS; Ferreira, Anderson J; Verano-Braga, Thiago;


    Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) is now recognized as a biologically active component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) appears to play a central role in the RAS because it exerts a vast array of actions, many of them opposite to those attributed to the main effector peptide of the RAS, Ang II....../proliferative arm of the RAS consisting of ACE, Ang II and AT1 receptor. In this brief review, we will discuss recent findings related to the biological role of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas arm in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as in metabolism. In addition, we will highlight the potential interactions...

  13. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts. (United States)

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P


    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  14. Dos inventaris del mas Corredor de Camargues (Pals) amb la guerra del francès pel mig


    Corredor Plaja, Anna-Maria


    Dos inventaris del mas Corredor de Camargues (Pals) de principis del segle XIX, un d'una certa extensió i l ’altre molt més reduït, ofereixen un modest testimoni de les conseqüències de la Guerra del Francès a casa nostra. Efectivament, vegem com molts dels béns esmentats en el document anterior a la guerra (1802) han desaparegut en l ’altre (1810), dos anys després del començament de l ’esdeveniment. A banda del seu valor històric, com tots els inventaris, aquests documents presenten un inte...

  15. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep. (United States)

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I


    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model.

  16. Visibility of lipid resonances in HR-MAS spectra of brain biopsies subject to spinning rate variation. (United States)

    Precht, C; Diserens, G; Oevermann, A; Vermathen, M; Lang, J; Boesch, C; Vermathen, P


    Lipid resonances from mobile lipids can be observed by ¹H NMR spectroscopy in multiple tissues and have also been associated with malignancy. In order to use lipid resonances as a marker for disease, a reference standard from a healthy tissue has to be established taking the influence of variable factors like the spinning rate into account. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of spinning rate variation on the HR-MAS pattern of lipid resonances in non-neoplastic brain biopsies from different regions and visualize polar and non-polar lipids by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Red staining. ¹H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy demonstrated higher lipid peak intensities in normal sheep brain pure white matter biopsies compared to mixed white and gray matter biopsies and pure gray matter biopsies. High spinning rates increased the visibility particularly of the methyl resonances at 1.3 and the methylene resonance at 0.89 ppm in white matter biopsies stronger compared to thalamus and brainstem biopsies, and gray matter biopsies. The absence of lipid droplets and presence of a large number of myelin sheaths observed in white matter by Nile Red fluorescence microscopy suggest that the observed lipid resonances originate from the macromolecular pool of lipid protons of the myelin sheath's plasma membranes. When using lipid contents as a marker for disease, the variable behavior of lipid resonances in different neuroanatomical regions of the brain and at variable spinning rates should be considered. The findings may open up interesting possibilities for investigating lipids in myelin sheaths.

  17. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar a evolução da absorção de potássio pelas uvas durante o processo de maturação e verificar sua influência no pH, bem como tentar correlacionar ambas com os teores encontrados nos pecíolos na época da floração. Amostras das uvas foram coletadas durante o processo de maturação de três variedades: Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot. Durante os dois anos de estudo, ocorreram variações nos teores de potássio absorvidos pelos frutos durante a maturação, sendo o aumento acompanhado pela elevação do pH; a redução no teor de potássio foi acompanhada pela estabilização dos valores de pH, fato também influenciado pela queda nos teores de acidez titulável. Sugere-se, assim, que os altos valores de pH encontrados nos vinhos elaborados com uvas destes vinhedos, em anos anteriores, estão relacionados com a absorção de potássio e a diminuição da acidez total durante a maturação da uva. A retirada de amostras peciolares na floração e trinta dias após mostrou-se um mecanismo eficiente na avaliação do teor de potássio nos tecidos próximos aos grãos. Dessa forma, a análise peciolar, além de ser utilizada para monitorar os níveis de potássio na planta e avaliar a necessidade de adubações e tratos culturais, pode servir de diagnóstico futuro para os teores de potássio nas uvas e nos vinhos.Grapes from three Vitis vinifera varieties (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were analyzed over a two-year period to determine their potassium content, aiming to monitor this mineral content during the ripening process and evaluate its influence on pH values. Grape samples were harvested periodically during the berries’ development until their harvest. As expected, the grapes’ potassium content showed variations, i.e., high potassium content went hand-in-hand with increased pH values while low potassium content led to stabilized pH; this process was also affected by the

  18. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan la conceptualización y el análisis de un sistema multi-agente (MAS pedagógico utilizando la metodología MAS-CommonKADS; la cual es una de las más reconocidaspara el modelado de MAS. El propósito de la fase de conceptualización es comprender el problema, identificar los actores activos y pasivo, además de elaborar los requisitos que permitan formular unos objetivos para generar la solución. En la fase de análisis se definen los modelos de agente, tareas, coordinación, comunicación, organizacióny experiencia (conocimientos. Ambas fases fueron validadas mediante la construcción del ambiente multi agente pedagógico ALLEGRO.

  20. Solid-state 51V MAS NMR spectroscopy determines component concentration and crystal phase in co-crystallised mixtures of vanadium complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Hazell, Alan Charles; Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard


    resonances are sensitive to intermolecular interactions specific to each crystal phase. The solid-state V-51 MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the different phases do not co-precipitate but the concentration of the solute (which can be either 1 or 2) can vary. Thus co-crystallised mixtures of 1 and 2 can...... be classed as a molecular mixture capable of forming continuous solid solutions....... for the vanadium atoms of the two complexes mean that V-51 solution state and MAS NMR spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of 1 and 2 in bulk samples. Significantly, however, V-51 MAS NMR spectroscopy also reports on the identity of the crystal phase. This is possible because the isotropic V-51...

  1. Aspectos relacionados à presença de fungos toxigênicos em uvas e ocratoxina A em vinhos Aspects related to the presence of toxigenic fungi in grapes and ochratoxin A in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Elisa Welke


    Full Text Available A colonização dos Aspergillus da secção Nigri nas uvas durante o cultivo é a principal fonte de ocratoxina A (OTA nos vinhos. A. carbonarius e A. niger são os principais produtores desta micotoxina em uvas e são fungos oportunistas que, se desenvolvem, principalmente, nas bagas danificadas durante seu amadurecimento. A produção de OTA em uvas é influenciada pelas condições climáticas e áreas geográficas, bem como pela variedade de uva, pelo sistema de cultivo e pelos danos causados nas uvas por insetos, infecção fúngica ou excesso de irrigação e chuva. As medidas para o controle de fungos toxigênicos devem considerar esses pontos críticos de controle. A OTA presente nas uvas é transferida para o vinho durante o processo de vinificação, sendo que um aumento na concentração de OTA ocorre após a maceração das uvas. Durante o envelhecimento do vinho, observa-se que a toxina permanece estável, pois a mesma concentração de OTA é encontrada no vinho após um ano de armazenamento. Boas práticas de produção, como, por exemplo, a seleção e separação dos cachos de uva com desenvolvimento fúngico visível auxilia, consideravelmente, na redução dos níveis de contaminação por fungos produtores de OTA, bem como dos níveis dessa micotoxina nos vinhos.The infection of grapes by 'black aspergilli' in the field is the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA in the wine. Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger fungi are the main producers of this mycotoxin in grapes. They are opportunistic fungi that develop mainly on damaged berries at ripening. The production of OTA in grapes is influenced by climatic conditions, geographical location, grape varieties, crop system, berries damage caused by insets, fungal infection or excessive irrigation and rainfall. Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. OTA in grapes is transferred to wine during vinification and an increase

  2. Elaboração e aceitabilidade de biscoitos enriquecidos com aveia e farinha de bagaço de uva Elaboration and acceptability of cookies enhanced with oat and flour grape pomace


    Alessandra Piovesana; Micheli Maria Bueno; Vera Maria Klajn


    A crescente demanda por alimentos benéficos à saúde é acompanhada pela busca por processos que gerem baixo volume de resíduos sólidos ou que proporcionem seu reaproveitamento. Este trabalho propõe a elaboração e a avaliação da aceitabilidade de biscoitos enriquecidos com aveia e farinha de bagaço de uva. A farinha de bagaço de uva, produzida como alternativa de utilização do grande volume deste resíduo gerado pela indústria vitivinícola, representa uma ótima fonte de fibras e antioxidantes na...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Dewi


    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui paparan seng (Zn di perairan Kaligarang terhadap ekspresi Zn-thionein dan konsentrasi seng pada hati ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L. Sebanyak 200 ekor ikan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, masing-masing kelompok 100 ekor. Kelompok kontrol dipelihara di kolam ikan di Balai Benih Ikan Kabupaten Semarang, sedangkan kelompok perlakuan dipelihara pada karamba jaring apung di bagian hilir sungai Kaligarang. Setiap minggu sampel ikan diambil masing-masing lima ekor dari kedua kelompok secara acak untuk diambil organ hatinya dan dianalisis konsentrasi seng dan Zn-thionein. Ikan pada kedua kelompok dipelihara hingga Zn-thionein muncul pada hati ikan. Metallothionein diisolasi dari hati ikan dan dianalisis menggunakan metode High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, dengan larutan standar seng. Setiap satu minggu sekali, konsentrasi seng terlarut pada sampel air dari kedua kelompok diukur dengan metode Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy hingga Zn-thionein muncul. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi seng yang terlarut dalam air sungai Kaligarang adalah 0,078 mg/l, lebih tinggi dari nilai baku mutu air kelas I (0,05 mg/l. Rata-rata konsentrasi seng yang terabsorbi oleh hati ikan mas pada minggu ke-6 adalah 0,025868 mg/l, lebih rendah dari batas maksimum cemaran seng (100 mg/kg. Rata-rata konsentrasi seng pada hati ikan sebesar 0,025868 µg/g dapat menginduksi munculnya Zn-thionein pada hati ikan mas yang hidup di perairan Kaligarang pada minggu ke-6 perlakuan. The research aims to find concentration of dissolved zinc in the water of Kaligarang River and absorbed zinc concentration inside the liver of carp, also to analyze zinc exposure in Kaligarang River toward Zn-thionein induction inside the liver of carp. The concentration of dissolved zinc was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method until Zn-thionein emerges. Metallothionein was isolated from the liver of carp and analyzed using High-Performance Liquid

  4. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  5. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats


    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa; Jiménez Despaigne, Sonia; Curveco Sánchez, Dayisell


    ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera), and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L), rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera) y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L), rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tale...

  6. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite de pipa de uva, Vitis vinifera, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, M. E.


    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme incorporation is analyzed over the yield of grapeseed oil extraction by cold pressing. By this type of process the objective is to preserve grapeseed active compounds and to diminish the environmental impact in comparison to oil extraction conventional methods which use higher temperatures. The enzymatic hydrolysis takes place with a commercial enzyme previous to pressing stage. Its effectiveness is compared to a control without the biocatalyst. An oil extraction yield of 72 % d.b. is obtained with an enzymatic pre-treatment for 4 hours at 50 ºC, and 60 % of moisture, increasing in 26 % the control result. It is concluded that the incorporation of an enzymatic processing would be a feasible alternative to extract grapeseed oil under softener process conditions improving the yield of extraction in comparison to the same type of methodology without an enzyme.Se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de enzimas sobre el rendimiento de extracción de aceite por prensado en frío. Con el prensado en frío se busca preservar los compuestos activos de la pipa de uva y minimizar el impacto medioambiental en comparación con los métodos convencionales de extracción de aceite que utilizan altas temperaturas. El tratamiento enzimático se efectúa previo al prensado con una enzima comercial y su efectividad se compara con un control sin catalizador. Un rendimiento de extracción de aceite del 72 % b.s. se logra con un pre-tratamiento enzimático durante 4 horas a 50 ºC, y 60 % de humedad, superando en un 26 % al control. Se concluye que la incorporación de un tratamiento enzimático sería una alternativa factible para extraer el aceite de pipa de uva bajo condiciones suaves de proceso mejorando el rendimiento de extracción en comparación con el mismo tipo de proceso sin enzima.

  7. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.


    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  8. Armazenamento refrigerado da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A1105 cultivada sob cobertura plástica Cold storage of 'Romana' (A1105 table grape cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lulu


    Full Text Available A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí - SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking" e podridões. Visando a solucionar essa dificuldade, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo em vinhedo cultivado em cortina dupla e sob cobertura plástica. Após a colheita, foram coletadas oito amostras com seis cachos cada, que foram armazenadas a 3 ºC e submetidas a avaliações de qualidade por um período máximo de 36 dias. A perda de massa ultrapassou o valor de 6% após três semanas de armazenamento refrigerado, quando apresentou sinais de murchamento das bagas, concluindo-se que o período máximo de armazenamento em câmara fria para a cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 foi de 21 dias.The grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop and nowadays the preference for seedless grapes is gradualy increasing in the Brazilian internal market. The table grape cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 has been showing potential as a new option for the growers from Jundiaí - SP, Brazil, as a seedless grape. However the bunch quality has been affected by rain at the harvest allowing the incidence of cracking and bunch rot. Aiming to solve this problem a field trial was carried out with grapes cultivated under plastic cover and Geneva Double Curtain training system. After harvest, eight samples of six bunches each were taken and stored at 3 ºC and evaluated for quality during a period of 36 days. After three weeks of storage, the weight loss was higher than 6%, showing bunch fade and the rot bunch increased significantly. It was concluded that maximum shelf life for

  9. Ceļu satiksmes drošības direkcijas (CSDD) sociālo reklāmas kampaņu klipu semiotiskā analīze (2003. - 2013.)



    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Ceļu satiksmes drošības direkcijas (CSDD) sociālo reklāmas kampaņu klipu semiotiskā analīze (2003. - 2013.)”. CSDD reklāmas gadu gaitā ir pārliecinājušas reklāmas industriju un auditoriju, tāpēc būtiski ir noskaidrot, kādi ir izmantotie semiotiskie elementi un kā to izmantojums gadu gaitā ir mainījies. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt vienojošos semiotiskos elementus CSDD reklāmas kampaņu klipos no 2003.-2013. gadam. Teorētiskajā daļā aplūkotas tēmas: reklāmas, kampaņas ...

  10. UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance from measurements at 380 nm for solar water treatment and disinfection. Comparison between model and measurements in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Almeria, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navntoft, C.; Dawidowski, L. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)]|[Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Blesa, M.A. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)]|[Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina)]|[Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez-Ibanez, P. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Carretera Senes km 4, 04002 Tabernas (Spain); Wolfram, E.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de las Fuerzas Armadas (CITEFA), San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO Villa Martelli (Argentina); Paladini, A. [Instituto de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, CP 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]|[Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    A linear correlation between UV-A and 380 nm was developed by means of the TUV 4.1 radiative transfer model. The prediction error of the correlation was evaluated with data from Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001, and from 2006, Almeria, Spain. Percent random mean square error (RMSE%) was calculated for intervals of 10 of solar zenith angles, ranging 4.75% at 20 to 37.70% at 90 in clear days and 22.16% at 20 to 26.17% at 90 for cloudy days in Buenos Aires Argentina, and 1.27% at 20 to 11.27% at 90 for clear days in Almeria, Spain. Clouded days were not assessed with the data from Spain. In Argentina, the UV-A radiometer is located in a rural area and the 380 nm radiometer is located in an urban area 6 km away. Hence the real error of the proposed model is closer to that found in Spain were both measurements were performed at the same site. The objective of the work is to achieve a simple and precise method to assess UV-A availability for environmental applications of solar energy, particularly for solar water treatment, at any desired latitude. (author)

  11. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran


    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the last years, the research of multiagent systems for knowledge and information management has known a significant development. The interest for multiagent systems is in continuous growth due to the multitude of benefits associated with using these. The development of the architectures of mutiagents systems which facilitate information management, is an important direction in nowadays research. This paper presents the implementation of a multiagent system designed to perform the specific activities of a market maker in the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The system works in real time without an intervention from the operator and allows the insertion in the real market and/or the automatic cancelation of buy orders and stock exchange. The agents can be installed in one or more work stations and communicate through TCP/IP and UDP.

  13. El universo mas pequeno

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, Alicia


    The future of the exploration of the microcosmos will be in a ring formed by more than 8'000 magnets. With the new great particle acceleator LHC, nearly finished in Geneva, scientists will see how the universe was created just after the Big Bang. (3 pages with photos)

  14. Discrimination of patients with microsatellite instability colon cancer using 1H HR MAS MR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. (United States)

    Tessem, May-Britt; Selnaes, Kirsten M; Sjursen, Wenche; Tranø, Gerd; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bathen, Tone F; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Hofsli, Eva


    The primary aim of this study was to analyze human colon cancer and normal adjacent tissue using (1)H HR MAS MR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses, evaluating possible biomarkers for colon cancer. The secondary aim was to investigate metabolic profiles of tissue samples (n = 63, 31 patients) with microsatellite instability (MSI-H) compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) colon tissue. Our hypothesis was that this method may provide an alternative to MSI genotyping. Cancer samples were clearly separated from normal adjacent mucosa by 100% accuracy. Several metabolites such as lactate, taurine, glycine, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), creatine, and glucose were identified as potential biomarkers for cancer detection. Adenomas (n = 4) were also separated from cancer and normal samples mainly based on higher GPC and PC levels. Interestingly, metabolic differences in normal colon mucosa between MSI-H and MSS patients were observed. MSI status was validated with 80% accuracy with a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 82%, respectively, including both cancer and normal samples The metabolic differences between MSI-H and MSS may be very interesting in the early detection of cancer development and of high clinical importance in the work of improving diagnosis and characterization of colon cancer.

  15. Effect of physiographic factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cornus mas L. natural stands in Arasbaran forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Alijanpour


    Arasbaran forests are located in East Azerbaijan (northwest Iran).Increasing of socio-economic problems in this area causes destruction of biodiversity and structure of these forests.Using multipurpose trees such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) to encourage villagers to produce forest by-products is a basic approach for preserving these forests.This species grows naturally in Arasbaran forests and the fruit is annually exploited using traditional harvest methods.This study aims to assess the ecological requirements of cornelian cherry and the important factors affecting its distribution.For this purpose,40 circular sampling plots (300 m2) on various slope aspects were demarcated for sampling the occurrence of cornelian cherry in forest stands.DBH and crown cover percentage on north aspects were significantly greater than on other aspects and 4.5% of all trees were cornelian cherry in mature forest stands.North aspects had more seed-origin trees (standards) of cornelian cherry than coppiced trees,while west facing aspects had more coppiced than standard trees.This species had the highest regeneration rate in the sapling stage of 0-2.5 cm DBH.Thus,I recommend cultivation and development of cornelian cherry as a multi-purpose tree in the Arasbaran region on degraded forest lands on north and west aspects.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized with a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas Fruits: Effects on Human Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perde-Schrepler


    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were obtained by green synthesis with an extract from Cornus mas fruits (GNPs-CM, characterized by several methods, and their biologic effects were evaluated on two cell lines: HaCaT, normal keratinocytes, and A431, epidermoid carcinoma. GNPs were spherical with sizes between 2 and 24 nm. Their optical spectra had a dominant plasmonic band centered at 525 nm; zeta potential distribution was narrow, centered at −19.7 mV, and the mean hydrodynamic diameter was 58 nm. GNPs were visualized in both cell types entering the cells by endocytosis. The amount of gold uptaken by the cells was dose and time dependent. The intracellular concentration of Au ions was higher in HaCaT compared to A431 cells. The toxicity of GNPs-CM was dose dependent being significant only when the highest concentrations were employed. A431 cells were less affected compared to HaCaT cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. ROS production was not significant, except in HaCaT cells at the highest concentration. The comet assay revealed no significant supplementary DNA lesions, while the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by the presence of GNPs only when the cells were additionally irradiated with UVB. These results recommend GNPs-CM for further testing and possible dermatological applications.

  17. MRGD, a MAS-related G-protein coupled receptor, promotes tumorigenisis and is highly expressed in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nishimura

    Full Text Available To elucidate the function of MAS-related GPCR, member D (MRGD in cancers, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic function of MRGD using murine fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 in which MRGD is stably expressed. The expression pattern of MRGD in clinical samples was also analyzed. We found that overexpression of MRGD in NIH3T3 induced focus formation and multi-cellular spheroid formation, and promoted tumors in nude mice. In other words, overexpression of MRGD in NIH3T3 induced the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis. Furthermore, it was found that the ligand of MRGD, beta-alanine, enhanced spheroid formation in MRGD-expressing NIH3T3 cells. From investigation of clinical cancer tissues, we found high expression of MRGD in several lung cancers by immunohistochemistry as well as real time PCR. Based on these results, MRGD could be involved in tumorigenesis and could also be a novel anticancer drug target.

  18. Huiles usagées : schémas IFP de raraffinage Ifp Flowsheets for Rerefining Used Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.


    Full Text Available Tout bailleur de licence de procédés de reraffinage des huiles doit rester averti des multiples problèmes concernant ce sujet. Le schéma proposé doit assurer la flexibilité requise du fait des qualités variables de charges et de la législation sur l'environnement. Les schémas complets proposés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP comprennent un premier flash, une purification physique en profondeur et une étape de raffinage adaptée à la demande locale. Des détails sont donnés sur chaque séquence ainsi que les analyses des produits. Any licensor must be aware of the problems involved in the rerefining of used ails. The proposed flowsheet should ensure the desired flexibility with regard ta feedstockquality variations and environmental - regulation requirements. The complete flowsheets proposed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP include a first flash, an in-depth physical purification and a refining step adapted to the local demands. Details are given for each séquence along with product analyses.

  19. Um ano de muitas preocupações, mas também de esperanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Litre


    Full Text Available O ano de 2015 foi farto em notícias ruins, mas se encerra com perspectivas boas. As más notícias confirmam que o mundo parece estar de cabeça para baixo, ao menos em matéria ambiental e de segurança internacional. Pioraram as condições climáticas globais; fanáticos religiosos lançaram ataques terroristas de grandes proporções, como os do dia 13 de novembro em Paris, além da surpreendente constituição de uma base territorial onde reina o terror, no Oriente Médio; uma persistente situação da pobreza extrema e de fome em grande escala em alguns países contrasta com a prosperidade em algumas nações; desastres ambientais e instabilidades políticas regionais e nacionais acontecem em cada continente. No Brasil, o rompimento de uma represa de lama e resíduos tóxicos de uma mineradora, em Mariana, Minas Gerais, provocou o que possivelmente seja a pior catástrofe ambiental já registrada no País.

  20. Genome wide association analysis of the 16th QTL- MAS Workshop dataset using the Random Forest machine learning approach (United States)


    Background Genome wide association studies are now widely used in the livestock sector to estimate the association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the whole genome and one or more trait. As computational power increases, the use of machine learning techniques to analyze large genome wide datasets becomes possible. Methods The objective of this study was to identify SNPs associated with the three traits simulated in the 16th MAS-QTL workshop dataset using the Random Forest (RF) approach. The approach was applied to single and multiple trait estimated breeding values, and on yield deviations and to compare them with the results of the GRAMMAR-CG method. Results The two QTL mapping methods used, GRAMMAR-CG and RF, were successful in identifying the main QTLs for trait 1 on chromosomes 1 and 4, for trait 2 on chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 and for trait 3 on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Conclusions The results of the RF approach were confirmed by the GRAMMAR-CG method and validated by the effective QTL position, even if their approach to unravel cryptic genetic structure is different. Furthermore, both methods showed complementary findings. However, when the variance explained by the QTL is low, they both failed to detect significant associations. PMID:25519518

  1. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V. [Mining and Chemical Combine, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation); Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  2. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.


    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  3. Investigating sorption on iron-oxyhydroxide soil minerals by solid-state NMR spectroscopy: a 6Li MAS NMR study of adsorption and absorption on goethite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Paik, Younkee; Julmis, Keinia;


    High-resolution 2H MAS NMR spectra can be obtained for nanocrystalline particles of goethite (alpha-FeOOH, particle size approximately 4-10 nm) at room temperature, facilitating NMR studies of sorption under environmentally relevant conditions. Li sorption was investigated as a function of pH, th...

  4. The Evolution of the MasAgro Hubs: Responsiveness and Serendipity as Drivers of Agricultural Innovation in a Dynamic and Heterogeneous Context (United States)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram


    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level "hub managers", to understand how innovation processes occur in heterogeneous…

  5. The BovMAS Consortium: investigation of bovine chromosome 14 for quantitative trait loci affecting milk production and quality traits in the Italian Holstein Friesian breed


    Russo, V.; Soller, M; Lipkin, E.; R. Davoli; Dall’Olio, S; D. Bigi; P. Zambonelli; Pecorari, D.; Scotti, E; Fontanesi, L.


    Many studies have demonstrated that quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be identified and mapped in commercial dairy cattle populations using genetic markers in daughter and granddaughter designs.The final objective of these studies is to identify genes or markers that can be used in breeding schemes via marker assisted selection (MAS).

  6. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago, E-mail: [Tallinn University of Technology, NMR Instituut, Tartu Teadus, Tehnomeedikum (Estonia); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: [UMR 5086 CNRS/Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Ernst, Matthias, E-mail:; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)


    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T{sub 2}′ times and a site-specific comparison of T{sub 2}′ at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96 %.

  7. Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Coated Conductors With Edges Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) in Conjunction With the Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.;


    A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer is initia...

  8. Observation of immobile regions in natural rubber at ambient temperature by solid-state C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, F.H.; Rasmussen, T.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg


    Employing C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, the existence of immobile regions in natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) corresponding to a few percent of the monomer units has been detected at ambient temperature. For synthetic rubbers no immobile regions have been detected at all. Applying different...

  9. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng


    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of 0.4× 0.5 mm2, offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10-25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2} , with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, {{d}\\prime 2}/ dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability

  10. Caracterización del aceite de semilla de uva extraído con dióxido de carbono supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero Gómez, A.


    Full Text Available In this work the quality of grape seed oil obtained by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. At the optimun operating conditions (313 K and 25 MPa, the yield of supercritical extraction is similar to the conventional extraction by liquid solvent, but the quality of the grape seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide is higher.
    Furthermore, supercritical extraction could be more economical than liquid extraction because the solvent removal by distillation is not necessary and several steps of the subsequent oil refining process can be eliminated.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la calidad del aceite de semillas de uva obtenido por extracción con dióxido de carbono supercrítico. En las condiciones operativas óptimas del proceso (313 K y 25 MPa el rendimiento de la extracción supercrítica es similar al de la extracción con disolventes líquidos, pero la calidad del aceite es muy superior.
    En consecuencia, el proceso supercrítico resulta competitivo con el convencional al reducir las etapas de refinado del aceite y eliminar la destilación del disolvente, las más costosas desde el punto de vista energético.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye Sunset Yellow under UV-A light using TiO2/CAC composite catalysts. (United States)

    Rajamanickam, D; Shanthi, M


    The photocatalytic activity and the promoting effect of titania (TiO2) by commercial activated carbon (CAC) for removing the pollutant in wastewater were investigated. The TiO2/CAC composite photocatalysts with various ratios of CAC to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CAC was investigated for the degradation of Sunset Yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. The TiO2/CAC is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The synergism between TiO2 and CAC may increase the catalytic activity. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  12. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite. (United States)

    Wu, Ximing; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Hamblin, Michael R


    Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switching off the light, that lasts for 30min but not 2h, and oxidizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was brominated in a light dose-dependent manner, however no bromine or tribromide ion could be detected by spectrophotometry or LC-MS. The mechanism appears to have elements in common with the antimicrobial system (myeloperoxidase+hydrogen peroxide+bromide).

  13. New UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for near-field remote sensing of vegetation: characteristics and performance (United States)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata; Cunin, Bernard; Heisel, Francine; Miehe, Joseph-Albert


    In this paper, a compact, new UV-A laser induced fluorescence imaging system implemented in an all-road car for near-field remote sensing of vegetation will be described. It has been developed as a part of a European Community Program INTERREG II* and is consisting of three main parts: excitation, detection and control units. The excitation light pulses (10 ns) are produced by a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm with a variable repetition rate up to approximately equals 22 kHz and a pulse energy typically of 40 (mu) J. The laser spot size is adjusted by means of a variable beam expander. Fluorescence images are recorded via entrance lenses and 10 nm bandpass filters with a gated intensified digital CCD camera operating at 50 frames per second. The 'head of the system' (laser and camera) can be directed in site and azimuth, and can be high until a 6 meters height. All the functions like the system positioning, localization and distance detection, spot size adjustment, focus, sharpness, selection of the filter, laser and camera synchronization, gain of the intensifier, real time visualization of images, acquisition time are controlled by a newly developed software which also allows image storage, analysis and treatment. Examples of remote sensing fluorescence images recorded at a distance between 10 and 30 m are presented.

  14. UV-A light-induced photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Pandiyarajan, Thangaraj; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Contreras, David; Ruiz, José


    In this report, optical and photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) has been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures which were prepared by a simple wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the prepared nanostructures were in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the dopant Sm ion was incorporated into the Zn lattice. Interesting morphological changes involving a nanosheet-star-spherical transition were observed upon Sm doping and annealing, which were identified through transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption measurements showed an exciton absorption band and a band gap narrowing with respect to the Sm concentrations. The photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 under UV-A radiation by using pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures showed that samarium played an important role in the significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and the optimum amount of Sm ion was found to be 1 mmol %. Further, the possible degradation mechanism was proposed herein.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye Sunset Yellow under UV-A light using TiO2/CAC composite catalysts (United States)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Shanthi, M.


    The photocatalytic activity and the promoting effect of titania (TiO2) by commercial activated carbon (CAC) for removing the pollutant in wastewater were investigated. The TiO2/CAC composite photocatalysts with various ratios of CAC to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CAC was investigated for the degradation of Sunset Yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. The TiO2/CAC is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The synergism between TiO2 and CAC may increase the catalytic activity. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  16. 中央空调系统的MAS智能控制模型%Intelligent Control Model for Central Air-conditioning System Based on MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓璐娟; 潘凯洁; 陈培


    Intelligent control for central air-conditioning is a development direction of air-conditioning energy saving and optimization control, which is both hot and difficult currently. First,in the field of distributed artificial intelligence based on MAS theory,introduction to the theory and application of MAS was reviewed. Then in view of the current difficulty to overall control for central air-conditioning control system, adopt modeling method based on MAS to implement the tentative plan of overall control, discuss the applications of MAS in central air-conditioning system. Finally, with learning and control technology, use reinforcement learning and MAS to achieve intelligent control and energy saving of central air conditioning system.%中央空调智能控制是实现空调节能优化调节的一个发展方向,目前是研究的一个热点和难点.文中首先在分布式人工智能领域的MAS理论基础上,对MAS的理论和应用进行研究介绍;然后针对目前中央空调控制系统中难于进行整体控制的问题,采用基于MAS的建模方法进行整体控制的设想,探讨了多Agent技术在空调控制系统中的应用;最后,文中引入了具有学习控制能力的人工智能技术,采用增强学习方法与多Agent技术结合起来,实现中央空调系统的整体智能控制与节能.

  17. MAS-NMR investigations of the crystallization behaviour of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses containing P 2O 5 and TiO 2 nucleants (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.


    Lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass of composition (mol%) 20.4Li 2O-4.0Al 2O 3-68.6SiO 2-3.0K 2O-2.6B 2O 3-0.5P 2O 5-0.9TiO 2 was prepared by melt quenching. The glass was then nucleated and crystallized based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data and was characterized by 29Si, 31P, 11B and 27Al MAS-NMR. XRD and 29Si NMR showed that lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) is the first phase to c form followed by cristobalite (SiO 2) and lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5). 29Si MAS-NMR revealed a change in the network structure already for the glasses nucleated at 550 °C. Since crystalline Li 3PO 4, as observed by 31P MAS-NMR, forms concurrently with the silicate phases, we conclude that crystalline Li 3PO 4 does not act as a nucleating agent for lithium silicate phases. Moreover, 31P NMR indicates the formation of M-PO 4 ( M=B, Al or Ti) complexes. The presence of BO 3 and BO 4 structural units in all the glass/glass-ceramic samples is revealed through 11B MAS-NMR. B remains in the residual glass and the crystallization of silicate phases causes a reduction in the number of alkali ions available for charge compensation. As a result, the number of trigonally coordinated B (BO 3) increases at the expense of tetrahedrally coordinated B (BO 4). The 27Al MAS-NMR spectra indicate the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Al species, which are only slightly perturbed by the crystallization.

  18. Development of a homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high throughput screening of mas-related gene receptor agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui ZHANG; Pang-ke YAN; Cai-hong ZHOU; Jia-yu LIAO; Ming-wei WANG


    Aim: To develop homogeneous calcium mobilization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor agonists. Methods: CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the full-length MrgD receptor and a calcium-sensitive dye were used to develop an HTS assay based on intracellular calcium influx. This method was applied to large-scale screening of a library containing 8000 synthetic compounds and natural product extracts, cAMP measurements were camed out to verify the bioactivities of the hits found by the calcium mobilization assay. Similar approaches were also employed in the identification of the MrgA1 recep-tor agonists following HTS of 16 000 samples. Results: EC50 values of the positive control compounds (β-alanine for MrgD receptor and dynorphin A for MrgA1 receptor) determined by the calcium mobilization assay were consistent with those reported in the literature, and the Z' factors were 0.65 and 0.50 for MrgD and MrgA1 receptor assay, respectively. About 31 compounds for the MrgD receptor and 48 compounds for the MrgA1 receptor showing ≥20% of the maximal agonist activities found in the controls were initially identified as hits. Secondary screen- ing confirmed that 2 compounds for each receptor possessed specific agonist activities. Intracellular cAMP level measurements indicated that the 2 confirmed hits displayed the functionality of the MrgD receptor agonists. Conclusion: A series of validation studies demonstrated that the homogeneous calcium mobili-zation assay developed was highly efficient, amenable to automation and a robust tool to screen potential MrgD and MrgA1 receptor agonists. Its application may be expanded to other G-protein coupled receptors that mobilize calcium influx upon activation.

  19. Dose optimization for different medical imaging tasks from exposure index, exposure control factor, and MAS in digital radiography. (United States)

    Zhang, Menglong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yaying; Chen, Weixia; Hou, Lixia


    In radiographic examination, not all medical imaging tasks require the same level of image quality or diagnostic information. Criteria should be established for different imaging tasks to avoid excessive doses where there is no clear net benefit in the diagnosis or the image quality. An exposure index provided by manufacturers would be a useful tool for this purpose. This study aims to establish an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for clinical imaging tasks to minimize radiation exposure for chest digital radiography. A three-level classification of image quality (high, medium, and low) for chest imaging tasks was carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish minimum exposure index and exposure (mAs) for clinical imaging task type I (corresponding to high image quality). The exposures of medium and low quality images derived from it. Thirty patients were exposed consecutively with these optimized exposure factors, and clinical tasks were considered, while another 30 patients were exposed with the exposure factors routinely used in practice. Image quality was assessed objectively by a consensus panel. The optimized exposure provided a significant reduction of the mean exposure index from 1,556 to 1,207 (p < 0.0001) and mean patient's entrance surface dose from 0.168 mGy to 0.092 mGy (p < 0.0001). The results show that a clinical-task-determined radiographic procedure is more conducive to radiation protection of patients. In this study, the posteroanterior chest imaging examination was chosen as an example. This procedure can also apply to other body parts and views.

  20. Oocyte maturation. Basic and clinical aspects of in vitro maturation (IVM) with special emphasis of the role of FF-MAS. (United States)

    Grøndahl, Christian


    In Vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an emerging infertility treatment with great promise. To be successful this future assisted reproductive technology must entail both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocytes and give rise to human embryos that have the same developmental potential as embryos resulting from the golden standard of human IVF. The aspiration of immature oocytes from small to medium size antral follicles followed by their maturation In Vitro present an attractive alternative to the hormonal stimulation of patients in In Vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, since administration of exogenous hormones is a costly treatment and may cause severe health problems. Of the long list of side effect and health concern ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) is by far the most severe although long term effect on cancer prevalence is another concern. Another potential group of patients that could benefit from future IVM treatments are the young women undergoing anticancer therapy (radiation- or chemotherapy). Thus, ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation techniques are emerging, however such treatments can only be fully realized when IVM becomes an efficient means of obtaining healthy birth. At present, the In Vitro maturation techniques are highly successful in mice, variable successful in domestic species and still regarded experimental in the human clinic due to suboptimal fertilization rates and embryo quality. This review discusses comparative studies of the processes of oocyte maturation In Vivo and In Vitro, in various mammalian species including human. Among the substances that have been reported to influence oocyte maturation there is an interesting endogenous signaling molecule: FF-MAS (4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,14,24-trien-3 beta -ol), an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway present in all cells. This review gives special focus to FF-MAS, the effect seen in animal and human studies so far and its potential use in

  1. Mechanisms of influence of high-power UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1对兔耳增生性瘢痕模型影响的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷


    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响的可能机制.方法 24只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成4组,每组6只,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻(U0)、1个月(U1)、2个月(U2)、3个月(U3)开始强功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组;各照射组分为两个剂量组[60 J/cm2(M),110 J/cm2(H)],分别在照射前后进行MMP-1、TIMP-1、TGF-β1、PCNA和α-SMA的免疫组织化学染色和透射电镜检查.结果 与照射前比较,中高剂量组照射后瘢痕处MMP-1表达:U1组分别为10.43±1.61、11.16±1.57;U2组分别为8.63±2.61、7.33±1.58;U3组分别为5.74±1.43、3.11±0.27;均显著增加(P<0.05).TGF-β1表达:U1组分别为12.51±4.13、12.02±5.02;U2组分别为18.74±6.42、19.69±4.52;U3组分别为20.51±1.78、29.45±6.55.PCNA表达:U1组分别为2.67±0.44、2.04±0.65;U2组分别为4.50±0.97、5.82±0.68;U3组分别为7.45±1.47、8.16±1.07;均显著降低(P<0.05).只有高剂量组显著降低TIMP-1表达,U1组为12.74±4.58,U2组为15.17±3.26,U3组为20.72±3.31(P<0.05).只有U1H、U1M、U2H组α-SMA表达(1.33±0.34、2.04±0.20、3.60±1.75)显著降低(P<0.05).U0组:与对照组比较,高剂量组MMP-1表达(2.25±0.38)显著降低(P<0.05),而TGF-β1表达(23.90±2.92)显著增加(P<0.05).中、高剂量组PCNA(7.42±0.65、7.59±0.31)、TIMP-1(29.82±1.94、33.51±1.19)及α-SMA表达(6.31±0.61、2.97±0.56)均显著增加(P<0.05).透射电镜结果显示:强功率UVA1照射后胶原纤维直径变细;成纤维细胞胞质变少,细胞器欠发达,多数为静止的纤维细胞.结论 UVA1对瘢痕的作用可能与其抑制TGF-β1、TIMP-1、PCNA和α-SMA的表达,同时促进MMP-1的表达,从而促进基质蛋白降解及抑制成纤维细胞和肌成纤维细胞的增值活性有关.如果UVA1过早干预,则会出现相反的结果.%Objective To study the

  2. Local environments and lithium adsorption on the iron oxyhydroxides lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH): A 2H-2 and 7Li solid-state MAS NMR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Paik, Jonkim


    2H and 7LiMAS NMR spectroscopy techniques were applied to study the local surface and bulk environments of iron oxyhydroxide lepiclocrocite (gamma-FeOOH). 2H variable-temperature (VT) MAS NMR experiments were performed, showing the presence of short-range, strong antiferromagnetic correlations, e...

  3. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  4. Perfil químico de cultivares de feijão (phaseolus vulgaris pela técnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS Chemical profile of beans cultivars (phaseolus vulgaris by ¹h nmr - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Morais Lião


    Full Text Available The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (¹H HR-MAS NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris developed and in development by Embrapa - Arroz e Feijão were analyzed by ¹H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques.

  5. Caracterização do articulador mas no discurso pela Teoria da Argumentação na Língua


    Nesello, Marcela Cristiane; PUCRS


    Diversas gramáticas têm realizado estudos sobre o articulador mas. Entretanto, nota-se que em todos os estudos dessas gramáticas o mas é classificado e separado de seu contexto lingüístico. Nessa separação, acaba-se por ignorar as possibilidades de uso e o valor argumentativo do articulador, já que as relações dele com os enunciados que o precedem e sucedem normalmente não recebem atenção. Por estudar as relações entre palavras, enunciados e discursos, a Teoria da Argumentação na Língua (ANL)...

  6. The metabolic profile of lemon juice by proton HR-MAS NMR: the case of the PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina. (United States)

    Cicero, Nicola; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofré, Salvatore V; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Di Stefano, Vita; Mallamace, Domenico; Dugo, Giacomo


    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian lemon known as 'Interdonato Lemon of Messina PGI'. The PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina possesses high organoleptic and healthy properties and is recognised as one of the most nutrient fruits. In particular, some of its constituents are actively studied for their chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties. In this paper, we have determined by means of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy the molar concentration of the main metabolites constituent the juice of PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina in comparison with that of the not-PGI Interdonato Lemon of Turkey. Our aim is to develop an analytical technique, in order to determine a metabolic fingerprint able to reveal commercial frauds in national and international markets.

  7. “Estado Nación laico y secularización masónica en México”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Martínez Moreno


    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar cómo y porqué los masones practicantes del Rito Nacional Mexicano en el siglo XIX secularizaron su tradición para responder a sus compromisos sociales, patrióticos, liberales y democráticos. Además, muestra cómo ellos sustituyeron La Biblia por la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos en sus juramentos masónicos, en un contexto social en el que jurarla se consideraba un anatema por el Papa Pío IX y el clero católico, y en un contexto masónico adverso en el que sustituir el Libro de la Ley y participar en la política como masones era contravenir la tradición especulativa londinense.

  8. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange (United States)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.


    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium.

  9. Avaliação de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes no Submédio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas, às características físicas e à composição química dos frutos de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes nas condições do Submédio São Francisco. Os dados foram registrados durante os anos de 1997 e 1998. As variedades utilizadas foram enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 (`Jales'. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas nos ciclos de produção. Houve diferenças significativas na resposta da maioria das variedades entre as épocas de poda. O peso médio dos cachos variou entre 164,8 g na variedade Marroo Seedless, e 203,5 g na `Beauty Seedless'. O diâmetro médio das bagas foi superior a 15,7 mm em todas as variedades. Foram obtidos teores de sólidos solúveis compreendidos entre 14,05ºBrix na variedade Canner e 19,6ºBrix na `Vênus', enquanto a acidez total titulável foi inferior a 0,91 g de ácido tartárico/100 mL de suco, resultando em adequadas relações SST/ATT, que variaram entre 19,05 na variedade Beauty Seedless a 28,57 na `Vênus'. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.

  10. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.

  11. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  12. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMas) - New Capability in the CoSMIR-CoSSIR Scanhead (United States)

    Hilliard, L. M.; Racette, P. E.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.


    Lincoln Laboratory and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have teamed to re-use an existing instrument platform, the CoSMIRCoSSIR system for atmospheric sounding, to develop a new capability in hyperspectral filtering, data collection, and display. The volume of the scanhead accomodated an intermediate frequency processor(IFP), that provides the filtering and digitization of the raw data and the interoperable remote component (IRC) adapted to CoSMIR, CoSSIR, and HyMAS that stores and archives the data with time tagged calibration and navigation data.The first element of the work is the demonstration of a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem that was recently shown using a comprehensive simulation study to yield performance that substantially exceeds current state-of-the-art. Hyperspectral microwave sounders with 100 channels offer temperature and humidity sounding improvements similar to those obtained when infrared sensors became hyperspectral, but with the relative insensitivity to clouds that characterizes microwave sensors. Hyperspectral microwave operation is achieved using independent RF antennareceiver arrays that sample the same areavolume of the Earths surfaceatmosphere at slightly different frequencies and therefore synthesize a set of dense, finely spaced vertical weighting functions. The second, enabling element of the proposal is the development of a compact 52-channel Intermediate Frequency processor module. A principal challenge in the development of a hyperspectral microwave system is the size of the IF filter bank required for channelization. Large bandwidths are simultaneously processed, thus complicating the use of digital back-ends with associated high complexities, costs, and power requirements. Our approach involves passive filters implemented using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology to achieve an ultra-compact module that can be easily integrated with existing RF front-end technology. This IF processor is universally


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Valdevino Pommer


    Full Text Available Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados em diferentes regiões paulistas. Resultados de observações preliminares são apresentados. Para a familiarização pelos viticultores, bem como facilitar a pronúncia em português, os cultivares foram renomeados como sendo `Fantasia' para "Fantasy Seedless" e `Ruiva' para "Crimson Seedless". `Fantasia' é uma uva preta, de ciclo precoce a médio, com cachos médios (350-550g, de 13-20cm de comprimento e de compacidade média a solta. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 4-9g, com diâmetro de 17 a 22mm e 20-30mm de comprimento e ovais. `Ruiva' é uma uva avermelhada, de ciclo médio, com cachos médios a grandes (460-620g, com 18-30cm de comprimento e levemente compactos. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 3,5-8,0g, diâmetro de 16-21mm e 18-30mm de comprimento e cilíndricas a ovais. A duração do ciclo vegetativo (da poda à colheita em Campinas, para ambos os cultivares foi aproximadamente o mesmo, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado. Por outro lado, o vigor, avaliado por intermédio do diâmetro do tronco e do peso de ramos podados, foi mais pronunciado para Ruiva enxertado sobre Kober 5BB. O comportamento de ambos cultivares em São Paulo, avaliado nas condições enunciadas, mostrou elevado potencial produtivo, aliado a excelentes características comerciais."Fantasy Seedless" and "Crimson Seedless" are two vinifera table grape cultivars released in 1989

  14. The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. (United States)

    Meneses, Carla; Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Simon, Felipe; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio


    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang (1-7)] is a peptide belonging to the non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang (1-7), through its receptor Mas, has an opposite action to angiotensin II (Ang II), the typical peptide of the classical RAS axis. Ang II produces skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterised by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is the decrease of the myofibrillar proteins produced by the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), evidenced by the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, it has been described that Ang II also induces myonuclear apoptosis during muscle atrophy. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) and Mas participation on myonuclear apoptosis during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II. Our results show that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by Ang II in the diaphragm muscles and decreases several events associated with apoptosis in the diaphragm (increased apoptotic nuclei, increased expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased caspase-3 activity and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Concomitantly, Ang (1-7) also attenuates the decrease in fibre diameter and muscle strength, and prevents the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 during the muscle wasting induced by Ang II. Interestingly, these effects of Ang (1-7) are dependent on the Mas receptor. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Ang (1-7) prevents myonuclear apoptosis during the recovery of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II.

  15. Fine-tuned characterization at the solid/solution interface of organotin compounds grafted onto cross-linked polystyrene by using high-resolution MAS NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Martins, José C; Mercier, Frédéric A G; Vandervelden, Alexander; Biesemans, Monique; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Humpfer, Eberhard; Willem, Rudolph; Lippens, Guy


    The structural characterization of organotin compounds that are grafted onto insoluble cross-linked polymers has necessarily been limited to elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and in a few instances, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. This important bottleneck in the development of such grafted systems has been addressed by using high-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The great potential of this technique is demonstrated through the structural characterization of diphenylbutyl-(3,4) and dichlorobutylstannanes (5,6), grafted onto divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene by means of a suitable linker (1, 2). First, conditions suitable for the application of hr-MAS NMR spectroscopy were identified by characterizing the (1)H resonance line widths of the grafted organotin moiety following swelling of the functionalized beads in eight representative solvents. The presence of clearly identifiable tin coupling patterns in both the 1D (13)C and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra, and the incorporation of (119)Sn chemical shift and connectivity information from hr-MAS 1D (119)Sn and 2D (1)H-(119)Sn HMQC spectra, provide an unprecedented level of characterization of grafted organotins directly at the solid/liquid interface. In addition, the use of hr-MAS (119)Sn NMR for reaction monitoring, impurity detection, and quantification and assessment of the extent of coordination reveals its promise as a novel tool for the investigation of polymer-grafted organotin compounds. The approach described here should be sufficiently general for extension to a variety of other nuclei of interest in polymer-supported organometallic chemistry.

  16. The angiotensin-(1-7/Mas axis counteracts angiotensin II-dependent and –independent pro-inflammatory signaling in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Villalobos


    Full Text Available Background and aims: Targeting inflammation is nowadays considered as a challenging pharmacological strategy to prevent or delay the development of vascular diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7 is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS that binds Mas receptors and has gained growing attention in the last years as a regulator of vascular homeostasis. Here, we explored the capacity of Ang-(1-7 to counteract human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC inflammation triggered by RAS-dependent and –independent stimuli, such as Ang II or interleukin (IL-1.Methods and Results: In cultured HASMC, the expression of iNOS and the release of nitric oxide were stimulated by both Ang II and IL-1, as determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence or the Griess method, respectively. iNOS induction was inhibited by Ang-(1-7 in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was equally blocked by two different Mas receptor antagonists, A779 and D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7, suggesting the participation of a unique Mas receptor subtype. Using pharmacological inhibitors, the induction of iNOS was proven to rely on the consecutive upstream activation of NADPH oxidase and NF-B. Indeed, Ang-(1-7 markedly inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase and subsequently of NF-B, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminiscence and electromobility shift assay, respectively.Conclusion: Ang-(1-7 can act as a counter-regulator of the inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells triggered by Ang II, but also by other stimuli beyond the RAS. Activating or mimicking the Ang-(1-7/Mas axis may represent a pharmacological opportunity to attenuate the pro-inflammatory environment that promotes and sustains the development of vascular diseases.

  17. The Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Axis Counteracts Angiotensin II-Dependent and -Independent Pro-inflammatory Signaling in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (United States)

    Villalobos, Laura A; San Hipólito-Luengo, Álvaro; Ramos-González, Mariella; Cercas, Elena; Vallejo, Susana; Romero, Alejandra; Romacho, Tania; Carraro, Raffaele; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Peiró, Concepción


    Background and Aims: Targeting inflammation is nowadays considered as a challenging pharmacological strategy to prevent or delay the development of vascular diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7) is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that binds Mas receptors and has gained growing attention in the last years as a regulator of vascular homeostasis. Here, we explored the capacity of Ang-(1-7) to counteract human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) inflammation triggered by RAS-dependent and -independent stimuli, such as Ang II or interleukin (IL)-1β. Methods and Results: In cultured HASMC, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of nitric oxide were stimulated by both Ang II and IL-1β, as determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence or the Griess method, respectively. iNOS induction was inhibited by Ang-(1-7) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was equally blocked by two different Mas receptor antagonists, A779 and D-Pro(7)-Ang-(1-7), suggesting the participation of a unique Mas receptor subtype. Using pharmacological inhibitors, the induction of iNOS was proven to rely on the consecutive upstream activation of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Indeed, Ang-(1-7) markedly inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase and subsequently of NF-κB, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence and electromobility shift assay, respectively. Conclusion: Ang-(1-7) can act as a counter-regulator of the inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells triggered by Ang II, but also by other stimuli beyond the RAS. Activating or mimicking the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may represent a pharmacological opportunity to attenuate the pro-inflammatory environment that promotes and sustains the development of vascular diseases.

  18. Separation of small metabolites and lipids in spectra from biopsies by diffusion-weighted HR-MAS NMR: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Diserens, G; Vermathen, M; Precht, C; Broskey, N T; Boesch, C; Amati, F; Dufour, J-F; Vermathen, P


    High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR allows metabolic characterization of biopsies. HR-MAS spectra from tissues of most organs show strong lipid contributions that are overlapping metabolite regions, which hamper metabolite estimation. Metabolite quantification and analysis would benefit from a separation of lipids and small metabolites. Generally, a relaxation filter is used to reduce lipid contributions. However, the strong relaxation filter required to eliminate most of the lipids also reduces the signals for small metabolites. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate different diffusion editing techniques in order to employ diffusion differences for separating lipid and small metabolite contributions in the spectra from different organs for unbiased metabonomic analysis. Thus, 1D and 2D diffusion measurements were performed, and pure lipid spectra that were obtained at strong diffusion weighting (DW) were subtracted from those obtained at low DW, which include both small metabolites and lipids. This subtraction yielded almost lipid free small metabolite spectra from muscle tissue. Further improved separation was obtained by combining a 1D diffusion sequence with a T2-filter, with the subtraction method eliminating residual lipids from the spectra. Similar results obtained for biopsies of different organs suggest that this method is applicable in various tissue types. The elimination of lipids from HR-MAS spectra and the resulting less biased assessment of small metabolites have potential to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of metabonomic results. This is demonstrated in a reproducibility study on biopsies from human muscle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati


    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  20. Metabolic and histopathological alterations of Jatropha mosaic begomovirus-infected Jatropha curcas L. by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Annarao, Sanjay; Pathre, Uday; Snehi, S K; Raj, S K; Roy, Raja; Tuli, Rakesh; Khetrapal, C L


    Alterations in the anatomical structures, sap translocation and metabolic profiles in Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), infected with Jatropha mosaic virus (JMV) have been investigated using MRI and HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The contrast of MRI images distinguishes abnormalities in anatomical structures of infected and healthy stem. The HR-MAS NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated that viral infection significantly affected the plant metabolism. Higher accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, such as citrate and malate, in JMV-infected plants suggested a higher rate of respiration. The respiration rate was more than twofold as compared to healthy ones. The viral stress also significantly increases the concentrations of alanine, arginine, glutamine, valine, GABA and choline as compared to healthy ones. Microscopic examination revealed severe hyperplasia caused by JMV with a considerable reduction in the size of stem cells. Lower concentration of glucose and sucrose in viral-infected stem tissues indicates decreased translocation of photosynthates from leaves to stem due to hyperplasia caused by JMV. The MR images distinguished stele, cortical and pith regions of JMV-infected and healthy stems. Contrast of T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images showed significant differences in the spatial distribution of water, lipids and macromolecules in virus-infected and healthy stem tissues. The results demonstrated the value of MRI and HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy in studying viral infection and metabolic shift in plants. The present methodology may help in better understanding the metabolic alterations during biotic stress in other plant species of agricultural and commercial importance.

  1. Heterogeneous Coordination Environments in Lithium-Neutralized Ionomers Identified Using 1H and 7Li MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth B. Wagener


    Full Text Available The carboxylic acid proton and the lithium coordination environments for precise and random Li-neutralized polyethylene acrylic acid P(E-AA ionomers were explored using high speed solid-state 1H and 7Li MAS NMR. While the 7Li NMR revealed only a single Li coordination environment, the chemical shift temperature variation was dependent on the precise or random nature of the P(E-AA ionomer. The 1H MAS NMR revealed two different carboxylic acid proton environments in these materials. By utilizing 1H-7Li rotational echo double resonance (REDOR MAS NMR experiments, it was demonstrated that the proton environments correspond to different average 1H-7Li distances, with the majority of the protonated carboxylic acids having a close through space contact with the Li. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the shortest 1H-7Li distance corresponds to un-neutralized carboxylic acids directly involved in the coordination environment of Li clusters. These solid-state NMR results show that heterogeneous structural motifs need to be included when developing descriptions of these ionomer materials.

  2. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado

  3. Evaluation of cell death after treatment with extracorporeal photopheresis. (United States)

    Daniele, Nicola; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Cerrone, Paola; Sinopoli, Silvia; Sansone, Lucia; Gadaleta, Deborah Ilaria; Lanti, Alessandro; Ferraro, Angelo Salvatore; Spurio, Stefano; Scerpa, Maria Cristina; Zinno, Francesco; Adorno, Gaspare; Isacchi, Giancarlo


    The aim of our study is to assess the mortality of leukocytes during extracorporeal photopheresis. Sixty-three photopheresis performed on 13 patients affected by chronic GvHD were evaluated. Samples were analyzed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Apoptosis and necrosis of limphomononuclear cells dramatically increased after the apheretic procedure. We found a further increase of apoptotic and necrotic limphomononuclear cells after treatment with 8-MOP and UVA (p≤0.05). Our data suggested that the immunomodulatory effects of extracorporeal photopheresis, triggered by circulating apoptotic or necrotic cells, could play an important role in the treatment of GvHD with this procedure.





    Chile es reconocido como un país productor y exportador de fruta fresca, el 85% de la producción es exportada a más de 100 mercados; dentro del hemisferio sur es el principal exportador de uva de mesa, manzanas y paltas, y ocupa el segundo lugar en la comercialización de peras y kiwis, antecedido solo por Argentina y Nueva Zelandia respectivamente. Los principales mercados de destino en los últimos tres años han sido EE.UU., Holanda, Reino Unido, España, Rusia, China, Hong- Kong y Taiwán. ...

  5. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)]. (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju


    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  6. Effect of bacterial recA expression on DNA repair in the rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Morais Jr.


    Full Text Available Molecular and functional homology between yeast proteins pRad51 and pRad52 and Escherichia coli pRecA involved in recombinational DNA repair led us to investigate possible effects of recA gene expression on DNA repair in rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant cells were subjected to one of the following treatments: preincubation with 8-methoxypsoralen and subsequent irradiation with 360-nm ultraviolet (UVA (8-MOP + UVA, irradiation with 254-nm UV light or treatment with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS. While recA expression did not repair lethal DNA lesions in mutant rad51, it was able to partially restore resistance to 8-MOP + UVA and MMS in rad52. Expression of recA could not complement the sensitivity of rad51rad52 double mutants, indicating that pRad51 may be essential for the repair-stimulating activity of pRecA in the rad52 mutant. Spontaneous mutagenesis was increased, and 8-MOP-photoinduced mutagenesis was decreased by the presence of pRecA in rad52, whereas pRecA decreased UV-induced mutagenesis in rad51. Thus, pRecA may function in yeast DNA repair either as a member of a protein complex or as an individual protein that binds to mutagen-damaged DNA.A homologia tanto a nível molecular como funcional entre as proteínas de leveduras pRad51 e pRad52 envolvidas na reparação de DNA tipo recombinacional e pRecA de E. coli nos levou a analisar os possíveis efeitos da expressão do gene recA sobre a reparação de DNA nos mutantes rad51 e rad52 de S. cerevisiae após tratamento com 8-MOP + UVA, com UV e com MMS. A expressão de recA não foi capaz de restaurar a reparação das lesões induzidas no DNA do mutante rad51 após tratamento com esses agentes, entretanto ela restaurou parcialmente a resistência ao 8-MOP + UVA e ao MMS no mutante rad52. A expressão de recA não complementou a sensibilidade do duplo mutante rad51rad52, indicando que pRad51 pode ser essencial para estimular a atividade de reparação da p

  7. Compuestos volátiles libres y enlazados glicosídicamente en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart. Compostos voláteis livres e enlaçados glicosídicamente na polpa da uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Constanza Barrios Guio


    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles presentes en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona se estudiaron mediante GC-MS. Éstos se extrajeron por tres técnicas: evaporación del aroma asistida con solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extracción continua líquido-líquido (LL y destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultanea con solvente orgánico (DES. En general los componentes volátiles predominantes en la pulpa fueron alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos. Las notas olfativas del extracto SAFE fueron descritas como floral tenue y verde herbal similares a las exhibidas por la pulpa fresca. Este extracto presentó como componentes mayoritarios linalol 1,2-propanodiol y salicilato de metilo. En contraste, el extracto LL presentó notas que recuerdan la uva pasa y el vino moscatel y sus componentes mayoritarios fueron el ácido acético, el salicilato de metilo y el 2,6-dimetil-2(Z,7-octadien-1,6-diol. El extracto DES fue descrito con notas fresca, floral, cereal y amargo y está constituido por un reducido número de componentes mostrando el efecto negativo de la temperatura en la extracción; sus componentes mayoritarios fueron 1,2-propanodiol, linalol y salicilato de metilo. Adicionalmente, los componentes volátiles mayoritarios liberados por hidrólisis enzimática (Rohapect D5L de los glicósidos de la pulpa fueron ácido acético, ácido benzoico y vainillina. Cabe destacar que aunque el linalol no se encontró entre las agliconas volátiles, se detectaron los dioles biogenéticamente relacionados: 3,7-dimetil-1,5-octadien-3,7-diol y los isómeros E y Z del 2,6-dimetil-2,7-octadien-1,6-diol.Os componentes voláteis presentes na polpa da uva Caimarona foram estudados mediante GC-MS. Estes foram extraídos por três técnicas: evaporação de aroma assistida com solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extração continua líquido-líquido (LL e destilação por arraste com vapor-extração simultânea com solvente org

  8. Avaliação econômica de alternativas de investimentos no agronegócio da uva no meio oeste Catarinense Economic analysis of investment in the agribusiness of the grape in the half west Santa Catarina State



    Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio uva para vinho e para suco, no Meio Oeste Catarinense. Detalham-se os investimentos, os custos de produção e a rentabilidade financeira inerentes a esta atividade, tendo-se por base a produção de uva para vinho e para suco, em três sistemas de sustentação: latada, manjedoura e espaldeira. A metodologia utilizada, baseada no fluxo de caixa descontado, consistiu na geração de indicadores de retorno e risco. Apesar da leve ...

  9. Antecipação da maturação da uva 'Rubi' produzida fora de época no noroeste do estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sérgio Ruffo


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do anelamento de tronco na antecipação da maturação de uvas finas de mesa produzidas fora de época, na região noroeste do Paraná. A técnica foi avaliada em três parreiras de videira 'Rubi' (Vitis vinifera L. e consistiu na remoção da casca do tronco de aproximadamente 3-4 mm de largura, com um incisor de lâmina dupla, a uma altura de 1,5 m do solo. O anelamento foi aplicado no início do amolecimento das bagas, o que se deu no início de abril de 2001. O delineamento experimental para as três áreas experimentais foi o de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (anelamento e testemunha e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por uma planta útil. Avaliaram-se, semanalmente, a partir da instalação do experimento, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez total titulável (ATT das bagas até a colheita, em um total de seis amostragens. Tanto o teor de SST como a ATT apresentaram um comportamento linear em função do tempo para os dois tratamentos, e através de regressão linear foi estimado o período para que os cachos atingissem a plena maturação, considerando-se 14 ºBrix como padrão. O período de antecipação da maturação de cachos pelo uso do anelamento em relação à testemunha variou de 3 a 12 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação ao decréscimo do teor de ATT entre os tratamentos nas parreiras avaliadas.

  10. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  11. Distribution of Young's modulus in porcine corneas after riboflavin/UVA-induced collagen cross-linking as measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Seifert

    Full Text Available Riboflavin/UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking has become an effective clinical application to treat keratoconus and other ectatic disorders of the cornea. Its beneficial effects are attributed to a marked stiffening of the unphysiologically weak stroma. Previous studies located the stiffening effect predominantly within the anterior cornea. In this study, we present an atomic force microscopy-derived analysis of the depth-dependent distribution of the Young's modulus with a depth resolution of 5 µm in 8 cross-linked porcine corneas and 8 contralateral controls. Sagittal cryosections were fabricated from every specimen and subjected to force mapping. The mean stromal depth of the zone with effective cross-linking was found to be 219 ± 67 µm. Within this cross-linked zone, the mean Young's modulus declined from 49 ± 18 kPa at the corneal surface to 46 ± 17 kPa, 33 ± 11 kPa, 17 ± 5 kPa, 10 ± 4 kPa and 10 ± 4 kPa at stromal depth intervals of 0-50 µm, 50-100 µm, 100-150 µm, 150-200 µm and 200-250 µm, respectively. This corresponded to a stiffening by a factor of 8.1 (corneal surface, 7.6 (0-50 µm, 5.4 (50-100 µm, 3.0 (100-150 µm, 1.6 (150-200 µm, and 1.5 (200-250 µm, when compared to the Young's modulus of the posterior 100 µm. The mean Young's modulus within the cross-linked zone was 20 ± 8 kPa (2.9-fold stiffening, while it was 11 ± 4 kPa (1.7-fold stiffening for the entire stroma. Both values were significantly distinct from the mean Young's modulus obtained from the posterior 100 µm of the cross-linked corneas and from the contralateral controls. In conclusion, we were able to specify the depth-dependent distribution of the stiffening effect elicited by standard collagen cross-linking in porcine corneas. Apart from determining the depth of the zone with effective corneal cross-linking, we also developed a method that allows for atomic force microscopy-based measurements of gradients of Young's modulus in soft

  12. Determinação de resveratrol em sucos de uva no Brasil Determination of resveratrol in grape juice produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia K. Sautter


    Full Text Available A detecção de resveratrol em vinhos vem sendo estudada mais intensamente nos últimos anos. O isômero trans-resveratrol tem reconhecidas atividades biológicas, e algumas delas são de uso terapêutico, tais como ação antiinflamatória, inibição da enzima lipoxigenase e ação anticarcinogênica in vitro. A presença do composto resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihidroxiestilbeno, em seus isômeros (trans e cis, foi determinada nos diferentes tipos de sucos de uva produzidos no Brasil. Além destes, também foram quantificados os polifenóis totais, acidez, açúcares redutores, sólidos solúveis e densidade, em conformidade com a legislação vigente. O resveratrol foi quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência segundo SOUTO et al. [23], com adaptação da temperatura para 50° C. Foi detectada a presença de trans-resveratrol em todos os sucos analisados na concentração de 0,19mg.L-1 a 0,90mg.L-1 e o isômero cis-resveratrol foi de 0,07 a 1,59mg.L-1 .The resveratrol detection in wines has been studied more intensely in the last years. The isomeric trans-resveratrol has recognized biological activities, and some of them are therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory action, enzyme lipoxigenase inhibition and anti-carcinogenic action in vitro. The presence of resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihydroxystilbene, trans and cis isomers, was investigated in industrial grape juices produced in Brazil. Additionally, total phenols, acidity, reducing sugars, soluble solids and specific gravity of samples were determined in accordance with law. Resveratrol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography by SOUTO et al. [23], adapted to the temperature of 50°C. Trans and cis-resveratrol were found in all the juices analyzed, tran-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.19 to 0.90mg.L-1 and cis-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.07 to 1.59mg.L-1.

  13. Ensaio de vinificação: influência da mistura de variedades de uva, sôbre a qualidade do vinho Wine fermentation: the blending of grape varieties to improve wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Zardetto de Toledo


    Full Text Available Foram realizados ensaios de vinificação, para observar a influência da associação de variedades de uvas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo, sôbre a melhoria da qualidade do vinho. As uvas empregadas no ensaio foram das variedades Seibel 2 e Seibel 10096. A mistura dos mostos constituída de 70% da var. Seibel 10096 e 30% da var. Seibel 2 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados.The musts of two grape varieties (Seibel 2 and Seibel 10.096 raised in the State of S. Paulo were blended in different percentages to observe their influence on the wine quality. The variety Seibel 2 produces wines of very poor quality. A must composed of 50% Seibel 2 and 50% Seibel 10.096 produced a much better wine. The most remarkable improvement was obtained through the fermentation of a must composed of 70% Seibel 10.096 and 30% Seibel 2.

  14. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain. (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun


    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  15. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue. (United States)

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V


    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  16. Angiotensin-(1-7 Prevents Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Induced by Transforming Growth Factor Type Beta (TGF-β via Mas Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ábrigo


    Full Text Available Background: Transforming growth factor type beta 1 (TGF-β1 produces skeletal muscle atrophy. Angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, through the Mas receptor, prevents the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by sepsis, immobilization, or angiotensin II (Ang-II. However, the effect of Ang-(1-7 on muscle wasting induced by TGF-β1 is unknown. Aim: To evaluate whether Ang-(1-7/Mas receptor axis could prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by TGF-β1. Methods: This study assessed the atrophic effect of TGF-β1 in C2C12 myotubes and mice in absence or presence of Ang-(1-7, and the receptor participation using A779, an antagonist of the Mas receptor. The levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC, polyubiquitination, and MuRF-1 were detected by western blot. Myotube diameter was also evaluated. In vivo analysis included the muscle strength, fibre diameter, MHC and MuRF-1 levels by western blot, and ROS levels by DCF probe detection. Results: The results showed that Ang-(1-7 prevented the increase in MuRF-1 and polyubiquitined protein levels, the decrease of MHC levels, the myotubes/fibre diameter diminution, and the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by TGF-β1. Utilizing A779 inhibited the anti-atrophic effect of Ang-(1-7. Conclusion: The preventive effect of Ang-(1-7 on skeletal muscle atrophy induced by TGF-β1 is produced through inhibition of ROS production and proteasomal degradation of MHC.

  17. High field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.


    Gamma-, sigma- and theta-Al2O3 are well known metastable “transitional” alumina structural polymorphs. Upon heating, Al2O3 transitions to the so-called and Al2O3 polymorphs and finally forms the thermally stable Al2O3. The poorly developed crystallinity and co-existence of the , , and Al2O3 prior to forming all Al2O3, making it difficult to characterize the structures as well as to quantify the various phases of the transition alumina. As a result, there are significant controversies in the literatures. In this work, a detailed NMR analysis was carried out at high magnetic field on three special aluminum oxide samples where the, , , Al2O3 phases are made dominant, respectively, by controlling the synthesis conditions. The goal is to simplify, including making unambiguous, spectral assignments in 27Al MAS NMR spectra of transition alumina that have not yet been commonly agreed previously. Specifically, quantitative 1D 27Al MAS NMR was used to quantify the ratios of the different alumina structural units, 2D MQMAS 27Al MAS was used for obtaining the highest spectral resolution to guide the analysis of the 1D spectrum, and a saturation pulse sequence was integrated into the 1D NMR to select the amorphous structures, including obtain spectra where the penta-coordinate sites are observed with enhanced relative intensity. Collectively, this study uniquely assigns Al-peaks (both octahedral and tetrahedral) to the Al2O3 and the Al2O3 phases and offers a new way of understanding, including quantifying, the different structural units and sites in transition alumina samples.

  18. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation (United States)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias


    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR2 2p 1 with p = 1, 2, 3, … . While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut =ωr / 2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50 kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of 13C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-13C2 ]alanine, [1,3-13C2 ]alanine, diammonium [1,4-13C2 ]fumarate, and [U-13 C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR2p 1 sequences with p ⩾ 3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR2p 1 schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  19. Entrenamiento y fisiología del ejercicio en la pubertad : Análisis de las creencias actuales mas frecuentes


    Mirco, Gustavo Ariel


    El presente trabajo forma parte de la especialización en fisiología del ejercicio de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. En este estudio se pudo comprobar la existencia de diversas creencias en cuanto a las prácticas de entrenamientos físico-deportivos en edades puberales. En primer lugar se seleccionaron algunas de las creencias consideradas mas relevantes en cuanto al impacto que pudieran ocasionar en los jóvenes practicantes. Posteriormente se confecciono un instrumento de reco...

  20. Uso del FitoMas-E® como atenuante del estrés salino (NaCl durante la emergencia y crecimiento inicial de Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Batista-Sánchez


    Full Text Available El uso de bioestimulantes vegetales estimula la emergencia y el crecimiento vegetal debido a que están compuestos por sustancias naturales como carbohidratos, péptidos de bajo peso molecular y aminoácidos, activadores de las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas, por lo que su aplicación permite un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes y representa una opción para enfrentar problemas de estrés abiótico por salinidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del bioestimulante FitoMas-E® derivado de la caña de azúcar como atenuante de la salinidad en la emergencia y el crecimiento de plántulas de variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. con respuesta diferencial al estrés por salinidad. Tres variedades de albahaca: Napoletano, Emily y Nufar se sometieron a cuatro concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y cuatro dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 mL L-1 en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones. El trabajo se desarrolló en una estructura de malla sombra y las variables que se midieron fueron: porcentaje y tasa de emergencia, longitud de radícula, altura de la plántula, biomasa fresca y seca de radícula y de parte aérea. Los resultados evidenciaron que en condiciones de estrés salino (NaCl de moderado a severo, las variables disminuyeron significativamente. Largo de raíz, altura de planta y biomasa seca de raíz en 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más afectadas. Se observó que cuando se aplicó FitoMas-E® las plantas incrementaron significativamente sus valores en las variables, largo de raíz 32% y altura de planta 41%, lo que revela el efecto estimulante del FitoMas-E®, siendo 0.5 mL L-1 la dosis estimulante para la variedad Napoletano y 1.0 mL L-1 para la variedad Emily, aún y cuando se encontraban en condiciones de estrés salino hasta 100 mM de NaCl. Para la concentración de 150 mM se evidenció una afectación extrema para las variedades Emily y Nufar.