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Sample records for 8-disubstituted quinazolines blocks

  1. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...

  2. Mono- and Dinuclear Manganese Carbonyls Supported by 1,8-Disubstituted (L = Py, SMe, SH) Anthracene Ligand Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Taylor A; Rose, Michael J

    2016-06-06

    Presented herein is a synthetic scheme to generate symmetric and asymmetric ligands based on a 1,8-disubstituted anthracene scaffold. The metal-binding scaffolds were prepared by aryl chloride activation of 1,8-dichloroanthracene using Suzuki-type couplings facilitated by [Pd(dba)2] as a Pd source; the choice of cocatalyst (XPhos or SPhos) yielded symmetrically or asymmetrically substituted scaffolds (respectively): namely, Anth-SMe2 (3), Anth-N2 (4), and Anth-NSMe (6). The ligands exhibit a nonplanar geometry in the solid state (X-ray), owing to steric hindrance between the anthracene scaffold and the coupled aryl units. To determine the flexibility and binding characteristics of the anthracene-based ligands, the symmetric scaffolds were complexed with [Mn(CO)5Br] to afford the mononuclear species [(Anth-SMe2)Mn(CO)3Br] (8) and [(Anth-N2)Mn(CO)3Br] (9), in which the donor moieties chelate the Mn center in a cis fashion. The asymmetric ligand Anth-NSMe (6) binds preferentially through the py moieties, affording the bis-ligated complex [(Anth-NSMe)2Mn(CO)3Br] (10), wherein the thioether-S donors remain unbound. Alternatively, deprotection of the thioether in 6 affords the free thiol ligand Anth-NSH (7), which more readily binds the Mn center. Complexation of 7 ultimately affords the mixed-valence Mn(I)/Mn(II) dimer of formula [(Anth-NS)3Mn2(CO)3] (11), which exhibits a fac-{Mn(CO)3} unit supported by a triad of bridging thiolates, which are in turn ligated to a supporting Mn(II) center (EPR: |D| = 0.053 cm(-1), E/|D| = 0.3, Aiso = -150 MHz). All of the metal complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NMR/EPR measurements-all of which demonstrate that the meta-linked, anthracene-based ligand scaffold is a viable approach for the coordination of metal carbonyls.

  3. Synthesis and Reactivity of [1,2,4]Triazolo-annelated Quinazolines

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    Rashad A. Al-Salahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of phenyl-substituted 2-alkoxy(methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines starting from N-cyanoimidocarbonates and substituted hydrazinobenzoic acids as building blocks. Thionation or chlorination of the inherent lactam moiety in the target compounds followed by treatment with multifunctional nucleophiles provided access to a variety of derivatives.

  4. Conformationally restricted novel pyrazole derivatives: synthesis of 1,8-disubstituted 5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]indazoles as a new class of PDE4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T Shyamsunder; Kumar, K Shiva; Meda, Chandana L T; Kandale, Ajit; Rambabu, D; Krishna, G Rama; Hariprasad, C; Rao, V Venugopala; Venkataiah, S; Reddy, C Malla; Naidu, A; Dubey, P K; Parsa, Kishore V L; Pal, Manojit

    2012-05-01

    A number of novel 1,8-disubstituted 5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]indazoles based on a conformationally restricted pyrazole framework have been designed as potential inhibitors of PDE4. All these compounds were readily prepared by using simple chemistry strategy. The in vitro PDE4B inhibitory properties and molecular modeling studies of some of the compounds synthesized along with the X-ray single crystal data of a representative compound is presented.

  5. Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John B; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Freeman, James P; Williams, Anna J

    2011-03-01

    Cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-599 in fluid Sabouraud medium were grown with quinazoline and phthalazine for 7 days. Metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quinazoline was oxidized to 4-quinazolinone and 2,4-quinazolinedione, and phthalazine was oxidized to 1-phthalazinone.

  6. Synthesis and Antihypertensive Screening of New Derivatives of Quinazolines Linked with Isoxazole

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    Mujeeb Ur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 7-substituted-3-(4-(3-(4-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-substituted quinazolin-4(3H-one (1–30 have been synthesized by the cyclization of (E-3-(4-(3-substitutedphenylacrylolylphenyl-2-(substitutedphenyl-7-substituted quinazolin-4-(3H-one with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The synthesized compounds were examined for their in vivo antihypertensive activity using albino rats. All the titled compounds exhibited good to moderate antihypertensive activity. Compounds 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5- dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H-one (23 and 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-(4-methoxyphenylquinazolin-4(3H-one (24 exhibited potent antihypertensive activity through their anticipated α1-adrenergic receptor blocking property similar to its clinically used analogue, prazosin, without affecting heart rate with prolonged duration of action when tested in adrenaline induced hypertension in anaesthetized rats.

  7. Advances in Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Halogenated Quinazolinones and Their Quinazoline Derivatives

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    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Halogenated quinazolinones and quinazolines are versatile synthetic intermediates for the metal-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation reactions such as the Kumada, Stille, Negishi, Sonogashira, Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck cross-coupling reactions or carbon-heteroatom bond formation via the Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling to yield novel polysubstituted derivatives. This review presents an overview of the application of these methods on halogenated quinazolin-4-ones and their quinazolines to generate novel polysubstituted derivatives.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity for tumor PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yan; Chang, Jin; Zhao, Wenwen; He, Yong; Li, Yuqiao; Zhang, Huabei; Qi, Chuanmin

    2017-08-18

    Four novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity, [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([(18) F]I), [(18) F]4-(3-((4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)propyl)morpholine ([(18) F]II), [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]III) and [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]IV), were synthesized via a two-step radiosynthesis procedure with an overall radiochemical yield of 10-38% (without decay correction) and radiochemical purities of > 98%. The lipophilicity and stability of labeled compounds were tested in vitro. The log P values of the four radiotracers ranged from 0.52 to 1.07. We then performed ELISA to measure their affinities to EGFR-TK. ELISA assay results indicated that each inhibitor was specifically bound to EGFR-TK in a dose-dependent manner. The EGFR-TK autophosphorylation IC50 values of [(18) F]I, [(18) F]II, [(18) F]III, and [(18) F]IV were 7.732 μM, 0.4698 μM, 0.1174 μM, and 0.1176 μM, respectively. All labeled compounds were evaluated via cellular uptake and blocking studies in HepG2 cell lines in vitro. Cellular uptake and blocking experiment results indicated that [(18) F]I and [(18) F]III had excellent cellular uptake at 120 min post-injection in HepG2 carcinoma cells (51.80±3.42 %ID/mg protein and 27.31±1.94 %ID/mg protein, respectively). Additionally, biodistribution experiments in S180 tumor-bearing mice in vivo indicated that [(18) F]I had a very fast clearance in blood and a relatively high uptake ratio of tumor to blood (4.76) and tumor to muscle (1.82) at 60 min post-injection. [(18) F]III had a quick clearance in plasma, and its highest uptake ratio of tumor to muscle was 2.55 at 15 min post-injection. These experimental results and experiences were valuable for the further exploration of novel radiotracers of quinazoline derivatives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioural Response of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to Quinazolines

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    E. Zerba

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural responses of the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans towards some previously identified components of its faeces: 4-methylquinazoline, 2,4- dimethylquinazoline and their mixtures were evaluated using a video tracking system. Fifth instar nymphs and females but not males were significantly attracted to polyethylene glycol formulations of 4-methyl + 2,4-dimethylquinazoline (50 μg each. Fifth instar nymphs were also attracted to 4-methylquinazoline alone (50 μg but females were only attracted by the mixture of both methyl quinazolines (50 μg each. Syntheses of both methyl quinazolines were carried out starting from 2-aminoacetophenone by modifying the conditions of reported procedures.

  10. Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives via Pyrimidine ortho-Quinodimethane

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    A. Herrera Fernández

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The [4+2] cycloaddition between 2,4-diphenylpyrimidine ortho-quinodimethane and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate leads to 2,4-diphenylquinazoline-6,7-dicarboxylate (6. 2,4-Diphenylfuro[3,4-g]quinazoline-6,8-dione (7 is also obtained by basic hydrolysis of compound 6, followed by the closure of the resulting diacid in acetic anhydride.

  11. Molecular Docking and Anticonvulsant Activity of Newly Synthesized Quinazoline Derivatives

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    Hatem A. Abuelizz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new series of quinazoline-4(3H-ones are evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. After intraperitoneal (ip injection to albino mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, synthesized quinazolin-4(3H-ones (1–24 were examined in the maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ induced seizure models in mice. The Rotarod method was applied to determine the neurotoxicity. Most of the compounds displayed anticonvulsant activity in the scPTZ screen at a dose range of 0.204–0.376 mmol/mL. Out of twenty-four, compounds 8, 13 and 19 proved to be the most active with a remarkable protection (100% against PTZ induced convulsions and four times more potent activity than ethosuximide. The structure-activity relationship concluded valuable pharmacophoric information, which was confirmed by the molecular docking studies using the target enzyme human carbon anhydrase II (HCA II. The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold. However, benzyl substitution at position 3 has shown a strong anticonvulsant activity but with less seizure prevention compared to the butyl substitution.

  12. Syntheses of 5,8-Disubstituted Indolizidine Poison-frog Alkaloids%5,8-二取代吲哚里西丁毒青蛙生物碱的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德军; 丰岗尚树

    2012-01-01

    建立了一种以Michael共轭加成为关键步骤,高立体选择性合成5,8-二取代吲哚里西丁生物碱的方法,同时对5,8-二取代吲哚里西丁毒青蛙生物碱(-)-203A,(-)-209B,(-)-235B",(-)-231C,(-)-233D,(-)-219F,(-)-221I,(-)-193E (Proposed),(-)-251N和221K (Proposed)进行了全合成,确定了203A和233D的绝对构型及231C,219F,221I和251N的相对构型.另外,对193E (Proposed)的结构提出了订正方案.%A diverse array of biologically active alkaloids has been detected in amphibian skin, which contains over 20 structural classes and more than 800 alkaloids. Most of these alkaloids appear to be derived from dietary sources such as ants, beetles, mites and so on. A great number of the alkaloids show very interesting biological activities such as pharmacological effects at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, these alkaloids have been isolated in minute amounts from the amphibian skin. Consequently, a great need for the development of the synthetic strategy of these alkaloids has arisen for the determination of the structures of natural products and the investigations of their biological activities. The 5 ,8-disubstituted indolizidines constitute the largest subclass of alkaloids, and about 80 alkaloids have been detected up to present. In this paper, we report the syntheses of the analogous indolizidines (-)-203A, (-)-209B, (-)-235B", (-)-231C, (-)-233D, (-)-219F, (-)-221I, (-)-193E ( Proposed), ( -)-251N and 221K( Proposed) using the stereoselective Michael conjugate addition reaction as the key step. Furthermore, the absolute stereochemistry of (-)-203A and (-)-233D was established, and the relative stereochemistry of 231C, 219F, 221l and 251N was established.

  13. Quinazoline antifolates inhibiting thymidylate synthase: 4-thio-substituted analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, T J; Jones, T R; Jackman, A L; Flinn, A; O'Connor, B M; Warner, P; Calvert, A H

    1991-03-01

    We report the synthesis of four new 4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acid analogues and a 4-(methylthio) analogue structurally related to the thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. Three N10-propargyl-4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acid analogues had C2 amino, hydrogen, and methyl substituents. A 4-thio and a 4-(methylthio) compound each with hydrogen at C2 and ethyl at N10 were also synthesized. In general, the synthetic route involved thionation of the appropriate 4-oxoquinazoline; the sulfur thus introduced was then protected by methylation. Further protection with a pivaloyl group was required for the quinazoline bearing a 2-amino substituent. The protected quinazolines were treated with N-bromosuccinimide and the resulting 6-(bromomethyl) compounds were then coupled to the appropriate N-monoalkylated diethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate in N,N-dimethylacetamide with calcium carbonate as base. The 4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acids were obtained by removal of the methylthio group with sodium hydrosulfide, followed by deprotection of the carboxyl groups with cold dilute alkali. For the compound containing a pivaloyl protecting group, hot dilute alkali was used. To obtain the 5,8-dideazafolic acid containing a 4-(methylthio) substituent, the corresponding diester was treated with lithium hydroxide which selectively deprotected the carboxyl groups. The five compounds were tested as inhibitors of L1210 TS. It was found that replacement of the 4-oxygen of the quinazoline moiety by sulfur did not alter the TS inhibition. However, the introduction of a methylthio substituent at position 4 severely impaired TS inhibition. All 4-thio compounds were less cytotoxic to L1210 cells in culture than their 4-oxo counterparts.

  14. Crystal structure of 4-meth-oxy-quinazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hiti, Gamal A; Smith, Keith; Hegazy, Amany S; Alshammari, Mohammed B; Kariuki, Benson M

    2014-12-01

    The title compound, C9H8N2O, is almost planar, with the C atom of the meth-oxy group deviating from the mean plane of the quinazoline ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å) by 0.068 (4) Å. In the crystal, mol-ecules form π-π stacks parallel to the b-axis direction [centroid-centroid separation = 3.5140 (18) Å], leading to a herringbone packing arrangement.

  15. Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALY,A.A

    2003-01-01

    Quinazoline isothiocyanate 1 reacts with various nucleophiles(nitrogen nucleophiles,oxygen nucleophiles and sulphur nucleophiles)to afford heterocyclic systemes 2-13,Also,the [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of 1 with phenyl isocyanate,benzylidene aryl amine and cinnamic acid derivatives gave novel heterocyclic compounds 14-16,Moreover,the reaction of 1 with active methylene compounds under Michael reaction conditions also was investigated to yield 17 and 18 and it was found that all these reactions proceede via isothiocyanate heterocyclization to furnish non-condensed heterocyclic compoundes,Some of the newly synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities.

  16. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor evaluation of primary amine substituted quinazoline linked benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay

    2014-01-15

    By combining the structural features of quinazoline and benzimidazole, new hybrid regioisomeric molecules with substituted primary amines have been synthesized. Evaluation of these molecules over 60 cancer cell line panel has identified three molecules as most potent anticancer agents. Compound 10 showed ten and eleven folds more activity than respective quinazoline and benzimidazole class of compounds with GI50 value of 1.64 μM. Compound 11 (GI50 value of 0.81 μM) showed almost twenty and twenty-two fold more activity than quinazoline and benzimidazole analogue, respectively while compound 12 (GI50 value of 4.52 μM) has four fold more activity than quinazoline and benzimidazole analogue. In vitro evaluation of compound 11 exhibited remarkable anticancer activity towards colon cancer cell lines and prostate cancer cell lines at five dose concentrations with GI50 values of 0.34 and 0.31 μM, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of New 1,2,3-Triazol-4-yl-quinazoline Nucleoside and Acyclonucleoside Analogues

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    Abdelaaziz Ouahrouch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the synthesis of 1,4-disustituted-1,2,3-triazolo-quinazoline ribonucleosides or acyclonucleosides by means of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between various O or N-alkylated propargyl-quinazoline and 1'-azido-2',3',5'-tri-O-benzoylribose or activated alkylating agents under microwave conditions. None of the compounds selected showed significant anti-HCV activity in vitro.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2,4-Disubstituted Quinazoline Derivatives with Potent Anti-Angiogenesis Activities

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    Guangjin Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological results showed that most of quinazoline derivatives exhibited potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of three tumor cell lines and a good inhibitory effect against the adhesion and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Among these compounds, 11d was the most potent agent, that also exhibited the highest anti-angiogenesis activities in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay.

  19. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Substituted Piperazinyl-quinazolin-3(4H-ones

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    N. M. Raghavendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-ones were synthesized by condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4-oxo-substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-yl-acetamides with various substituted piperazines through single step reaction. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolin-4-one derivatives were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  20. One-pot synthesis of quinazoline derivatives via [2+2+2] cascade annulation of diaryliodonium salts and two nitriles.

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    Su, Xiang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Yong; Chen, Junjie; Lou, Zhenbang; Li, Ming

    2013-08-04

    An efficient one-pot approach to multiple substituted quinazolines with diaryliodonium salt , and two nitriles has been presented. The reaction enables great flexibility of the substitution patterns on quinazolines and is applicable to two different nitriles to give a regio-selective product.

  1. Synthesis, single crystal and antitumor activities of benzimidazole-quinazoline hybrids.

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    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel regioisomeric hybrids of quinazoline/benzimidazole viz. (3-allyl-2-methyl-3H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine and (1-allyl-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine of biological interest were synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were well characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as mass spectroscopy. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antitumor activities against 60 tumor cell lines panel assay. A significant inhibition for cancer cells were observed with compound 9 and also more active against known drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in some tumor cell lines. Compound 9 displayed appreciable anticancer activity against leukemia, colon, melanoma, renal and breast cancer cell lines.

  2. Insights into cardio-oncology:Polypharmacology of quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore; Patanè

    2015-01-01

    New uses of cardiovascular drugs with proven experience are emerging,including for treating cancer.Quinazoline is a compound made up of two fused six member simple aromatic rings,benzene and pyrimidine rings,with several biological effects.Cardiologists first used quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin,doxazosin,and terazosin; currently available data support their use as safe,well tolerated,and effective add-on therapy in uncontrolled hypertension with additional favourable metabolic effects.Recent findings highlight the anticancer effects of quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists,indicating that they may have a significant role in uncontrolled hypertensive cancer patients without signs of ischemia.

  3. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of substituted quinazoline and quinoxaline derivatives: search for anticancer agent.

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    Noolvi, Malleshappa N; Patel, Harun M; Bhardwaj, Varun; Chauhan, Ankit

    2011-06-01

    The synthesis of some 2-furano-4(3H)-quinazolinones, diamides (open ring quinazolines), quinoxalines and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents using National Cancer Institute (NCI) disease oriented antitumor screen protocol are investigated. Among the synthesize compounds, seventeen compounds were granted NSC code and screened at National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA for anticancer activity at a single high dose (10(-5) M) in full NCI 60 cell panel. Among the selected compounds, 3-(2-chloro benzylideneamine)-2-(furan-2-yl) quinazoline-4(3h)-one 21 was found to be the most active candidate of the series at five dose level screening against Ovarian OVCAR-4 and Non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H522 with GI50 1.82 & 2.14 μM respectively. Rational approach and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirement for quinazoline, diamides and quinoxaline derivatives.

  4. Synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of some novel 4-substituted-2-substitutedmethyltriazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-10-ones and 2,4-disubstituted-6,7-dimethoxy quinazoline

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    M.K. Kathiravan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of some novel 4-substituted-2-substitutedmethyltriazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-10-ones and 2,4-disubstituted-6,7-dimethoxy quinazoline derivatives are described. Among the series 4-chloro-2-acetoxymethyl-3H,11H-[1,2,4]triazino[6,1-b] quinazoline-4,10-dione 5d has shown better activity in case of % reduction in serum cholesterol level while 4-chloro-10-oxo-10H-[1,2,4]triazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-2-yl benzoate 5f in reducing % serum triglyceride level than that of the standard. 4-Hydroxyquinazolin-2-yl nicotinate 6g has significantly increased serum HDL level. Among the series compound 6g has shown promising results over all in lipid profile. These molecules indeed have the potential to be developed as an antihyperlipaemic molecule.

  5. Cytotoxicity and anti-HIV evaluations of some new synthesized quinazoline and thioxopyrimidine derivatives using 4-(thiophen-2-yl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[h]quinazoline-2(1H)-thione as synthon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yahia A Mohamed; Abd El-Galil E Amr; Salwa F Mohamed; Mohamed M Abdalla; Mohamed A Al-Omare; Samira H Shfik

    2012-05-01

    A series of dihydrobenzo[h]quinazoline derivatives 5-19 were synthesized using arylmethylene 2, thiopyrimidine 3 and 2-(4-(thiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinazolin-2-ylthio) acetic acid (4) as a starting materials. The biological screening showed that many of these compounds have good anticancer and antiviral activities. The structure assignments of the new compounds based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, and pharmacological properties are reported.

  6. Preparation of six quinazoline schiff bases and their inhibitory effect on HHCC and Bcap-37 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 孙晓莉; 刘志红; 张生勇; 药立波

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To prepare six quinazoline schiff bases by six steps of chemistry organic synthesis and test their inhibitory effect on hepatomacellular carcinoma cells HHCC and mammary cancer cell Bcap-37, furthmore,to compare their antitumor activities on these two kinds of cells. Methods: 2-Amino-5-nitro-benzylcarbonitrile was the initial material, and it was under the reaction of hydrolysis, ring-closing, halogenation, addition, reduction and substitution in turn to get the six quinazoline schiff bases, MTT method was adopted to compare their anticancer activities against the two cancer cells. Result and Conclusion: Six 6-imine-4-halo substituted anilinoquinozolines were prepared. The anticancer activities against both HHCC and Bcap-37were found, furthermore, they have more potency that on HHCC than on Bcap-37. In the six compounds, the schiff base Ⅵ is the most potent compound.

  7. The Reactivity of 2-Ethoxy-4-Chloroquinazoline and Its Use in Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hashash, M. A.; Darwish, K. M.; Rizk, S. A.; EL-BASSIOUNY, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of 2-ethoxy-4-chloroquinazoline 2 towards various nitrogen nucleophiles, namely: thiosemicarbazide, sodium azide, glucosamine, ethanol, and hydrazine hydrate has been discussed. Also, the behavior of 4-(2-ethoxyquinazolin-4-yl)thiosemicarbazide towards one-carbon, for example, ethyl chloroformate, and two-carbon donors, for example, ethyl chloroacetate and diethyl oxalate has been investigated. On the other hand, new 5-ethoxy-2-substituted[1,2,4]-triazolo-[1,5-c]quinazoline deriv...

  8. Supercritical water oxidation of quinazoline: Reaction kinetics and modeling.

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    Gong, Yanmeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Shuzhong; Song, Wenhan; Xu, Donghai

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a first quantitative kinetic model for supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of quinazoline that describes the formation and interconversion of intermediates and final products at 673-873 K. The set of 11 reaction pathways for phenol, pyrimidine, naphthalene, NH3, etc, involved in the simplified reaction network proved sufficient for fitting the experimental results satisfactorily. We validated the model prediction ability on CO2 yields at initial quinazoline loading not used in the parameter estimation. Reaction rate analysis and sensitivity analysis indicate that nearly all reactions reach their thermodynamic equilibrium within 300 s. The pyrimidine yielding from quinazoline is the dominant ring-opening pathway and provides a significant contribution to CO2 formation. Low sensitivity of NH3 decomposition rate to concentration confirms its refractory nature in SCWO. Nitrogen content in liquid products decreases whereas that in gaseous phase increases as reaction time prolonged. The nitrogen predicted by the model in gaseous phase combined with the experimental nitrogen in liquid products gives an accurate nitrogen balance of conversion process.

  9. Facile access to potent antiviral quinazoline heterocycles with fluorescence properties via merging metal-free domino reactions

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    Held, Felix E.; Guryev, Anton A.; Fröhlich, Tony; Hampel, Frank; Kahnt, Axel; Hutterer, Corina; Steingruber, Mirjam; Bahsi, Hanife; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Mattes, Daniela S.; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Marschall, Manfred; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B.

    2017-05-01

    Most of the known approved drugs comprise functionalized heterocyclic compounds as subunits. Among them, non-fluorescent quinazolines with four different substitution patterns are found in a variety of clinically used pharmaceuticals, while 4,5,7,8-substituted quinazolines and those displaying their own specific fluorescence, favourable for cellular uptake visualization, have not been described so far. Here we report the development of a one-pot synthetic strategy to access these 4,5,7,8-substituted quinazolines, which are fluorescent and feature strong antiviral properties (EC50 down to 0.6+/-0.1 μM) against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Merging multistep domino processes in one-pot under fully metal-free conditions leads to sustainable, maximum efficient and high-yielding organic synthesis. Furthermore, generation of artesunic acid-quinazoline hybrids and their application against HCMV (EC50 down to 0.1+/-0.0 μM) is demonstrated. Fluorescence of new antiviral hybrids and quinazolines has potential applications in molecular imaging in drug development and mechanistic studies, avoiding requirement of linkage to external fluorescent markers.

  10. Synthesis with Nitriles: Synthesis of Some New Mercaptopyridazine, Mercaptopyridazino[1,6-a]quinazoline and Thiophene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Al-Sheikh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available 2-(1-(4-Bromophenyl-2-thiocyanatoethylidenemalononitrile (3 undergoes azo coupling with diazotized aromatic amines to afford arylhydrazone derivatives, which are readily cyclized to afford the corresponding 3(2H-pyridazinimine derivatives upon reflux in aqueous NaOH. Under similar condition an o-cyanoarylhydrazone derivative was cyclized into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-imine, which in turn was easily transformed into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-one on reflux in ethanolic/HCl. Compound 3 afforded substituted 5-acetylthiophene derivatives upon reflux in AcOH/HCl mixtures.

  11. Hg(2+) mediated quinazoline ensemble for highly selective recognition of Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Chellappa, Duraisamy

    2014-04-05

    A fluorimetric sensor for Hg(2+) ion and Cysteine based on quinazoline platform was designed and synthesized by one step reaction and characterized by using common spectroscopic methods. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations shows that probe behaves as "ON-OFF" fluorescent quenching sensor via electron transfer/heavy atom effect. Receptor was found to exhibit selective fluorescence quenching behavior over the other competitive metal ions, and also the receptor-Hg(2+) ensemble act as an efficient "OFF-ON" sensor for Cysteine. Moreover this sensor has also been successfully applied to detection of Hg(2+) in natural water samples with good recovery.

  12. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory evaluation and docking studies of some new fluorinated fused quinazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, C; Lamba, P; Kishore, D Pran; Narayana, B Lakshmi; Rao, K Venkat; Rajwinder, K; Rao, A Raghuram; Shireesha, B; Narsaiah, B

    2010-11-01

    A series of novel 8/10-trifluoromethyl-substituted-imidazo[1,2-c] quinazolines have been synthesized and evaluated in vivo (rat paw edema) for their anti-inflammatory activity and in silico (docking studies) to recognize the hypothetical binding motif of the title compounds with the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) employing GOLD (CCDC, 4.0.1 version) software. The compounds, 9b and 10b, were found to have good anti-inflammatory activity [around 80% of the standard: indomethacin]. The binding mode of the title compounds has been proposed based on the docking studies.

  13. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one

    OpenAIRE

    Ramgopal Appani; Baburao Bhukya; Kiran Gangarapu

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-...

  14. An unexpected copper(II)-catalyzed three-component reaction of quinazoline 3-oxide, alkylidenecyclopropane, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Danqing; Wu, Jie

    2014-08-21

    An unexpected copper(II)-catalyzed three-component reaction of quinazoline-3-oxide, alkylidenecyclopropane and water under mild conditions is reported. This transformation including [3+2] cycloaddition and intramolecular rearrangement leads to N-(2-(5-oxa-6-azaspiro[2.4]hept-6-en-7-yl)phenyl)formamides in good yields.

  15. Apoptosis induction by doxazosin and other quinazoline alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists: a new mechanism for cancer treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kyprianou; T.B. Vaughan; M.C. Michel

    2009-01-01

    Doxazosin and related, quinazoline-based alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists can induce apoptosis in prostate and various other normal, benign, smooth muscle, endothelial and malignant cells. Such apoptosis-inducing effects occur independently of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism and typically require

  16. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substitutedthiosemicarbazide derivatives

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    Alagarsamy Veerachamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substituted thiosemicarbazides (AS1-AS10 were obtained by the reaction of 2-hydrazino- 3-benzyl quinazolin-4(3H-one (6 with different dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester derivatives. The key intermediate 3-benzyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1Hquinazolin-4-one (4 was obtained by reacting benzyl amine (1 with carbon disulphide and sodium hydroxide in dimethyl sulphoxide to give sodium dithiocarbamate, which was methylated with dimethyl sulfate to yield the dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester (2 and condensed with methyl anthranilate (3 in ethanol yielded the desired compound (4 via the thiourea intermediate. The SH group of compound (4 was methylated for the favorable nucleophilic displacement reaction with hydrazine hydrate, which afford 2-hydrazino-3- benzyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (6. The IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectrum of these compounds showed the presence of peaks due to thiosemicarbazides, carbonyl (C=O, NH and aryl groups. The quinazolin-4-one moiety molecular ion peaks (m/z 144 were observed all the mass spectrum of compounds (AS1-AS10. Elemental (C, H, N analysis satisfactorily confirmed purity of the synthesized compounds and elemental composition. All synthesized compounds were also screened for their antimicrobial activity against selective gram positive and gram negative by agar dilution method. In the present study compounds AS8 and AS9 were emerged as the most active compounds of the series.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Multicomponent Domino Reaction of 2-Bromoaldehydes, Benzylamines, and Sodium Azide for the Assembly of Quinazoline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Jia, Feng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Zheng, Si-Jie; Li, Han; Wu, An-Xin

    2016-04-01

    An efficient three-component domino reaction of 2-bromoaldehydes, benzylamines, and sodium azide has been developed for the synthesis of quinazoline derivatives. This domino process involves copper-catalyzed SNAr, oxidation/cyclization, and denitrogenation sequences. The mild catalytic system enabled the effective construction of three C-N bonds in one operation.

  18. Binding characteristics and interactive region of 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Zhong, Dandan; Luo, Jinhui; Tan, Hongliang; Chen, Shouhui; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline (PQ) and DNA under physiological conditions was investigated using multi-spectroscopic techniques, atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated and were discussed in detail. The results of fluorescence-quenching experiments indicated that the main interactive force between PQ and DNA was a hydrophobic interaction and that it was a static quenching process. Potassium iodide and single-strand (ss)DNA quenching studies, together with circular dichroism spectra implied groove binding of PQ with DNA. Atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested that there were no major conformational changes in DNA upon interaction with PQ. In addition, UV/vis absorption titration of DNA bases confirmed that PQ bound with DNA mainly through a minor groove interaction and preferentially interacted with adenine and thymine. We anticipate that this work will provide useful information for the application of quinazoline derivatives in the fields of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  19. Synthetic approaches, functionalization and therapeutic potential of quinazoline and quinazolinone skeletons: the advances continue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imtiaz; Ibrar, Aliya; Ahmed, Waqas; Saeed, Aamer

    2015-01-27

    The presence of N-heterocycles as an essential structural motif in a variety of biologically active substances has stimulated the development of new strategies and technologies for their synthesis. Among the various N-heterocyclic scaffolds, quinazolines and quinazolinones form a privileged class of compounds with their diverse spectrum of therapeutic potential. The easy generation of complex molecular diversity through broadly applicable, cost-effective, practical and sustainable synthetic methods in a straightforward fashion along with the importance of these motifs in medicinal chemistry, received significant attention from researchers engaged in drug design and heterocyclic methodology development. In this perspective, the current review article is an effort to recapitulate recent developments in the eco-friendly and green procedures for the construction of highly challenging and potentially bioactive quinazoline and quinazolinone compounds in order to help medicinal chemists in designing and synthesizing novel and potent compounds for the treatment of different disorders. The key mechanistic insights for the synthesis of these heterocycles along with potential applications and manipulations of the products have also been conferred. This article also aims to highlight the promising future directions for the easy access to these frameworks in addition to the identification of more potent and specific products for numerous biological targets.

  20. 2-Guanidino-quinazolines as a novel class of translation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova Andreyanova, E S; Osterman, I A; Pletnev, P I; Ivanenkov, Y A; Majouga, A G; Bogdanov, A A; Sergiev, P V

    2017-02-01

    A variety of structurally unrelated organic compounds has been reported to have antibacterial activity. Among these, certain small-molecule translation inhibitors have attracted a great deal of attention, due to their relatively high selectivity against prokaryotes, and an appropriate therapeutic index with minor "off target" effects. However, ribosomes are being considered as poorly druggable biological targets, thereby making some routine computational-based approaches to rational drug design and its development rather ineffective. Taking this into account, diversity-oriented biological screening can reasonably be considered as the most advantageous strategy. Thus, using a high-throughput screening (HTS) platform, we applied a unique biological assay for in vitro evaluation of thousands of organic molecules, especially targeted against bacterial ribosomes and translation. As a result, we have identified a series of structurally diverse small-molecule compounds that induce a reporter strain sensitive to translation and DNA biosynthesis inhibitors. In a cell free system, several molecules were found to strongly inhibit protein biosynthesis. Among them, compounds bearing a 2-guanidino-quinazoline core demonstrated the most promising antibacterial activity. With regard to the preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, we revealed that relatively small substituents at positions 4, 6 and 8 of the quinazoline ring significantly enhance the target activity whereas modification of the guanidine group leads to decrease or loss of antibacterial potency. This novel class of translation inhibitors can properly be regarded as a promising starting point for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutic or screening tools.

  1. Spectroscopic Investigations and DFT Calculations on 3-(Diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies of 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 were investigated. The experimental Laser-Raman spectrum (4000–100 cm−1 and FT-IR spectrum (4000–400 cm−1 of the newly synthesized compound were recorded in the solid phase. Both the theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have for the first time been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP and DFT/M06-2X quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p basis set using Gaussian 03 software. The vibrational frequencies were assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED analysis using VEDA 4 software. The calculated vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding reported experimental data. Also, the energies of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, and other related molecular energies for 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 have been investigated using the same computational methods.

  2. Quinazoline derivatives as cathepsins B, H and L inhibitors and cell proliferating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Neera; Jangra, Suman; Kumar, Ajay; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine Cathepsins well known to be involved in cancer, inflammation and regulation of degenerative processes like apoptosis have become specific targets in drug designing. The potential of quinazolines and their derivatives in medicinal chemistry led us to synthesise a novel series of seven compounds of quinazolines to evaluate their effect on cathepsins and cellular aspects of HepG2 cells. In the present work we report the solvent free microwave assisted synthesis of (E)-8-benzylidene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,4-diarylquinazolines as inhibitors of mammalian hepatic cysteine proteases viz. Cathepsins B, H and L. In vitro inhibition of Cathepsins B, H and L is correlated well with in vitro studies when tested using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay on HepG2 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. The studies have been extended to evaluate the type of inhibition exhibited by the individual enzyme. Out of the seven compounds 1g i.e. (E)-8-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-phenyl-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydroquinazoline has been found to be most inhibitory for Cathepsins B, H and L to a maximum extent with the Ki values of 10(-10)M, 10(-10)M and 10(-9)M order respectively. In silico studies of all compounds have also been done at the active sites of Cathepsin B, H and L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Supercritical water oxidation of Quinazoline: Effects of conversion parameters and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Shuzhong; Song, Wenhan

    2016-09-01

    The supercritical water oxidation reaction of quinazoline and a set of related reaction products were investigated in batch reactors by varying the temperature (T, 400-600 °C), time (t, 0-400 s), water density (ρ, 70.79-166.28  kg m(-3)) and oxidation coefficient (OC, 0-4.0). The TOC removal efficiency (CRE) increased significantly as the OC increased, whereas this effect was very limited at high OC (>2.0). Lack of oxygen resulted in low CRE and TN removal efficiency (NRE), also cause coke-formation, and giving high yield of NH3 and nitrogenous organic intermediates. Prolonging reaction time did not provide an appreciable improvement on CRE but remarkably increased NRE at temperature higher than 500 °C. Pyrimidines and pyridines as the nitrogenous intermediates were largely found in GC-MS spectrum. Polymerization among benzene, phenyl radical and benzyl radical played important roles in the formation of PAHs, such as naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene. These collective results showed how the yield of intermediate products responded to changes in the process variables, which permitted the development of a potential reaction network for supercritical water oxidation of quinazoline.

  4. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of pyrazolyl-quinazolin-4(3H-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin B. Patel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrazolyl-quinazolin-4(3H-ones 6a-m have been synthesized from 2-[2-(phenylaminophenyl]acetic acid by using efficient methods. An acid chloride of 2-[2-(phenylaminophenyl]acetic acid on cyclization reaction with 5-iodo anthranilic acid yielded benzoxazinone 2, which on condensation reaction with hydrazine hydrate afforded quinazolin-4(3H-one 3. Acetylation of compound 3 and then condensation with aromatic aldehydes led to the formation of chalcones 5a-m which on subjected to reaction with phenyl hydrazine yielded the disired compounds 6a-m. All the synthesized componds have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR and NMR spectra data. The title compounds have been screened against bacterial as well as fungal microorganisms. The potency of these compounds was calculated and compared with standard drugs i.e. Penicillin-G and Fluconazole. Some of the compounds showed very good antimicrobial activity.

  5. Design, synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative activity of novel isatin-quinazoline hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Mohamed; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Aly, Mohamed H; Tolba, Mai F

    2015-02-01

    Using a molecular hybridization approach, a new series of isatin-quinazoline hybrids 15a-o was designed and synthesized via two different synthetic routes. The target compounds 15a-o were prepared by the reaction of quinazoline hydrazines 12a-e with indoline-2,3-diones 13a-c or by treating 4-chloroquinazoline derivatives 11a-e with isatin hydrazones 14a-c. The in vitro anticancer activity of the newly synthesized hybrids was evaluated against the liver HepG2, breast MCF-7 and colon HT-29 cancer cell lines. A distinctive selective growth inhibitory effect was observed towards the HepG2 cancer cell line. Compounds 15b, 15g and 15l displayed the highest potency, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.4 μM, and they were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as evidenced by enhanced expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, in addition to increased caspase-3 levels.

  6. Synthesis of quinazolines and tetrahydroquinazolines: copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-bromobenzyl bromides with aldehydes and aqueous ammonia or amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuesen; Li, Bin; Guo, Shenghai; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xinying

    2014-03-01

    An efficient synthesis of diversely substituted quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines through copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of the readily available 2-bromobenzyl bromides, aldehydes, and aqueous ammonia or amines has been developed. By using ammonia and simple aliphatic amines as the nitrogen source, the present method provides a versatile and practical protocol for the synthesis of quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines.

  7. Synthesis of a new class of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines with antimitotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Tisi, Silvia; Primac, Irina; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Barraja, Paola

    2014-03-03

    A new series of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI₅₀ values reaching the low micromolar level (1.3-19.8 μM). These compounds were able to induce cell death mainly by apoptosis through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Selected compounds showed antimitotic activity and a reduction of tubulin polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they showed anti-angiogenic properties since reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted HUVEC capillary-like tube network in Matrigel.

  8. Fourier transform microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy of quinazoline, quinoxaline, and phthalazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Don; Godfrey, Peter D.; Jahn, Michaela K.; Dewald, David A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2011-04-01

    The pure rotational spectra of the bicyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycle molecules, quinazoline, quinoxaline, and phthalazine, have been recorded and assigned in the region 13-87 GHz. An analysis, guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, of frequency-scanned Stark modulated, jet-cooled millimeter wave absorption spectra (48-87 GHz) yielded a preliminary set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Subsequent spectral analysis at higher resolution was carried out with Fourier transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy (13-18 GHz) of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam. The high spectral resolution of the FT-MW instrument provided an improved set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with nitrogen quadrupole coupling constants for all three species. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory closely predict rotational constants and are useful in predicting quadrupole coupling constants and dipole moments for such species.

  9. The Reactivity of 2-Ethoxy-4-Chloroquinazoline and Its Use in Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Hashash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-4-chloroquinazoline 2 towards various nitrogen nucleophiles, namely: thiosemicarbazide, sodium azide, glucosamine, ethanol, and hydrazine hydrate has been discussed. Also, the behavior of 4-(2-ethoxyquinazolin-4-ylthiosemicarbazide towards one-carbon, for example, ethyl chloroformate, and two-carbon donors, for example, ethyl chloroacetate and diethyl oxalate has been investigated. On the other hand, new 5-ethoxy-2-substituted[1,2,4]-triazolo-[1,5-c]quinazoline derivatives have been obtained by ring closure accompanied with Dimroth rearrangement through the interaction of compound 2 with hydrazides of acetic, benzoic, crotonic, cinnamic, 2-furoic, and phthalimidoacetic acids. Structures of the novel products were confirmed by elemental, IR, MS, and 1H-NMR spectral analyses.

  10. Rapid Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of (Quinazolin-4-YlaminoMethyl-Phosphonates Through Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoan Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the simple synthesis of new (quinazolin-4-ylamino methylphosphonates via microwave irradiation. Substituted-2-aminobenzonitrile reacted with 1,1-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylmethanamine at a reflux condition to obtain N'-(substituted-2-cyanophenyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine (1. The subsequent reaction of this intermediate product with α-aminophosphonate (2 in a solution containing glacial acetic acid in 2-propanol through microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of (quinazolin-4-ylaminomethyl-phosphonate derivatives 3a to 3x, which were unequivocally characterized by the spectral data and elemental analysis. The influence of the reaction conditions on the yield of 3a was investigated to optimize the synthetic conditions. The relative optimal conditions for the synthesis of 3a include a 1:1 molar ratio of N’-(2-cyanophenyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine to diethyl amino(phenylmethylphosphonate and a 4:1 volume ratio of isopropanol to HOAc in the solvent mixture, at a reaction temperature of 150 °C, with a microwave power of 100 W and a corresponding pressure of 150 psi for 20 min in the microwave synthesizer. The yield of 3a was approximately 79%, whereas those of 3b to 3x were approximately 77% to 86%. Some of the synthesized compounds displayed weak to good anti-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV activity.

  11. Benzimidazole-Based Quinazolines: In Vitro Evaluation, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship, and Molecular Modeling as Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Saxena, Sanjai; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2016-03-01

    A series of benzimidazole-based quinazoline derivatives with different substitutions of primary and secondary amines at the C2 position (1-12) were evaluated for their Aurora kinase inhibitory activities. All compounds except for 3 and 6 showed good activity against Aurora kinase inhibitors, with IC50 values in the range of 0.035-0.532 μM. The ligand efficiency (LE) of the compounds with Aurora A kinase was also determined. The structure-activity relationship and the quantitative structure-activity relationship revealed that the Aurora inhibitory activities of these derivatives primarily depend on the different substitutions of the amine present at the C2 position of the quinazoline core. Molecular docking studies in the active binding site also provided theoretical support for the experimental biological data acquired. The current study identifies a novel class of Aurora kinase inhibitors, which can further be used for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Quinazoline derivatives are efficient chemosensitizers of antibiotic activity in Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Jacqueline; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Baitiche, Milad; Adam, Elissavet; Viveiros, Miguel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Pascu, Mihail L; Amaral, Leonard; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2010-08-01

    Amongst the three series of quinazoline derivatives synthesised and studied in this work, some molecules increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria presenting multidrug-resistant phenotypes. N-alkyl compounds induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps in clinical isolates. These molecules are able to increase the intracellular concentration of chloramphenicol in efflux pump-overproducing strains. Their activity depends on the antibiotic structure, suggesting that different sites may be involved for the recognition of substrates by a given efflux pump. Quinazoline molecules exhibiting a nitro functional group are more active, and structure-activity relationship studies may be undertaken to identify the pharmacophoric group involved in the AcrB and MexB affinity sites.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF PIPERAZINE SUBSTITUTED QUINAZOLINE-BASED THIOUREA/THIAZOLIDINONE/CHALCONE HYBRIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D R; Lakum, H P; Chikhalia, K H

    2015-01-01

    In frames of the search for new biological entities to fight against recent drug-resistant microbial strains, we report a library of quinazoline-based thiourea/4-thiazolidinone/chalcone hybrids. The newly synthesized compounds were studied for efficacy against several bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus clavatus) using the broth dilution technique. From the biological evaluation, (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-((4-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)quinazolin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was found to be the most active analogue (microbial inhibition concentration 3.12 μg/mL) to inhibit the bacterial growth. The rest of the compounds showed equipotent efficacy (3.12-12.5 μg/mL) as compared to the standard. Final compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis.

  14. Synthesis and preliminary in vitro kinase inhibition evaluation of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinyeh, Wael; Esvan, Yannick J; Nauton, Lionel; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Théry, Vincent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazolines is described. The inhibitory potencies of prepared compounds toward a panel of five CMGC protein kinases (CDK5, CLK1, DYRK1A, CK1, GSK3), that are known to play a potential role in Alzheimer's disease, were evaluated. The best overall kinase inhibition profile was found for nitro compound 4 bearing an ethyl group at the 5-position.

  15. Design and synthesis of 4-substituted quinazolines as potent EGFR inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Magdy, Naja

    2016-09-23

    Cancer is a major health problem to human beings around the world. Many quinazoline derivatives were reported to have potent cytotoxic activity. Our aim in this work is the discovery of potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity containing 4-substituted quinazoline pharmacophore. Novel series of 4-substituted 6,8-dibromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-quinazoline derivatives have been designed and synthesized. New derivatives were tested against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and screened for their inhibition activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK). Most of the tested compounds show potent antiproliferative activity and EGFR-TK inhibitory activity. Compounds VIIIc and VIIIb exerted powerful cytotoxic activity (IC50 3.1 and 6.3 µM) with potent inhibitory percent (91.1 and 88.4%) against EGFR-TK. Compounds IX, VIIa, X, VIIb, VIc, V, IV, VIa and VIb showed promising cytotoxic effects with IC50 range (12-79 µM) with good activity against EGFR-TK with the inhibitory percent (85.4-60.8%). On the other hand, compounds VIIc, VIIIa exerted low cytotoxic effects as revealed from their IC50 value (124 and 144 µM) with low activity against EGFR-TK with inhibitory percent 30.6 and 29.1% respectively.

  16. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appani, Ramgopal; Bhukya, Baburao; Gangarapu, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9a) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9h) emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and DFT calculations of monohydroxyalkylated derivatives of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszkowska, Agnieszka; Hęclik, Karol; Trzybiński, Damian; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Klasek, Antonin; Zarzyka, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of new derivatives with an imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione ring has been presented. Two new alcohols with the imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione ring were obtained and characterized by spectral (1H, 13C NMR, IR and UV) and crystallography methods. A reaction chemoselectivity has been observed with a formation of monohydroxyalkyl derivatives of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione substituted at the 2. nitrogen atom. The absence of derivatives substituted at the 6. nitrogen atom was proven experimentally. The synthesis with chemoselectivity over 99% without control of the substituent effect happens very rarely. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione in the region of the 2. and the 6. nitrogen atoms. Quantum-mechanical DFT calculations proved to be very useful to explain the reason of selectivity reaction of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione with oxiranes.

  18. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activities of Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of a quinazoline-4(3H-one Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahman Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of a Schiff base derived from quinazoline-4(3H one and 2-formylphenoxy acetic acid were prepared and characterized by elemental and different spectroscopic (IR, UV-Visible and NMR analyses. The elemental analysis indicated the formation of the complexes: [ML(AcO].H2O, where M stands for Zn(II and Cd(II and L stands for quinazoline-4(3H-one Schiff base. The molar conductivities of the prepared complexes revealed their non-electrolytic nature. The complexes were also investigated for their antimicrobial activities by using turbidometric assay method.

  20. DABCO-catalyzed one-pot three component synthesis of dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromene substituted quinazolines and their evaluation towards anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodnala, Sumathi; Bhavani, A K D; Kamutam, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M; Promila; Prabhakar, Ch

    2016-08-15

    A facile DABCO promoted one-pot three component synthesis of a new series of C-C linked bis-heterocycle containing dihydropyrano[c]chromene as highly fused oxa-heteryl group at C-2 position of quinazoline was developed. Quinazoline-2-carbaldehyde, substituted 4-hydroxycoumarin and ethyl cyanoacetate were used as key components in the Knoevenagel-Michael addition reaction to get the titled compounds. These compounds were screened for anti-cancer activity against the breast cancer cell lines of MDA-MB 231, and MDA-MB 453. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. One-Pot Cascade Synthesis of Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via Nickel-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Coupling of o-Aminobenzamides with Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parua, Seuli; Das, Siuli; Sikari, Rina; Sinha, Suman; Paul, Nanda D

    2017-07-21

    In this paper, we report a general, efficient, and environmentally benign method for the one-pot cascade synthesis of quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of o-aminobenzamide with alcohols catalyzed by a simple Ni(II) catalyst, [Ni(MeTAA)], featuring a tetraaza macrocyclic ligand (tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene (MeTAA)). A wide variety of substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized in high yields starting from readily available benzyl alcohols and o-aminobenzamides. Several controlled reactions along with deuterium labeling studies were carried out to establish the acceptorless dehydrogenative nature of the reactions.

  2. Studies on quinazolines. 5. 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline derivatives: a novel class of potent and selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists and antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, J W; Tao, P L; Yen, M H; Lu, G Y; Shiau, C Y; Lai, Y J; Chien, S L; Chan, C H

    1993-07-23

    A series of 2-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]- and 2-[(substituted phenylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2- c]quinazolin-5(6H)-ones or -5(6H)-thiones, and 3-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinaz oline derivatives were synthesized, as conformationally restricted analogues of SGB-1534 and ketanserin, for evaluation as alpha-antagonists and antihypertensive agents. Most compounds containing a (substituted phenylipiperazinyl)methyl side chain displayed high binding affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptor with no significant activity at alpha 2-sites. Compounds having a (substituted phenylpiperazinyl)methyl at the 3-position of 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-5(6H)-one ring system had a better activity than those with the same substituent at the 2-position. Structure-activity relationships for alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity are presented and indicate that compounds with substitution at the ortho position on the benzene ring of the phenylpiperazine side chain moiety are more potent than those without substitution and/or substitutions at the 3- and 4-positions. Computer-assisted superimposition of SGB-1534 and 20b showed little structural correspondence between the quinazolinone and 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline nucleus, and specific interactions of these molecular fragments with the receptor protein appear unlikely. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated via intravenous administration of each compound to spontaneously hypertensive rats, and compounds (16a, 16b, 20b, and 28b) illustrated similar efficacy to SGB-1534 when assessed after 6 h. The pA2 value for 16a against phenylephedrine in rat aorta was much higher than that of prazosin. On the basis of alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity/selectivity in vitro and duration of antihypertensive action in vivo, compounds 20b and 28b warrant further evaluation.

  3. (E-3-Propoxymethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9-one monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhon Zh Elmuradov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H16N2O2·H2O, was synthesized via the alkylation of 3-hydroxymethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9-one with n-propyl iodide in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The organic molecule and the water molecule both lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the components into extended chains along [100].

  4. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel 3-(6-Substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl-2-[{(4-substituted phenyl amino} methyl] quinazolines-4 (3H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Srivastav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-(6-substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl-2-[{(4-substituted phenyl amino} methyl] quinazolines-4(3H-ones were synthesized by treating 2-(chloromethyl-3-(6-substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl quinazoline-4-(3H-one (IIa-d with various substituted amine. The compounds (IIa-d prepared by treating 2-[(chloroacetyl amino] benzoic acid with different 2-amino-6-substituted benzothiazole. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolines-4-one derivative were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  5. Rh(III)- and Zn(II)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Quinazoline N-Oxides via C-H Amidation-Cyclization of Oximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Fen; Yang, Xifa; Zhou, Xukai; Li, Xingwei

    2016-12-02

    Quinazoline N-oxides have been prepared from simple ketoximes and 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation-amidation of the ketoximes and subsequent Zn(II)-catalyzed cyclization. The substrate scope and functional group compatibility were examined. The reaction features relay catalysis by Rh(III) and Zn(II).

  6. Synthesis and SAR of new pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as potent and selective MPS1 kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Marina; Angiolini, Mauro; Disingrini, Teresa; Donati, Daniele; Guanci, Marco; Nuvoloni, Stefano; Posteri, Helena; Quartieri, Francesca; Silvagni, Marco; Colombo, Riccardo

    2011-08-01

    The synthesis and SAR of a series of novel pyrazolo-quinazolines as potent and selective MPS1 inhibitors are reported. We describe the optimization of the initial hit, identified by screening the internal library collection, into an orally available, potent and selective MPS1 inhibitor.

  7. Synthesis of quinazolines from N-(2-nitrophenylsulfonyl)iminodiacetate and alpha-(2-nitrophenylsulfonyl)amino ketones via 2H-indazole 1-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupková, Sona; Slough, Greg A; Krchnák, Viktor

    2010-07-02

    Base-catalyzed rearrangement of 2H-indazoles 1-oxides, prepared by tandem carbon-carbon followed by nitrogen-nitrogen bond formations from easily accessible N-alkyl-2-nitro-N-(2-oxo-2-aryl-ethyl)-benzenesulfonamides using glycine, 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chlorides, and bromo ketones/acetates, yielded high purity quinazolines.

  8. UV-guided isolation of verrucine A and B, novel quinazolines from Penicillium verrucosum structurally related to anacine from P. aurantiogriseum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Franzyk, Henrik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    Two novel quinazolines, verrucine A and B, have been isolated as a major and a minor metabolite of Penicillium verrucosum, respectively. Both are condensates of one mole each of anthranilic acid, phenylalanine and glutamine. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and the two...

  9. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  10. Silver(I) complexes with phthalazine and quinazoline as effective agents against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glišić, Biljana Đ; Senerovic, Lidija; Comba, Peter; Wadepohl, Hubert; Veselinovic, Aleksandar; Milivojevic, Dusan R; Djuran, Miloš I; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2016-02-01

    Five silver(I) complexes with aromatic nitrogen-containing heterocycles, phthalazine (phtz) and quinazoline (qz), were synthesized, characterized and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Although different AgX salts reacted with phtz, only dinuclear silver(I) complexes of the general formula {[Ag(X-O)(phtz-N)]2(μ-phtz-N,N')2} were formed, X=NO3(-) (1), CF3SO3(-) (2) and ClO4(-) (3). However, reactions of qz with an equimolar amount of AgCF3SO3 and AgBF4 resulted in the formation of polynuclear complexes, {[Ag(CF3SO3-O)(qz-N)]2}n (4) and {[Ag(qz-N)][BF4]}n (5). Complexes 1-5 were evaluated by in vitro antimicrobial studies against a panel of microbial strains that lead to many skin and soft tissue, respiratory, wound and nosocomial infections. The obtained results indicate that all tested silver(I) complexes have good antibacterial activity with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values in the range from 2.9 to 48.0μM against the investigated strains. Among the investigated strains, these complexes were particularly efficient against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=2.9-29μM) and had a marked ability to disrupt clinically relevant biofilms of strains with high inherent resistance to antibiotics. On the other hand, their activity against the fungus Candida albicans was moderate. In order to determine the therapeutic potential of silver(I) complexes 1-5, their antiproliferative effect on the human lung fibroblastic cell line MRC5, has been also evaluated. The binding of complexes 1-5 to the genomic DNA of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis techniques and well supported by molecular docking into the DNA minor groove. All investigated complexes showed an improved cytotoxicity profile in comparison to the clinically used AgNO3.

  11. Quinazoline antifolate thymidylate synthase inhibitors: nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine substituents in the C2 position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsham, P R; Chambers, P; Hayter, A J; Hughes, L R; Jackman, A L; O'Connor, B M; Bishop, J A; Calvert, A H

    1989-03-01

    The synthesis of 16 new N10-propargylquinazoline antifolates with methylamino, ethylamino, (2-aminoethyl)amino, [2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amino, (2-hydroxyethyl)amino, (carboxymethyl)amino, dimethylamino, imidazol-1-yl, methoxy, ethoxy, phenoxy, 2-methoxyethoxy, 2-hydroxyethoxy, mercapto, methylthio, and chloro substituents at C2 is described. In general, the synthetic route involved the coupling of diethyl N-[4-(prop-2-ynylamino)benzoyl]-L-glutamate (5a) with 6-(bromomethyl)-2-chloro-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazoline in N,N-dimethylformamide with calcium carbonate as the base, displacement of the C2-chloro substituent with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles, and deprotection using mild alkali. The C2-ether analogues were most conveniently prepared by coupling 5a with 6-(bromomethyl)-2,4-diakoxy(or diphenoxy)quinazolines. In this series the final deprotection step with aqueous alkali gave simultaneous selective hydrolysis of the C4-alkoxy or C4-phenoxy substituent. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of partially purified L1210 thymidylate synthase (TS). As a measure of cytotoxicity, they were examined for their inhibition of the growth of L1210 cells in culture. The C2-methoxy analogue 11a was equivalent to the previously described tight binding TS inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717, ICI 155387, 1a) against the TS enzyme and exhibited enhanced potency in culture. The C2-methoxy substituent also gave a 110-fold enhancement in aqueous solubility relative to the C2-amine. These results suggest that 11a will be an interesting compound for further study as a potential antitumor agent in vivo. A further series of 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates with modified alkyl substituents at N10 is also described. None of these analogues equalled the activity of 11a. Thus the propargyl group appears to be the optimum N10 substituent in both 2-amino- and 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates.

  12. Discovery of quinazolin-4-amines bearing benzimidazole fragments as dual inhibitors of c-Met and VEGFR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhi; Xue, Jia-Yu; Xu, Yun-Gen

    2014-09-01

    Both c-Met and VEGFR-2 are important targets for the treatment of cancers. In this study, a series of N-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine derivatives were designed and identified as dual c-Met and VEGFR-2 inhibitors. Among these compounds bearing quinazoline and benzimidazole fragments, compound 7j exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against c-Met and VEGFR-2 with IC50 of 0.05μM and 0.02μM, respectively. It also showed the highest anticancer activity against the tested cancer cell lines with IC50 of 1.5μM against MCF-7 and 8.7μM against Hep-G2. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of c-Met and VEGFR-2, which demonstrates that compound 7j is a potential agent for cancer therapy deserving further researching.

  13. Synthesis and anti-TMV activity of novel β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazole moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Li, Pei; Hu, Deyu; Song, Bao-An

    2014-08-01

    Here, a series of β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazoles was synthesized and evaluated for anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity. The compounds 3n, 3o, 3p and 3q showed good antiviral activity against TMV at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, with curative rates of 55.55%, 52.32%, 52.77% and 50.91%, respectively, and protection rates of 52.33%, 55.96%, 54.21% and 50.98%, respectively. These values were close to those of the commercially available antiviral agent ningnanmycin (which has curative and protection rates of 55.27% and 52.16%, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-TMV activity of β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazoles moieties; the results indicate that these novel compounds can potentially be used as protective agents against TMV diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insecticidal quinazoline derivatives with (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl and azido substituents as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors and candidate photoaffinity probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latli, B; Wood, E; Casida, J E

    1996-03-01

    Two candidate photoaffinity probes are designed from 4-substituted quinazolines known to be potent insecticides/acaricides and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors acting at or near the rotenone site. 4-(11-Azidoundecyl-2-amino)quinazoline, based on the undecylamino analog SAN 548A as a prototype, was synthesized in 18% overall yield from ethyl 10-undecenoate by oxidation of the terminal double bond, reductive amination, coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline, and functional group manipulation of the terminal ethyl ester to an alcohol, a mesylate and finally nucleophilic displacement with azide ions. 4-(4-(3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenethoxy)quinaz oline [the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog of fenazaquin insecticide/acaricide] was prepared from 4-bromophenethyl alcohol in 31% overall yield by first introducing the trifluoromethylketone moiety followed by its conversion to the (trifluoromethyl)-diazirine and finally coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline as above. Both candidate photoaffinity probes have the inhibitory potency of rotenone (IC50 of 3-4 nM in each case). The azidoundecylamino compound has inadequate photoreactivity whereas that of the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog is ideal at 350 nm. Radiosynthesis of the latter photoaffinity ligand included introduction of the diazirinyl moiety as the carbene precursor, oxidation of (trifluoromethyl)diazirinylphenethyl alcohol to the corresponding acid with Jones' reagent, and reduction of the phenacetyl chloride intermediate with sodium borotritide to incorporate tritium.

  15. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  16. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  18. Synthesis, Antimicrobial, and Anti-HIV1 Activity of Quinazoline-4(3H-one Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to synthesize 11 compounds of quinazoline-1 derivatives and to test their antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities. A quick-witted method was developed for the synthesis of novel substituted quinazolinone derivatives by summarizing diverse diamines with benzoxazine reactions, and it demonstrated the benefits of typical reactions, handy operation, and outstanding product yields. These compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, I R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectra. Then antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities of the compounds were tested in-vitro. It was found that compounds 7–11 possessed a wide range of anti microbial and anti-HIV1 activity.

  19. Discovery of antibiotic (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Renee; Kumarasiri, Malika; Peng, Zhihong; Otero, Lisandro H; Song, Wei; Suckow, Mark A; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Lastochkin, Elena; Antunes, Nuno T; Pi, Hualiang; Vakulenko, Sergei; Hermoso, Juan A; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-02-11

    In the face of the clinical challenge posed by resistant bacteria, the present needs for novel classes of antibiotics are genuine. In silico docking and screening, followed by chemical synthesis of a library of quinazolinones, led to the discovery of (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (compound 2) as an antibiotic effective in vivo against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This antibiotic impairs cell-wall biosynthesis as documented by functional assays, showing binding of 2 to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a. We document that the antibiotic also inhibits PBP1 of S. aureus, indicating a broad targeting of structurally similar PBPs by this antibiotic. This class of antibiotics holds promise in fighting MRSA infections.

  20. Sulfamic acid as energy efficient catalyst for synthesis of flurophores, 1--spiro [isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mansing M Mane; Dattaprasad M Pore

    2016-04-01

    An energy efficient synthesis of 1--spiro[isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones has been expediently accomplished by a reaction of isatin(s) / cyclic ketone and anthranilamide in ethanol at ambient temprature. Excellent yields of the products in short time duration, operational simplicity, and simple work-up procedure are the attractive features of the present protocol. Synthesized 1--spiro[isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones were found to be fluorescent with absorption in UV region (302, 362 nm) and emission in visible region (413-436 nm) with Stokes shift of 44-72 nm.

  1. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  2. Synthesis and antiulcer activity of 2-[5-substituted-1--benzo(d) imidazol-2-yl sulfinyl]methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-4-(3) ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Patil; Swastika Ganguly; Sanjay Surana

    2010-05-01

    2-[5-substituted-1--benzo(d)imidazol-2-yl sulfinyl]methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-4-(3)-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced, aspirin induced and ethanol induced ulcer in rat model. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H NMR spectral and elemental analysis. The compounds were scramed for their antiulcer activity: compounds 5k and 5n showed higher activity than omeprazole used as standard.

  3. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  4. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  5. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Mono-, Di-, and Tetranitrated 7,8-Disubstituted Glycolurils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Cheetah 7.0 [7] . All of the compounds 8–13 are predicted to have performance values less than TNT with 15 and 16 approaching the performance of TNT...0.25 1.25 0.25 a) Calculated values in brackets. b) Calculated using Cheetah 7.0. c) Peak decomposition temperature at 10 Kmin1 in a pinhole pan. d) Ex...118, 445–458. [7] S. Bastea, L. E. Fried, K. R. Glaesemann, W. M. Howard, I. W. Kuo, P. C. Souers, P. A. Vitello, Cheetah 7.0 User’s Manual, LLNL-SM

  7. Quinazolin-4-one Coupled with Pyrrolidin-2-iminium Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqin Dai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new alkaloids, including auranomides A and B (1 and 2, a new scaffold containing quinazolin-4-one substituted with a pyrrolidin-2-iminium moiety, and auranomide C (3, as well as two known metabolites auranthine (4 and aurantiomides C (5 were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum. The chemical structures of compounds 13 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, HRESIMS and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 13 were suggested from the perspective of a plausible biosynthesis pathway. Compounds 13 were subjected to antitumor and antimicrobial screening models. Auranomides A–C exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. Auranomides B was the most potent among them with an IC50 value of 0.097 μmol/mL against HEPG2 cells.

  8. Synthesis, anti-microbial and molecular docking studies of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Al-Har, Munirah S; Barakat, Assem; Aldawsari, Fahad D; Aldalbahi, Ali; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2014-06-25

    In this work, synthesis, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of some new series of substituted quinazolinone 2a-h and 3a-d were described. Starting form 2-aminobenzamide derivatives 1, a new series of quinazolinone derivatives has been synthesized, in high yields, assisted by microwave and classical methods. Some of these substituted quinazolinones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis), and anti-fungal activity against (Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candida albicans) using agar well diffusion method. Among the prepared products, 3-benzyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (3a) was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-microbial activity with MICs of 25.6±0.5, 24.3±0.4, 30.1±0.6, and 25.1±0.5 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli, respectively. Compound 3a was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-fungal activity with MICs of 18.3±0.6, 23.1±0.4, and 26.1±0.5 µg/mL against Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candidaal bicans, respectively.

  9. Profiling the Interaction Mechanism of Quinoline/Quinazoline Derivatives as MCHR1 Antagonists: An in Silico Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingwei; Li, Yan; Fu, Xinmei; Wang, Jinghui; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis involved in the control of feeding and energy metabolism, is a promising target for treatment of obesity. In the present work, the up-to-date largest set of 181 quinoline/quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists was subjected to both ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity (3D-QSAR) analysis applying comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The optimal predictable CoMSIA model exhibited significant validity with the cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q2) = 0.509, non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (R2ncv) = 0.841 and the predicted correlation coefficient (R2pred) = 0.745. In addition, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for further elucidation of the binding modes of MCHR1 antagonists. MD simulations in both water and lipid bilayer systems were performed. We hope that the obtained models and information may help to provide an insight into the interaction mechanism of MCHR1 antagonists and facilitate the design and optimization of novel antagonists as anti-obesity agents. PMID:25257526

  10. Novel 2,3-Dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose J. Mphahlele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones for in vitro cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines as well as for potential antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The title compounds were prepared via PdCl2-mediated endo-dig cyclization of 2-aryl-8-(arylethynyl-6-bromo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H-ones. The latter were prepared, in turn, via initial Sonogashira cross-coupling of 2-amino-5-bromo-3-iodobenzamide with aryl acetylenes followed by boric acid-mediated cyclocondensation of the intermediate 2-amino-3-(arylethynyl-5-bromobenzamides with benzaldehyde derivatives. The 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones 4a–k were evaluated for potential in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast (MCF-7, melanoma (B16 and endothelioma (sEnd.2 cell lines. All of the compounds except 4h and 4i were found to be inactive against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 4h substituted with a 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-fluorophenyl groups at the 3- and 5-positions was found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity against the three cancer cell lines. The presence of phenyl and 3-chlorophenyl groups at the 3- and 5-posiitons of the pyrroloquinazolinone 4i, on the other hand, resulted in significant cytotoxicity against vascular tumour endothelial cells (sEnd.2, but reduced activity against the melanoma (B16 and breast cancer (MCF-7 cells except at higher concentrations. The 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones 4a–l were found to be inactive against the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  11. Potential of N-aryl(benzyl,heteryl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamides as anticancer and antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii M. Antypenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The death rate from cancer and infectious diseases is still very high, therefore research in this area is extremely important and promising as in medical, so in economic point of view. Thus, potassium salt of tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-thion was modified per alkylation by N-aryl(benzyl,heterylacetamides with proper confirmation of newly synthesized compounds’ structures by FT-IR, LC–MS, 1H NMR and elemental analysis data. The substances were tested for bioluminescence inhibition against Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 (5–50 μg/mL to check their cytotoxicity. Then they were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities (100 μg against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. It was found that compounds 1.1, 1.5, 1.10, 1.31, 1.33 possessed light activity against K. pneumonia. The US National Cancer Institute (NCI has chosen 19 compounds and screened them for ability to inhibit in 10 μM concentration 60 different human tumor cell lines. The LOX IMVI cell line of melanoma appeared to be the most sensitive one, and N-(6-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.31 and N-(3-fluorobenzyl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.19 exhibited high growth inhibition rate, and N-(6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.32 showed lethal antitumor activity against it. The latter compound 1.32 showed the best anticancer results, also inhibiting growth of leukemia SR cell line, NCI-H460 of non-small cell lung cancer, KM12 of colon cancer and SF-295 of CNS cancer. The in silico molecular docking studies have predicted the affinity of the synthesized substances to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR.

  12. Metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα-dependent PI4P Is subverted by HCV and is targeted by a 4-anilino quinazoline with antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bianco

    Full Text Available 4-anilino quinazolines have been identified as inhibitors of HCV replication. The target of this class of compounds was proposed to be the viral protein NS5A, although unequivocal proof has never been presented. A 4-anilino quinazoline moiety is often found in kinase inhibitors, leading us to formulate the hypothesis that the anti-HCV activity displayed by these compounds might be due to inhibition of a cellular kinase. Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase α (PI4KIIIα has recently been identified as a host factor for HCV replication. We therefore evaluated AL-9, a compound prototypical of the 4-anilino quinazoline class, on selected phosphatidylinositol kinases. AL-9 inhibited purified PI4KIIIα and, to a lesser extent, PI4KIIIβ. In Huh7.5 cells, PI4KIIIα is responsible for the phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4P pool present in the plasma membrane. Accordingly, we observed a gradual decrease of PI4P in the plasma membrane upon incubation with AL-9, indicating that this agent inhibits PI4KIIIα also in living cells. Conversely, AL-9 did not affect the level of PI4P in the Golgi membrane, suggesting that the PI4KIIIβ isoform was not significantly inhibited under our experimental conditions. Incubation of cells expressing HCV proteins with AL-9 induced abnormally large clusters of NS5A, a phenomenon previously observed upon silencing PI4KIIIα by RNA interference. In light of our findings, we propose that the antiviral effect of 4-anilino quinazoline compounds is mediated by the inhibition of PI4KIIIα and the consequent depletion of PI4P required for the HCV membranous web. In addition, we noted that HCV has a profound effect on cellular PI4P distribution, causing significant enrichment of PI4P in the HCV-membranous web and a concomitant depletion of PI4P in the plasma membrane. This observation implies that HCV--by recruiting PI4KIIIα in the RNA replication complex--hijacks PI4P metabolism, ultimately resulting in a markedly altered

  13. Discovery of pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives as CMGC family protein kinase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, inhibitory potency and X-ray co-crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esvan, Yannick J; Zeinyeh, Wael; Boibessot, Thibaut; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Knapp, Stefan; Chaikuad, Apirat; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-08-08

    The design and synthesis of new pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives is described as well as their protein kinase inhibitory potencies toward five CMGC family members (CDK5, CK1, GSK3, CLK1 and DYRK1A). The interest for this original tricyclic heteroaromatic scaffold as modulators of CLK1/DYRK1A activity was validated by nanomolar potencies (compounds 12 and 13). CLK1 co-crystal structures with two inhibitors revealed the binding mode of these compounds within the ATP-binding pocket.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer activities of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Yin-Jiu; Xiang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yi; Hu, De-Yu; Xue, Wei; Song, Bao-An; Yang, Song

    2014-05-01

    A series of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline was prepared by conventional heating methods. Among these compounds, the crystal structure of compound 10o (CCDC: 916922) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Bioassay results showed that most target compounds had certain inhibition activities against proliferation of tumor cells, and some compounds even had good broad-spectrum inhibition activities. The ethoxyl series of compounds possessed higher inhibition activities against tumor cells than the methoxyl series of compounds. Bioactivity tests showed that the IC50 values of compound 10s against PC3, MGC803, A375, and A549 cells were 1.8, 2.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μΜ, respectively, which were much higher than those of commercial gefitinib (7.2, 7.6, 7.2, and 9.8 μM, respectively). Conversely, the IC50 values of compound 10s were very low against NH3T3, indicating only weak effect on normal cells as also proven by lactate dehydrogenase and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Analyses of cell configuration and cell cycle revealed that compound 10s possibly caused cells to remain at G0/G1 phase by inhibiting cell proliferation for 24 h. Compound 10s also inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and P38 with obvious concentration dependence. Thus, these compounds can inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells through the interruption of ERK1/2 and P38signaling pathways.

  15. 3d QSAR studies on a series of quinazoline derrivatives as tyrosine kinase (egfr) inhibitor: the k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolvi, Malleshappa N; Patel, Harun M

    2010-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are known for its role in cancer. Quinazoline have been reported to be the molecules of interest, with potent anticancer activity and they act by binding to ATP site of protein kinases. ATP binding site of protein kinases provides an extensive opportunity to design newer analogs. With this background, we report an attempt to discern the structural and physicochemical requirements for inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase. The k-Nearest Neighbor Molecular Field Analysis (kNN-MFA), a three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D- QSAR) method has been used in the present case to study the correlation between the molecular properties and the tyrosine kinase (EGFR) inhibitory activities on a series of quinazoline derivatives. kNNMFA calculations for both electrostatic and steric field were carried out. The master grid maps derived from the best model has been used to display the contribution of electrostatic potential and steric field. The statistical results showed significant correlation coefficient r(2) (q(2)) of 0.846, r(2) for external test set (pred_r2) 0.8029, coefficient of correlation of predicted data set (pred_r(2)se) of 0.6658, degree of freedom 89 and k nearest neighbor of 2. Therefore, this study not only casts light on binding mechanism between EGFR and its inhibitors, but also provides hints for the design of new EGFR inhibitors with observable structural diversity.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position as potential antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pan-Pan; Gao, Man; Mao, Bei-Bei; Cao, Sheng-Li; Liu, Cui-Huan; Yang, Chao-Rui; Li, Zhong-Feng; Liao, Ji; Zhao, Hongchang; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Xingzhi

    2016-01-27

    A series of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at the C2-position were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against A549, MCF-7, HeLa, HT29 and HCT-116 cell lines. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad spectrum antitproliferative activity against five cell lines, of which 5c was the most potent against HT29 cell line with an IC50 value of 5.53 μM, inducing a G2/M phase arrest in HT29 cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with 5c resulted in BubR1 phosphorylation and an increase of mitotic index in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5c promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results demonstrate that quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position may be potentially novel antitumor agents targeting tubulin to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  17. Intracellular detection of Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions through a quinazoline functionalized benzimidazole-based new fluorogenic differential chemosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anup; Anbu, Sellamuthu; Sharma, Gunjan; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Koch, Biplob; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-10-14

    A new quinazoline functionalized benzimidazole-based fluorogenic chemosensor H3L is synthesized and fully characterized by conventional techniques including single crystal X-ray analysis. It acts as a highly selective colorimetric and fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+) ions in DMF/0.02 M HEPES (1 : 1, v/v, pH = 7.4) medium. Reaction of H3L with CuCl2 forms a mononuclear copper(ii) [Cu(Cl)(H2L)(H2O)] (H2L-Cu(2+)) complex which is characterized by conventional techniques and quantum chemical calculations. Electronic absorption and fluorescence titration studies of H3L with different metal cations show a distinctive recognition only towards Cu(2+) ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting ions such as Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+). Moreover, H2L-Cu(2+) acts as a metal based highly selective and sensitive chemosensor for S(2-) ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SO4(2-), SCN(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), PO4(3-), NO3(-), ClO4(-), NO2(-), HSO4(-), HSO4(2-), S2O3(2-), S2O8(2-), CN(-), CO3(2-) and HCO3(-) in DMF/0.02 M HEPES (1 : 1, v/v, pH = 7.4) medium. Quantification analysis indicates that these receptors, H3L and H2L-Cu(2+), can detect the presence of Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions at very low concentrations of 1.6 × 10(-9) M and 5.2 × 10(-6) M, respectively. The propensity of H3L as a bio-imaging fluorescent probe for detection of Cu(2+) ions and sequential detection of S(2-) ions by H2L-Cu(2+) in Dalton lymphoma (DL) cancer cells is also shown.

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study of some new methoxylated 2-benzylthio-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones as nonclassical antifolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Shahenda M; Hassan, Ghada S; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Habib, El-Sayed E; Al-Rashood, Sarah T; El-Subbagh, Hussein I

    2016-10-01

    A new series of 2,3,6-substituted-quinazolin-4-ones was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro DHFR inhibition, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Compounds 28 and 61 proved to be active DHFR inhibitors with IC50 0.02 and 0.01μM, respectively. Molecular modeling studies concluded that recognition with the key amino acid Phe34 is essential for binding and hence DHFR inhibition. Compounds 34, 56 and 66 showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity comparable to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. Compounds 40 and 64 showed broad spectrum antitumor activity toward several tumor cell lines and proved to be 10 fold more active than 5-FU, with GI50 MG-MID values of 2.2 and 2.4μM, respectively.

  19. A new 2-(2‧-hydroxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one derived acylhydrazone for fluorescence recognition of Al3 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Ding, Shuangli; Zhong, Keli; Hou, Shuhua; Bian, Yanjiang; Yan, Xiaomei

    2017-03-01

    A new 2-(2‧-hydroxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one derived acylhydrazone (QP) was designed and synthesized as a fluorescent sensor. In Tris • HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4)/ethanol (1/9, v/v) solution, QP exhibits a highly selective fluorescence response to Al3 + over other metal ions with a significant blue-shifted and enhanced emission at 473 nm. QP interacts with Al3 + reversibly through a 1:2 binding ratio with a detection limit of 4.79 × 10- 8 M. Potential applicability of QP for Al3 + detection in tap and lake water samples were also examined by 'proof-of-concept' experiments.

  20. Synthesis of Bioactive 2-(Arylaminothiazolo[5,4-f]-quinazolin-9-ones via the Hügershoff Reaction or Cu- Catalyzed Intramolecular C-S Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hédou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A library of thirty eight novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolin-9(8H-one derivatives (series 8, 10, 14 and 17 was prepared via the Hügershoff reaction and a Cu catalyzed intramolecular C-S bond formation, helped by microwave-assisted technology when required. The efficient multistep synthesis of the key 6-amino-3-cyclopropylquinazolin-4(3H-one (3 has been reinvestigated and performed on a multigram scale from the starting 5-nitroanthranilic acid. The inhibitory potency of the final products was evaluated against five kinases involved in Alzheimer’s disease and showed that some molecules of the 17 series described in this paper are particularly promising for the development of novel multi-target inhibitors of kinases.

  1. Novel 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3Hone-6-sulphonic acidbased mono azo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIVYESH R. PATEL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of new heterocyclic mono azo reactive dyes 7a–m were prepared by diazotization of 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3H-one-6-sulphonic acid (3 and coupling with various cyanurated coupling components 6a–m and their dyeing performance on silk, wool and cotton fibres was assessed. These dyes were found to give a variety of colour shades with very good depth and levelness on the fibres. All the compounds were identified by conventional method (IR and 1H-NMR and elemental analyses. The percentage dye bath exhaustion on different fibres was reasonably good and acceptable. The dyed fibre showed moderate to very good fastness to light, washing and rubbing.

  2. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  3. 3-[Benzimidazo- and 3-[benzothiadiazoleimidazo-(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-ones as potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuarm, B Suresh; Reddy, Y Thirupathi; Madhav, J Venu; Crooks, Peter A; Rajitha, B

    2011-01-01

    A series of 3-[benzimidazo(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-one (6a-6f) and 3-[benzothiadiazole- imidazo(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-one derivatives (7a-7f) that incorporate a variety of substituents at the 6- and/or 8-positions of the coumarin moieties have been synthesized utilizing cellulose sulfuric acid as an efficient catalyst under both conventional heating and microwave irradiation procedures. These analogs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative bacteria), and Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus flavus (Fungi). Two analogs, 6c (a 6,8-dichloro analog, MIC([SA]) = 2.5 μg/mL; MIC([ST]) = 2.5 μg/mL) and 7d (a 6,8-dibromo analog, MIC([ST]) = 2.5 μg/mL) were identified as potent antibacterial agents, and two analogs, 6b (a 6-bromo analog, MIC([AF]) = 10 μg/mL) and 6d (a 6,8-dibromo analog, MIC([AF]) = 15 μg/mL; MIC([CA]) = 15μg/mL), were identified as potent antifungal agents. Based on the MIC data, analogs 6b, 6c, 6d, and 7d were identified as the most potent antimicrobial agents in the series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking study on multi-acting quinazoline derivatives as HER2 kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Sako; Monajjemi, Majid; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Fathi, Fardin; Jamalan, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    A series of new quinazoline derivatives has been recently reported as potent multi-acting histone deacetylase (HDAC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors. HER2 is one of the major targets for the treatment of breast cancer and other carcinomas. Three-dimensional structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) is a well-known technique, which is used to drug design and development. This technique is used for quantitatively predicting the interaction between a molecule and the active site of a specific target. For each 3D-QSAR study, a three-dimensional model is created from a large curve fit to find a fitting between computational descriptors and biological activity. This model could be used as a predictive tool in drug design. The best model has the highest correlation between theoretical and experimental data. Self-Organizing Molecular Field Analysis (SOMFA), a grid-based and alignment-dependent 3D-QSAR method, is employed to study the correlation between the molecular properties and HER2 inhibitory potency of the quinazoline derivatives. Before presentation of inhibitor structures to SOMFA study, conformation of inhibitors was determined by AutoDock4, HyperChem and AutoDock Vina, separately. Overall, six independent models were produced and evaluated by the statistical partial least square (PLS) analysis. Among the several generated 3D-QSARs, the best model was selected on the basis of its statistical significance and predictive potential. The model derived from the superposition of docked conformation with AutoDock Vina with reasonable cross-validated q(2) (0.767), non cross-validated r(2) (0.815) and F-test (97.22) values showed a desirable predictive capability. Analysis of SOMFA model could provide some useful information in the design of novel HER2 kinase inhibitors with better spectrum of activity.

  5. Regioselective Multi-component Synthesis of 7-Aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-diones Catalyzed by n-Propylsulfonated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weilin; Tian, Shuanbao; Wu, Liqiang [Xinxiang Medical Univ., Xinxiang (China)

    2013-09-15

    We have developed a straightforward method for the synthesis of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b] quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives by nano n-propylsulfonated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyzed three-component reaction of aldehyde, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. A series of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives have been synthesized in excellent yield (85-96%). The catalyst can be recycled up to six cycles without much decrease in catalytic activity. Environment friendly catalyst, high regioselectivity and good yield are the advantages of the method. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on synthesis of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives. We are evaluating anticancer activity of 4, which will be published elsewhere. Naphthoquinones constitute a major class of naturally occurring compounds, and interests in their chemistry continues unabated because of their wide range of biological and therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiviral, and anticancer activity.

  6. SiO2-NaHSO4as an Efficient Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of Octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones in Water%SiO2-NaHSO4 as an Efficient Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of Octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeq Hamood Saleh AZZAM; Aisha SIDDEKHA; Aatika NIZAM; Mohamed Afzal PASHA

    2012-01-01

    An environmentally benign method for the synthesis of octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones by the reaction of aromatic aldehydes,dimedone,and urea in the presence of SiO2-NaHSO4 is reported.SiO2-NaHSO4 acts as an efficient,mild,and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst to give excellent yields within a short reaction time in water at 60-80 ℃.

  7. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-02-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.

  8. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  9. Design, synthesis, anti-tumor activity, and molecular modeling of quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ju; Wan, Shanhe; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Zhonghuang; Tian, Yuanxin; Yu, Yonghuan; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jiajie

    2016-08-08

    Three series of novel quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase and a panel of five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549, BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231). Bioassay results indicated that five of these prepared compounds (12c-12e and 13c-13d) exhibited remarkably higher inhibitory activities against EGFR and SK-BR-3 cell line. Compounds 12c and 12e displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.97 nM and 3.58 nM, respectively) and good anti-proliferative effect against SK-BR-3 cell with the IC50 values of 3.10 μM and 5.87 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies verified that compound 12c and 12e shared similar binding pattern with gefitinib in the binding pocket of EGFR. MM-GBSA binding free energy revealed that the compound 12c and 12e have almost the same inhibitory activity against EGFR as gefitinib, and that the dominating effect of van der Waals interactions drives the binding process.

  10. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed F; Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; El-Adl, Khaled; Asiri, Ahmed M; Omar, Abdelsattar M

    2017-01-24

    Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a-j) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN). The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  11. Design, synthesis, molecular docking and anticonvulsant evaluation of novel 6-iodo-2-phenyl-3-substituted-quinazolin-4(3H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Kamal Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 6-iodo-2-phenyl-3-substituted-quinazolin-4(3H-one (5–12a–b derivatives were synthesized, evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and maximal electroshock test and compared with the reference drugs phenobarbital sodium and methaqualone. The neurotoxicity was assessed using rotarod test. The molecular docking was performed for all the synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling were correlated with those obtained from the biological screening. Compounds 9a, 9b, 12a and 7a showed the highest anticonvulsant activities of this series with relatively low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test when compared with the reference drugs. The obtained results proved that the most active compounds could be a useful model for future design, adaptation and investigation to construct more active analogs.

  12. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  13. Block TERM factorization of block matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei

    2004-01-01

    Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.

  14. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  15. 3-(Dipropylamino)-5-hydroxybenzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-one (DPA-HBFQ-1) plays an inhibitory role on breast cancer cell growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Pietro; Pellegrino, Michele; Caruso, Anna; Iacopetta, Domenico; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Rault, Sylvain; Lancelot, Jean Charles; El-Kashef, Hussein; Lesnard, Aurelien; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Saturnino, Carmela; Giordano, Francesca; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    A series of unknown 3-(alkyl(dialkyl)amino)benzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-ones 4-17 has been synthesized as new ellipticine analogs, in which the carbazole moiety and the pyridine ring were replaced by a dibenzofuran residue and a pyrimidine ring, respectively. The synthesis of these benzofuroquinazolinones 4-17 was performed in a simple one-pot reaction using 3-aminodibenzofuran or its 2-methoxy derivative, as starting materials. From 3-(dipropylamino)-5-methoxybenzofuro[2,3-f] quinazolin-1(2H)-one (13), we prepared 3-(dipropylamino)-5-hydroxybenzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-one (18), referred to as DPA-HBFQ-1. The cytotoxic activities of all the synthesized compounds, tested in different human breast cancer cell lines, revealed that DPA-HBFQ-1 was the most active compound. In particular, the latter was able to inhibit anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and to induce apoptosis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive and -negative breast cancer cells. It did not affect proliferation and apoptotic responses in MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells. The observed effects have been ascribed to an enhanced p21(Cip1/WAF1) expression in a p53-dependent manner of tumor suppressor and to a selective inhibition of human topoisomerase II. In addition, DPA-HBFQ-1 exerted growth inhibitory effects also in other cancer cell lines, even though with a lower cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate DPA-HBFQ-1 as a good candidate to be useful as cancer therapeutic agent, particularly for breast cancer.

  16. NMS-P937, a 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivative as potent and selective Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, Italo; Bossi, Roberto T; Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Caruso, Michele; Ceccarelli, Walter; Fachin, Gabriele; Fasolini, Marina; Forte, Barbara; Fiorentini, Francesco; Pesenti, Enrico; Pezzetta, Daniele; Posteri, Helena; Scolaro, Alessandra; Re Depaolini, Stefania; Valsasina, Barbara

    2011-05-15

    As part of our drug discovery effort, we identified and developed 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as PLK1 inhibitors. We now report the optimization of this class that led to the identification of NMS-P937, a potent, selective and orally available PLK1 inhibitor. Also, in order to understand the source of PLK1 selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PLK1 with NMS-P937. The compound was active in vivo in HCT116 xenograft model after oral administration and is presently in Phase I clinical trials evaluation.

  17. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate.

  18. Design of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands in quinuclidine, tropane and quinazoline series. Chemistry, molecular modeling, radiochemistry, in vitro and in rats evaluations of a [(18)F] quinuclidine derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Frédéric; Vercouillie, Johnny; Ouach, Aziz; Mavel, Sylvie; Gulhan, Zuhal; Chicheri, Gabrielle; Jarry, Christian; Massip, Stephane; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Guilloteau, Denis; Suzenet, Franck; Chalon, Sylvie; Routier, Sylvain

    2014-07-23

    In this report, we describe the synthesis of a novel library of α7 nAChR ligands based on the modulation of the quinuclidine, quinazoline and tropane moieties. Spirane derivatives were newly synthesized under stereo specific 1,3 dipolar cylcoadditions. Only amide derivatives bonded efficiently to the receptor with Ki measured between 14 and 133 nM. The best fluorinated candidate was selected and radiolabeled. The potent [(18)F]4 PET tracer was evaluated in rats and its brain accumulation quantified.

  19. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blocked Urethral Valves Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra, which in boys passes through the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in ...

  20. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  1. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  2. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  3. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  4. Synthesis and biological investigation of 2,4-substituted quinazolines as highly potent inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Michael K; Gallus, Jennifer; Wiese, Michael

    2017-08-10

    Expression of ABCG2, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, has been correlated to the clinical outcome of multiple cancers and is often associated with the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapy. Inhibition of the transport protein by potent and selective inhibitors might be a way to treat cancer more efficiently and improve the therapy of cancer patients. Recently we reported the synthesis of new inhibitors based on a quinazoline scaffold. In the present study more structural variations were explored. Compounds with 3,4-dimethoxy groups and meta or para nitro substituents were found to be highly potent inhibitors of ABCG2. The most potent compound was more than five-fold more potent than Ko143, one of the best inhibitors of ABCG2. To determine the new compounds selectivity toward ABCG2 their inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC1 were also investigated identifying selective as well as broadspectrum inhibitors. Furthermore, intrinsic cytotoxicity and efficacy regarding the reversal of multidrug resistance toward SN-38 and mitoxantrone were explored. The most potent compounds were able to reverse the resistance toward the cytostatic agents with EC50 values below 20 nM. Additionally, the type of interaction between inhibitors and the ABCG2 substrate Hoechst 33342 was investigated yielding competitive and non-competitive interactions suggesting different modes of binding. Finally the effect of the derivatives on vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of ABCG2 was determined. According to the different effects on ATPase activity we conclude the existence of different binding sites. This study provides the structural requirements for high potency inhibition and elucidates the interaction with ABCG2 setting the basis for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D-QSAR Study of 7,8-Dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f]Quinazolines with Anticancer Activity as DHFR Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-can Chen; Lan-mei Chen; Si-yan Liao; Li Qian; Kang-cheng Zheng

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of a series of 7,8-dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinazolines with anticancer activity as dihydrofo-late reductase (DHFR) inhibitors was carried out by using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), on the basis of our reported 2D-QSAR of these compounds. The es-tablished 3D-QSAR model has good quality of statistics and good prediction ability; the non cross-validation correlation coefficient and the cross-validation value of this model are 0.993 and 0.619, respectively, the F value is 193.4, and the standard deviation SD is 0.208. This model indicates that the steric field factor plays a much more important role than the electrostatic one, in satisfying agreement with the published 2D-QSAR model. However, the 3D-QSAR model offers visual imagcs of the steric field and the electrostatic field. The 3D-QSAR study further suggests the following: to improve the activity, the substituent R' should be selected to be a group with an adaptive bulk like Et or i-Pr, and the substituent R should be sclected to be a larger alkyl. In particular, based on our present 3D-QSAR as well as the published 2D-QSAR, the experimentally-proposed hydrophobic binding mechanism on the receptor-binding site of the DHFR can be further explained in theory. Therefore, the QSAR studies help to further understand the "hydrophobic binding" action mechanism of this kind of compounds, and to direct the molecular design of new drugs with higher activity.

  6. Structural Exploration of Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as Anticonvulsants: Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugale, Vinod G; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-11-01

    Anticonvulsants effective against multiple seizures are of wide interest as antiepileptic drugs, especially if active against pharmaco-resistant seizures. Herein, we synthesized 16 different, rationally designed 2-((6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)amino)-N-(substituted phenyl)acetamides and screened for anticonvulsant activities through in vivo experiments. Compound 4d emerged as prototype with excellent anti-seizure action in mice against electroshock, chemically induced and pharmaco-resistant 6-Hz seizure models with no symptoms of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity (ED50  = 23.5 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 32.6 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 45.2 mg/kg, 6-Hz, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 325.9 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). In addition, investigation of compound 4l in mice for its pharmacological profile proved it as safer anticonvulsant, devoid of the side effects such as motor dysfunction and hepatotoxicity of classical antiepileptic drugs (ED50  = 26.1 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 79.4 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 361.2 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). We also predicted physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of structurally optimized quinazolin-4(3H)-ones by a computational protocol. A combination of in vivo anticonvulsant profile, ex vivo toxicity, and in silico studies suggested that the synthesized compounds may be useful as broad-spectrum anti-seizure drug candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anti-arthritis effect of a novel quinazoline derivative through inhibiting production of TNF-α mediated by TNF-α converting enzyme in murine collagen-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yuzhi; Cao, Dong; Xie, Caifeng; Pei, Heying; Li, Dan; Tang, Minghai; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-07-10

    TNF-α is a dominant inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. In our research, we discovered 2-chloro-N-(4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)quinazolin-4-amine (9c) exhibited an outstanding anti-inflammatory activity on inhibiting TNF-α production with an IC50 of 8.86 μM in RAW264.7 cells. Interestingly, 9c had no effect on mRNA level of TNF-α but up-regulated the precursor of TNF-α (pro-TNF-α). Then, we studied TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), which is the most important proteases responsible for the release of TNF-α from pro-TNF-α to soluble TNF-α. The results showed 9c reduced TACE both on the levels of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo study, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were treated by 9c orally. 9c exhibited significant anti-arthritis effect by ameliorating arthritic score, reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, protecting joints from destruction and decreasing the production of systemic TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. The underlying mechanism of 9c on CIA was coincided with the in vitro, which was mediated by TACE. In conclusion, we discovered a novel quinazoline derivative which ameliorates arthritis through inhibiting production of TNF-α mediated by TACE for the first time.

  8. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  9. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  10. Using the Stern Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  11. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  12. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  13. Recipient block TMA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlacher, Martina; Simon, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    New high-throughput screening technologies have led to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. One way to prioritize the leads obtained in such studies is to analyze a large number of tissues for candidate gene expression. The TMA methodology is now an established and frequently used tool for high-throughput tissue analysis. The recipient block technology is the "classical" method of TMA making. In this method, minute cylindrical tissue punches typically measuring 0.6 mm in diameter are removed from donor tissue blocks and are transferred into empty "recipient" paraffin blocks. Up to 1,000 different tissues can be analyzed in one TMA block. The equipment is affordable and easy to use in places where basic skills in histology are available.

  14. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  15. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...... by an analytic and systematic approach that allows insight to the techniques. Moreover a new procedure of generating and applying probabilistic equations in algebraic attacks on block cipher is proposed and examined. Also, we present practical results, which to our knowledge are the best algebraic results...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  16. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  17. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 547.302 Section 547.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201...

  18. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  19. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  20. TWIN BLOCK (Studi Pustaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Lamtiur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Young patients with class II skeletal malocclusion are often found. To avoid further discrepancy of this case, myofunctional therapy is one of the options. Functional appliance often used for such treatment. Functional appliance has been modified since activator was introduced by Andresen. With its bulky shape, activator makes difficulty for patient to speak and eat. Patient unable to wear it full time due to uncomfortness and negative facial appearance. In 1977, Clark developed twin block to overcome the weakness of previous appliances. A more simple design allows patient to be more comfortable and willing to wear it longer. Twin block is myofunctional appliance to reposition the mandible forward for skeletal class II correction with retruded mandible. This paper describes the design, clinical management effects of twin block treatment and brief case presentation using twin block appliance. Similar to the study reports found, this case revealed improvement of facial appearance, decrease overjet and overbite, improvement of molar relationship and good compliance of patient.

  1. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  2. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  3. The effect of the [{sup 18}F]-PEG group on tracer qualification of [4-(phenylamino)-quinazoline-6-YL]-amide moiety-An EGFR putative irreversible inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissoki, Samar [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Aviv, Yoel [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laky, Desideriu [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Abourbeh, Galith [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levitzki, Alexander [Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mishani, Eyal [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)], E-mail: mishani@md.huji.ac.il

    2007-10-15

    Previous reports have designated the labeled derivatives of [4-(phenylamino)-quinazoline-6-yl]-amide group as the most promising EGFR-PET imaging agent candidates. To further improve tracer qualifications and increase stability and solubility, additional derivatives of this group substituted at the 7-position with various lengths of fluoro-polyethyleneglycol (F-PEG) chains were synthesized. These novel derivatives inhibited EGFR autophosphorylation with IC{sub 50} values of 5-40 nM. The compounds were successfully labeled with fluorine-18 at the PEG chain via a three-step radiosynthesis route. The labeled final products were obtained with a 13-32% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity, and high specific activity.

  4. Synthesis and analgesic profile of conformationally constrained N-acylhydrazone analogues: discovery of novel N-arylideneamino quinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds derived from natural safrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Rodolfo C; Silva, Leandro L; Mazzeu, Eduardo F; Fumian, Milla M; de Rezende, Claudia M; Doriguetto, Antonio C; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour

    2009-09-15

    In this work we reported the synthesis and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and platelet anti-aggregating properties of new 3-(arylideneamino)-2-methyl-6,7-methylenedioxy-quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives (3a-j), designed as conformationally constrained analogues of analgesic 1,3-benzodioxolyl-N-acylhydrazones (1) previously developed at LASSBio. Target compounds were synthesized in very good yields exploiting abundant Brazilian natural product safrole (2) as starting material. The pharmacological assays lead us to identify compounds LASSBio-1240 (3b) and LASSBio-1272 (3d) as new analgesic prototypes, presenting an antinociceptive profile more potent and effective than dipyrone and indomethacin used, respectively, as standards in AcOH-induced abdominal constrictions assay and in the formalin test. These results confirmed the success in the exploitation of conformation restriction strategy for identification of novel cyclic N-acylhydrazone analogues with optimized analgesic profile.

  5. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  6. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  7. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  8. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  9. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  10. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  11. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  12. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  13. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  14. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  15. Properties of blocked linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  16. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  17. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  18. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  19. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  20. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  1. Rotating ice blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  2. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  3. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  4. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  5. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  6. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  7. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  8. Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Walters, Matthew T; Wang, Junpu

    2015-01-01

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the $t$-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$...

  9. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  10. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  11. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  12. The Effectiveness of Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Sharon Lightle; Horvath, Robert Jeffery

    This report describes a program for the exploration of block scheduling. The targeted population consists of high school students in a growing, middle-class community, located in a suburban setting of a large mid-western city. The historical background of block scheduling is documented through data gathered using attendance reports, student…

  13. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  14. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  15. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  16. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...

  17. La(III) complex involving the O,N-donor environment of quinazoline-4(3H)-one Schiff’s base and their antimicrobial attributes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, K.; Mane, Sunilkumar B.; Manikprabhu, Deene

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased during the past few decades, so there is an urgent need of new antimicrobial agents if public health is concerned. Though the Schiff’s bases and La(III) complex have enormous biological activity, but less attention was given in their synthesis. In the present investigation, we synthesized a new (E)-3-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methyleneamino)-2-methylquinazoline-4(3H)-one HNMAMQ Schiff’s base by the condensation of 3-(2-aminophenyl) quinazolin-2-methyl-4(3H)-one and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, mass spectra, and thermal studies. The newly synthesized Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the Gulbarga region in India. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex showed good antimicrobial activity and thus represents a potential new drug of choice.

  18. 10-Dimethylamino Derivatives of Benzo[h]quinoline and Benzo[h]quinazolines: Fluorescent Proton Sponge Analogues with Opposed peri-NMe2/-N═ Groups. How to Distinguish between Proton Sponges and Pseudo-Proton Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Mikshiev, Vladimir Y; Antonov, Alexander S; Chernyshev, Anatoly V; Metelitsa, Anatoly V; Borodkin, Gennady S; Fedik, Nikita S; Dyablo, Olga V

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, 10-dimethylamino derivatives of benzo[h]quinoline 6 and benzo[h]quinazoline 7a-e as mixed analogues of archetypal 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene ("proton sponge") 1 and quino[7,8-h]quinoline 2a have been examined. Similar to 1 and 2, compounds 6 and 7 display rather high basicity, forming chelated monocations. At the same time, unexpected specifics of the protonated NMe2/-N═ systems consist of a strong shift of the NH proton to the 10-NMe2 group, contrary to the "aniline-pyridine" basicity rule. In case of 4H(+), a rapid migration (in the NMR time scale) of the NH proton between two nitrogen atoms along the N-H···N hydrogen bond was registered at room temperature and frozen below -30 °C with the proton fixed on the NMe2 group. Two different approaches for classification of strong neutral nitrogen organic bases as proton sponges (kinetically inert compounds) or pseudo-proton sponges (kinetically active) are discussed. On this basis, benzoquinoline 6 was identified as staying closer to pseudo-proton sponges while 7a-e to proton sponges due to the presence in their molecules of bulky substituents in the pyrimidine ring. Other remarkable peculiarities of 6 and 7 are their yellow color and luminescence in the visible region distinguishing them from colorless 1 and 2a.

  19. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  20. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  1. An Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Procedure for the Synthesis of Some Novel 8-Benzylidene-4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-quinazolin-2-ones/thiones using Tetrabutylammonium Hexatungstate as a Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghashang, Majid [Islamic Azad Univ., Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoor, Syed Sheik; Aswin, Krishnamoorthy [Research Department of Chemistry, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-15

    An efficient method for the preparation of 8-benzylidene-4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-quinazolin-2-ones/thiones from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with cyclohexanone and urea or thiourea in the presence of Tetrabutylammonium hexatungstate, [TBA]{sub 2}[W{sub 6}O{sub 19}], as an efficient, inexpensive catalyst under thermal and solvent-free conditions has been developed. Good yields, short reaction times, straightforward workup, reusability of the catalyst, and green conditions are the most obvious advantages of this procedure.

  2. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  3. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  6. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment resources...

  7. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...

  8. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  9. [Superior gluteal nerve: a new block on the block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Miguel; Graça, Rita; Reis, Hugo; Cardoso, José Miguel; Sampaio, José; Pinheiro, Célia; Machado, Duarte

    2017-05-24

    The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. Taking into consideration the surgical approach chosen by the orthopedic team, we set to use a combination of general anesthesia and superficial peripheral nerve blocks (femoral, lateral cutaneous of thigh and superior gluteal nerve) for the procedure. A month and a half post-discharge the patient was re-admitted for debriding and correction of suture dehiscence; we performed the same blocks and light sedation. She remained comfortable in both cases, and reported no pain in the post-operative period. Deep understanding of anatomy and innervation empowers anesthesiologists to solve potentially complex cases with safer, albeit creative, approaches. The relevance of this block in this case arises from its innervation of the gluteus medius muscle and posterolateral portion of the hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided superior gluteal nerve block with an analgesic and anesthetic goal, which was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  11. Synthesis, physical-chemical and biological properties of 1.8-disubstituted of theobromine. V. 8-Benzylidenhydrazino-1-p-methylbenzyltheobromines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ivanchenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of searching biologically active compounds amidst xanthine derivatives is a crucial one and is an issue for long-term investigation. Aim. In order to find new biologically active compounds among xanthine derivatives, undescribed earlier 8-benzylidenhydrazino-1-p-methylbenzyltheobromines have been synthesized. Methods and results. Reaction of 1-p-methylbenzyl-8-bromoxanthine with the excess of hydrazine hydrate in the aqueous dioxane is implemented through formation of 8-hydrazine-1(4-methylbenzyltheobromine. Through the interaction of 8-hydrazinetheobromine with aldehydes in aqueous propan-2-ol respective 8-benzylidenhydrazino-1-p-methylbenzyltheobromines have been obtained. Structure of synthesized compounds has been definitely proved by NMR-spectroscopy. Conclusions. Molecular and pharmacological descriptors of obtained substances have been calculated. The antioxidant activity of the obtained compounds has been explored. Priorities for further search of biologically active compounds in a range of xanthine derivatives have been set out.

  12. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  13. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  14. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  15. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  16. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  17. A conformal block Farey tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Alexander; Maxfield, Henry; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2, Z ) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2, Z ). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2, Z ) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2, Z ) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the correlation function of certain heavy operators, where we compute holographically the semi-classical conformal block with a heavy internal operator.

  18. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...

  19. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  20. Architectures for block Toeplitz systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouras, Ilias; Glentis, George-Othon; Kalouptsidis, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    In this paper efficient VLSI architectures of highly concurrent algorithms for the solution of block linear systems with Toeplitz or near-to-Toeplitz entries are presented. The main features of the proposed scheme are the use of scalar only operations, multiplications/divisions and additions, and th

  1. Enduring and Diagnosing Reader's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Lisa Stapleton

    1990-01-01

    Describes a condition called "reader's block" whereby the mind fails to comprehend the meaning of the text because of digressing thoughts. Suggests that "freereading," like freewriting, can help to clarify thoughts. Argues that it is not necessary to read things correctly the first time through. (PRA)

  2. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...

  3. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  4. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  5. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  6. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  7. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  8. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  9. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  10. Graphs obtained from collections of blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Magnant

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a collection of $d$-dimensional rectangular solids called blocks, no two of which sharing interior points, construct a block graph by adding a vertex for each block and an edge if the faces of the two corresponding blocks intersect nontrivially.  It is known that if $d \\geq 3$, such block graphs can have arbitrarily large chromatic number.  We prove that the chromatic number can be bounded with only a mild restriction on the sizes of the blocks.  We also show that block graphs of block configurations arising from partitions of $d$-dimensional hypercubes into sub-hypercubes are at least $d$-connected.  Bounds on the diameter and the hamiltonicity of such block graphs are also discussed.

  11. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  12. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  13. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster of...

  14. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  15. Slickenside developed in chert block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, J.; Hayasaka, Y.; Nishiwaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We observe the microstructures of slickenside developed in chert block mainly with a TEM, in order to clarify generation mechanism of the slickenside. This chert block occurs in the Jurassic accretionary complex in eastern Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The complex, chaotic sediment, is composed of allochthonous blocks, mainly of chert, limestone, sandstone and mudstone in the argillaceous matrix. The color of the undeformed chert is pale blue to white, while the surface of slickenside is black. The stereo microscopy indicates the top surface of slickenside is covered with a transparent material, whose composition is mainly Si, measured by EPMA. The striation is well developed on the transparent-Si-material. We made thin sections, parallel and perpendicular to striation and slickenside, respectively. On the thin sections, the elongated quartz grains are oriented obliquely to the slickenside with 20-30 degree. Many fluid inclusions, which represent healed microcracks, are observed within the quartz grains. These quartz grains show strong undulose extinction and bulging-recrystallization. Apatite grains are also observed as a main constituent mineral. We made TEM foils from the above thin section by FIB. TEM observation indicates the amorphous layer with several ten nanometers in width distributes along the slickenside. (We speculate the most part of the amorphous layer are taken away during polishing of the thin section, because the strength of the amorphous layer is weak. Therefore we now make thin section again with care.) The tangled dislocations are developed within the quartz grains. They make subgrains with ca. 1 micrometer in size. These results suggest the slickenside was generated by the frictional melting of quartz grains on slip plane under very high stress condition, same as pseudotachylyte.

  16. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  17. Writer's block in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sy-Ying; Krashen, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    To assess whether writer's block occurs in languages other than English, a Chinese language translation of Rose's Writer's Block questionnaire was administered to 98 university students in Taiwan. Analysis suggests that writer's block occurs for Chinese students, and, as in English, it is related to premature editing and to a lack of strategies for dealing with complex writing tasks.

  18. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block leng...

  19. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block length...

  20. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  1. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...... and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. RESULTS: The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...

  2. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  3. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  4. System Synthesis for Networks of Programmable Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mannion, Ryan; Cotterell, Susan; Vahid, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The advent of sensor networks presents untapped opportunities for synthesis. We examine the problem of synthesis of behavioral specifications into networks of programmable sensor blocks. The particular behavioral specification we consider is an intuitive user-created network diagram of sensor blocks, each block having a pre-defined combinational or sequential behavior. We synthesize this specification to a new network that utilizes a minimum number of programmable blocks in place of the pre-defined blocks, thus reducing network size and hence network cost and power. We focus on the main task of this synthesis problem, namely partitioning pre-defined blocks onto a minimum number of programmable blocks, introducing the efficient but effective PareDown decomposition algorithm for the task. We describe the synthesis and simulation tools we developed. We provide results showing excellent network size reductions through such synthesis, and significant speedups of our algorithm over exhaustive search while obtaining...

  5. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  6. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  7. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...outputs have the same value as in the previous step, but they are still transmitted to downstream blocks. In this paper we present an implementation...optimizations that apply to general Triggered SBDs, we also present further optimizations for the case of Timed SBDs. 1.1 Motivating Examples Fig. 1

  8. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  9. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  10. A New Relationship between Block Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shramchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure of constructing new block designs starting from a given one by looking at the intersections of its blocks with various sets and grouping those sets according to the structure of the intersections. We introduce a symmetric relationship of friendship between block designs built on a set V and consider families of block designs where all designs are friends of each other, the so-called friendly families. We show that a friendly family admits a partial ordering. Furthermore, we exhibit a map from the power set of V, partially ordered by inclusion, to a friendly family of a particular type which preserves the partial order.

  11. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  12. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  13. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... these methods can be extended to a network of data blocks. Examples of the optimisation procedures in a network are shown. The examples chosen are the ones that are useful to work within industrial production environments. The methods are illustrated by simulated data and data from cement production....

  14. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  15. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  16. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  17. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  18. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  19. Block co-polypeptide and hydrogels made thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de F.A.; Werten, M.W.T.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Eggink, G.

    2009-01-01

    Disclosed is a block co-polypeptide comprising at least two blocks T and at least one block S, with blocks T and S alternating, wherein each T independently denotes a Trimerizing Block being a polypeptide block capable of forming a thermoreversible collagen-like triple helix structure, and

  20. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  1. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  2. Block-based image hashing with restricted blocking strategy for rotational robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shijun; Yang, Jianquan

    2012-12-01

    Image hashing is a potential solution for image content authentication (a desired image hashing algorithm should be robust to common image processing operations and various geometric distortions). In the literature, researchers pay more attention to block-based image hashing algorithms due to their robustness to common image processing operations (such as lossy compression, low-pass filtering, and additive noise). However, the block-based hashing strategies are sensitive to rotation processing operations. This indicates that the robustness of the block-based hashing methods against rotation operations is an important issue. Towards this direction, in this article we propose a restricted blocking strategy by investigating effect of two rotation operations on an image and its blocks in both theoretical and experimental ways. Furthermore, we apply the proposed blocking strategy for the recently reported non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) hashing. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the block-based hashing algorithms with restricted blocking strategy for rotation operations.

  3. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  4. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  5. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  6. Haplotype block structure is conserved across mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, Victor; Smits, Bart M G; van de Belt, Jose; Verheul, Mark; Hubner, Norbert; Cuppen, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation in genomes is organized in haplotype blocks, and species-specific block structure is defined by differential contribution of population history effects in combination with mutation and recombination events. Haplotype maps characterize the common patterns of linkage disequilibrium i

  7. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes...

  8. Content Analysis of Block Play Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Annabel

    This study examined research on children's block play, using content analysis to review 75 documents that focused on such play. Each document was coded by type (empirical study or nonempirical article) and by 15 topics and 76 subtopics grouped into 4 broad categories: (1) environment/ecology; (2) block play and the school curriculum; (3) block…

  9. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  10. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  11. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for W

  12. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  13. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for

  14. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  15. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  16. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  17. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  18. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of neck hematoma and block salvage after failed neurostimulation-guided interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Unger, M W Todd; Colson, James D; Serafini, Mario

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthetic techniques have shown some advantages over conventional paresthesia and neurostimulation techniques. We report the case of a neurostimulation-guided continuous interscalene block that would have ended in complication were it not for experience with ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Familiarity with ultrasound-guided block techniques permitted assessment of a neck hematoma during interscalene block and ultimately allowed successful peripheral nerve block.

  20. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing sulfonated units were prepared by blending styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS), with both sulfonated PS and sulfonated SEBS in a Brabender mixer. Such a procedure was performed as an alter...

  1. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  3. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  4. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  5. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...... pain. Only comparison studies were included. All data from the eligible trials were analyzed using the GRADE system. Twenty-seven controlled studies were considered. CPB, regardless of the technique used, improved analgesia and/or decrease opioid consumption, and decreased opioid-induced adverse...... effects in comparison with a conventional analgesic treatment. In one study patients treated with superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) had a decrease in pain intensity and a less morphine consumption, while no statistical differences in adverse effects were found. The quality of these studies...

  6. A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.

  7. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  8. Development of Alkali Activated Geopolymer Masonry Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    Cement masonry units are not considered as sustainable since their production involves consumption of fuel, cement and natural resources and therefore it is essential to find alternatives. This paper reports on making of geopolymer solid & hollow blocks and masonry prisms using non conventional materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and manufactured sand and curing at ambient temperature. They were tested for water absorption, initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compressive, flexural and bond-strength which were tested for bond strength with and without lateral confinement, modulus of elasticity, alternative drying & wetting and masonry efficiency. The properties of geopolymer blocks were found superior to traditional masonry blocks and the masonry efficiency was found to increase with decrease in thickness of cement mortar joints. There was marginal difference in strength between rendered and unrendered geopolymer masonry blocks. The percentage weight gain after 7 cycles was less than 6% and the percentage reduction in strength of geopolymer solid blocks and hollow blocks were 26% and 28% respectively. Since the properties of geopolymer blocks are comparatively better than the traditional masonry they can be strongly recommended for structural masonry.

  9. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  10. Circular block matching based video stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lidong; Fu, Fangwen; Lin, Xinggang

    2005-07-01

    Video sequences captured by handheld digital camera need to be stabilized to eliminate the tiresome effects caused by camera"s undesirable shake or jiggle. The key issue of video stabilization is to estimate the global motion parameters between two successive frames. In this paper, a novel circular block matching algorithm is proposed to estimate the global motion parameters. This algorithm can deal with not only translational motion but even large rotational motion. For an appointed circular block in current frame, a four-dimensional rotation invariant feature vector is firstly extracted from it and used to judge if it is an effective block. Then the rotation invariant features based circular block matching process is performed to find the best matching blocks in reference frame for those effective blocks. With the matching results of any two effective blocks, a two-dimensional motion model is constructed to produce one group of frame motion parameters. A statistical method is proposed to calculate the estimated global motion parameters with all groups of global motion parameters. Finally, using the estimated motion parameters as the initial values, an iteration algorithm is introduced to obtain the refined global motion parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in stabilizing frames with even burst global translational and rotational motions.

  11. Gaussian curvature analysis allows for automatic block placement in multi-block hexahedral meshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Musculoskeletal finite element analysis (FEA) has been essential to research in orthopaedic biomechanics. The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in a FEA. Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme. We hypothesise that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation. The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis and computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information. We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases. This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks.

  12. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, BP; Cohen, CJ; Tsien, RW

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 μM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 μM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 μM, at a depolarized holding pote...

  13. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  14. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  15. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  16. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1....... In group 1 (single injection) the whole volume of mepivacaine was injected after locating only one of the plexus nerves. In group 2 (multiple injections) at least three plexus nerves were located, and the volume of mepivacaine was divided between them. Sensory block was assessed by a blinded observer every...

  17. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayinde Raheem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the production and testing of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks with a view to comparing their physical characteristics and production cost. Some units of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks were made using machine vibrated sandcrete block mould and hydraulic interlocking block making machine respectively. The blocks were tested to determine their density and compressive strength. The results obtained from the tests were compared with the specifications of Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (2006, Nigerian Building Code (2006, and Nigerian Industrial Standards (2000. The results indicated that the compressive strength of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks varies from 1.59 N/mm2 to 4.25 N/mm2 and 1.48N/mm2 to 3.35N/mm2 respectively, as the curing age increases from 7 to 28 days. For laterite interlocking blocks, the strength varies from 1.70N/mm2 at 7 days to 5.03N/mm2 at 28 days. All the blocks produced satisfied the minimum requirements in terms of compressive strength, by all available codes. The cost per square metre of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks are ₦2,808:00 and ₦2,340:00 respectively, while that of laterite interlocking blocks is ₦2,121:20.It was concluded that laterite interlocking blocks have better strength and are cheaper than sandcrete hollow blocks.

  19. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity of 5-Substituted[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolines%5-取代-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3-a]喹唑啉衍生物的合成及抗惊厥活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓先清; 肖春瑞; 魏成喜; 全哲山

    2011-01-01

    A series of 5-substituted-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-α]quinazolines were synthesized. The anticonvulsant effects and neurotoxicity of the compounds were evaluated with maximal electroshock test and rotarod test with intraperitoneally injected in mice. The pharmacology results showed that 5-pentyloxy-[l,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-α]quinazoline (2d) was the most potent with ED50 value of 19.7 mg/kg and protective index (PI= TD50/ED50) value of 6.2. To explain the possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity, compound 2d was tested in several chemical induced seizures tests. The results revealed that compound 2d was effective against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid and thiosemicarba-zide, which suggested that the anticonvulsant effects of this series compounds were acted via increasing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic neurotransmission and activating glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) or inhibiting α-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GABA-T) in the brain.%合成了5-取代-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3-a]喹唑啉衍生物2a~2q.利用最大电惊厥法(MES)和旋转棒法(Rotarod Test),以小鼠腹腔给药,分别测定了其抗惊厥活性和神经毒性.药理实验结果表明,化合物5-正庚氧基-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3 -a]喹唑啉(2d)的抗惊厥活性最强,其半数有效量EDso为19.7 mg/kg,保护指数PI为6.2.由化学物质诱发的抗惊厥实验结果表明,化合物2d能对抗由戊四唑、异烟肼、硫代氨基脲和3-巯基丙酸诱发的惊厥作用,推测其抗惊厥作用是通过增强γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)神经能系统和活化谷氨酸脱羧酶或抑制GABA转氨酶而起抗惊厥作用.

  20. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Portland, OR EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  2. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  3. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Milwaukee, WI EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  5. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    lightweight block ciphers, and thereby try to predict the optimal value of r at which an r-round unrolled architecture for a cipher is likely to be most energy efficient. We also try to relate our results to some physical design parameters like the signal delay across a round and algorithmic parameters like......In the last few years, the field of lightweight cryptography has seen an influx in the number of block ciphers and hash functions being proposed. One of the metrics that define a good lightweight design is the energy consumed per unit operation of the algorithm. For block ciphers, this operation...... is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  6. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  7. Seizure complicating interscalene brachail plexus block | Idehen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seizure complicating interscalene brachail plexus block. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... We describe a case of seizure occurring immediately after completion of ...

  8. Extrinsic germanium Blocked Impurity Bank (BIB) detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabach, Timothy N.; Huffman, James E.; Watson, Dan M.

    1989-01-01

    Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors with long wavelength thresholds greater than 190 microns and peak quantum efficiencies of 4 percent, at an operating temperature of 1.8 K, have been fabricated. These proof of concept devices consist of a high purity germanium blocking layer epitaxially grown on a Ga-doped Ge substrate. This demonstration of BIB behavior in germanium enables the development of far infrared detector arrays similar to the current silicon-based devices. Present efforts are focussed on improving the chemical vapor deposition process used to create the blocking layer and on the lithographic processing required to produce monolithic detector arrays in germanium. Approaches to test the impurity levels in both the blocking and active layers are considered.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Paterson, NJ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  13. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S

    2015-01-01

    retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...

  14. Algorithms for Finding the Inverses of Factor Block Circulant Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms for finding the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix,a factor block retrocirculant matrix and partitioned matrix with factor block circulant blocks over the complex field are presented respectively. In addition, two algorithms for the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix over the quaternion division algebra are proposed.

  15. Adaptive cosine transform image coding with variable block size and constant block distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daut, David G.; Wu, Jia-Chyi

    1996-02-01

    An adaptive discrete cosine transform (DCT) image coding system is implemented with the same average distortion designated for each variable size image block. The variable block size segmentation is performed using a quadtree data structure by dividing the perceptually more important regions of an image into smaller size blocks compared to the size of blocks containing lesser amounts of spatial activity. Due to the nonstationarity of real-world images, each image block is described by a space-varying nonstationary Gauss-Markov random field. The space-varying autoregressive parameters are estimated using an on-line modified least- squares estimator. For each assumed space-varying nonstationary image block, a constant average distortion is assigned and the code rate for each image block is allowed to vary in order to meet the fixed distortion criterion. Simulation results show that reconstructed images coded at low average distortion, based on an assumed space-varying nonstationary image model, using variable size blocks and with variable bit rate per block possess high-quality subjective (visual) and objective (measured) quality at low average bit rates. Performance gains are achieved due to the distortion being distributed more uniformly among the blocks as compared with fixed-rate, stationary image transform coding schemes.

  16. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  17. Permutations with Ascending and Descending Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We investigate permutations in terms of their cycle structure and descent set. To do this, we generalize the classical bijection of Gessel and Reutenauer to deal with permutations that have some ascending and some descending blocks. We then provide the first bijective proofs of some known results. We also solve some problems posed in [3] by Eriksen, Freij, and Wastlund, who study derangements that descend in blocks of prescribed lengths.

  18. deepBlockAlign: a tool for aligning RNA-seq profiles of read block patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Stadler, Peter F.; Hoffmann, Steve; Gorodkin, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing methods allow whole transcriptomes to be sequenced fast and cost-effectively. Short RNA sequencing provides not only quantitative expression data but also an opportunity to identify novel coding and non-coding RNAs. Many long transcripts undergo post-transcriptional processing that generates short RNA sequence fragments. Mapped back to a reference genome, they form distinctive patterns that convey information on both the structure of the parent transcript and the modalities of its processing. The miR-miR* pattern from microRNA precursors is the best-known, but by no means singular, example. Results: deepBlockAlign introduces a two-step approach to align RNA-seq read patterns with the aim of quickly identifying RNAs that share similar processing footprints. Overlapping mapped reads are first merged to blocks and then closely spaced blocks are combined to block groups, each representing a locus of expression. In order to compare block groups, the constituent blocks are first compared using a modified sequence alignment algorithm to determine similarity scores for pairs of blocks. In the second stage, block patterns are compared by means of a modified Sankoff algorithm that takes both block similarities and similarities of pattern of distances within the block groups into account. Hierarchical clustering of block groups clearly separates most miRNA and tRNA, and also identifies about a dozen tRNAs clustering together with miRNA. Most of these putative Dicer-processed tRNAs, including eight cases reported to generate products with miRNA-like features in literature, exhibit read blocks distinguished by precise start position of reads. Availability: The program deepBlockAlign is available as source code from http://rth.dk/resources/dba/. Contact: gorodkin@rth.dk; studla@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22053076

  19. Adaptive overlapped sub-blocks contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anqiu; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Siqi; Li, An; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an overlapped sub-block gray-level average method for contrast enhancement is presented. The digital image correction of uneven illumination under microscope transmittance is a problem in image processing, also sometimes the image in the dark place need to correct the uneven problem. A new correction method was proposed based on the mask method and sub-blocks gray-level average method because Traditional mask method and background fitting method are restricted due to application scenarios, and the corrected image brightness is low by using background fitting method, so it has some limitations of the application. In this paper, we introduce a new method called AOSCE for image contrast enhancement. The image is divided into many sub-blocks which are overlapped, calculate the average gray-level of the whole image as M and the calculate the average gray-level of each one as mi, next for each block it can get d = mi - m, each block minus d to get a new image, and then get the minimum gray-level of each block into a matrix DD to get the background, and use bilinearity to get the same scale of the image. over fitting the image in matlab in order to get smoother image, then minus the background to get the contrast enhancement image.

  20. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  1. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  2. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  3. Helical Ordering in Chiral Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Hong, Sung Woo; Chen, Dian; Grason, Gregory; Russell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Introducing molecular chirality into the segments of block copolymers can influence the nature of the resultant morphology. Such an effect was found for poly(styrene-b-L-lactide) (PS-b-PLLA) diblock copolymers where hexagonally packed PLLA helical microdomains (H* phase) form in a PS matrix. However, molecular ordering of PLLA within the helical microdomains and the transfer of chirality from the segmental level to the mesoscale is still not well understood. We developed a field theoretic model to describe the interactions between segments of chiral blocks, which have the tendency to form a ``cholesteric'' texture. Based on the model, we calculated the bulk morphologies of chiral AB diblock copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Experiments show that the H* phase only forms when microphase separation between PS and PLLA block happens first and crystallization of PLLA block is suppressed or happens within confined microdomain. Hence, crystalline ordering is not necessary for H* phase formation. The SCFT offers the chance to explore the range of thermodynamic stability of helical structures in the phase diagram of chiral block copolymer melts, by tuning parameters not only like the block segregation strength and composition, but also new parameters such as the ratio between preferred helical pitch to the radius of gyration and the Frank elastic constant for inter-segment distortions.

  4. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  5. Synthesis of segmented (pb(ps-block-pb)(n)) and (pb(san-block- pb)(n)) block-copolymers via polymeric thermal iniferters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for the synthesis of segmented poly(butadiene-block-styrene) block copolymers and segmented poly(butadiene-block-(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)) block copolymers through polybutadiene-based thermal iniferters. Dihydroxy- and dicarboxy-terminated polybutadienes were transformed i

  6. The Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the North China block and the other major blocks of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the summarization of the Early Paleozoic paleomagnetic data recently obtained from the three major blocks of China, the Early Paleozoic (I.e. Cambrian and Ordovician) paleogeographic positions of the North China, South China and Tarim blocks were discussed in detail. The North China, South China and Tarim blocks were inferred to be located adjacent to East Gondwana in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Early Cambrian. During the Early-Middle Ordovician, the South China and Tarim blocks were also located in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere with some affinities of the Gondwanaland, whereas the North China block may have episodically separated from the Gondwanaland, and might be sited close to the North America and Siberia. The reestablished paleogeographic configurations are in agreement with the studies on the biogeography, paleoclimate and sedimental facies of the North China and South China blocks.

  7. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  8. Synthesis of polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile triblock copolymers via RAFT polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yue; Deng Xu Wang; Jing Quan Liu; Jie Zhang; Sheng Yu Feng

    2012-01-01

    A new A-B-A type of block copolymers,polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile (PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN),which comprises two polymer blocks of different polarities and compatibilities,were synthesized for the first time via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.Reaction kinetics was investigated.PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN films were prepared by spin-coating on glass chips.Significant order on the film surface morphologies was observed.(C) 2012 Jie Zhang.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All rights reserved.

  9. A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.

    2003-04-01

    A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.

  10. [Effectiveness of sympathetic block using various technics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, W

    1987-07-01

    Blocking of sympathetic conduction aims at permanent or temporary elimination of those pain pathways conducted by the sympathetic nervous system. In order to provide an objective evaluation of sufficient blocking effect, earlier inquiries referred to parameters such as: (1) observation of clinical signs such as Horner's syndrome, Guttman's sign, anhidrosis, extended venous filling; (2) difference in skin temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C between blocked and unblocked side; (3) increase in amplitude of the pulse wave; and (4) depression of the psychogalvanic reflex (PGR) on the blocked side (Fig. 1). In clinical practice, these control parameters are effective because they are time-saving, technically simple, and highly evidential. Further parameters for evaluating sympathetic blockade are examination of hydrosis by means of color indicators such as bromocresol and ninhydrin, oscillometry, and plethysmography. The effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion and sympathetic trunk blocks has been verified by various authors. In a clinical study, 16 patients were divided into four groups in order to test the effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after spinal anesthesia with 3 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group I) and 4 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group II) and after peridural anesthesia with 15 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group III) and 20 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group IV) by means of temperature difference, response of pulse wave amplitude and PGR between blocked lower and unblocked upper extremity, and sensory levels of block. The patients were classified as ASA I and II; their ages varied from 20 to 63 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Decomposition of Data Mining Algorithms into Unified Functional Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kholod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the method of creating data mining algorithms from unified functional blocks. This method splits algorithms into independently functioning blocks. These blocks must have unified interfaces and implement pure functions. The method allows us to create new data mining algorithms from existing blocks and improves the existing algorithms by optimizing single blocks or the whole structure of the algorithms. This becomes possible due to a number of important properties inherent in pure functions and hence functional blocks.

  12. Peripheral nerve blocks for hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Joanne; Parker, Martyn J; Griffiths, Richard; Kopp, Sandra

    2017-05-11

    Various nerve blocks with local anaesthetic agents have been used to reduce pain after hip fracture and subsequent surgery. This review was published originally in 1999 and was updated in 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2017. This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerves blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia or as a supplement to general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. We undertook the update to look for new studies and to update the methods to reflect Cochrane standards. For the updated review, we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to August week 1 2016), Embase (Ovid SP, 1988 to 2016 August week 1) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO, 1982 to August week 1 2016), as well as trial registers and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving use of nerve blocks as part of the care provided for adults aged 16 years and older with hip fracture. Two review authors independently assessed new trials for inclusion, determined trial quality using the Cochrane tool and extracted data. When appropriate, we pooled results of outcome measures. We rated the quality of evidence according to the GRADE Working Group approach. We included 31 trials (1760 participants; 897 randomized to peripheral nerve blocks and 863 to no regional blockade). Results of eight trials with 373 participants show that peripheral nerve blocks reduced pain on movement within 30 minutes of block placement (standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.14 to -0.67; equivalent to -3.4 on a scale from 0 to 10; I(2) = 90%; high quality of evidence). Effect size was proportionate to the concentration of local anaesthetic used (P mobilization after surgery (mean difference -11.25 hours, 95% CI -14.34 to -8.15 hours; I(2) = 52%; moderate quality of evidence). One trial

  13. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  14. MPEG recompression detection based on block artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiqi; Wu, Min; Huang, Jiwu

    2008-02-01

    With sophisticated video editing technologies, it is becoming increasingly easy to tamper digital video without leaving visual clues. One of the common tampering operations on video is to remove some frames and then re-encode the resulting video. In this paper, we propose a new method for detecting this type of tampering by exploring the temporal patterns of the block artifacts in video sequences. We show that MPEG compression introduces different block artifacts into various types of frames and that the strength of the block artifacts as a function over time has a regular pattern for a given group of pictures (GOP) structure. When some frames are removed from an MPEG video file and the file is then recompressed, the block artifacts introduced by the previous compression would remain and affect the average of block artifact strength of the recompressed one in such a way that depends on the number of deleted frames and the type of GOP used previously. We propose a feature curve to reveal the compression history of an MPEG video file with a given GOP structure, and use it as evidence to detect tampering. Experimental results evaluated on common video benchmark clips demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Chain exchange in block copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer micelles are aggregates formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers dispersed in a selective solvent, driven by unfavorable interactions between the solvent and the core-forming block. Due to the relatively long chains being subject to additional thermodynamic and dynamic constraints (e.g., entanglements, crystallinity, vitrification), block copolymer micelles exhibit significantly slower equilibration kinetics than small molecule surfactants. As a result, details of the mechanism(s) of equilibration in block copolymer micelles remain unclear. This present works focuses on the chain exchange kinetics of poly(styrene-b-ethylenepropylene) block copolymers in squalane (C30H62) using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). A mixture of h-squalane and d-squalane is chosen so that it contrast matches a mixed 50/50 h/d polystyrene micelle core. When the temperature is appropriate and isotopically labeled chains undergo mixing, the mean core contrast with respect to the solvent decreases, and the scattering intensity is therefore reduced. This strategy allows direct probing of chain exchange rate from the time dependent scattering intensity I(q, t).

  16. Haplotype block structure is conserved across mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Guryev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in genomes is organized in haplotype blocks, and species-specific block structure is defined by differential contribution of population history effects in combination with mutation and recombination events. Haplotype maps characterize the common patterns of linkage disequilibrium in populations and have important applications in the design and interpretation of genetic experiments. Although evolutionary processes are known to drive the selection of individual polymorphisms, their effect on haplotype block structure dynamics has not been shown. Here, we present a high-resolution haplotype map for a 5-megabase genomic region in the rat and compare it with the orthologous human and mouse segments. Although the size and fine structure of haplotype blocks are species dependent, there is a significant interspecies overlap in structure and a tendency for blocks to encompass complete genes. Extending these findings to the complete human genome using haplotype map phase I data reveals that linkage disequilibrium values are significantly higher for equally spaced positions in genic regions, including promoters, as compared to intergenic regions, indicating that a selective mechanism exists to maintain combinations of alleles within potentially interacting coding and regulatory regions. Although this characteristic may complicate the identification of causal polymorphisms underlying phenotypic traits, conservation of haplotype structure may be employed for the identification and characterization of functionally important genomic regions.

  17. Natural convection through enclosed disconnected solid blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Fernando Cesar De; Junqueira, Silvio L.M.; Franco, Admilson T. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: fernandodelai@gmail.com; silvio@utfpr.edu.br; admilson@utfpr.edu.br; Lage, Jose L. [Southern Methodist University (SMU), Dallas, TX (United States)]. E-mail: JLL@smu.edu

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the natural convection inside a fluid filled, enclosure containing several solid obstructions and being heated from the side is modeled and numerically simulated. The solid obstructions are equally spaced, conducting, and disconnected square blocks. The mathematical model is based on the balance equations of mass, momentum and energy, which are then solved numerically via the finite-volume method with the SIMPLEST algorithm and the HYBRID scheme. The effects of varying the solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio (K), the fluid volume-fraction or porosity ({phi}), the number of solid blocks (N) and the heating strength (represented by the Rayleigh number, Ra) of the enclosure on the Nusselt number based on the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient along the heated wall of the enclosure are studied. The results indicate a competing effect caused by the proximity of the solid blocks to the heated and cooled walls, vis-a-vis hindering the boundary layer growth, hence reducing the heat transfer effectiveness, and at the same time enhancing the heat transfer when the blocks' thermal conductivity is larger than that of the fluid. An analytical estimate of the minimum number of blocks beyond which the convection hindrance becomes predominant is presented and validated by the numerical results. (author)

  18. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  19. Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Ju, Sang Kyu; Park, Jong Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sunkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. Like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

  20. Quadratus Lumborum Block as an Alternative to Lumbar Plexus Block for Hip Surgery: A Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Colla, Luca; Ben-David, Bruce; Merman, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Quadratus lumborum (QL) block was first described several years ago, but few articles have been published regarding this technique, for the most part case series involving abdominal surgery. We report 2 cases of prolonged, extensive block of thoracic and lumbar dermatomes after QL block in patients undergoing different hip surgery procedures for whom QL block was used in place of lumbar plexus block. Further prospective studies comparing these 2 techniques are necessary to better characterize the role of QL block in hip surgery.

  1. Effects of 4X4 Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brian Cobb

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a 4 X 4 block scheduling program in a middle school on a variety of student measures were investigated. These measures included standardized achievement tests in mathematics, reading, and writing, cumulative and semester grades in middle school and high school, attendance rates, and enrollment rates in advanced high school courses (in mathematics only. The block scheduling program had been in effect for four years allowing analyses of current middle and high school students who had experienced a minimum of one and one-half years of block scheduling while in middle school. The primary research design was a post-test only, matched pairs design. Students were matched on school characteristics, gender, ethnicity, grade level, and 5th grade standardized reading scores. Results were relatively consistent with the extant literature and generally positive.

  2. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel; Hansen, Tobias; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  3. Concentration Dependent Structure of Block Copolymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soohyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2015-03-01

    Addition of solvent molecules into block copolymer can induce additional interactions between the solvent and both blocks, and therefore expands the range of accessible self-assembled morphologies. In particular, the distribution of solvent molecules plays a key role in determining the microstructure and its characteristic domain spacing. In this study, concentration dependent structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) solution in squalane are investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. This reveals that squalane is essentially completely segregated into the PEP domains. In addition, the conformation of the PS block changes from stretched to nearly fully relaxed (i.e., Gaussian conformation) as amounts of squalane increases. NRF

  4. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  5. Secure Block Ciphers - Cryptanalysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge

    is fundamental to this development and is absolutely essential for all private and corporate communication, ranging from bank transactions, digital citizen services, and remote computer access, to cell phone calls and instant messaging. The vast majority of secured data sent over all types of networks...... is an introduction to block ciphers and their cryptanalysis, the second part contains publications written and published during the PhD studies. The first publication evaluates the security of a modification of the AES in which the choice of S-box is unknown to the attacker. We find that some of the attacks that can...... be applied to the AES can be transferred to this block cipher, albeit with a higher attack complexity. The second publication introduces a new block cipher family which is targeted for new applications in fully homomorphic encryption and multi-party computation. We demonstrate the soundness of the design...

  6. Can neural blocks prevent phantom limb pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Battista; D'Addabbo, Marco; Borghi, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Phantom limb syndrome (PLS) is a syndrome including stump pain, phantom limb pain and not-painful phantom sensations, which involves a large part of amputee patients and often has devastating effects on their quality of life. The efficacy of standard therapies is very poor. Nerve blocks have been investigated for the treatment and prevention of PLS. Epidural and peripheral blocks limited to the first three postamputation days can only reduce acute pain but cannot prevent the later development of PLS. Recent studies have shown that ambulatory prolonged peripheral nerve block (up to 30 days postamputation) may represent a new possible option to treat phantom pain and prevent the development of PLS and chronic pain.

  7. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-10-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  8. Consensus recommendations for anaesthetic peripheral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Lasaosa, S; Cuadrado Pérez, M L; Guerrero Peral, A L; Huerta Villanueva, M; Porta-Etessam, J; Pozo-Rosich, P; Pareja, J A

    2017-06-01

    Anaesthetic block, alone or in combination with other treatments, represents a therapeutic resource for treating different types of headaches. However, there is significant heterogeneity in patterns of use among different professionals. This consensus document has been drafted after a thorough review and analysis of the existing literature and our own clinical experience. The aim of this document is to serve as guidelines for professionals applying anaesthetic blocks. Recommendations are based on the levels of evidence of published studies on migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, cervicogenic headache, and pericranial neuralgias. We describe the main technical and formal considerations of the different procedures, the potential adverse reactions, and the recommended approach. Anaesthetic block in patients with headache should always be individualised and based on a thorough medical history, a complete neurological examination, and expert technical execution. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding dwarf galaxies as galactic building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of a general discussion held during the third EuroConference on galaxy evolution. Various observational features of the stellar populations in present--day dwarf galaxies were presented to introduce the discussion on the possibility that these systems be the main building blocks of spiral and elliptical galaxies. Many people in the audience turned out to think that the inconsistencies among the observed properties of large and dwarf galaxies are too many to believe that the former are built up only by means of successive accretions of the latter. However, theorists of hierarchical galaxy formation suggested that present--day dwarfs are not representative of the galactic building blocks, which may be completely invisible nowadays. Some of them suggested that, contrary to what is usually assumed in hierarchical modelling, the actual building blocks were still fully gaseous systems when their major mergers occurred. If this is the case, then most of the inconsistencies can be overcome, and the ...

  10. Production blocking and idea generation : Does blocking interfere with cognitive processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, BA; Stroebe, W; Lodewijkx, HFM

    2003-01-01

    Production blocking (group members must take turns expressing their ideas) is an important cause of productivity loss in brainstorming groups. However, it is not yet clear why production blocking has this detrimental effect. We hypothesized that delays between the generation and articulation of idea

  11. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  12. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  13. Biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers containing functionalized PEO blocks:Controlled synthesis and biomedical potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of controllable amphiphilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) as the hydrophobic block with the amino terminal group at the end of the PEO chain(PCL-b-PEO-NH2) were synthesized.Based on the further reaction of reactive amino groups,diblock copolymers with functional carboxyl groups(PCL-b-PEO-COOH) and functional compounds RGD(PCL-b-PEO-RGD) as well as the triblock copolymers with thermosensitive PNIPAAm blocks(PCL-b-PEO-b-PNIPAAM) were synthesized.The well-controlled structures of these copolymers with functional groups and blocks were characterized by gel permeation chromatography(GPC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy.These copolymers with functionalized hydrophilic blocks were fabricated into microspheres for the examination of biofunctions via cell culture experiments and in vitro drug release.The results indicated the significance of introducing functional groups(e.g.,NH2,COOH and RGD) into the end of the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers for biomedical potentials in tissue engineering and controlled drug release.

  14. Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago's West Side. Historical Studies of Urban America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Amanda I.

    2005-01-01

    In the decades following World War II, cities across the United States saw an influx of African American families into otherwise homogeneously white areas. This racial transformation of urban neighborhoods led many whites to migrate to the suburbs, producing the phenomenon commonly known as white flight. In "Block by Block," Amanda I. Seligman…

  15. 31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 547.204 Section 547.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.204 Expenses of..., all expenses incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a) shall...

  16. Performance of Laterite-Cement Blocks as Walling Units in Relation to Sandcrete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the performance of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in relation to those of sandcrete was conducted, for the purpose of establishing a cheaper building material in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria and surrounding towns, in the present ever increasing cost of building material. An A-2-6 laterite according to the AASHTO classification system was stabilized with 0-10% cement content by weight of the soil at a constant interval of 2% to produce 20 blocks of size 100mm × 100mm × 100mm for each mix. One hundred laterite-cement blocks were produced, cured under laboratory conditions and subjected to compressive strength test at 7, 14, 21, and 28-days of age, in five applications for each cement mix ratio. The average compressive strength was determined from five blocks crushed in each mix at every age of curing and the same procedure was repeated using sandcrete blocks. At a common cement content of 6%, the compressive strengths, densities, water absorption and the cost per square metre of wall for both types of blocks were determined. The study recommends the use of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in Minna and environs because it has better engineering properties and more economical with a saving of 30% per square metre of wall when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks.

  17. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, B P; Cohen, C J; Tsien, R W

    1983-05-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 muM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 muM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 muM, at a depolarized holding potential where inactivation was nearly complete. Lidocaine block showed prominent use dependence with trains of depolarizing pulses from a negative holding potential. During the interval between pulses, repriming of I (Na) displayed two exponential components, a normally recovering component (tauless than 0.2 s), and a lidocaine-induced, slowly recovering fraction (tau approximately 1-2 s at pH 7.0). Raising the lidocaine concentration magnified the slowly recovering fraction without changing its time course; after a long depolarization, this fraction was one-half at approximately 10 muM lidocaine, just as expected if it corresponded to drug-bound, inactivated channels. At less than or equal to 20 muM lidocaine, the slowly recovering fraction grew exponentially to a steady level as the preceding depolarization was prolonged; the time course was the same for strong or weak depolarizations, that is, with or without significant activation of I(Na). This argues that use dependence at therapeutic levels reflects block of inactivated channels, rather than block of open channels. Overall, these results provide direct evidence for the "modulated-receptor hypothesis" of Hille (1977) and Hondeghem and Katzung (1977). Unlike tetrodotoxin, lidocaine shows similar interactions with Na channels of heart, nerve, and skeletal muscle.

  18. Peripheral nerve blocks in pediatric anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most children undergoing surgery can benefit from regional anesthetic techniques, either as the sole anesthetic regimen or, as usual in pediatric practice, in combination with general anesthesia. The use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs in pediatric anesthesia is an effective way to decrease the side-effects and complications associated with central blocks. In spite of their many advantages, including easy performance end efficacy, peripheral nerve blocks are still underused. Objective This article discusses a general approach to PNBs in children and provides data concerning the practice of this regional technique in different age groups. Methods Data from 1,650 procedures were prospectively collected during the period from March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. The type of PNB, if any, as well as the patient age were noted. Our patients were divided into four groups: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-12 years and 13-18 years. Results During the investigated period, PNBs as a sole technique or in anesthetized children were performed in 7.45% of cases. Ilioingunal/iliohypogastric nerve block and penile block were the most common (70% of all PNBs distributed mainly among the children between 4-7 years of age (p<0.05. In older children, extremity PNBs predominate in regard to other types of blocks. PNBs are most frequently performed under general anesthesia (85%, so the perineural approach requires a safe technique to avoid nerve damage. Conclusion The observed differences in PNB usage seem to be related to patient age and correlate with common pathology and also with technical availability of PNB performance.

  19. Block floating point for radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1999-01-01

    Integer, floating point, and block floating point (BFP) data formats are analyzed and compared in order to establish the mathematical tools for selection of an optimal format which fulfils the demands of high resolution radar (SAR) data to large dynamic range and adequate S/N. The analysis takes...... quantization noise and saturation distortion into account and concludes that it is preferred to use small blocks and a (new) modified BFP format applying fractional exponents. Data from the EMISAR radar system are applied to illustrate the merits of the different schemes....

  20. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  1. A solar air apartment block, Gothenburg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, C.

    1999-07-01

    A double envelope solar air system was installed in a 1950s three-storey apartment block when it was renovated in 1986. The system saves 40% compared to identical conventionally renovated buildings, thanks to the following: The south-facing side of the roof has been converted to a 350 m{sup 2} solar air collector. An extra insulated facade with an integrated air-space of 900 m{sup 2} has been added to all surrounding walls. A DHW system including a 12 m{sup 3} storage tank has been added in order to provide solar heated water to four blocks (96 apartments) during the summer. (author)

  2. Conformal blocks in the QCD Pomeron formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    1996-01-01

    The conformal invariance properties of the QCD Pomeron in the transverse plane allow us to give an explicit analytical expression for the conformal eigenvectors in the mixed representation in terms of two conformal blocks, each block being the product of an holomorphic times an antiholomorphic function. This property is used to give an exact expression for various functions of interest, the Pomeron amplitude in both momentum and impact-parameter variables, the QCD dipole multiplicities and dipole-dipole cross-sections in the whole parameter space, and we recover the expression of the four-point gluon Green function given recently by Lipatov

  3. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  4. Superconvergence of tricubic block finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce interpolation operator of projection type in three dimen- sions, from which we derive weak estimates for tricubic block finite elements. Then using the estimate for the W 2, 1-seminorm of the discrete derivative Green’s function and the weak estimates, we show that the tricubic block finite element solution uh and the tricubic interpolant of projection type Πh3u have superclose gradient in the pointwise sense of the L∞-norm. Finally, this supercloseness is applied to superconvergence analysis, and the global superconvergence of the finite element approximation is derived.

  5. Quantization of the space of conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhin, E

    1997-01-01

    We consider the discrete Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection (qKZ) associated to $gl(N)$, defined in terms of rational R-matrices. We prove that under certain resonance conditions, the qKZ connection has a non-trivial invariant subbundle which we call the subbundle of quantized conformal blocks. The subbundle is given explicitly by algebraic equations in terms of the Yangian $Y(gl(N))$ action. The subbundle is a deformation of the subbundle of conformal blocks in CFT. The proof is based on an identity in the algebra with two generators $x,y$ and defining relation $xy=yx+yy$.

  6. Heart block following propofol in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochala, C; Deenen, D; Ville, A; Govaerts, M J

    1999-01-01

    We present the case of a nine-year-old boy afflicted with Ondine's curse, who developed complete atrioventricular heart block after a single bolus of propofol for induction of anaesthesia for strabismus surgery. Ondine's curse, the other name for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, is characterized by a generalized disorder of autonomic function. Propofol has no effect on the normal atrioventricular conduction system in humans but it reduces sympathetic activity and can highly potentiate other vagal stimulation factors. Heart block has been documented after propofol bolus use in adults but, to our knowledge, not in children. It would appear that propofol is not a good choice for anaesthesia in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

  7. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    Pushed by the pervasive diffusion of devices operated by battery or by the energy harvested, energy has become one of the most important parameter to be optimized for embedded systems. Particularly relevant would be to optimize the energy consumption of security primitives. In this paper we explore...... design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things...

  8. Heparin-containing block copolymers, Part I: Surface characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Pijpers, A.P.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Newly synthesized heparin-containing block copolymers, consisting of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene (PS), a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and covalently bound heparin (Hep) as bioactive block, were coated on aluminium, glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), PS or Biomer sub

  9. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent...

  10. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is...

  11. Heparin-containing block copolymers; Part I: Surface characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Pijpers, A.P.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Newly synthesized heparin-containing block copolymers, consisting of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene (PS), a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and covalently bound heparin (Hep) as bioactive block, were coated on aluminium, glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), PS or Biomer

  12. Nylon 46-polytetramethylene oxide segmented block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Schwering, P.; Haan, de J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Block copolymers were synthesized from amine-terminated polytetramethylene oxide (PMTO) (Mw 800 and 1130) and polyamide 4,6 salt. First prepolymers were prepared at 200–210°C in the presence of a solvent (pyrrolidone). The prepolymers were postcondensed at 255°C (where possible in the solid state) t

  13. BLOCK BASED NEWTON-LIKE BLENDING INTERPOLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-jin Zhao; Jie-qing Tan

    2006-01-01

    Newton's polynomial interpolation may be the favourite linear interpolation in the sense that it is built up by means of the divided differences which can be calculated recursively and produce useful intermediate results. However Newton interpolation is in fact point based interpolation since a new interpolating polynomial with one more degree is obtained by adding a new support point into the current set of support points once at a time. In this paper we extend the point based interpolation to the block based interpolation. Inspired by the idea of the modern architectural design, we first divide the original set of support points into some subsets (blocks), then construct each block by using whatever interpolation means, linear or rational and finally assemble these blocks by Newton's method to shape the whole interpolation scheme. Clearly our method offers many flexible interpolation schemes for choices which include the classical Newton's polynomial interpolation as its special case. A bivariate analogy is also discussed and numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of our method.

  14. CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AGOSTON, S; VANDENBROM, RHG; WIERDA, JMKH

    1992-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents provide muscle relaxation for a great variety of surgical procedures with light planes of general anaesthesia. Besides having a significant impact in the development of anaesthesia and surgery, these agents continue to play an important role as pharmacological tools in

  15. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital complete heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Carriço, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Matias, Alexandra; Monterroso, José; Areias, José Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Congenital complete heart block (CHB) is a conduction defect with an incidence in the general population of 1/15,000 to 1/22,000 live births. It is frequently associated with structural heart defects or maternal autoimmune disease. We describe a case of CHB associated with maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and review our previous cases and experience of CHB.

  18. Improved cryptanalysis of the block cipher KASUMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Keting; Li, Leibo; Rechberger, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    KASUMI is a block cipher which consists of eight Feistel rounds with a 128-bit key. Proposed more than 10 years ago, the confidentiality and integrity of 3G mobile communications systems depend on the security of KASUMI. In the practically interesting single key setting, only up to 6 rounds have...

  19. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-09-26

    In this paper we derive a formula for the rank of the self-commutator of hyponormal block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) via the classical Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  20. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-09

    In this paper we show that the hyponormality of block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) is completely determined by the tangential Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  1. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0, | ℓ - overline{7ell;} |) and one (| ℓ - overline{ℓ} |, 0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p = | ℓ - overline{ℓ} | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  2. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of “seed' conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (ℓ,ℓ̄) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|ℓ−ℓ̄|) and one (|ℓ−ℓ̄|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (ℓ,ℓ̄), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|ℓ−ℓ̄| and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  3. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. METHODS: 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical pat...

  4. Seed Conformal Blocks in 4D CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (l,\\bar l) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|l-\\bar l|) and one (|l-\\bar l|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (l,\\bar l), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|l-\\bar l | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal f...

  5. Who Is at Risk for Heart Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... degree heart block caused by an overly active vagus nerve. You have one vagus nerve on each side of your body. These nerves ... the way to your abdomen. Activity in the vagus nerve slows the heart rate. Rate This Content: NEXT >> ...

  6. Weight modules over some Block algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Harish-Chandra modules and Verma modules over Block algebra L[G] are investigated. More precisely, the irreducibility of the Verma modules over L[G] is completely determined, and the Harish-Chandra modules over L[Z] are classified.

  7. Weight modules over some Block algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) RenCai

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the Harish-Chandra modules and Verma modules over Block algebra (e)[G]are investigated.More precisely,the irreducibility of the Verma modules over (e)[G]is completely determined,and the Harish-Chandra modules over (e)[Z]are classified.

  8. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  9. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AOARD-114078 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution A: Approved for public release. Distribtion is...researchers focused o synthesis and processing, morphology and physical characterization of chiral block copolymer (BCP) materials. Such materials a...developed a platform process technology that can fabricate novel netwo morphologies from initial bicontinuous cubic phases through supergroup/subgroup

  10. Finding maximum JPEG image block code size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.

  11. Building Blocks for Control System Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Amerongen van, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L

    2001-01-01

    Software implementation of control laws for industrial systems seem straightforward, but is not. The computer code stemming from the control laws is mostly not more than 10 to 30% of the total. A building-block approach for embedded control system development is advocated to enable a fast and effici

  12. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    : feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...

  13. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the Landauer–Büttiker ballistic transport regime. These calculations concentrate on determining the so– called Green’s function matrix, or portions thereof, which is the inverse of a block tridiagonal general complex matrix. To this end, a sequential algorithm based on Gaussian elimination named Sweeps...

  14. Topological structures of boundary value problems in block elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-10-01

    Block structures are considered; a boundary value problem for a system of inhomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients is formulated in each block of a structure. The problem of matching solutions to boundary value problems in blocks with each other by topological study of the properties of solutions in the block structure is examined in the conditions of correct solvability of boundary value problems in blocks of the block structure. Some new properties of solutions to boundary value problems in block structures are found that are important for applications.

  15. On the Marginal Distribution of the Diagonal Blocks in a Blocked Wishart Random Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil B. Halvorsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a (m1+m2×(m1+m2 blocked Wishart random matrix with diagonal blocks of orders m1×m1 and m2×m2. The goal of the paper is to find the exact marginal distribution of the two diagonal blocks of A. We find an expression for this marginal density involving the matrix-variate generalized hypergeometric function. We became interested in this problem because of an application in spatial interpolation of random fields of positive definite matrices, where this result will be used for parameter estimation, using composite likelihood methods.

  16. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p < 0.001). The area under the force curve was reduced from 6.8 Ns (range: 3.5-21.9 Ns) to 0.54 Ns (range: 0.18-0.86 Ns) (p < 0.01). No change in nerve conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even

  17. Differential epidural block predicts the success of visceral block in patients with chronic visceral abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maged K; Tolba, Reda; Kapural, Leonardo; Mitchell, Justin; Lopez, Rocio; Mahboobi, Ramatia; Vrooman, Bruce; Mekhail, Nagy

    2012-11-01

    Differential thoracic epidural regional block, also known as a differential neural block (DNB), involves the placement of an epidural catheter placed in the thoracic epidural space to achieve appropriate anesthesia in a dermatomal distribution. This is a retrospective case series evaluating how well a DNB may predict success of subsequent visceral blockade in patients with chronic abdominal pain of visceral origin. Of 402 patients who had a DNB performed for unexplained abdominal pain from January 2000 to January 2009, 81 patients were found to have results consistent with visceral pain and thus underwent subsequent visceral blockade. Basic demographic data, years of chronic pain, history of psychosocial issues, initial visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pain location, and medication usage were documented in our electronic medical record database. Parameters regarding DNB and visceral blocks also were documented. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. The positive predictive value (PPV) for DNB for whom visceral block was successful (at least a 50% reduction in VAS) was calculated. Additionally, subjects with successful visceral blocks were compared to those with unsuccessful visceral blocks. All patients with chronic abdominal pain with normal gastrointestinal studies who underwent DNB. Tertiary Outpatient Pain Management Clinic.   Retrospective Cohort Study. Mean age of patients was 46 (± 15) years, 73% were female, and median duration of pain was 5 years. 67% of subjects were taking opioid analgesics. PPV of DNB was 70.4%. Only factor found to be statistically significant with visceral block success was baseline VAS with higher scores associated with DNB predictive success (6.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.5, 1.8; P = 0.004). Use of membrane stabilizing medications was significantly more common in subjects for whom visceral block was not successful (46% vs. 25%; P = 0.058). Area underneath curve (AUC) for VAS was found to be 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0

  18. Using Purpose-Built Functions and Block Hashes to Enable Small Block and Sub-file Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    plagiarism detection engines such as Turnitin can be so successful. Other word sequences are not distinct. “To be or not to be” and “four score and seven...it is no longer distinct. 3.2. The distinct block definition and hypotheses Given the preceding, we propose this definition : Distinct Block... definition ): A block of data thatwill not arise by chance more than once. Distinct blocks need to be manufactured by some random process. Blocks taken froma

  19. Optimization of Macro Block Size for Adaptive Rood Pattern Search Block Matching Method in Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Nar Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In area of video compression, Motion Estimation is one of the most important modules and play an important role to design and implementation of any the video encoder. It consumes more than 85% of video encoding time due to searching of a candidate block in the search window of the reference frame. Various block matching methods have been developed to minimize the search time. In this context, Adaptive Rood Pattern Search is one of the less expensive block matching methods, which is widely acceptable for better Motion Estimation in video data processing. In this paper we have proposed to optimize the macro block size used in adaptive rood pattern search method for improvement in motion estimation.

  20. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  1. Comparison of the efficacy of single volar subcutaneous digital block and the dorsal two injections block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Riaz Ahmed Khan; Masood, Tariq; Ahmed, Ehtisham; Obaidullah, Abdul Majeed Jaffar; Alvi, Hamid Fazeel

    2014-01-01

    Digital nerve blocks are commonly used as effective techniques of anaesthesia to allow a variety of surgical procedures performed on digits. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of volar subcutaneous single injection block and the traditional dorsal two injections digital block. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar from December. 2009-10. A total of 126 patients with pathology distal to the first palmer digital crease divided into two equal groups. Group A received volar subcutaneous digital block while group B dorsal two injections block. Efficacy of digital block was measured in terms of time of onset of anaesthesia, which was the total time duration after administering local anaesthetic to loss of pinprick sensation and total duration of anaesthesia, which was defined as the time period from onset of block (loss of pinprick sensation) till the appearance of pain which required additional local anaesthetic or postoperative analgesia. A total of 126 patients were studied, 63 in each group. Of the total patients, 102 (81%) were male and 24 (19%) female with a mean age of 27 ± 4.2 years (range 17-60 years). The mean time of onset of anaesthesia from injection till the loss of pin prick sensation was 3.32 ± 0.42 minutes for volar single injection group and 4.53 minutes ± 0.57 minutes for dorsal two injections group (p = 0.049). Similarly the mean total duration of anaesthesia for the volar subcutaneous group was 271.9 ± 29.34 minutes while for the dorsal two injections group, it was 229.52 ± 28.82 minutes (p = 0.415). Single injection volar subcutaneous digital block provides faster onset of anaesthesia, produces predictable, consistent dense anaesthesia of all of the fingers with the help of single injection prick.

  2. PhenoBlocks: Phenotype Comparison Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Michael; Hamilton, Peter; Chevalier, Fanny; Breslav, Simon; Khan, Azam; Wigdor, Daniel; Brudno, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of hereditary disorders is a challenging task for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of phenotypes that can be observed in patients. Existing clinical tools are often text-based and do not emphasize consistency, completeness, or granularity of phenotype reporting. This can impede clinical diagnosis and limit their utility to genetics researchers. Herein, we present PhenoBlocks, a novel visual analytics tool that supports the comparison of phenotypes between patients, or between a patient and the hallmark features of a disorder. An informal evaluation of PhenoBlocks with expert clinicians suggested that the visualization effectively guides the process of differential diagnosis and could reinforce the importance of complete, granular phenotypic reporting.

  3. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman......, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  4. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2016-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed, others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.

  5. Porous polymers based on aryleneethynylene building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Uwe H F; Seehafer, Kai; Geyer, Florian L; Bender, Markus; Braun, Ingo; Smarsly, Emanuel; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Porous conjugated polymers are synthesized by metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. The progress for porous polymers when planar or tetrahedral building blocks are connected by alkyne units into novel materials is highlighted. The most prominent reaction for the buildup of the microporous alkyne-bridged polymers is the Sonogashira reaction, connecting alkynes to aromatic iodides or bromides. The availability of the building blocks and the potency of the Sonogashira reaction allow preparing a large variety of intrinsically porous polymeric materials, in which rigid struts connect multipronged centers. The microporous polymers are used as catalysts and as storage materials for gases and sensors. Postfunctionalization schemes, understanding of structure-property relationships, and the quest for high porosity are pertinent.

  6. Essential Building Blocks of Human Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2011-01-01

    To understand why we humans are as we are, it is necessary to look at the essential building blocks that comprise our nature. The foundations of this structure are our evolutionary origins as primates and our social roots. Upon these rest features such as our emotions, language and aesthetic preferences, with our self-perceptions, self-deceptions and thirst for knowledge right at the top. The unifying force holding these blocks together is evolutionary theory. Evolution provides a deeper understanding of human nature and, in particular, of the common roots of these different perspectives. To build a reliable and coherent model of man, leading authors from fields as diverse as primatology, anthropology, neurobiology and philosophy have joined forces to present essays  each describing their own expert perspective. Together they provide a convincing and complete picture of our own human nature.

  7. On Combinatorial Expansions of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Marshakov, A; Morozov, A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper (arXiv:0906.3219) the representation of Nekrasov partition function in terms of nontrivial two-dimensional conformal field theory has been suggested. For non-vanishing value of the deformation parameter \\epsilon=\\epsilon_1+\\epsilon_2 the instanton partition function is identified with a conformal block of Liouville theory with the central charge c = 1+ 6\\epsilon^2/\\epsilon_1\\epsilon_2. If reversed, this observation means that the universal part of conformal blocks, which is the same for all two-dimensional conformal theories with non-degenerate Virasoro representations, possesses a non-trivial decomposition into sum over sets of the Young diagrams, different from the natural decomposition studied in conformal field theory. We provide some details about this intriguing new development in the simplest case of the four-point correlation functions.

  8. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  9. Time and Spacetime: The Crystallizing Block Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George F R

    2009-01-01

    The nature of the future is completely different from the nature of the past. When quantum effects are significant, the future shows all the signs of quantum weirdness, including duality, uncertainty, and entanglement. With the passage of time, after the time-irreversible process of state-vector reduction has taken place, the past emerges, with the previous quantum uncertainty replaced by the classical certainty of definite particle identities and states. The present time is where this transition largely takes place, but the process does not take place uniformly: Evidence from delayed choice and related experiments shows that isolated patches of quantum indeterminacy remain, and that their transition from probability to certainty only takes place later. Thus, when quantum effects are significant, the picture of a classical Evolving Block Universe (`EBU') cedes place to one of a Crystallizing Block Universe (`CBU'), which reflects this quantum transition from indeterminacy to certainty, while nevertheless rese...

  10. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2017-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.

  11. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems. PMID:27096119

  12. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  13. Adductor canal block can result in motor block of the quadriceps muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Lesser, Jonathan B; Hadzic, Admir; Reiss, Wojciech; Resta-Flarer, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The block of nerves in the adductor canal is considered to cause a sensory block without a motor component. In this report, we describe a case of significant quadriceps muscle weakness after an adductor canal block (ACB). A 65-year-old female patient for ambulatory knee surgery was given an ACB for postoperative pain management. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance at the midthigh level using the transsartorial approach. Twenty milliliters of 0.5% ropivacaine was deposited adjacent to the anterior and posterior areas of the femoral artery. On discharge from the hospital, the patient realized that her thigh muscles were weak and she was unable to extend her leg at the knee. A neuromuscular examination indicated that the patient had no strength in her quadriceps muscle, along with sensory deficit in the medial-anterior lower leg and area in front of knee up to the midthigh. The weakness lasted 20 hours, and the sensory block lasted 48 hours before complete recovery. The optimal level and amount of local anesthetic for adductor canal block are currently not well defined. Proximal spread of local anesthetic and anatomical variation may explain our observation. Several studies have reported that ACB involves no motor blockade. However, our case report illustrates that the ACB can result in clinically significant quadriceps muscle paralysis. This report suggests that patients should be monitored vigilantly for this occurrence to decrease the risk of falls.

  14. Recurrent congenital heart block in neonatal lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria C; Gómez-Puerta, José A; Albert, Dimpna; Ferrer, Queralt; Girona, Josep

    2007-07-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is the main complication of neonatal lupus (NL) and is strongly associated with the presence of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. The recurrence of CHB in subsequent pregnancies in mothers with these antibodies is uncommon, occurring in approximately 15% of cases. We describe here a case of recurrent CHB in a previously asymptomatic mother with Sjögren syndrome and discuss the current strategies for the prevention and treatment of CHB in NL.

  15. SODART optical block of the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Frederiksen, P.; Polny, Josef

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer....... The integrated unit meets all mechanical, thermal and optical specifications and it is now in safe storage in Moscow and awaits further integration procedures with the remaining satellite structure....

  16. General Structures of Block Based Interpolational Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU LE; TANG SHUO; Ma Fu-ming

    2012-01-01

    We construct general structures of one and two variable interpolation function,without depending on the existence of divided difference or inverse differences,and we also discuss the block based osculatory interpolation in one variable case.Clearly,our method offers many flexible interpolation schemes for choices.Error terms for the interpolation are determined and numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the results.

  17. [Congenital atrioventricular block and maternal autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, G; Sauvaget, F; Généreau, T; Galezowski, N

    1990-01-01

    Congenital heart block is rare; it is acquired in utero, definitive and, more often than not, complete. It can be diagnosed by the appearance of fetal bradycardia around the 23rd week of gestation, during ultrasonographic monitoring of pregnancy. Heart block is usually associated with the presence of anti-Ro and/or anti-La antibodies in the mother's serum. These maternal immunological abnormalities can be isolated or associated with an autoimmune disease, usually systemic lupus erythematosus, but also Sjögren's syndrome, or more rarely still, an as yet unclassified connective tissue disease. Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies cross the placental barrier and react with a fetal heart, leading to acute fetal myocarditis by the 17th week of gestation. When severe, it is lethal, otherwise it can result in degeneration and endocardial fibroelastosis, disrupting conduction and leading to congenital heart block. The ideal treatment would be prevention with corticosteroids. When the mother is Ro or La antibody-positive before pregnancy, elimination of these circulating antibodies can be attempted by treatment with 0.5 mg/kg body wt/d of prednisolone for 3 months. If the treatment is successful, corticotherapy can be prescribed early in the pregnancy to try to protect the fetus. However, there is not always a relationship between maternal anti-Ro antibodies and fetal heart block. If the Ro/La antibody-positive woman is already pregnant, but before her 17th week, it is possible to prescribe dexamethasone, which crosses the placenta and remains active, sometimes in association with plasmapheresis.

  18. Floating asphalt blocks of the Dead Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large blocks of mineral matter free (less than 0.1%) asphalt are occasionally found floating on the surface of the Dead Sea. Chemical, spectroscopic and isotopic data are given for the asphalt. The source of the asphalt is not accurately known, but presumably it represents mobilization of heavy viscous asphaltic masses at depth below the lake bottom into the floor of the lake. It may be released to the surface by earth tremors.

  19. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  20. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, E J; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match $50\\,\\Omega$ and its response has been validated from 0-to-50\\,GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20\\,GHz design band is greater than $20\\,$dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  1. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearl...

  2. Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-G. Hinzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.

  3. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Coatings for Biofouling Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    biofouling program contractors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS antifouling; coatings; block copolymers; IR nanoscale imaging ; biocides 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...diagnostics and drug delivery. In our scanned probe microscopy studies on collaborator coatings and marine organisms, we have provided teamwork . We have...Studies of Organisms on model fouiants: • H. elegans studies 3. Testing of other contractor materials 4. Imaging technology. We applied our organic

  4. Hyperkalemia-induced complete heart block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium, as an extracellular ion, plays an important role in the electrophysiologic function of the myocardium and any change in extracellular concentration of this ion might have a marked impression upon myocyte electrophysiologic gain. High serum potassium levels are thought to impair pulse conduction in Purkinje fibers and ventricles more than that in the Atrioventricular (AV node. Therefore, although complete AV block can occur, it is a rare initial presentation. Case Report: We describe a 62-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease and previous Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG, who came to our emergency department due to generalized weakness starting 2 days before admission. The patient also had decreased force in lower limbs, exacerbating from the morning, and was finally diagnosed as a hyperkalemia-induced Complete Heart Block (CHB. It should also be noted that the patient responded dramatically to the administration of 10 mL of 10% calcium gluconate along with external pacing until potassium level correction became effective. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that Hyperkalemia can be associated with frequent Electrocardiogram (ECG abnormality, advanced heart blocks (second- and third-degree AV blocks are usually found only in patients with pre-existing heart failure, conduction abnormalities, or other cardiac diseases. Institution of effective treatment rapidly and forgiveness of traditional non-effective, time consumptive and sometimes risking full-adjustment modalities, such as sodium bicarbonate infusion or exchange resins that prevent their use in the emergent phase, can help minimize patient morbidity and mortality.

  5. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2-thiophen-5-yl-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogues as inhibitors of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation: Their possible utilization as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajan S; Thaker, Hardik M; Giordano, Tony; Williams, Jill; Rogers, Donna; Vasu, Kamala K; Sudarsanam, Vasudevan

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to discover novel inhibitors of NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation utilizing the concept of chemical lead based medicinal chemistry and bioisosterism a series of 2-(2,3-disubstituted-thiophen-5-yl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed. A facile and simple route for the synthesis of the designed molecules was developed. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their activity as inhibitors towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation in a cell line report-based assay. This series provides us with a substantial number of compounds inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB and/or AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. These compounds also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity in in vivo models of inflammation and cancer. The 4-pyridyl group is found to be the most important pharmacophore on the third position of thiophene ring for inhibiting NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. The relationships between the activities shown by these compounds in the in vivo and in vitro models have been established by using FVB transgenic mice model. These results suggest the suitability of the designed molecular framework as a potential scaffold for the design of molecules with inhibitory activity towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation, which may also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. This series of molecules warrants further study to explore their potential as therapies for use in chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. Development of the synthetic protocol for the synthesis of this series of molecules, biological activities and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) have been discussed herein.

  6. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Schiff-Base Unit%含1,2,4-三唑席夫碱的新型喹唑啉类化合物的合成及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军虎; 刘勇; 蹇军友; 鲍小平

    2013-01-01

    Using 3-methyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione,aromatic aldehydes and 4-chloroquinazoline as starting materials,fourteen novel quinazoline derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole Schiff-base unit were synthesized. The structures of target compounds were fully characterized by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay showed that some compounds possessed certain fungicidal activities. At the concentration of 50 μg/mL,the inhibition rates of compound 6g against F. oxysporium,C. mandshurica and P. infestans were 71%,72% and 58%,respectively.%以3-甲基-4-氨基-1,2,4-三唑-5-硫酮、芳醛和4-氯喹唑啉为原料,经席夫碱和硫醚化反应合成了14个新型的含1,2,4-三唑席夫碱单元的喹唑啉类化合物6a~6n,通过IR,1H NMR,MS及元素分析对所合成的目标化合物进行了结构表征.初步生物活性测试结果表明,部分化合物表现出一定的抗菌活性.在50 μg/mL浓度下,化合物6g对辣椒枯萎菌、苹果腐烂菌及马铃薯晚疫菌的抑制率分别为71%,72%和58%.

  7. Exocyclic push-pull conjugated compounds. Part 3. An experimental NMR and theoretical MO ab initio study of the structure, the electronic properties and barriers to rotation about the exocyclic partial double bond in 2- exo-methylene- and 2-cyanoimino-quinazolines and -benzodiazepines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, R.; Bertarini, C.; Hilfert, L.; Kempter, G.; Kleinpeter, E.; Spindler, J.; Taddei, F.; Thomas, S.

    2000-03-01

    The structure of a number of 2- exo-methylene substituted quinazolines and benzodiazepines, respectively, 1, 3a, b, 4( X=-CN, -COOEt ) and their 2-cyanoimino substituted analogues 2, 3c, d( X=-CN, -SO 2C 6H 4-Me (p) was completely assigned by the whole arsenal of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. The E/ Z isomerism at the exo-cyclic double bond was determined by both NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by ab initio quantum chemical calculations; the Z isomer is the preferred one, its amount proved dependent on steric hindrance. Due to the push-pull effect in this part of the molecules the restricted rotation about the partial C 2,C 11 and C 2,N 11 double bonds, could also be studied and the barrier to rotation measured by dynamic NMR spectroscopy. The free energies of activation of this dynamic process proved very similar along the compounds studied but being dependent on the polarity of the solvent. Quantum chemical calculations at the ab initio level were employed to prove the stereochemistry at the exo-cyclic partial double bonds of 1- 4, to calculate the barriers to rotation but also to discuss in detail both the ground and the transition state of the latter dynamic process in order to better understand electronic, inter- and intramolecular effects on the barrier to rotation which could be determined experimentally. In the cyanoimino substituted compounds 2, 3c, d, the MO ab initio calculations evidence the isomer interconversion to be better described by the internal rotation process than by the lateral shift mechanism.

  8. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  9. The block cipher NSABC (public domain)

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyenova-Stepanikova, Alice

    2011-01-01

    We introduce NSABC/w -- Nice-Structured Algebraic Block Cipher using w-bit word arithmetic, a 4w-bit analogous of Skipjack [NSA98] with 5w-bit key. The Skipjack's internal 4-round Feistel structure is replaced with a w-bit, 2-round cascade of a binary operation (x,z)\\mapsto(x\\boxdot z)\\lll(w/2) that permutes a text word x under control of a key word z. The operation \\boxdot, similarly to the multiplication in IDEA [LM91, LMM91], bases on an algebraic group over w-bit words, so it is also capable of decrypting by means of the inverse element of z in the group. The cipher utilizes a secret 4w-bit tweak -- an easily changeable parameter with unique value for each block encrypted under the same key [LRW02] -- that is derived from the block index and an additional 4w -bit key. A software implementation for w=64 takes circa 9 clock cycles per byte on x86-64 processors.

  10. Renewable Aliphatic Polyester Block Polymer Thermoplastic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Mark Thomas

    The performance of thermoplastic elastomers is predicated on their ability to form mechanically tough physically crosslinked elastomeric networks at low temperatures and be able to flow at elevated temperatures. This dissertation focuses on renewable aliphatic polyester block polymers with amorphous polylactide (PLA) and their performance as TPEs. The goal of this work was to enhance the mechanical toughness of PLA containing TPEs; fundamental properties ranging from chemical composition and phase behavior, molecular architecture and melt processability, to melt polymerization strategies were investigated. ABA triblock polymers with PLA end-blocks and rubbery mid-blocks from substituted lactones comprised of poly(6-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone)(PMCL), poly(delta-decalactone), and poly(epsilon-decalactone)(PDL) were produced by sequential ring-opening polymerizations in the bulk. The bulk microstructure of symmetric PLA-PMCL-PLA and PLA-PDL-PLA triblock polymers formed long-range ordered morphologies and the interaction parameter of the repeat units was determined. High molar mass triblocks exhibited elastomeric behavior with good tensile strengths and high elongations. Small triblocks were coupled to produced (PLA-PDL-PLA)n multiblock polymers with high molar mass and accessible order-disorder transitions allowing for melt processing via injection molding. The mechanical toughness of the multiblocks was comparable to the high molar mass triblocks. The controlled polymerization of renewable delta-decalactone was accomplished with an organocatalyst at low temperatures in the bulk to maximize the equilibrium conversion of the monomer.

  11. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... of a linear relationship between each X-i and Y-j. X-i -> Y-j. A modelling strategy is used to decide if the residual X-i should take part in the modelling of one or more Y(j)s. At each step the procedure of finding score vectors is based on well-defined optimisation procedures. The principle of optimisation...... is based on that the score vectors should give the sizes of the resulting Y(j)s loading vectors as large as possible. The partition of X and Y are independent of each other. The choice of Y-j can be X-j, Y-i = X-i, thus including the possibility of modelling X -> X-i,i=1,...,L. It is shown how...

  12. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear A C B triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A . This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the A A B copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear A B diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the A A B copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer.

  13. Block Storage Service: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This memo summarizes the current status of the Ceph block storage service as it is used for OpenStack Cinder Volumes and Glance Images as of May 2014. We present the block storage activity on the current cluster, measuring IOPS and latencies, and present a cost/benefit analysis of using SSDs to optimize the cost and performance efficiency of the service. During tests in collaboration with IT-CF, we have concluded that by adding SSDs as the synchronous write journals (used to guarantee data durability), we are able increase the IOPS capacity by 4-5 times, at a cost of decreasing the available volume by 20%. Further, the testing has shown that the Ceph implementation is able to operate at the limit of the hardware performance; software-induced performance limitations were not yet observed in either the spinning disk or SSD configurations. In addition, we believe that increasing small write performance with SSDs is applicable only to the block storage use-case; high-bandwidth use-cases such as physics data stora...

  14. Active Block Layout: A High Performance Block Layout Mechanism%Active Block Layout:一种高性能磁盘布局机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 卢显良; 罗光春; 韩宏; 魏青松

    2003-01-01

    The access frequency of different files in file system is dissimilar. If file system can optimize the block lay-out of these hot files which are frequently accessed,the performance of file system will be improved. This paper pre-sents a high performance block layout mechanism: Active Block Layout (ABL). ABL can record the access frequencyof every file in file system and actively optimize the block layout of these hot files by block duplicating. The duplicatedblocks can be placed in the special zone of track,which is called "Cooling Zone". ABL can automatically determine theplacing position and the copy count of the blocks which need to be duplicated. In order to reduce the overhead of blockduplication,this paper also presents a mechanism which uses the potential disk bandwidth to realize the block duplica-tion,and does not obviously degrade the performance of file system.

  15. A POCS-Based Algorithm for Blocking Artifacts Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-hong; CHENG Guo-hua; YU Song-yu

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for blocking artifacts reduction in DCT domain for block-based image coding was developed. The algorithm is based on the projection onto convex set (POCS) theory. Due to the fact that the DCT characteristics of shifted blocks are different caused by the blocking artifacts, a novel smoothness constraint set and the corresponding projection operator were proposed to reduce the blocking artifacts by discarding the undesired high frequency coefficients in the shifted DCT blocks. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of objective quality, subjective quality, and convergence property.

  16. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  17. Thinking beyond the block: block matching for copy-move forgery detection revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Schöttle, Pascal; Riess, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Detection of copy{move forgeries is one of the most actively researched topics in image forensics. It has been shown that so-called block-based methods give the highest pixel-wise accuracy for detecting copy{move forgeries. However, matching of block-based features can be computationally extremely demanding. Hence, the current predominant line of thought is that block-based algorithms are too slow to be applicable in practice. In this paper, we revisit the matching stage of block-based copy{move forgery detection methods. We propose an efficient approach for finding duplicate patterns of a given size in integer-valued input data. By design, we focus on the spatial relation of potentially duplicated elements. This allows us to locate copy{move forgeries via bit-wise operations, without expensive block comparisons in the feature space. Experimental investigation of different matching strategies shows that the proposed method has its benefits. However, on a broader scale, our experiments demonstrate that the performance of matching by lexicographic sorting might have been underestimated in previous work, despite its remarkable speed benefit on large images. In fact, in a practical setting, where accuracy and computational efficiency have to be balanced, lexicographic sorting may be considered the method of choice.

  18. Computing eigenvectors of block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Gerhard; Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2012-09-01

    New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are motivated and designed. The underlying idea is to determine a good starting vector for an inverse iteration process from the twisted block factorizations such that a good eigenvector approximation can be computed with a single step of inverse iteration. An implementation of the new algorithms is presented and experimental data for runtime behaviour and numerical accuracy based on a wide range of test cases are summarized. Compared with competing state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods, the algorithms proposed here show strong reductions in runtime, especially for very large matrices and/or small bandwidths. The residuals of the computed eigenvectors are in general comparable with state-of-the-art methods. In some cases, especially for strongly clustered eigenvalues, a loss in orthogonality of some eigenvectors is observed. This is not surprising, and future work will focus on investigating ways for improving these cases.

  19. Development of Deflection Prediction Model for Concrete Block Pavement Considering the Block Shapes and Construction Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuguang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete block pavement (CBP is distinct from typical concrete or asphalt pavements. It is built by using individual blocks with unique construction patterns forming a discrete surface layer to bear traffic loadings. The surface structure of CBP varies depending on the block shapes and construction patterns, so it is hard to apply a general equivalent elastic modulus estimation method to define the surface structural strength. In this study, FEM analysis and dynamic loading test were carried out to develop a deflection prediction model for CBP considering the block shapes and construction patterns. Based on the analysis results, it was found that block shapes did not have much effect on load distribution, whereas construction patterns did. By applying the deflection prediction model to the rutting model for CBP proposed by Sun, the herringbone bond pattern showed the best performance comparing with stretcher bond or basket weave bond pattern. As the load repetition increased to 1.2 million, the rutting depth of CBP constructed by herringbone bond pattern was 2 mm smaller than those constructed by the other two patterns.

  20. Recurrence relations for toric N=1 superconformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hadasz, Leszek; Suchanek, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    General 1-point toric blocks in all sectors of N=1 superconformal field theories are analyzed. The recurrence relations for blocks coefficients are derived by calculating their residues and large $\\Delta$ asymptotics.

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  3. Alaska NAD 83 Composite Block Diagram (CBD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Composite Block Diagram (CBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Alaska Region. Each CBD describes a single block within an...

  4. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  5. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Radovanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap, stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily observations of Serbian stock market index values BELEX15 from April 2009 to April 2014. Thereby, considering the effects of potential changes in decisions according to variations in the sample length and purposes of the use, this paper introduces stability analysis which contains robustness testing of the different sample size and the different block length. Testing results indicate some changes in bootstrap method efficiencies when altering the sample size or the block length.

  6. [Reversible first-degree atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Aksüyek Savaş; Amasyalı, Basri

    2017-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism often causes tachyarrhythmia. Reversible atrioventricular block caused by hyperthyroidism is rare occurrence. Presently described is a case of atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism and recovery after antithyroid treatment.

  7. Novel Efficient De-blocking Method for Highly Compressed Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min; YI Qing-ming; YANG Liang

    2007-01-01

    Due to coarse quantization,block-based discrete cosine transform(BDCT) compression methods usually suffer from visible blocking artifacts at the block boundaries.A novel efficient de-blocking method in DCT domain is proposed.A specific criterion for edge detection is given,one-dimensional DCT is applied on each row of the adjacent blocks and the shifted block in smooth region,and the transform coefficients of the shifted block are modified by weighting the average of three coefficients of the block.Mean square difference of slope criterion is used to judge the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.Simulation results show that the new method not only obtains satisfactory image quality,but also maintains high frequency information.

  8. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-08-01

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were

  9. Brucella Infection Associated with Complete Atrioventricular Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Bozkurt, Fatma; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical spectrum of Brucella infection is quite diverse and characterized by multi-system involvement. Patients present with myocarditis, endocarditis, or pericarditis. Infective endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular complication in patients with brucellosis. Although conduction abnormalities are seen in cases with endocarditis, they are reported very rarely in the setting of cardiac Brucella infection. Case Report: An eight and a half-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic due to inadequate response to cotrimaxazole plus streptomycin treatment at the 15th day of admission. Although local hospital records on the patient showed a heart rate of 80 bpm, we determined a heart rate of 46 bpm. The electrocardiogram showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block. The average heart rate was determined as 48 bpm with 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The echocardiographic examination showed normal-sized heart chambers and the absence of valvular involvement. An agglutination test for brucellosis was found to be positive with a titer of 1/320. High fever, arthralgia, and splenomegaly regressed following doxycycline plus rifampicin therapy, but there was no improvement in the AV block. A permanent pacemaker was implanted because of the detection of an average heart rate of 48 bpm. Conclusion: Because cardiac failure and rhythm abnormalities are reported in the course of Brucella infection and may be associated with significant outcomes, cases with brucellosis should be evaluated carefully in terms of cardiac involvement. This report aims to draw attention to complete AV block as an extremely rare complication of Brucella infection. PMID:27761286

  10. PERIPHERAL BLOCK ANESTHESIA OF UPPER EXTREMITY AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tapar, Hakan; SÜREN, Mustafa; Kaya, Ziya; Arıcı, Semih; Karaman, Serkan; Kahveci, Mürsel

    2012-01-01

    Successful peripheral blocks and selection of appropriate technique according to surgery is possible with a good knowledge of anatomy. Regional peripheral block anesthesia of upper extremity which applied by single injection to plexus brachialis is the most recommended method of anesthesia in daily surgical procedures. The most important advantages of peripheral nerve blocks which are type of regional anesthesia according to general anesthesia and central blocks are less effect to...

  11. Interactive Poster: Exploring Block Access Patterns of Native XML Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Janetzko, Halldór; Keim, Daniel A.; Kramis, Marc; Mansmann, Florian; Waldvogel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Recent block-based native XML storage systems such as IDEFIX touch blocks according to the XQuery engine s execution plan. The resulting access patterns are virtually unknown and potentially cause many expensive disk seeks. Visualization comes to the rescue when extensive log files must be analyzed a tedious and difficult task. The dynamic time-based block-touch animation as well as the static block-type information of VISUAL IDEFIX foster the insight into the performance-critical internals...

  12. Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. The Moore-Penrose Inverse of Block Magic Rectangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakopian, Y. R.; Eloyan, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    As is known, a semi-magic square is an "n x n" matrix having the sum of entries in each row and each column equal to a constant. This note generalizes this notion and introduce a special class of block matrices called "block magic rectangles." It is proved that the Moore-Penrose inverse of a block magic rectangle is also a block magic rectangle.

  14. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly...... simplifies the main stream BC lithography process, showing a broad substrate tolerance and allowing for efficient pattern transfer over wafer scale. PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are directly applied on substrates including polymers, silicon and graphene. A single oxygen...

  15. Some results on resolvable incomplete block designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Minqian; FANG; Kaitai

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the uniformity of a certain kind of resolvable incomplete block (RIB for simplicity) design which is called the PRIB design here. A sufficient and necessary condition is obtained, under which a PRIB design is the most uniform in the sense of a discrete discrepancy measure, and the uniform PRIB design is shown to be connected. A construction method for such designs via a kind of U-type designs is proposed, and an existence result of these designs is given. This method sets up an important bridge between PRIB designs and U-type designs.

  16. Heart block following topical latanoprost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Theodorou, Maria; Hildebrand, Göran Darius; Bloom, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of second degree heart block associated with topical latanoprost treatment. The authors discuss the possibility of a causative effect as the cessation of this treatment resulted in improvement of the arrhythmia. The authors highlight previous reports and research in humans and animals which demonstrate an association of arrhythmias with prostaglandin analogues. This report draws attention to the possibility that an extremely commonly prescribed topical drug may trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. It is important that prescribers are aware of this possible side-effect. PMID:22679164

  17. House moves to block Internet censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1995-08-18

    Congress has created conflicting amendments to the Communications Decency Act, an amendment to the telecommunications deregulation bill. The Senate amendment contains sweeping language barring objectionable communications online. Observers fear this will block online distribution of AIDS prevention information as well as bar responses by activist's of drug companies and government officials. The House amendments seek to protect online services from liability if they restrict access to objectionable materials, while another amendment seeks to modify obscenity laws to criminalize only some forms of online speech. These conflicts are to be resolved in a House-Senate conference committee whose meeting date is yet to be decided.

  18. Subsea building blocks for slender wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabedotti, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    Reduce the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), IOR and improve HSE are fundamental aspects in future subsea field developments. The SBB (Subsea Building Blocks) is an R D effort from Statoil and Aker Solutions to investigate and develop new technology that can allow the industry to achieve these objectives. One important aspect of this initiative is well construction and reduced rig time for drilling, completion and intervention of subsea wells. To enable a slender system and increase the operational flexibility, well equipment (WH, XMT) has been analyzed and redesigned. (Author)

  19. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarrao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  20. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batista, C. D.; Zhu, J.-X.; Thompson, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  1. Intermittent Atrioventricular Block following Fingolimod Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gialafos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old female patient with multiple sclerosis (MS developed symptomatic intermittent 2nd degree atrioventricular block (AVB of five-hour duration, five hours after the first two doses of fingolimod, that resolved completely. Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV revealed increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic tone, while modified Ewing tests were suggestive of impaired cardiac sympathetic function. We hypothesize that expression of this particular arrhythmia might be related to autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction due to demyelinating lesions in the upper thoracic spinal cord, possibly augmented by the parasympathetic effect of the drug.

  2. BLOCK DIAGRAM MODELS FOR CORRELATED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The copula function offers new opportunities for advanced engineering design and can model correlated structures between random variables in reliability; in other words the dependence can describe time varying and nonlinear features of statistical links of marginal distributions. The paper proposes the study of reliability block diagrams by the analysis of the bridge model with links like serial-parallel, parallel-serial, based on total probability formula. The proposed reliability model built by copula functions is a new possible variant for statistical approach in the quality practice.

  3. Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

    1989-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

  4. Birth of a nanoscience building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul

    2008-08-01

    The first Kavli Prize in Nanoscience has recognized two giants of the field, Louis Brus and Sumio Ijima, who have helped to lay the foundation of the field of nanoscience through their efforts to develop two of the most fundamental nanoscience building blocks: colloidal quantum dots and the carbon nanotube. In this Focus, I provide a brief history on the birth of the field of semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, and outline the contributions that Louis Brus has made in this area, which have served to advance the field of nanoscience in vast and far-reaching ways.

  5. Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia.

  6. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in we

  7. 21 CFR 520.905e - Fenbendazole blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole blocks. 520.905e Section 520.905e... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905e Fenbendazole blocks. (a) Specifications. (1) Each pound of molasses block contains 750 milligrams of fenbendazole. (2) Each pound...

  8. BLOCK BIDIAGONALIZATION METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NONSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴华

    2001-01-01

    The symmetric linear system gives us many simplifications and a possibility to adapt the computations to the computer at hand in order to achieve better performance. The aim of this paper is to consider the block bidiagonalization methods derived from a symmetric augmented multiple linear systems and make a comparison with the block GMRES and block biconjugate gradient methods.

  9. 45 CFR 96.112 - Community services block grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Community services block grant. 96.112 Section 96... Transition Provisions § 96.112 Community services block grant. (a) For the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1981, only, a State may choose to operate programs under the community services block grant or,...

  10. From Block Copolymers to Nano-porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Ndoni, Sokol; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative etching of the polydimethylsiloxane block in a series of polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-PDMS) block copolymers is reported. Reacting the block copolymer with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) renders a nanoporous material with the remaining PS maintaining the original morphology...

  11. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 33.57 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.57 General conduct of block tests. (a) The applicant may, in conducting the block tests, use separate engines of...

  12. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 33.99 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.99 General conduct of block tests. (a) Each applicant may, in making a block test, use separate engines of identical design...

  13. Application of multi-block methods in cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    Compressive strength at 1 day of Portland cement as a function of the microstructure of cement was statistically modelled by application of multi-block regression method. The observation X-matrix was partitioned into four blocks, the first block representing the mineralogy, the second particle size...

  14. Electrical Structure of the Crus Beneath the Ordos Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guoze; Zhan Yan; Wang Lifeng; Wang Jijun; Tang Ji; Chen Xiaobin; Xiao Qibin

    2011-01-01

    The Ordos block is a stable tectonic unit since the Cenozoic. Whether low-resistivity layers exist in the middle and lower crust of this kind block is an open question. This work attempts to reveal the entire crustal structure of the block based on interp

  15. Differential Reinforcement with and without Blocking as Treatment for Elopement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Nathan A.; Pabico, Ryan S.; Findley, Addie J.; Valentino, Amber L.

    2011-01-01

    Blocking is a frequent component of treatments for elopement. Unfortunately, blocking may not always be feasible because elopement often occurs when supervision is low or the behavior cannot be prevented. The present study evaluated the use of blocking in the treatment of elopement by using differential reinforcement of other behavior with and…

  16. Non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ming-Hui; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chan, Kuang-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Cheng; Yie, Jr-Chi; Cheng, Ya-Jung; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2014-10-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation without endotracheal intubation is a promising technique for selected patients, but little is known about its feasibility and safety. We evaluated 109 patients with lung (105), mediastinal (3) or pleural (1) tumours treated using non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery. Internal, intercostal nerve block was performed at the T3-T8 intercostal level and vagal block was performed adjacent to the vagus nerve at the level of the lower trachea for right-sided operations and at the level of the aortopulmonary window for left-sided operations. Sedation was performed with propofol infusion to achieve a bispectral index value between 40 and 60. Thoracoscopic lobectomy was performed in 43 patients, wedge resection in 50, segmentectomy in 12 and mediastinal or pleural tumour excision in 4. Three patients (2.8%) required conversion to intubated one-lung ventilation because of vigorous mediastinal movement and dense diaphragmatic adhesions. Anaesthetic induction and operation had a median duration of 10.0 and 127.0 min, respectively. Operative complications developed in 13 patients with air leaks for more than 3 days and 1 patient required transfusion of blood products. The median postoperative chest drainage and hospital stay were 2.0 and 4.0 days, respectively. Non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation is technically feasible and safe in surgical treatment of lung, mediastinal and pleural tumours in selected patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Block Preconditioners for Complex Symmetric Linear System with Two-by-Two Block Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Liang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the previous work by Zhang and Zheng (A parameterized splitting iteration method for complex symmetric linear systems, Japan J. Indust. Appl. Math., 31 (2014 265–278, three block preconditioners for complex symmetric linear system with two-by-two block form are presented. Spectral properties of the preconditioned matrices are discussed in detail. It is shown that all the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrices are well-clustered. Numerical experiments are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed preconditioners.

  18. [Acute atrioventricular block in chronic Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vince; Zima, Endre; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla

    2010-09-26

    The tick bite transmitted Lyme disease is one of the most common antropozoonosis, about 10 000 new infections are reported in Hungary each year. The progress and clinical presentation can vary, and carditis can occur in later stages. A serologically verified Lyme disease caused third degree atrioventricular block in young male presenting with presyncope. Based on the tick-bites mentioned a few weeks prior to hospital admission, Lyme carditis was considered with the administration of antibiotics and monitor observation. Typical skin lesions were not recognized and laboratory findings showed no pathology. An electrophysiological study recorded a predominant supra-His atrioventricular block. Total regression of conduction could be detected later and the serological tests established an underlying Lyme disease. Currently no definite treatment recommendation is available for the potentially reversible Lyme carditis. The tick bite seemed to be the key on our way to diagnosis; however, serological tests proved the disease to be older than one year. A detailed medical history and serological tests are essential in identifying the cause and pacemaker implantation can be avoided.

  19. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  20. Blocking-resistant communication through domain fronting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifield David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe “domain fronting,” a versatile censorship circumvention technique that hides the remote endpoint of a communication. Domain fronting works at the application layer, using HTTPS, to communicate with a forbidden host while appearing to communicate with some other host, permitted by the censor. The key idea is the use of different domain names at different layers of communication. One domain appears on the “outside” of an HTTPS request—in the DNS request and TLS Server Name Indication—while another domain appears on the “inside”—in the HTTP Host header, invisible to the censor under HTTPS encryption. A censor, unable to distinguish fronted and nonfronted traffic to a domain, must choose between allowing circumvention traffic and blocking the domain entirely, which results in expensive collateral damage. Domain fronting is easy to deploy and use and does not require special cooperation by network intermediaries. We identify a number of hard-to-block web services, such as content delivery networks, that support domain-fronted connections and are useful for censorship circumvention. Domain fronting, in various forms, is now a circumvention workhorse. We describe several months of deployment experience in the Tor, Lantern, and Psiphon circumvention systems, whose domain-fronting transports now connect thousands of users daily and transfer many terabytes per month.

  1. Block Models and Personalized PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Kloumann, Isabel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods though the seed set expansion problem: given a subset $S$ of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of landing probabilities of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model, and find, ...

  2. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V

    1986-02-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  3. Block-based quantum-logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedi, Mehdi; Zamani, Morteza Saheb; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of constructing an efficient quantum circuit for the implementation of an arbitrary quantum computation is addressed. To this end, a basic block based on the cosine-sine decomposition method is suggested which contains $l$ qubits. In addition, a previously proposed quantum-logic synthesis method based on quantum Shannon decomposition is recursively applied to reach unitary gates over $l$ qubits. Then, the basic block is used and some optimizations are applied to remove redundant gates. It is shown that the exact value of $l$ affects the number of one-qubit and CNOT gates in the proposed method. In comparison to the previous synthesis methods, the value of $l$ is examined consequently to improve either the number of CNOT gates or the total number of gates. The proposed approach is further analyzed by considering the nearest neighbor limitation. According to our evaluation, the number of CNOT gates is increased by at most a factor of $\\frac{5}{3}$ if the nearest neighbor interaction i...

  4. Reliability block diagrams to model disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M; Bauerfeind, P

    1999-01-01

    Studies of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in the management of any given disease tend to focus on one particular aspect of the disease and ignore the interaction between the multitude of factors that determine its final outcome. The present article introduces a mathematical model that accounts for the joint contribution of various medical and non-medical components to the overall disease outcome. A reliability block diagram is used to model patient compliance, endoscopic screening, and surgical therapy for dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. The overall probability of a patient with a Barrett's esophagus to comply with a screening program, be correctly diagnosed with dysplasia, and undergo successful therapy is 37%. The reduction in the overall success rate, despite the fact that the majority of components are assumed to function with reliability rates of 80% or more, is a reflection of the multitude of serial subsystems involved in disease management. Each serial component influences the overall success rate in a linear fashion. Building multiple parallel pathways into the screening program raises its overall success rate to 91%. Parallel arrangements render systems less sensitive to diagnostic or therapeutic failures. A reliability block diagram provides the means to model the contributions of many heterogeneous factors to disease outcome. Since no medical system functions perfectly, redundancy provided by parallel subsystems assures a greater overall reliability.

  5. TRUE Block Scale Continuation Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA (France); Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dershowitz, William; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc. (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Poteri, Antti [VTT (Finland); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB (SE)] (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    The TRUE Block Scale project was carried out during 1996-2002. This project focused on site characterisation and building of hydrostructural and microstructural models, sorbing tracer experiments in single structures and networks of structures over distances ranging between 1 and 100 m and also involved a unified application of various model approaches for modelling the in situ experiments. In 2002, ANDRA, Posiva, JNC and SKB decided to pursue some remaining issues in the so-called TRUE Block Scale Continuation project (TRUE BS2). The specific objectives of BS2 can be summarised as: 'Improve understanding of transport pathways at the block scale, including assessment of effects of geology and geometry, macrostructure and microstructure'. In order to cater to addressing the stated objective a series of hypotheses were formulated which explored the importance of geological information for predicting transport and retention and the possible differences between transport and retention between transport paths dominated by faults and those dominated by non-fault fractures (background fractures). In the process, prospects for carrying out experiments in fracture networks over longer distances (c 20-100 m) were explored. It was identified that experiments with sorbing tracers over these distances were prohibitive because of the time frames involved and the projected low mass recoveries. Instead the experimental locus was shifted to a geological structure previously not investigated by tracer tests in the TRUE Block Scale experiments. The lower immobile zone retention material properties assigned to background fractures compared to those assigned to the fault-type Structure 19 have been verified by means of back-calculations. The evaluated Type 1 flow path (Structure 19, Flow path I) retention material properties, as expressed by {kappa} parameter, are one order of magnitude higher than for the background fracture flow path. This finding is consistent with the

  6. Compatibilization of low-density polyethylene/polystyrene blends by segmented EB(PS-block-EB)(n) block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogenated segmented poly[butadiene-block-(styrene-block-butadiene)(n)] block copolymers, which were developed by use of a polymeric iniferter technique, were tested on their compatibilizing effectiveness for (10/90) LDPE/PS blends. They were found to be effective compatibilizers for this mixture,

  7. INVERSE DDA OF A SYSTEM OF BLOCKS IN SPHERE COORDINATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuYun; WangHui; ZhouShuoyu; ShiShunying

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with the geometric equations of elastic-mechanics in the sphere-coordinates, the displacement equation of blocks on asphere consisting of 6 deforming parameters is developed. The formula for distance between blocks is derived under the supposition that all block boundaries are prime arcs. The kinematic constraint and the penalty function for reasonable contact between blocks are developed. The normal equations and their coefficient matrix, based on the Least Squares Principle, are derived. The problem of adjudging penetration between blocks is discussed, and a solution is proposed.

  8. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur YEMENİCİ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  9. Grayscale Image Compression Based on Min Max Block Truncating Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Almarabeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression techniques based on block truncating coding. In this work, a min max block truncating coding (MM_BTC is presented for grayscale image compression relies on applying dividing image into non-overlapping blocks. MM_BTC differ from other block truncating coding such as block truncating coding (BTC in the way of selecting the quantization level in order to remove redundancy. Objectives measures such as: Bit Rate (BR, Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and Redundancy (R, were used to present a detailed evaluation of MM_BTC of image quality.

  10. New Blocking Artifacts Reduction Method Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min; YI Qing-ming

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that a block discrete cosine transform compressed image exhibits visually annoying blocking artifacts at low-bit-rate. A new post-processing deblocking algorithm in wavelet domain is proposed. The algorithm exploits blocking-artifact features shown in wavelet domain. The energy of blocking artifacts is concentrated into some lines to form annoying visual effects after wavelet transform. The aim of reducing blocking artifacts is to capture excessive energy on the block boundary effectively and reduce it below the visual scope. Adaptive operators for different subbands are computed based on the wavelet coefficients. The operators are made adaptive to different images and characteristics of blocking artifacts. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the visual quality and also increase the peak signal-noise-ratio(PSNR) in the output image.

  11. Structure of Block Copolymer Hydrogel Formed by Complex Coacervate Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soohyung; Ortony, Julia; Krogstad, Daniel; Spruell, Jason; Lynd, Nathaniel; Han, Songi; Kramer, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Complex coacervation occurs when oppositely charged polyelectrolytes associate in solution, forming dense micron-sized droplets. Hydrogels with coacervate block domains were formed by mixing two ABA and A'BA' triblock copolymer solutions in water where the A and A' blocks are oppositely charged. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of hydrogels formed by ABA triblock copolymers (A block: poly(allyl glycidyl ether) functionalized with guanidinium (A) or sulfonate (A'), B block: poly(ethylene oxide)). By using an appropriate fitting model, structural information such as coacervate core block radius and water volume fraction w can be extracted from SANS data. The results reveal that w in the coacervate core block was significantly higher than in conventional triblock copolymer hydrogels where microphase separation is driven by the hydrophobicity of the core-forming blocks.

  12. Analysis of genome rearrangement by block-interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin Lung; Lin, Ying Chih; Huang, Yen Lin; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2007-01-01

    Block-interchanges are a new kind of genome rearrangements that affect the gene order in a chromosome by swapping two nonintersecting blocks of genes of any length. More recently, the study of such rearrangements is becoming increasingly important because of its applications in molecular evolution. Usually, this kind of study requires to solve a combinatorial problem, called the block-interchange distance problem, which is to find a minimum number of block-interchanges between two given gene orders of linear/circular chromosomes to transform one gene order into another. In this chapter, we shall introduce the basics of block-interchange rearrangements and permutation groups in algebra that are useful in analyses of genome rearrangements. In addition, we shall present a simple algorithm on the basis of permutation groups to efficiently solve the block-interchange distance problem, as well as ROBIN, a web server for the online analyses of block-interchange rearrangements.

  13. Does obturator nerve block always occur in 3-1 block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tekdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the femoral “3-in-1 block”, obturator nerve block is routinely unsuccessful. Anatomical studies are not available to explain why blockade of obturator nerve or lumbar plexus does not occur. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of femoral “3-in-1 block” obturator nerve block on a cadaver model.Materials and methods: Totally, 12 mature adult human cadavers were selected. Methylene blue dye (30 ml was injected under the fascia iliaca in eight cadavers and into the femoral nerve sheath in four cadavers. Careful bilateral dissections were performed following dye injections.Results: It was seen that the dye did not spread to the medial part of the psoas major muscle and the obturator nerve was not stained with the dye in eight cadavers in whom dye was injected laterally into the femoral sheat. In four cadavers in whom dye was injected into the femoral nerve sheat, metylene blue spread through fascial layers in the plane under the psoas muscle and stained the obturator nerve just before emerging medially from the fascia psoas. At this point, the obturator nerve pierced the psoas fascia and extended extrafascially in the medial and deep borders of the psoas muscle. In this area, the upper section of the obturator nerve was found also to be stained with the dye.Conclusion: We concluded that the cause of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block might be the fascial anatomy of this region. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and the femoral nerve easily can be blocked in the fascia iliaca compartment, but the obturator nerve block fails because of its being extrafascial in this region. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:149-51

  14. Ulnar conduction block at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, P

    1999-10-01

    Two cases of ulnar nerve lesions at the wrist are reported. The lesions had an acute onset and exclusively impaired the ulnar motor deep branch. The coexistence of carpal tunnel syndrome in each case allowed an early diagnosis but was somewhat misleading. In both cases, the use of classic motor and sensory conduction studies did not provide clear abnormalities that would have precisely determined the site of the nerve lesion. In both cases, only palmar stimulation of the ulnar motor deep branch showed an important conduction block. This electrodiagnostic finding showed definitively the site of the ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist and excluded proximal ulnar nerve lesions or C8-T1 radiculopathy. In both cases recovery occurred without surgery.

  15. Observations on the SIMON Block Cipher Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Leander, Gregor; Tiessen, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the general class of functions underlying the Simon block cipher. In particular, we derive efficiently computable and easily implementable expressions for the exact differential and linear behaviour of Simon-like round functions. Following up on this, we use those...... expressions for a computer aided approach based on SAT/SMT solvers to find both optimal differential and linear characteristics for Simon. Furthermore, we are able to find all characteristics contributing to the probability of a differential for Simon32 and give better estimates for the probability for other...... variants. Finally, we investigate a large set of Simon variants using different rotation constants with respect to their resistance against differential and linear cryptanalysis. Interestingly, the default parameters seem to be not always optimal....

  16. Block copolymer templated etching on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yinghong; Wang, Dong; Buriak, Jillian M

    2007-02-01

    The use of self-assembled polymer structures to direct the formation of mesoscopic (1-100 nm) features on silicon could provide a fabrication-compatible means to produce nanoscale patterns, supplementing conventional lithographic techniques. Here we demonstrate nanoscale etching of silicon, applying standard aqueous-based fluoride etchants, to produce three-dimensional nanoscale features with controllable shapes, sizes, average spacing, and chemical functionalization. The block copolymers serve to direct the silicon surface chemistry by controlling the spatial location of the reaction as well as concentration of reagents. The interiors of the resulting etched nanoscale features may be selectively functionalized with organic monolayers, metal nanoparticles, and other materials, leading to a range of ordered arrays on silicon.

  17. Topology optimised planar photonic crystal building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Hede, K. K.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    A photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) 1x4 splitter has been constructed from PhCW 60° bends1 and Y-splitters2 that have been designed individually by utilising topology optimisation3. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1) and exhibits a broadband splitting...... for the TE-polarisation with an average excess loss of 1.55±0.54 dB for a 110 nm bandwidth. The 1x4 splitter demonstrates that individual topology-optimised parts can be used as building blocks to realise high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1L. H. Frandsen et al., Opt. Express 12, 5916-5921 (2004) 2P. I...

  18. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...... functional nanoporous polymers based on nanoporous 1,2- polybuatdiene 1,2-PB, which is derived from a 1,2-PB-b-PDMS diblock copolymer precursor. As a result, nanoporous 1,2-PB with pores decorated of polyacrylates, sulfonated polymers and poly(ethylene glycol) are created. A method of vapor phase deposition...... has also been generated to obtain nanoporous polymers with functional coatings on pore walls. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole is performed to incorporate an ultra thin film of polypyrrole into nanoporous 1,2-PB. The preliminary test shows that nanoporous 1,2-PB gains conductivity. Generally...

  19. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  20. Multi-Dimensional Systematic Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; CHENTao

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a family of Mmulti-dimensional systematic block (MDSB) codes,which can be decoded iteratively. Simulation results of MDSB codes based on Single-parity-check (SPC) and Hamming codes are presented for an additive white Gaussian noise channel. It is shown that performance improves and the code rate decreases with the increasing dimension-ality. Convergence characteristics of iterative decoding are described in detail. Simulation results show that these systematic codes perform better than 2-dimensional counterparts, but have a disadvantage of error floor although they can provide near Shannon capacity's limit performance.MDSB codes offer a good performance versus complexity tradeoff if they use mixture of SPC and Hamming codes as their component codes.

  1. Alkoxyallenes as building blocks for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Alkoxyallenes are unusually versatile C3 building blocks in organic synthesis. Hence this tutorial review summarizes the most important transformations, including subsequent reactions and their applications in the synthesis of relevant compounds, e.g. natural products. The reactivity patterns involved and the synthons derived from alkoxyallenes are presented. Often alkoxyallenes can serve as substitutes of acrolein or acrolein acetals, utilisation of which has already led to interesting products. Most important is the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes which smoothly react with a variety of electrophiles and lead to products with unique substitution patterns. The heterocycles or carbocycles formed are intermediates for the stereoselective synthesis of natural products or for the preparation of other structurally relevant compounds. The different synthons being put into practice by the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes in these variations will be discussed.

  2. Lagophthalmos after v2 maxillary nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit A; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S

    2014-04-01

    We report a previously undescribed complication associated with percutaneous maxillary nerve blockade. After the procedure, the patient reported an inability to close her ipsilateral eye (lagophthalmos). The patient had received 5 mL of 0.5% lidocaine for skin anesthesia. After needle placement was confirmed fluoroscopically, a combination of 80 mg methylprednisolone (2 mL) and 0.25% bupivacaine (3 mL) was administered. Symptoms resolved within 40 minutes. The likely cause was local anesthetic effect on the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. When subcutaneous local anesthetic is given for maxillary block, smaller volumes should be considered. Doctors and patients should be aware of this complication, which may require treatment with artificial tears or patching of the eye to prevent corneal injury.

  3. Optimal information diffusion in stochastic block models

    CERN Document Server

    Curato, Gianbiagio

    2016-01-01

    We use the linear threshold model to study the diffusion of information on a network generated by the stochastic block model. We focus our analysis on a two community structure where the initial set of informed nodes lies only in one of the two communities and we look for optimal network structures, i.e. those maximizing the asymptotic extent of the diffusion. We find that, constraining the mean degree and the fraction of initially informed nodes, the optimal structure can be assortative (modular), core-periphery, or even disassortative. We then look for minimal cost structures, i.e. those such that a minimal fraction of initially informed nodes is needed to trigger a global cascade. We find that the optimal networks are assortative but with a structure very close to a core-periphery graph, i.e. a very dense community linked to a much more sparsely connected periphery.

  4. A block orthogonalization procedure with constant synchronizationrequirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, Andreas; Wu, Kesheng

    2000-04-17

    We propose an alternative orthonormalization method that computes the orthonormal basis from the right singular vectors of a matrix. Its advantage are: (a) all operations are matrix-matrix multiplications and thus cache-efficient, (b) only one synchronization point is required in parallel implementations, (c) could be more stable than Gram-Schmidt. In addition, we consider the problem of incremental orthonormalization where a block of vectors is orthonormalized against a previously orthonormal set of vectors and among itself. We solve this problem by alternating iteratively between a phase of Gram-Schmidt and a phase of the new method. We provide error analysis and use it to derive bounds on how accurately the two successive orthonormalization phases should be performed to minimize total work performed. Our experiments confirm the favorable numerical behavior of the new method and its effectiveness on modern parallel computers.

  5. Phase-Quantized Block Noncoherent Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) is a key bottleneck in scaling DSP-centric receiver architectures to multiGigabit/s speeds. Recent information-theoretic results, obtained under ideal channel conditions (perfect synchronization, no dispersion), indicate that low-precision ADC (1-4 bits) could be a suitable choice for designing such high speed systems. In this work, we study the impact of employing low-precision ADC in a {\\it carrier asynchronous} system. Specifically, we consider transmission over the block noncoherent Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and investigate the achievable performance under low-precision output quantization. We focus attention on an architecture in which the receiver quantizes {\\it only the phase} of the received signal: this has the advantage of being implementable without automatic gain control, using multiple 1-bit ADCs preceded by analog multipliers. For standard uniform Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation, we study the structure of the transition density of the re...

  6. Blocks of finite groups and their invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Sambale, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Providing a nearly complete selection of up-to-date methods and results on block invariants with respect to their defect groups, this book covers the classical theory pioneered by Brauer, the modern theory of fusion systems introduced by Puig, the geometry of numbers developed by Minkowski, the classification of finite simple groups, and various computer assisted methods. In a powerful combination, these tools are applied to solve many special cases of famous open conjectures in the representation theory of finite groups. Most of the material is drawn from peer-reviewed journal articles, but there are also new previously unpublished results. In order to make the text self-contained, detailed proofs are given whenever possible. Several tables add to the text's usefulness as a reference. The book is aimed at experts in group theory or representation theory who may wish to make use of the presented ideas in their research.

  7. Snow and ice blocking of tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia, Leif

    1998-12-31

    Hydroelectric power development in cold regions causes much concern about operational reliability and dam safety. This thesis studies the temperature distribution in tunnels by means of air temperature measurements in six tunnel spillways and five diversion tunnels. The measurements lasted for two consecutive winters. The air through flow tunnel is used as it causes cooling of both rock and water. In open spillway tunnels, frost reaches the entire tunnel. In spillway tunnels with walls, the frost zones reach about 100 m from the downstream end. In mildly-inclined diversion tunnels, a frost free zone is located in the middle of the tunnel and snow and ice problems were only observed in the inlet and outlet. Severe aufeis is accumulation is observed in the frost zones. The heat transfer from rock to air, water and ice is calculated and used in a prediction model for the calculation of aufeis build-up together with local field observation data. The water penetration of snow plugs is also calculated, based on the heat balance. It takes 20 to 50 days for water to enter the blocked tunnel. The empirical values are 30 to 60 days, but only 1 day if the temperature of the snow pack is 0{sup o}C. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for temperature variations in rock, snow, water and ice. Systematic field observation shows that it is important for hydropower companies to know about the effects of snow and ice blocking in an area. A risk analysis of dam safety is presented for a real case. Finally, the thesis proposes solutions which can reduce the snow and ice problems. 79 refs., 63 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Comparing the morphology and phase diagram of H-shaped ABC block copolymers and linear ABC block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianggui; Yu, Xifei; Sun, Zhaoyan; An, Lijia

    2006-06-22

    By using a combinatorial screening method based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for polymers, we have investigated the morphology of H-shaped ABC block copolymers (A2BC2) and compared them with those of the linear ABC block copolymers. By changing the ratios of the volume fractions of two A arms and two C arms, one can obtain block copolymers with different architectures ranging from linear block copolymer to H-shaped block copolymer. By systematically varying the volume fractions of block A, B, and C, the triangle phase diagrams of the H-shaped ABC block copolymer with equal interactions among the three species are constructed. In this study, we find four different morphologies (lamellar phase (LAM), hexagonal lattice phase (HEX), core-shell hexagonal lattice phase (CSH), and two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice (TET2)). Furthermore, the order-order transitions driven by architectural change are discussed.

  9. Robust and Adaptive Block Tracking Method Based on Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of video analysis and processing, object tracking is attracting more and more attention especially in traffic management, digital surveillance and so on. However problems such as objects’ abrupt motion, occlusion and complex target structures would bring difficulties to academic study and engineering application. In this paper, a fragmentsbased tracking method using the block relationship coefficient is proposed. In this method, we use particle filter algorithm and object region is divided into blocks initially. The contribution of this method is that object features are not extracted just from a single block, the relationship between current block and its neighbor blocks are extracted to describe the variation of the block. Each block is weighted according to the block relationship coefficient when the block is voted on the most matched region in next frame. This method can make full use of the relationship between blocks. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can provide good performance in condition of occlusion and abrupt posture variation.

  10. Cardiac pacing in left bundle branch/ bifascicular block patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddali Madan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary concern in patients with bifascicular block is the increased risk of progression to complete heart block. Further, an additional first-degree A-V block in patients with bifascicular block or LBBB might increase the risk of block progression. Anesthesia, monitoring and surgical techniques can induce conduction defects and bradyarrhythmias in patients with pre-existing bundle branch block. In the setting of an acute MI, several different types of conduction disturbance may become manifest and complete heart block occurs usually in patients with acute myocardial infarction more commonly if there is pre-existing or new bundle branch block. The question that arises is whether it is necessary to insert a temporary pacing catheter in patients with bifascicular block undergoing anesthesia. It is important that an anesthesiologist should be aware of the indications for temporary cardiac pacing as well as the current recommendations for permanent pacing in patients with chronic bifascicular and trifascicular block. This article also highlights the recent guidelines for temporary transvenous pacing in the setting of acute MI and the different pacing modalities that are available for an anesthesiologist.

  11. Galactic Building Blocks Seen Swarming Around Andromeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Green Bank, WV - A team of astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) has made the first conclusive detection of what appear to be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation -- neutral hydrogen clouds -- swarming around the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way. This discovery may help scientists understand the structure and evolution of the Milky Way and all spiral galaxies. It also may help explain why certain young stars in mature galaxies are surprisingly bereft of the heavy elements that their contemporaries contain. Andromeda Galaxy This image depicts several long-sought galactic "building blocks" in orbit of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The newfound hydrogen clouds are depicted in a shade of orange (GBT), while gas that comprises the massive hydrogen disk of Andromeda is shown at high-resolution in blue (Westerbork Sythesis Radio Telescope). CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, WSRT (Click on Image for Larger Version) "Giant galaxies, like Andromeda and our own Milky Way, are thought to form through repeated mergers with smaller galaxies and through the accretion of vast numbers of even lower mass 'clouds' -- dark objects that lack stars and even are too small to call galaxies," said David A. Thilker of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "Theoretical studies predict that this process of galactic growth continues today, but astronomers have been unable to detect the expected low mass 'building blocks' falling into nearby galaxies, until now." Thilker's research is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other contributors include: Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy; Rene A.M. Walterbos of New Mexico State University; Edvige Corbelli of the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in Italy; Felix J. Lockman and Ronald Maddalena of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia; and Edward Murphy of the

  12. Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilc block copolymer poly(methyl acrylic acid)-block-polytetrahydrofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Under the specially designated condition the polymerization of both tetrahydrofuran (THF) and tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) is a living one. The diblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl methacrylate)-block-polytetrahydrofuran (PtBMA-b-PTHF), was successfully synthesized by means of the coupling reaction of living cationic PTHF+, SbF6- with living anionic PtBMA-, Li+. LiCl, which has a beneficial effect on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) in the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylates, hinders the coupling reaction of living chains and cannot be used in the preparation of tBMA precursor. The hydrolysis of the aforementioned diblock copolymer under acid condition results in the amphiphilic diblock copolymer, i.e. poly(methyl acrylic acid)-block-polytetra- hydrofuran (PMAA-b-PTHF). The diblock copolymers were characterized with GPC and IR.

  13. Biobased building blocks for the rational design of renewable block polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Angela L; Reno, Kaleigh H; Wool, Richard P; Epps, Thomas H

    2014-10-14

    Block polymers (BPs) derived from biomass (biobased) are necessary components of a sustainable future that relies minimally on petroleum-based plastics for applications ranging from thermoplastic elastomers and pressure-sensitive adhesives to blend compatibilizers. To facilitate their adoption, renewable BPs must be affordable, durable, processable, versatile, and reasonably benign. Their desirability further depends on the relative sustainability of the renewable resources and the methods employed in the monomer and polymer syntheses. Various strategies allow these BPs' characteristics to be tuned and enhanced for commercial applications, and many of these techniques also can be applied to manipulate the wide-ranging mechanical and thermal properties of biobased and self-assembling block polymers. From feedstock to application, this review article highlights promising renewable BPs, plus their material and assembly properties, in support of de novo design strategies that could revolutionize material sustainability.

  14. Ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block vs continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for hip replacement in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; He, Miao; Cai, Guang-Yu; Zou, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block are 2 traditional anesthesia methods in orthopedic surgeries, but it is controversial which method is better. The objective of this study was to compare the practicality, efficacy, and complications of the 2 modalities in hip replacement surgery in the elderly and to assess the utility of a novel cannula-over-needle set. Methods: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical investigation, 60 elderly patients undergoing hip replacement were randomly assigned to receive either continuous femoral nerve block or continuous fascia iliaca compartment block. After ultrasound-guided nerve block, all patients received general anesthesia for surgery and postoperative analgesia through an indwelling cannula. Single-factor analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between the 2 groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the mean visual analog scale scores (at rest) at 6 hours after surgery: 1.0 ± 1.3 in the femoral nerve block group vs 0.5 ± 0.8 in the fascia iliaca compartment block group (P fascia iliaca compartment block group had better analgesia on the lateral aspect of the thigh. There were no other significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block with the novel cannula-over-needle provide effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for elderly hip replacement patients. PMID:27759633

  15. Support agnostic Bayesian matching pursuit for block sparse signals

    KAUST Repository

    Masood, Mudassir

    2013-05-01

    A fast matching pursuit method using a Bayesian approach is introduced for block-sparse signal recovery. This method performs Bayesian estimates of block-sparse signals even when the distribution of active blocks is non-Gaussian or unknown. It is agnostic to the distribution of active blocks in the signal and utilizes a priori statistics of additive noise and the sparsity rate of the signal, which are shown to be easily estimated from data and no user intervention is required. The method requires a priori knowledge of block partition and utilizes a greedy approach and order-recursive updates of its metrics to find the most dominant sparse supports to determine the approximate minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate of the block-sparse signal. Simulation results demonstrate the power and robustness of our proposed estimator. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Ad-Blocking and Counter Blocking: A Slice of the Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Nithyanand, Rishab; Khattak, Sheharbano; Javed, Mobin; Vallina-Rodriguez, Narseo; Falahrastegar, Marjan; Powles, Julia E.; Cristofaro, Emiliano,; Haddadi, Hamed; Murdoch, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Adblocking tools like Adblock Plus continue to rise in popularity, potentially threatening the dynamics of advertising revenue streams. In response, a number of publishers have ramped up efforts to develop and deploy mechanisms for detecting and/or counter-blocking adblockers (which we refer to as anti-adblockers), effectively escalating the online advertising arms race. In this paper, we develop a scalable approach for identifying third-party services shared across multiple web-sites and use...

  17. Continuous postoperative analgesia via quadratus lumborum block - an alternative to transversus abdominis plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoiu, Mihaela; Yakovleva, Nataliya

    2013-10-01

    Different transversus abdominis plane blocks techniques cause variations in postoperative analgesia characteristics. We report the use of unilateral quadratus lumborum catheter for analgesia following colostomy closure. The catheter was placed under direct ultrasound visualization and had good outcomes: low pain scores and minimal use of rescue analgesic medication. No complications were reported in this pediatric patient. More studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this regional anesthesia technique.

  18. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using block polymer assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Sarah Elizabeth

    Despite its potential as an abundant, sustainable alternative to non-renewable energy sources, solar energy currently is underutilized. Photovoltaics, which convert energy from sunlight into electricity, commonly are made from inorganic semiconductor materials that require expensive manufacturing and processing techniques. Alternatively, organic materials can be used to produce flexible and lightweight organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can be prepared using solution-based processing techniques. However, OPV devices are limited by low efficiencies and short lifetimes compared to their inorganic counterparts. In OPV systems, charge carriers are generated in the active layer via the separation of excitons (electron-hole pairs) at interfaces between donor and acceptor materials. Because excitons have a limited diffusion length (˜10 nm), they may recombine before reaching a donor-acceptor interface if domain sizes are large. This exciton recombination can limit device efficiency; thus, the design parameters for improved active layer morphologies include large interfacial areas, small size scales, and continuous conducting pathways. Currently, most OPV devices are prepared by blending donor and acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices, often resulting in non-ideal, process-dependent morphologies. Alternatively, the self-assembly of block polymers (BP)s offers a reproducible means to generate nanostructured active layers. The work presented in this dissertation examines the synthetic approaches to preparing BPs containing different electroactive materials: non-conjugated, amorphous poly(vinyl-m-triphenylamine) [PVmTPA] and conjugated poly(3-alkythiophene) [P3AT] p-type materials as well as fullerene-based n-type materials. The synthesis and self-assembly of a model poly(methyl methacrylate)- b-PVmTPA system is presented. This work was extended to synthesize PVmTPA BPs with complementary poly(methyl methacrylate- co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P

  19. [Subdural, extra-arachnoid block as a complication of stellate ganglion block: documentation with ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, S; Krafft, P; Gosch, M; Fridrich, P; Weinstabl, C

    1997-10-01

    We present a patient who developed a high central neural block after stellate-ganglion-blockade. The underlying pathophysiology was assessed via sonographic imaging. Stellate ganglion block was performed in a 19-year old patient according to the standard technique. Multiple aspiration tests were negative and a test dose of 3 ml bupivacaine 0.25% was injected. After a 3 min interval another 5 ml were injected. Two minutes after the local anaesthetic administration the patient reported nausea and sensations in the upper extremity. Spontaneous respiration efforts stopped, and the patient became unconscious. Tracheal intubation was performed, and the patient was ventilated in a controlled mode for two hours. Heart rate as well as blood pressure remained within the normal range. Neurologic recovery occurred rapidly and extubation was performed about two and a half hours after the event. Our sonographic studies demonstrated a local anaesthetic depot directly at the root of C 6, with a mean diameter of 10 mm and a length of 5 to 6 cm (about a third smaller than expected). Sonographic studies and clinical symptoms of our patient are most likely to occur with a subdural extra-arachnoidal block. Ultrasonographic guided puncture enhances the patient's safety by the opportunity to directly visualise transverse process, nerval root as well as local anaesthetic depot. In case of depot formation directly at the nerval root, injection may be stopped and the needle repositioned. Furthermore, direct visualisation of the great vessels (A. vertebralis) prevents intravascular injection and haematoma formation.

  20. Hydrophilic block azidation of PCL-b-PEO block copolymers from epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Gan, Zhihua

    2014-05-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) with well-controlled pendant azido groups along the hydrophilic PEO block, that is, poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide-co-glycidyl azide) (PCL-b-P(EO-co-GA)), are synthesized from poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide-co-epichlorohydrin) (PCL-b-P(EO-co-ECH)). The further conversion of those azido groups along the hydrophilic block of copolymers into amino or carboxyl groups via click chemistry is studied. The micelles self-assembled from PCL-b-P(EO-co-GA) with azido groups on the shell are crosslinked by the dialkynyl-PEO. The micelles with crosslinked shell show better stability, higher drug loading capacities, subsequent faster drug release rate, and higher cytotoxicity to cancer cells. The introduction of azido groups into PCL-b-PEO amphiphilic diblock copolymers from epichlorohydrin in PEO hydrophilic block in this work provides a new method for biofunctionalization of micelles via mild click chemistry.