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Sample records for 73-amino acids insert

  1. Nonmetal catalyzed insertion reactions of diazocarbonyls to acid derivatives in fluorinated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Lidia; Azzouzi-Zriba, Kaouther; Bonnet-Delpon, Danièle; Crousse, Benoit

    2011-02-18

    The insertion reaction of diazocarbonyls to acids could be performed smoothly in fluorinated alcohols in the absence of metal catalyst. This new procedure allowed the chemoselective preparation of various functionalized compounds such as acyloxyesters, depsipeptides, and sulfonate, phosphonate, or boronate derivatives.

  2. Acidic pH promotes oligomerization and membrane insertion of the BclXL apoptotic repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Olenick, Max B; McDonald, Caleb B; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2012-12-01

    Solution pH is believed to serve as an intricate regulatory switch in the induction of apoptosis central to embryonic development and cellular homeostasis. Herein, using an array of biophysical techniques, we provide evidence that acidic pH promotes the assembly of BclXL apoptotic repressor into a megadalton oligomer with a plume-like appearance and harboring structural features characteristic of a molten globule. Strikingly, our data reveal that pH tightly modulates not only oligomerization but also ligand binding and membrane insertion of BclXL in a highly subtle manner. Thus, while oligomerization and the accompanying molten globular content of BclXL is least favorable at pH 6, both of these structural features become more pronounced under acidic and alkaline conditions. However, membrane insertion of BclXL appears to be predominantly favored under acidic conditions. In a remarkable contrast, while ligand binding to BclXL optimally occurs at pH 6, it is diminished by an order of magnitude at lower and higher pH. This reciprocal relationship between BclXL oligomerization and ligand binding lends new insights into how pH modulates functional versatility of a key apoptotic regulator and strongly argues that the molten globule may serve as an intermediate primed for membrane insertion in response to apoptotic cues. PMID:22960132

  3. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Ye, Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S; Carlson, Susan E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S; Joshi, Kalpana S; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product-precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  4. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  5. On the nature of the apparent free energy of inserting amino acids into membrane through the translocon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkova, Anna; Warshel, Arieh

    2013-11-01

    The nature of the biological free energy scale (ΔGapp), obtained from translocon mediated insertion studies, has been a major puzzle and the subject of major controversies. Part of the problem has been the complexity of the insertion process that discouraged workers from considering the feasible kinetics schemes and left the possible impression that ΔGapp presents some simple partition. Here we extend and clarify our recent analysis of the insertion problem using well-defined kinetics schemes and a free energy profile. We point out that although the rate constants of some steps are far from being obvious, it is essential to consider explicitly such schemes in order to advance in analyzing the meaning of ΔGapp. It is then shown that under some equilibrium conditions the kinetics scheme leads to a simple formula that allows one to relate ΔGapp to the actual free energy of partitioning between the water, the membrane, and the translocon. Other options are also considered (including limits with irreversible transitions that can be described by linear free energy relationships (LFERs)). It is concluded that it is unlikely that a kinetics plus thermodynamic based analysis can lead to a result that identifies ΔGapp with the partition between the membrane and the translocon. Thus, we argue that unless such analysis is presented, it is unjustified to assume that ΔGapp corresponds to the membrane translocon equilibrium or to some other arbitrary definition. Furthermore, we point out that the presumption that it is sufficient to just calculate the PMF for going from the translocon (TR) to the membrane and then to assume irreversible diffusive motion to water and for further entrance to the membrane is not a valid analysis. Overall, we point out that it is important to try to relate ΔGapp to a well-defined kinetics scheme (regardless of the complication of the system) in order to determine whether the energies of inserting positively charged residues to the membrane are

  6. Amino acid substitutions at the major insertion loop of Candida albicans sterol 14alpha-demethylase are involved in fluconazole resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Alvarez-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, amino acid substitutions of 14alpha-demethylase (CaErg11p, CaCYP51 are associated with azole antifungals resistance. This is an area of research which is very dynamic, since the stakes concern the screening of new antifungals which circumvent resistance. The impact of amino acid substitutions on azole interaction has been postulated by homology modeling in comparison to the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT-CYP51. Modeling of amino acid residues situated between positions 428 to 459 remains difficult to explain to date, because they are in a major insertion loop specifically present in fungal species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Fluconazole resistance of clinical isolates displaying Y447H and V456I novel CaErg11p substitutions confirmed in vivo in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Y447H and V456I implication into fluconazole resistance was then studied by site-directed mutagenesis of wild-type CaErg11p and by heterogeneously expression into the Pichia pastoris model. CLSI modified tests showed that V447H and V456I are responsible for an 8-fold increase in fluconazole MICs of P. pastoris mutants compared to the wild-type controls. Moreover, mutants showed a sustained capacity for producing ergosterol, even in the presence of fluconazole. Based on these biological results, we are the first to propose a hybrid homology structure-function model of Ca-CYP51 using 3 different homology modeling programs. The variable position of the protein insertion loop, using different liganded or non-liganded templates of recently solved CYP51 structures, suggests its inherent flexibility. Mapping of recognized azole-resistant substitutions indicated that the flexibility of this region is probably enhanced by the relatively high glycine content of the consensus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the potential role of the insertion loop in azole resistance in the human

  7. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  8. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  9. Improving the pH-response of pHLIP insertion at tumor acidity for targeted drug delivery against cancer: Biophysical studies in model membranes and evaluations in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Joab Otieno

    pH (Low) Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) possesses unique qualities that can be applied in cancer biology. It is a peptide that lives in three worlds: In State I, pHLIP exists as an unstructured monomer in solution at neutral pH; In State II, pHLIP partitions to the surface of a lipid bilayer at neutral pH; In State III, pHLIP inserts across the lipid bilayer by forming a transmembrane (TM) alpha helix under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6). These properties allow pHLIP to target acidosis (pH 6.5-7.0), a ubiquitous feature of solid tumors. Although pHLIP shows promise as a drug delivery vehicle, insertion properties such as pH50 (i.e. the pH at which 50% of pHLIP are inserted) and Hill coefficient must be tuned to improve tumor targeting and drug delivery in vivo. When TM region D14 and D25 residues were replaced with two glutamic acid residues as well as noncanonical amino acids such as alpha amino adipic acid (Aad) and gamma carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), we discovered pHLIP variants that possess a pH50 that can match tumor extracellular pH. pHLIP variants D25EE, Asp25Aad, and Asp14Gla/Asp25Aad, insert with pH50 of 6.60, 6.74, and 6.79, respectively. We also tuned pH-response (cooperativity of insertion) and we found that the Asp14Gla variant can insert into membrane with the sharpest transition observed so far for a pHLIP (i.e. over half pH unit vs. one pH unit for WT). Furthermore, we used turn-on fluorescence to evaluate the new variants in cancer cells. The most promising Asp25Aad pHLIP gave near theoretical maximum level of dequenching in cancerous A549 cells at pH 6.2 and 6.4, indicating a high level of plasma-membrane insertion. Under the same conditions, the `WT' and D25E pHLIP variants have low levels of plasma-membrane insertion in cells. Dequenching levels were low in non-cancerous HK2 cell line.

  10. A unique insertion of low complexity amino acid sequence underlies protein-protein interaction in human malaria parasite orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waranya Imprasittichai; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Sudaratana R Krungkrai; Jerapan Krungkrai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multienzyme complex formation of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) orotate phosphoribosyltransferase(OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase(OMPDC), the fifth and sixth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.Previously, we have clearly established that the two enzymes in the malaria parasite exist physically as a heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 complex containing two subunits each ofOPRT andOMPDC, and that the complex have catalytic kinetic advantages over the monofunctional enzyme.Methods:Both enzymes were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins.The protein-protein interaction in the enzyme complex was identified using bifunctional chemical cross-linker, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and homology modeling.Results:The unique insertions of low complexity region at the α2 and α5 helices of the parasiteOMPDC, characterized by single amino acid repeat sequence which was not found in homologous proteins from other organisms, was located on theOPRT-OMPDC interface.The structural models for the protein-protein interaction of the heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 multienzyme complex were proposed.Conclusions:Based on the proteomic data and structural modeling, it is surmised that the human malaria parasite low complexity region is responsible for theOPRT-OMPDC interaction.The structural complex of the parasite enzymes, thus, represents an efficient functional kinetic advantage, which in line with co-localization principles of evolutional origin, and allosteric control in protein-protein-interactions.

  11. Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Xie, Xing; Zhao, Yanbing; Kalhoro, Dildar Hussain; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and virulence, we rescued the CIV strain, A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2011(H3N2) and its NA mutant without the 2-aa insertion using reverse genetics. The NA stalk length affected virus growth in cell culture. Compared to the short stalk strain (without 2-aa insertion), the long stalk strain (with 2-aa insertion) exhibited higher peak titers and greater yields in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts and canine bronchiolar epithelial cells, as well as much larger plaques in MDCK cell monolayers. Furthermore, mice inoculated with the long stalk strain showed more severe pathologic damage in lung and higher proportion of detectable viral RNA in tissues. The long stalk strain induced local IFN-γ production with faster kinetics and higher levels in mice. However, in chickens, the two viral strains showed no significant difference with nearly the same proportion of detectable viral RNA loads in tissues. These observations suggest that the 2-aa insertion in the NA stalk acquired by avian-origin H3N2 CIV helps to enhance viral replication and is likely a result of adaptive evolution in canine hosts. PMID:27160077

  12. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins.

  13. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins. PMID:26928903

  14. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step. PMID:26800072

  15. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  16. Synthesis of a new intercalating nucleic acid analogue with pyrenol insertions and the thermal stability of the resulting oligonucleotides towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Amany M. A.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    A new intercalating nucleic acid monomer Y was obtained via alkylation of pyren-1-ol with (S)-(?)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)ethanol under Mitsunobu conditions followed by hydrolysis with 80% aqueous acetic acid to give a diol which was tritylated with 4,40-dimethoxytrityl chloride followed...... nearly identical hybridization properties with those of intercalating nucleic acid (INA) where neighboring oxygen and carbon atoms are interchanged in the linker. The synthesis of monomer Y avoids the use of allergic intermediates which are a problem in the synthesis of INA....

  17. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  18. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld;

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte. ...... conductivities, the thicknessof the electrode, the volume fractions, and the slope of the potential curve.......The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte....... The theoretical basis for such electrodes is discussedand, using a simplified model, equations are derived to describe the distribution of potential and current duringdischarge/charge operation. Under the assumption that the insertion compound particles are small enough to ensureequilibrium, and that the local...

  19. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  1. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  2. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  3. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  4. ENDOSCOPIC GROMMET INSERTION OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Grommet insertion the commonest surgical procedure next only to circumcision is usually performed using an operating microscope 1. Authors have been using 4 mm 0 degree nasalendoscopes to perform this procedure during the last 5 years. This is a report of their experience in using endoscope inlieu of microscope in performing this surgery. This study makes a comparative analysis of Endoscopic Grommet insertion viz a viz Microscopic Grommet insertion. For this comparative analysis one year (2009 data base of Government Stanley Medical College Chennai India was used. This study reveals that Endoscopic Grommet insertion compared favorably with Microscopic Grommet insertion in all aspects with certain obvious advantages.

  5. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  6. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  7. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented

  8. A novel genotype encoding a single amino acid insertion and five other substitutions between residues 64 and 74 of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers high-level cross-resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Abacavir CNA2007 International Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakik, A; Ait-Khaled, M; Griffin, P; Thomas, T A; Tisdale, M; Kleim, J P

    1999-10-01

    We investigated HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) polymorphisms of plasma isolates from 98 HIV-1-infected study subjects with >2 years of antiretroviral therapy who were failing their current protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen. In 1 patient, we detected a virus with a heavily mutated beta3-beta4 connecting loop of the HIV-1 RT fingers subdomain, consisting of a single aspartate codon insertion between positions 69 and 70 and five additional variations: 64N, K65, K66, 67G, 68Y, T69, Ins D, 70R, W71, R72, K73, 74I. Mutants with the recently described 2-aa insertions between codons 68 and 70 of RT were detected in another 3 patients. Among the four isolates with the 1- or 2-aa insertions, the novel genotype was the most refractory to therapy and displayed the highest level of phenotypic resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Follow-up samples demonstrated that the novel mutant represents a stable genetic rearrangement and that the amino acid insertions can coexist with nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) mutations resulting in phenotypic resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs. An increasing number of HIV-1 isolates containing various insertions in the beta3-beta4 hairpin of the HIV-1 RT fingers subdomain appear to emerge after prolonged therapy with different NRTIs, and these polymorphisms can confer multiple drug resistance against NRTIs. PMID:10843527

  9. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  10. Islet amyloid polypeptide inserts into phospholipid monolayers as monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maarten F M; Yigittop, HaciAli; Elgersma, Ronald C; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J; de Kruijff, Ben; Höppener, Jo W M; Antoinette Killian, J

    2006-02-24

    Amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are thought to be a main factor responsible for death of the insulin-producing islet beta-cells in type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that beta-cell death is related to interaction of the 37 amino acid residue human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the major constituent of islet amyloid, with cellular membranes. However, the mechanism of hIAPP-membrane interactions is largely unknown. Here, we study the nature and the molecular details of the initial step of hIAPP-membrane interactions by using the monolayer technique. It is shown that both freshly dissolved hIAPP and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) have a pronounced ability to insert into phospholipid monolayers, even at lipid packing conditions that exceed the conditions that occur in biological membranes. In contrast, the fibrillar form of hIAPP has lost the ability to insert. These results, combined with the observations that both the insertion kinetics and the dependence of insertion on the initial surface pressure are similar for freshly dissolved hIAPP and mIAPP, indicate that hIAPP inserts into phospholipid monolayers most likely as a monomer. In addition, our results suggest that the N-terminal part of hIAPP, which is nearly identical with that of mIAPP, is largely responsible for insertion. This is supported by experiments with hIAPP fragments, which show that a peptide consisting of the 19 N-terminal residues of hIAPP efficiently inserts into phospholipid monolayers, whereas an amyloidogenic decapeptide, consisting of residues 20-29 of hIAPP, inserts much less efficiently. The results obtained here suggest that hIAPP monomers might insert with high efficiency in biological membranes in vivo. This process could play an important role as a first step in hIAPP-induced membrane damage in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16403520

  11. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Modeling Amyloid Beta Peptide Insertion into Lipid Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Maddox, M W; Longo, M J; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Maddox, Michael W.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recent suggestions that the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (A-beta), can insert into cell membranes and form harmful ion channels, we model insertion of the peptide into cell membranes using a Monte Carlo code which is specific at the amino acid level. We examine insertion of the regular A-beta peptide as well as mutants causing familial Alzheimer's disease. We present our results and develop the hypothesis that partial insertion into the membrane, leaving the peptide in one leaflet, increases the probability of harmful channel formation. This hypothesis can partly explain why these mutations are neurotoxic simply due to peptide insertion behavior, and also explains why, normally, A-beta 42 is more toxic to some cultured cells than A-beta 40, but the E22Q mutation reverses this effect. We further apply this model to various artificial A-beta mutants which have been examined experimentally, and offer testable experimental predictions contrasting the roles of aggregation and insertion with regard ...

  13. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  14. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  15. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  16. Field Errors in Hybrid Insertion Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  17. Does 'insertion' work? France's minimum income"

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Timothy

    1993-01-01

    International audience France's Revenu Minimum d Insertion (RMI) received the approval of the French Parliament on 1st December1988, and came into effect shortly afterwardsi. In addition to a means test, the RMI is conditional upon signature of a contract (le contrat d'insertion) by which its recipients pledge themselves to take whatever action the RMI authorities recommend in order to re-insert themselves in main-stream society. Insertion is a difficult concept to translate into English. ...

  18. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Ajay; Ahmed Shwan J; Rimington Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with low...

  19. Tetrahedral mesh for needle insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Syvertsen, Rolf Anders

    2007-01-01

    This is a Master’s thesis in how to make a tetrahedral mesh for use in a needle insertion simulator. It also describes how it is possible to make the simulator, and how to improve it to make it as realistic as possible. The medical simulator uses a haptic device, a haptic scene graph and a FEM for realistic soft tissue deformation and interaction. In this project a tetrahedral mesh is created from a polygon model, and then the mesh has been loaded into the HaptX haptic scene graph. The object...

  20. Amino acid substitution or insertion patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone%头孢曲松低敏的淋球菌中青霉素结合蛋白2氨基酸替代或插入模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋法兴; 其木格; 钱革; 郑波; 叶顺章; 苏晓红; 胡白; 王千秋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the amino acid patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2(PBP2)in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxonc.and the relationship between the amino acid patterns and reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.Methods DNA was extracted from 13 clinical isolates of N.gonorrhoeae.including 11 strains with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and 2 sensitive isolates.The full-length penA gene encoding the penicillin-binding protein 2 was amplified and sequenced.BLASTn and BLASTx programs were used to assess the insertion and substitution patterns of nucleotides in penA gene and of amino acids in PBP2,respectively.Results BLASTn analysis revealed insertion or substitution of 18-38 nucleotides in the penA gene of gonococcal isolates with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.As shown by BLASTX analysis.there were five patterns of amino acid substitution or insertion in PBP2 of the 11 isolates with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.However.mosaic structure of PBP2 was not found in any of these isolates.Conclusion Mosaic PBP2 seems not to be the major factor contributing to the decrease in susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone.%目的 检测头孢曲松低敏的淋球菌中青霉素结合蛋白2(PBP2)模式,探讨其是否与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低有关.方法 将11株头孢曲松低敏和2株头孢曲松敏感的淋球菌penA基因全基因测序,通过BLASTn与BLASTx分析,研究penA基因的碱基插入和置换情况及PBP2中氨基酸插入和置换模式.结果 13株淋球菌的penA基因中有多个碱基置换或插入,PBP2中共发现5种模式的氨基酸插入或置换模式,没有发现PBP2镶嵌状结构模式.结论 PBP2的镶嵌状结构可能不是导致淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性下降的主要因素.

  1. Efeito do ácido naftaleno acético (ANA e benzilaminopurina (BAP no aumento do ângulo de inserção dos ramos em macieira The effect of naftalen acetic acid (NAA and benzilaminopurin (BAP in the increase of the angle of insertion of the branches in apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos fitorreguladores ANA (ácido naftaleno acético e BAP (benzilaminopurina, no aumento do ângulo de inserção de ramos jovens em macieira. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar comercial da região de Lages-SC, utilizando-se das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji, sobre porta-enxerto Marubakaido, testando diferentes doses de fitorreguladores e o arqueamento convencional. Os fitorreguladores foram aplicados com auxílio de algodão, na inserção entre os ramos e o caule, na parte superior dos ramos em crescimento. Os resultados evidenciaram que ANA teve um efeito positivo no arqueamento de ramos, nas doses de 200 a 500 ppm, mas a prática convencional para aumentar o ângulo de inserção dos ramos, através do uso de palitos, continua sendo o melhor método de arqueamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of the growth regulators NAA (naftalen acetic acid and BAP (benzilaminopurin, in the increase of the angle of insertion of the branches in apple trees. The experiment was driven in a commercial orchard area of Lages/SC, where has been cultivated Imperial Gala and Fuji cultivars on rootstock Marubakaido, testing different doses of the regulators compared with the conventional bending. The regulators were applied with cotton aid, in the superior part of the branches in growth, in the insertion between the branch and the stem. The results evidenced that, even NAA tends to have a good effect in the bending of branches, in the doses of 200 to 500 ppm, the conventional practice to increase the angle of insertion of the branches, through the use of toothpicks, continues being the best bending method.

  2. PanoInserts: mobile spatial teleconferencing

    OpenAIRE

    Pece, F.; Steptoe, W.; F. Wanner; Julier, S.; Weyrich, T.; Kautz, J.; Steed, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present PanoInserts: a novel teleconferencing system that uses smartphone cameras to create a surround representation of meeting places. We take a static panoramic image of a location into which we insert live videos from smartphones. We use a combination of marker- and image-based tracking to position the video inserts within the panorama, and transmit this representation to a remote viewer. We conduct a user study comparing our system with fully-panoramic video and conventional webcam vi...

  3. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Ajay

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with lower abdominal scar. The risk may be reduced with the use of ultrasound scan guidance.

  4. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  5. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  6. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  7. Marginal adaptation of ceramic inserts after cementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Pfeiffer, P; Nergiz, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    The advantage of using ceramic inserts is to prevent major drawbacks of composite resins such as polymerization shrinkage, wear and microleakage. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of two approximal ceramic insert systems after cementation to the cavities opened with ultrasonic ti

  8. An Elementary Account of Needle Insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文兵; 霍则军

    2004-01-01

    @@ Based on the authors' clinical and personal experiences, several pain-inducing factors easily to be ignored by the operators when quick needle insertion is applied, and the authors' first invented slow painless needle insertion method are introduced in the article.

  9. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  10. Aspartate embedding depth affects pHLIP's insertion pKa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M

    2013-07-01

    We have used the pHlow insertion peptide (pHLIP) family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When the pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when the pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To examine this protonation mechanism further, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the two spanning aspartates (D14 and D25) were moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that the aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to determine whether arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting the aspartate depth. Our results indicate that both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that the aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining the pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP's resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving the performance of pHLIP in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation. PMID:23721379

  11. An Unusual Complication of Suprapubic Catheter Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Ananthakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had a small bowel mesentery perforation following insertion of a suprapubic catheter (SPC is described. He had no bowel complaints immediately following the procedure, but presented 10 weeks later with insidious onset bowel obstruction due to the kink caused by the catheter. This complication occurred despite cystoscopy control and adequate bladder distension prior to the procedure. This isolated case illustrates the fact that regardless of the ease and frequency of SPC insertion, complications do occur.

  12. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  13. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  14. Ninety-Nine Is Not Enough: Molecular Characterization of Inhibitor-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Mutants with Insertions in the Flap Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koiek, Milan; Saskova, Klara Grantz; Rezaova, Pavlina; Brynda, Jii; van Maarseveen, Noortje M.; De Jong, Dorien; Boucher, Charles A.; Kagan, Ron M.; Nijhuis, Monique; Konvalinka, Jan (Quest); (Charles U); (Utrecht)

    2008-07-21

    While the selection of amino acid insertions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a known mechanism of resistance against RT inhibitors, very few reports on the selection of insertions in the protease (PR) coding region have been published. It is still unclear whether these insertions impact protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and/or viral replication capacity. We show that the prevalence of insertions, especially between amino acids 30 to 41 of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PR, has increased in recent years. We identified amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 of the PR of HIV-1-infected patients who had undergone prolonged treatment with PIs, and we characterized the contribution of these insertions to viral resistance. We prepared the corresponding mutated, recombinant PR variants with or without insertions at positions 33 and 35 and characterized them in terms of enzyme kinetics and crystal structures. We also engineered the corresponding recombinant viruses and analyzed the PR susceptibility and replication capacity by recombinant virus assay. Both in vitro methods confirmed that the amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 contribute to the viral resistance to most of the tested PIs. The structural analysis revealed local structural rearrangements in the flap region and in the substrate binding pockets. The enlargement of the PR substrate binding site together with impaired flap dynamics could account for the weaker inhibitor binding by the insertion mutants. Amino acid insertions in the vicinity of the binding cleft therefore represent a novel mechanism of HIV resistance development.

  15. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  16. An Insertion Mutation That Distorts Antibody Binding Site Architecture Enhances Function of a Human Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jens C.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Smith, Patricia B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Crowe, Jr., James E. (Vanderbilt); (Scripps); (CDC)

    2011-09-02

    The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen.

  17. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  18. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  19. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai JY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jia-yue Bai, Wei Zhang, Ji-long An, Ya-peng Sun, Wen-yuan Ding, Yong Shen Key Biomechanical Laboratory of Orthopedics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People’s Republic of China Background: The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods: Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results: The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion: The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate

  20. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  1. Frequency, Gradience, and Variation in Consonant Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Young-ran

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the extent to which linguistic behavior can be described in terms of the projection of patterns from existing lexical items, through an investigation of Korean reduplication. Korean has a productive pattern of reduplication in which a consonant is inserted in a vowel-initial base, illustrated by forms such as "alok"--"t…

  2. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  3. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  4. Roles for retrotransposon insertions in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancks, Dustin C; Kazazian, Haig H

    2016-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, the dynamic nature of a genome is driven, in part, by the activity of transposable elements (TE) such as retrotransposons. On a shorter time scale it has been established that new TE insertions can result in single-gene disease in an individual. In humans, the non-LTR retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous TE. In addition to mobilizing its own RNA to new genomic locations via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism, LINE-1 is able to retrotranspose other RNAs including Alu, SVA, and occasionally cellular RNAs. To date in humans, 124 LINE-1-mediated insertions which result in genetic diseases have been reported. Disease causing LINE-1 insertions have provided a wealth of insight and the foundation for valuable tools to study these genomic parasites. In this review, we provide an overview of LINE-1 biology followed by highlights from new reports of LINE-1-mediated genetic disease in humans. PMID:27158268

  5. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  6. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  7. Optimization of ITER Central Solenoid Insert design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodak, Andrei, E-mail: akhodak@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Alexandre [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Modifications of coil design for testing ITER superconducting cable are presented. ► Numerical analysis allowed optimal selection of the material for the coil spacers. ► Current sharing temperature distributions along the cable are predicted. -- Abstract: The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. One of the design goals of the CSI is to assure that the properties of the conductor near the median plane are measured accurately. Since Nb3Sn is strain sensitive and electromagnetic forces generate a significant strain that increases the current sharing temperature (T{sub cs}), we need to design the Insert in such a way that the most strained conductor near the median plane would still have the lowest T{sub cs} of all the rest of the conductor in the Insert. The difference between thermal contraction of the jacket and spacer material allows controlling axial distribution of the coil radial deformation. Numerical analysis of the CSI was performed using stainless steel, titanium and invar spacer material variants. Distribution of the T{sub cs} was obtained from numerical results in the form similar to one proposed for ITER.

  8. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices. PMID:26654178

  9. New cardiac retractor for epicardial electrode insertion via subxiphoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Arai, H; Suzuki, A

    1993-04-01

    A new retractor for the insertion of epicardial screw-in electrodes is described. We have found that this instrument can be easily applied to the heart and gives excellent exposure for electrode insertion.

  10. Roles for retrotransposon insertions in human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin C Hancks; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2016-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, the dynamic nature of a genome is driven, in part, by the activity of transposable elements (TE) such as retrotransposons. On a shorter time scale it has been established that new TE insertions can result in single-gene disease in an individual. In humans, the non-LTR retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous TE. In addition to mobilizing its own RNA to new genomic locations via a “copy-and-paste” mechanism, LINE-1 is able...

  11. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  12. Insertion and deletion processes in recent human history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Sjödin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although insertions and deletions (indels account for a sizable portion of genetic changes within and among species, they have received little attention because they are difficult to type, are alignment dependent and their underlying mutational process is poorly understood. A fundamental question in this respect is whether insertions and deletions are governed by similar or different processes and, if so, what these differences are. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use published resequencing data from Seattle SNPs and NIEHS human polymorphism databases to construct a genomewide data set of short polymorphic insertions and deletions in the human genome (n = 6228. We contrast these patterns of polymorphism with insertions and deletions fixed in the same regions since the divergence of human and chimpanzee (n = 10,546. The macaque genome is used to resolve all indels into insertions and deletions. We find that the ratio of deletions to insertions is greater within humans than between human and chimpanzee. Deletions segregate at lower frequency in humans, providing evidence for deletions being under stronger purifying selection than insertions. The insertion and deletion rates correlate with several genomic features and we find evidence that both insertions and deletions are associated with point mutations. Finally, we find no evidence for a direct effect of the local recombination rate on the insertion and deletion rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that deletions are more deleterious than insertions but that insertions and deletions are otherwise generally governed by the same genomic factors.

  13. T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

  14. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  15. Construction of small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carola; Daniel, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of the Earth's biological diversity is hidden in uncultured and yet uncharacterized microbial genomes. The construction of metagenomic libraries is a cultivation-independent molecular approach to assess this unexplored genetic reservoir. In the last few years, a high number of novel biocatalysts have been identified by function-based or sequence-based screening of metagenomic libraries. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the construction of metagenomic small-insert and large-insert libraries in plasmids and fosmids, respectively, from environmental DNA. PMID:20830554

  16. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  17. A buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing timing optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2006-01-01

    A path-based timing optimization algorithm for buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing is proposed.Firstly, candidate buffer insertion location and buffer size for each branch in a given routing path were obtained via localized timing optimization. Then, through evaluating each potential insertion against design objectives, potential optimal buffer insertion locations and sizes for the whole routing tree were determined. At last, by removing redundant buffer insertion operations which do not maximize S ( so ), given timing requirements are finally fulfilled through minimum number of buffers.

  18. INSERTION DEVICE UPGRADE PLANS AT THE NSLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANABE, T.; BLEDNYKH, A.; HARDER, D.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices (IDs) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W120) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, undulator (MGU or SCU-X9), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both IDs will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement at low temperature, will be discussed.

  19. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  20. Wear mechanisms of WC-Co drill bit inserts against alumina counterface under dry friction: Part 2 — Graded WC-Co inserts

    OpenAIRE

    Yahiaoui, Malik; Paris, Jean-Yves; Denape, Jean; Colin, Christophe; Ther, Olivier; Dourfaye, Alfazazi

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of innovative graded cemented carbide inserts were studied by using a rotary tribometer and abrasive alumina counterfaces. This work completes the study made on commercial inserts with homogeneous cobalt content. Inserts with three types of graduation processes were considered: inserts with borides WCoB phases, imbibed inserts and inserts combining both processes (i.e. inserts with reactive imbibition). Physicochemical and mechanical measurements show that the WCoB ...

  1. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  2. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Juçara Ribeiro; Foureaux, Giselle; Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Ribeiro, Tatiana Gomes; Rodrigues, Lívia Bomfim; Bravo, Renata; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Ferreira, Anderson José; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM). Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM) were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a promising system

  3. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  4. The Effect of Windings on ADSL Transformer Insertion Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-na; LAN Zhong-wen; CHEN Sheng-ming; ZHANG Huai-wu; SU Hua

    2007-01-01

    Insertion loss (IL) is one of the important parameters of asymmetrical digital subscriber loop (ADSL) transformers. In different frequency bands, the factors that affect insertion loss are different. Windings mainly affect insertion loss in mid and high frequency bands.The effects of winding ways, winding wire diameter and winding turns on insertion loss were discussed. The presented experiment shows that the insertion loss of an ADSL transformer could be under 0.4 dB in mid frequency band when the winding is 30 turns, in which the ADSL transformer satisfies the requirement of total harmonic distortion (THD). Our experiments also show that the sandwich winding structure is better than the side by side winding structure and the twisted-pair winding structure, and the increase of winding diameter is one means to reduce insertion losses of an ADSL transformer in mid frequency band.

  5. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini- implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Faria Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT, as well as to analyze surface morphology. METHODS: Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM before and after the mechanical tests. RESULTS: Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm were higher and statistically different (P 0.05 to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm and dense bone (23.95 N.cm were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm was higher and statistically different (P < 0.05 from insertion torsional strength in all tested situations. SEM analysis showed that the MIs had the same smooth surface when received from the manufacturer and after the mechanical tests were performed. Additionally, no significant marks resulting from the manufacturing process were observed. CONCLUSION: All mini-implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion.

  6. EXPLORATION ON SCALABILITY OF DATABASE BULK INSERTION WITH MULTITHREADING

    OpenAIRE

    Boon-Wee Low; Boon-Yaik Ooi; and Chee-Siang Wong

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of database engine and multi-core processors technologies have enable database insertion to be implemented concurrently via multithreading programming. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of using multithreading technique to perform database insertion of large data set with known size to enhance the performance of data access layer (DAL) particularly on the bulk-insertion operation. The performance evaluation includes techniques such as using single datab...

  7. A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF PACKAGE INSERTS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbool Ali M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available formation is a Package Insert. It is a printed leaflet that contains information based on regulatory guidelines for the safe and effective use of a drug. Incomplete and incorrect product information may have serious consequences including disability or death. In India, the concept of package insert is governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (1940 and Rules (1945. Keeping this in mind, this study was designed to assess the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. AIM To evaluate the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. OBJECTIVES To evaluate drug information in package inserts according to headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and 6.3 of Schedule D, Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. MATERIAL AND METHODS Package inserts accompanying allopathic medicines were obtained from a drug store and three pharmacies around a tertiary care centre in Western India on request over a 1-month period. The package inserts were included in the study and analysed for the presentation and completeness of information according to the headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and Section 6.3 of Schedule D, The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. RESULTS 110 package inserts were analysed in the study. None of the reviewed package insert contained all the sections as required by the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules. CONCLUSION To avoid medication errors due to deficits in drug information in package inserts, tighter monitoring of package inserts by regulatory authorities is recommended. Steps should be taken to ensure that the information in the package inserts follows a standard layout for easy and convenient comprehension.

  8. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. PMID:27212209

  9. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  10. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Project

    CERN Document Server

    Miucci, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer in 2013-14. The new sub-detector, named Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been de- veloped. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size while a low material budget should be imposed. A new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system is used. An overview of the IBL project and the status of the production of staves and the qualification of the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the read-out chain will be presented.

  11. APS insertion devices: Recent developments and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress

  12. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  13. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recent revision of the patient package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515 Section 310.515 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. Analysis of the Sherlock II tip location system for inserting peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Valdis; Kumar, Abhishek; Shukla, Pratik A; Contractor, Sohail; Rutan, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently placed at the bedside. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sherlock II tip location system (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT), which offers electromagnetic detection of the PICC tip to assist the operator in guiding the tip to a desired location. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had a bedside PICC using the Sherlock II tip location system. Three hundred seventy-five of 384 patients (97.7%) had the catheter tip positioned appropriately. Our results suggest that the Sherlock II tip location system is an efficacious system for bedside PICC placement.

  15. Report on converging insert moulding with µ-IM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    Task 5.2.1 deals with the technical feasibility of converging the state-of-the-art µ IM process with insert moulding to offer a wide range of multi-material µ components. The main objective of this deliverable is to summarize state-of-the-art information and to make the guideline needed for the...... convergence. In particular the following aspects are summed up in the deliverable:  Need for converging insert moulding with µ-IM  Objectives and expected outcome from task 5.2.1  State-of-the-art micro insert moulding and different scenario of micro insert moulding  Challenges ahead of converging insert......-IM. Besides this fact current deliverable will provide state-of-the-art information for technology convergence and ways to overcome challenges to use convergent technologies in industrial productions....

  16. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  17. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  18. Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Van Kets, H; Van der Pas, H

    1985-04-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of immediate post-placental insertion of a non-copper (Lippes Loop D) and several copper-bearing IUD models (TCu200, TCu220C, MLCu375, MLCu250, Nova T-PP, DimélysR). Based on the analysis of a total of 2,646 insertions and 55,794 woman-months of experience, we conclude that placement of an IUD within ten minutes of delivery of the placenta is a valuable alternative to interval insertion, because this method is safe and effective. Effectiveness was significantly lower for the Lippes Loop D than for the T- and ML-IUD models tested, the latter showing roughly comparable pertinent event rates. Pertinent event rates for copper IUDs were influenced by the skill of the operator; age of the recipient only had a significant effect on effectiveness, whereas parity had no significant effect on pertinent event rates. The single and still unsolved problem associated with immediate postpartum insertion is the greater likelihood of expulsion compared with interval insertion, and this hazard is significantly much greater for the Loop than for the copper-bearing devices assessed. The evolution of the expulsion rates shows a constant time-relationship. This pattern makes it obvious why follow-up of recipients, at least during the first trimester following insertion, is mandatory if immediate post-placental IUD insertion is to be optimally effective. PMID:4006467

  19. Knot Insertion Algorithms for ECT B-spline Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huan-huan; TANG Yue-hong; LI Yu-juan

    2013-01-01

    Knot insertion algorithm is one of the most important technologies of B-spline method. By inserting a knot the local prop-erties of B-spline curve and the control flexibility of its shape can be further improved, also the segmentation of the curve can be re-alized. ECT spline curve is drew by the multi-knots spline curve with associated matrix in ECT spline space;Muehlbach G and Tang Y and many others have deduced the existence and uniqueness of the ECT spline function and developed many of its important properties .This paper mainly focuses on the knot insertion algorithm of ECT B-spline curve.It is the widest popularization of B-spline Behm algorithm and theory. Inspired by the Behm algorithm, in the ECT spline space, structure of generalized Pólya poly-nomials and generalized de Boor Fix dual functional, expressing new control points which are inserted after the knot by linear com-bination of original control vertex the single knot, and there are two cases, one is the single knot, the other is the double knot. Then finally comes the insertion algorithm of ECT spline curve knot. By application of the knot insertion algorithm, this paper also gives out the knot insertion algorithm of four order geometric continuous piecewise polynomial B-spline and algebraic trigonometric spline B-spline, which is consistent with previous results.

  20. Development of ITER toroidal field insert. International collaboration with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Solenoid (CS) model coil programme was performed since 1992 as one of the projects in the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER). The CS model coil programme involves a plan to develop the Toroidal Field (TF) insert to demonstrate the conductor performance of ITER TF coils under a magnetic flux density of 13T. The TF insert was fabricated by Russia and tested by Japan under the framework of the ITER-EDA. The TF insert developed a single-layer solenoid with nine turns. It is wound with a cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor which consists of 1,152 Nb3Sn strands, a thin titanium jacket and a central channel. The outer diameter, height and weight of the TF insert are 1.56 m, 3.2 m and 3.1 ton, respectively. Fabrication of the TF insert was completed in May 2001 at the D.V.Efremov Scientific Research Institute for Electrophysical Apparatus (Efremov institute) in St. Petersburg, Russia. The TF insert was then transported to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Installation of the TF insert to CS model coil test facility was completed in August, 2001. Experiments including the cooldown and warmup processes, were completed in November 2001. The TF insert was charged to 13T with 46 kA without any instability under a back up magnetic field from the CS model coil. This report introduces an overview of the fabrication, installation and experiments for the TF insert conducted under collaboration between Japan and Russia. (author)

  1. Design and characterisation of a polyethylene oxide matrix with the potential use as a teat insert for prevention/treatment of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Alany, Raid G; Bunt, Craig R; Abdelkader, Hamdy; Rathbone, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports (for the first time) on antibiotic-free polymeric inserts for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based inserts were prepared using different concentrations of various hydrophilic polymers and water-soluble and water-insoluble drug-release-modifying excipients. A simple and scalable melt-extrusion method was employed to prepare the inserts. The prepared inserts were characterised for their dimension, rheological and mechanical properties. The in vitro release of a model bacteriostatic drug (salicylic acid) from the prepared inserts was studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and reproducibility of the melt-extrusion manufacturing method. Further, the in vitro stability of the inserts was evaluated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to monitor any change in molecular weight under real-time and accelerated storage conditions. The investigated inserts were stable at accelerated storage conditions over a period of 6 months. PEO inserts have the potential to serve a dual purpose, act as a physical barrier against pathogens invading the teat canal of cows and possibly control the release of a drug.

  2. Catalytic X-H insertion reactions based on carbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Dennis; Fei, Na

    2013-06-21

    Catalysed X-H insertion reactions into diazo compounds (where X is any heteroatom) are a powerful yet underutilized class of transformations. The following review will explore the historical development of X-H insertion and give an up-to-date account of the metal catalysts most often employed, including an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. Despite decades of development, recent work on enantioselective variants, as well as applying catalytic X-H insertion towards problems in chemical biology indicate that this field has ample room for innovation. PMID:23407887

  3. Study on Visually Design of Indexable Insert Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ji-quan; ZHAO Shu-qiang; ZHANG Shen-hou; CHEN Xin; GUO Xian-yang

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the development efficiency of the indexable insert tip, three-dimensional parametric and visualization applications program of indexable insert tip was developed in AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). The software could significantly improve the modeling efficiency of indexable insert tip and the model could also be used to static analysis, dynamic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. All aspects of performance could be fully understood by the finite element analysis. The ref-erence for the blade parameters preferred is also provided.

  4. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  5. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  6. International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, on September 28--29, 1993. The workshop brought together scientists and engineers from Europe, Japan, and the United States to discuss the following topics: Special techniques for magnetic measurements of insertion devices, magnetic tolerances of the insertion devices for third generation synchrotron radiation sources, methods for and accuracy of the multipole moments measurements, magnetic sensors, among other topics. The workshop included thirteen presentations that are collected in this volume.

  7. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  8. Effect of methylene group insertions on the structural rigidity of Aib containing helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Anju; Gowda, Vasantha; Ganjiwale, Anjali; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Ramanathan, Gurunath

    2015-11-01

    Nonprotein amino acids are being extensively used in the design of synthetic peptides to create new structure mimics. In this study we report the effect of methylene group insertions in a heptapeptide Boc-Ala1-Leu2-Aib3-Xxx4-Ala5-Leu6-Aib7-OMe which nicely folds into a mixed 310 -/α-helical structure when Xxx= Ala. Analogs of this peptide have been made and studied by replacing central Xxx4 residue with Glycine (α-residue), β-Alanine (β-Αla), γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), and ε-aminocaproic acid (ε-Aca). NMR and circular dichroism were used to study the solution structure of these peptides. Crystals of the peptides containing alanine, β-Αla, and Gaba reveal that increasing the number of central methylene (-CH2 -) groups introduces local perturbations even as the helical structure is retained. PMID:26152771

  9. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center

    1992-12-04

    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  10. A new insertion sequence for incremental Delaunay triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Fei Liu; Jin-Hui Yan; S.H.Lo

    2013-01-01

    Incremental algorithm is one of the most popular procedures for constructing Delaunay triangulations (DTs).However,the point insertion sequence has a great impact on the amount of work needed for the construction of DTs.It affects the time for both point location and structure update,and hence the overall computational time of the triangulation algorithm.In this paper,a simple deterministic insertion sequence is proposed based on the breadth-first-search on a Kd-tree with some minor modifications for better performance.Using parent nodes as search-hints,the proposed insertion sequence proves to be faster and more stable than the Hilbert curve order and biased randomized insertion order (BRIO),especially for non-uniform point distributions over a wide range of benchmark examples.

  11. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051

  12. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  13. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between...

  14. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Different Types of Inserts

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaeikia, S.; Mohammed, H.A.; Nik-Ghazali, N.; Shahizare, B.

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancement has been always a significantly interesting topic in order to develop high efficient, low cost, light weight, and small heat exchangers. The energy cost and environmental issue are also encouraging researchers to achieve better performance than the existing designs. Two of the most effective ways to achieve higher heat transfer rate in heat exchangers are using different kinds of inserts and modifying the heat exchanger tubes. There are different kinds of inserts emp...

  15. Insertion and Deletion Processes in Recent Human History

    OpenAIRE

    Per Sjödin; Thomas Bataillon; Schierup, Mikkel H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although insertions and deletions (indels) account for a sizable portion of genetic changes within and among species, they have received little attention because they are difficult to type, are alignment dependent and their underlying mutational process is poorly understood. A fundamental question in this respect is whether insertions and deletions are governed by similar or different processes and, if so, what these differences are. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use publishe...

  16. Generating Novel Allelic Variation Through Activator Insertional Mutagenesis in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Ling; Singh, Manjit; Pitt, Lauren; Sweeney, Meredith; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) has been exploited as an insertional mutagen to disrupt, clone, and characterize genes in a number of plant species. To develop an Ac-based mutagenesis platform for maize, a large-scale mutagenesis was conducted targeting the pink scutellum1 locus. We selected 1092 Ac transposition events from a closely linked donor Ac, resulting in the recovery of 17 novel ps1 alleles. Multiple phenotypic classes were identified corresponding to Ac insertions in ...

  17. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2010-09-08

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  19. The insertion and transport of anandamide in synthetic lipid membranes are both cholesterol-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters. This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM on cholesterol monolayers, and ii the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein

  20. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  1. A dosimetric comparison of copper and Cerrobend electron inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Benjamin D; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate differences in dose resulting from the use of copper aperture inserts compared to lead-alloy (Cerrobend) aperture inserts for electron beam therapy. Specifically, this study examines if copper aperture inserts can be used clinically with the same commissioning data measured using lead-alloy aperture inserts. The copper inserts were acquired from .decimal, LLC and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend inserts were constructed in-house for 32 com-binations of nine square insert field sizes (2 × 2 to 20 × 20 cm2) and five applicator sizes (6 × 6 to 25 × 25 cm2). Percent depth-dose and off-axis relative dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water for select copper and Cerrobend inserts for a subset of applicators (6 × 6, 10 × 10, 25 × 25 cm2) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV) at 100 and 110 cm source-to-surface distances (SSD) on a Varian Clinac 21EX accelerator. Dose outputs were measured for all field size-insert combina-tions and five available energies (6-20 MeV) at 100 cm SSD and for a smaller subset at 110 cm SSD. Using these data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were generated and compared. Criteria for agreement were ± 2% of maximum dose or 1 mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 94 of 96 combinations of insert size, applicator, energy, and SSD were within the 2%/1 mm criteria for > 99% of points. Outside the field, copper inserts showed less bremsstrahlung dose under the insert compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies for combinations of large applicators with small field sizes, causing some gamma analysis failures. Inside the field, more electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend, resulting in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). Dose

  2. Improving protein crystal quality by selective removal of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-insertion loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein engineering dramatically enhances the quality of crystals of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the regiospecific and stereospecific dioxygenation of polyunsaturated membrane-embedded fatty acids. A Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding function was localized to the amino-terminal C2-like domain of 8R-lipoxygenase (8R-LOX) from the soft coral Plexaura homomalla. The 3.2 Å crystal structure of 8R-LOX and spectroscopic data suggested that Ca2+ stabilizes two membrane-insertion loops. Analysis of the protein packing contacts in the crystal lattice indicated that the conformation of one of the two loops complicated efforts to improve the resolution of the X-ray data. A deletion mutant of 8R-LOX in which the corresponding membrane-insertion loop is absent (Δ41–45:GSLOX) was engineered. Removal of the membrane-insertion loop dramatically increases the protein yield from bacterial cultures and the quality of the crystals obtained, resulting in a better than 1 Å improvement in the resolution of the diffraction data

  3. Urethral catheter insertion forces: a comparison of experience and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Canales

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the insertion forces utilized during simulated placement of a urethral catheter by healthcare individuals with a variety of catheter experience. Materials and Methods: A 21F urethral catheter was mounted to a metal spring. Participants were asked to press the tubing spring against a force gauge and stop when they met a level of resistance that would typically make them terminate a catheter placement. Simulated catheter insertion was repeated fives times, and peak compression forces were recorded. Healthcare professionals were divided into six groups according to their title: urology staff, non-urology staff, urology resident/ fellow, non-urology resident/ fellow, medical student, and registered nurse. Results: A total of fifty-seven healthcare professionals participated in the study. Urology staff (n = 6 had the lowest average insertion force for any group at 6.8 ± 2.0 Newtons (N. Medical students (n = 10 had the least amount of experience (1 ± 0 years and the highest average insertion force range of 10.1 ± 3.7 N. Health care workers with greater than 25 years experience used significantly less force during catheter insertions (4.9 ± 1.8 N compared to all groups (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We propose the maximum force that should be utilized during urethral catheter insertion is 5 Newtons. This force deserves validation in a larger population and should be considered when designing urethral catheters or creating catheter simulators. Understanding urethral catheter insertion forces may also aid in establishing competency parameters for health care professionals in training.

  4. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  5. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  6. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  7. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  8. Minimizing of the only-insertion insdel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A more recent branch of natural computing is DNA computing. At the theoretical level, DNA computing is powerful.This is due to the fact that DNA structure and processing suggest a series of new data structures and operations, and to the fact of the massive parallelism. The insertion-deletion system (insdel system) is a DNA computing model based on two genetic operations:insertion and deletion which, working together, are very powerful, leading to characterizations of recursively enumerable languages. When designing an insdel computer, it is natural to try to keep the underlying model as simple as possible. One idea is to use either only insertion operations or only deletion operations. By helping with a weak coding and a morphism, the family INS47DEL00 is equal to the family of recursively enumerable languages. It is an open problem proposed by Martin-Vide et al. on whether or not the parameters 4 and 7 appearing here can be replaced by smaller numbers. In this paper, our positive answer to this question is that INS42DEL00 can also play the same role as insertion and deletion. We suppose that the INS42DEL00 may be the least only-insertion insdel system in this situation. We will give some reasons supporting this conjecture in our paper.

  9. Natural insertions within the N-terminal region of the coat protein of Maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus (MDMV) have an effect on the RNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Kathrin; Sebestyén, Endre; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Balázs, Ervin

    2010-02-01

    A 13 amino acid residue insertion was found in the N-terminal region of the coat protein of several Maize dwarf mosaic virus isolates (MDMV). These insertions seem to be the result of a direct duplication event, but differ in some positions. In order to evaluate the influence of the insertion on the RNA secondary structure and stability, the RNA secondary structures and minimum free energies (MFE) of all existing MDMV coat protein sequences were estimated using three different softwares, the Vienna RNA Package, NUPACK, and UNAFold, and compared to the secondary structure and MFE of various random sequence collections preserving the nucleotide distribution of MDMV. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the insertion stabilizes the RNA structure of the coat protein gene.

  10. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  11. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS ON THE DEPTH OF NEEDLE-INSERTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wen-jian

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the author sums up and analyzes descriptions about needle-insertion depth in Chinese classical medical book Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic). In many chapters of Nei Jing, the needle-insertion depth is stressed to be various according to 1) the deficiency or excess of syndromes, 2) the patients' constitution, 3) the severity of disease, 4) the duration of disease, 5) the location of disease, 6) the patient's age, 7) the location of the needled acupoint, 8) the season, 9) the patient's temperament, 10) the pulse condition, 11) the state of "Deqi", and 12) the location of the running course of meridians. In addition, different kinds of diseases and different stages of diseases also need different depths of needle insertion, different manipulating skills and different stimulating quantity.

  12. The strategic use of inserts in the Brazilian presidential elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Borba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the communication strategies of presidential candidates during the elections held in 2006 and 2010. The focus is on the strategic component of electoral inserts and the methodology consists of investigating how candidates choose to distribute these inserts in the programming of television networks. The results indicate that the candidates pursue different strategies influenced basically by three variables: electoral legislation, their standing in polls and the difference of resources available. In parallel, the article debates the role of the regulation of electoral advertising and how this set of rules influences the level of information of campaigns, the occurrence of attacks, and party strategies. Overall, 2,993 electoral inserts were examined.

  13. Reliable communication over non-binary insertion/deletion channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdani, Raman

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of reliable communication over non-binary insertion/deletion channels where symbols are randomly deleted from or inserted in the transmitted sequence and all symbols are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. To this end, we utilize the inherent redundancy achievable in non-binary symbol sets by first expanding the symbol set and then allocating part of the bits associated with each symbol to watermark symbols. The watermark sequence, known at the receiver, is then used by a forward-backward algorithm to provide soft information for an outer code which decodes the transmitted sequence. Through numerical results and discussions, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution and show that it leads to significant system ability to detect and correct insertions/deletions. We also provide estimates of the maximum achievable information rates of the system, compare them with the available bounds, and construct practical codes capable of approaching these limits.

  14. Electrochemical insertion of lithium into polyacrylonitrile-based disordered carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.; Suh, M.C.; Lee, S.I.; Shim, S.C.; Kwak, J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Lee, H.; Kim, M. [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Chemistry and Radiation

    1997-12-01

    Electrochemical lithium insertion into polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based disordered carbons was studied using the techniques of discharge/charge tests, cyclic voltammetry, and {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The PAN-based carbons were prepared by vacuum pyrolysis of PAN at 500, 800, and 1,000 C. They showed charge capacities between 254 and 380 mAh/g in the first cycle. {sup 7}Li NMR spectra showed two kinds of lithium insertion sites in the PAN-based carbons: a reversible site where lithium is removed in the subsequent charge process and an irreversible site where lithium remains intact. The NMR results suggest that lithium in fully Li-inserted PAN-based carbons has an ionic character, and reversible site lithium resides between negatively charged carbon layers.

  15. Fabrication of nanopores with ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes inserted in a lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xie, Jiani; Li, Ting; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2015-11-01

    We describe a protocol for the insertion of ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to form nanopores in a Montal-Mueller lipid bilayer. The SWCNTs are designed to bind to a specific analyte of interest; binding will result in the reduction of current in single-channel recording experiments. The first stage of the PROCEDURE is to cut and separate the SWCNTs. We cut long, purified SWCNTs with sonication in concentrated sulfuric acid/nitric acid (3/1). Isolation of ultrashort SWCNTs is carried out by size-exclusion HPLC separation. The second stage is to insert these short SWCNTs into the lipid bilayer. This step requires a microinjection probe made from a glass capillary. The setup for protein nanopore research can be adopted for the single-channel recording experiments without any special treatment. The obtained current traces are of very high quality, showing stable baselines and little background noise. Example procedures are shown for investigating ion transport and DNA translocation through these SWCNT nanopores. This nanopore has potential applications in molecular sensing, nanopore DNA sequencing and early disease diagnosis. For example, we have selectively detected modified 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which may have implications in screening specific genomic DNA sequences. The protocol takes ∼15 d, including SWCNT purification, cutting and separation, as well as the formation of SWCNT nanopores for DNA analyses.

  16. Effect of delayed insertion of composite resin on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Alves de CAMPOS; SAAD, José Roberto Cury; Sizenando Toledo PORTO NETO; Campos, Lucas Arrais; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are characterized bythe dental acid etching previously to the monomer application. Thesematerials can be classified as 3-step (when primer and bond are applied separately) or 2-step (when the primer and bond functions are carried out by a single component). Objective: To determine the influence of immediate or delayed insertion of restorative material on the values of bond strength of 2-step and 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems using the mic...

  17. Effect of Light Conducting Cylindrical Inserts on Gingival Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Moazzami

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Microleakage in the gingival floor of class II composite restorations can compromise the marginal adaptation of the filling material to the cavity edges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light conducting cylindrical inserts in decreasing the microleakage of the gingival floor in cavities 1mm below the CEJ.Materials and Methods: Eighty maxillary first molars were randomly divided into eight groups according to use of glass inserts, type of resin (Coltene unfilled resin versus Scotchbond multi purpose and filling technique (one-unit versus incremental. Proximal class II cavities were prepared in all samples with the gingival floor one millimeter below the CEJ. Etched and silan-treated glass inserts were made from 2mm cylindrical bioglass material and cavities were restored according to research protocol. The samples were subjected to 2500 thermal cycles (5-55oC, immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution, embedded in epoxy resin and cut centrally and laterally (buccally or lingually in a mesiodistal direction. Microleakage was scored and collected data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: Minimal dye penetration was observed in the group that employed the incre-mental technique along with Scotchbond, with or without glass inserts. A significant difference was observed between the eight groups. In addition the use of the incremental technique and glass inserts had a significant effect on the microleakage of lateral and central sections, respectively. Application of dentin bonding agent signifi-cantly affected both sections.Conclusion: Glass inserts were effective in decreasing cervical microleakage of class II cavities restored with composite resin.

  18. Magnetic ripple correction in tandem mirrors by ferromagnetic inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic ripple of 1% or more caused by discrete solenoid coils in the central cells of tandem mirrors may severely affect the MHD stability. The ripple amplitude can be reduced by an order of magnitude by ferromagnetic annuli inserted within the coils at the regions of ripple maxima. The inserts need not affect the accessibility, coil diameter, or capital cost, since large quantities of steel are required within the coils for the neutron blanket and shield. Design of the ripple correction is simplified and linearized by the cylindrical geometry and by the saturation of the ferromagnetic steel

  19. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  20. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Narjis; Hammodi, Adel; Al-Azem, M Ali; Al-Hubail, Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  1. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation. PMID:4072987

  2. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerasekera, S.S.H. [Department of Radiology, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steve.amerasekera@nhs.net; Jones, C.M.; Patel, R.; Cleasby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  3. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  4. Shield Insertion to Minimize Noise Amplitude in Global Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana.A.B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shield insertion is an effective technique for minimise crosstalk noise and signal delay uncertainty .To reduce the effects of coupling uniform or simultaneous shielding may be used on either or both sides of a signal line. Shields are ground or power lines placed between two signal wires to prevent direct coupling between them as the shield width increases, the noise amplitude decreases, in this paper inserting a shield line between two coupled interconnects is shown to be more effective in reducing crosstalk noise for different technology nodes .

  5. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis AL Saif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  6. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E

    2010-12-01

    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation. PMID:21218864

  7. The supermodule insertion tool of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and the first trial insertion of a supermodule.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first trial insertion of a complete Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) "supermodule" (1700 lead-tungstate crystals, with support structures, light detectors (avalanche photodiodes), readout electronics and cooling system) was performed on 1st March. This delicate operation - sliding a 2-tonne 3m-long object onto support rails (in real life these are attached to the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL)) - made use of a custom designed "squirrel cage". The rotatable squirrel cage allows the insertion of any supermodule into any of the 18 positions, including very fine (sub-mm) adjustments. The first supermodule will be inserted into the real HCAL later this month in preparation for the "magnet test and cosmic-ray challenge" (MTCC). In the first image the supermodule is in the centre and the alignment disks are highlighted by the flash.

  8. How does the Shift-insertion sort behave when the sorting elements follow a Normal distribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Mita; Mahanti, N C

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the behavior of Shift-insertion sort (insertion sort with shifting) for normal distribution inputs and is in continuation of our earlier work on this new algorithm for discrete distribution inputs, namely, negative binomial. Shift insertion sort is found more sensitive for main effects but not for all interaction effects compared to conventional insertion sort.

  9. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltsner, M A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ferrier, N J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thomadsen, B R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  10. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  11. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  12. Prototype ISR Superconducting Quadrupole for the low beta insertion.

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The four coils are provisionally kept together by aluminium clamps while epoxy-glass bands are wrapped around them to form a number of spacer rings.Stainless steel spacers were then inserted between these rings and the yoke quadrants. The persons are Michel Bouvier(left) and Pierre Pugin. See also7702690X.

  13. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.;

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  14. Computer Modeling of Protocellular Functions: Peptide Insertion in Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez-Gomez, D.; Darve, E.; Pohorille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid vesicles became the precursors to protocells by acquiring the capabilities needed to survive and reproduce. These include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls and capture of energy and its conversion into a chemically usable form. In modem organisms these functions are carried out by membrane-bound proteins (about 30% of the genome codes for this kind of proteins). A number of properties of alpha-helical peptides suggest that their associations are excellent candidates for protobiological precursors of proteins. In particular, some simple a-helical peptides can aggregate spontaneously and form functional channels. This process can be described conceptually by a three-step thermodynamic cycle: 1 - folding of helices at the water-membrane interface, 2 - helix insertion into the lipid bilayer and 3 - specific interactions of these helices that result in functional tertiary structures. Although a crucial step, helix insertion has not been adequately studied because of the insolubility and aggregation of hydrophobic peptides. In this work, we use computer simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics) to characterize the energetics of helix insertion and we discuss its importance in an evolutionary context. Specifically, helices could self-assemble only if their interactions were sufficiently strong to compensate the unfavorable Free Energy of insertion of individual helices into membranes, providing a selection mechanism for protobiological evolution.

  15. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wen [Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced 2D Material and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Zhang, Gang, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced 2D Material and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119620 (Singapore); Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 200092 Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  16. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  17. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  18. Eustachian tube function in children after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of the insertion of ventilation tubes and the subsequent aeration of the middle ear on eustachian tube (ET) function in children. Manometric ET function tests were performed repeatedly for 3 months after the placement of ventilation tubes in 83 children

  19. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate.

  20. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    morphologies in a seemingly scaleless manipulative universe, simple, rapid-paced analogue sketching tool can be introduced to supplement a purely digital approach. Inserted casually, yet with almost acupunctural precision during digital coursework, the simple analogue sketching tools present a wide variety...

  1. Modeling of Porous Insertion Electrodes with Liquid Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Jacobsen, Torben; Atlung, Sven

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of porous insertion electrodes during charge or discharge is described by a simplified mathematicalmodel, accounting for the coupled transport in electrode and electrolyte phases. A numerical method to evaluate theresponse of this model to either controlled potential or controlled...

  2. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. PMID:26108861

  3. SPS, quadrupole and vacuum chamber for low-beta insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    During operation of the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider, 2 low-beta insertions (in LSS4 and LSS5) reduced the beam sizes and thereby increased the luminosity. The quadrupoles close to the intersection points had special, "flower-shaped", vacuum chambers. A detailed description is given in CERN Annual Report 1981, p.121.

  4. PRODUCTION OF CAST DIE INSERTS FOR HOT STRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Dudetskaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses distinctive design features of casting molds and technological aspects of producing cast inserts from 5ХНМЛ pressed steel. The designs of long-life metal shell molds are described. They ensure saving of molding material, increase of accepted material and improvement of quality of castings.

  5. ArcGIS Tool: Inserts file name into attribute table

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This ArcGIS model inserts a file name into a feature class attribute table. The tool allows an user to identify features by a field that reference the name of the...

  6. Engine valve and seat insert wear study with a simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S.Wang; S.Narasimhan

    2001-01-01

    The demands on higher performance and the increasing use of alternative fuels chal-lenge engine valves now with greater wear problems than before. A seat wear simulator was builtto evaluate the compatibility and wear of valve and seat insert. The rig test results have been suc-cessfully correlated with engine test results. In this study, intake valves made from Sil 1 materialwere treated with salt bath nitride processes and tested against six different insert materials. Wearresistance of these combinations was ranked and compared to the Sil 1 valve without nitriding.The test results demonstrate that nitriding improved valve seat wear resistance. In the total valveseat recession ranking, the combination of nitrided Sil 1 valve against T 400 insert exhibited theleast total recession among the nineteen combinations of valve and insert tested. The results indi-cate that the valve seat wear mechanisms are a complex combination of adhesion and shearstrain. The nitrides in the compound layer of nitrided valves gave strong atomic bonding, higherhardness, compressive residual stresses, and possible low friction, thus resulted in the superiorwear performance.

  7. Contrast-free endoscopic stent insertion in malignant biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To present a case series of MRCP-guided endoscopic biliary stent placement, performed entirely without contrast injection.METHODS: Contrast-free endoscopic biliary drainage was attempted in 20 patients with malignant obstruction,unsuitable for resection on the basis of tumor extent or medical illness. MRCP images were used to confirm the diagnosis of tumor, to exclude other biliary diseases and to demonstrate the stenoses as well as dilation of proximal liver segments. The procedure was carried out under conscious sedation. Patients were placed in the left lateral decubitus position. The endoscope was inserted, the papilla identified and cannulated by a papillotome. A guide wire was inserted and guided deeply into the biliary tree, above the stenosis, by fluoroscopy. A papillotomy approximately 1 cm. long was performed and the papillotome was exchanged with a guiding-catheter. A 10 Fr, Amsterdam-type plastic stent,7 to 15 cm long, was finally inserted over the guide wire/guiding catheter by a pusher tube system.RESULTS: Successful stent insertion was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications. Successful drainage, with substantial reduction in bilirubin levels,was achieved in all patients.CONCLUSION: This new method of contrast-free endoscopic stenting in malignant biliary obstruction is a safe and effective method of palliation. However, a larger, randomized study comparing this new approach with the standard procedure is needed to confirm the findings of the present study.

  8. Severe neonatal marfan syndrome resulting from a De Novo 3-bp insertion into the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewicz, D.M.; Duvic, M. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Severe neonatal Marfan syndrome has features of the Marfan syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly present at birth, along with unique features such as loose, redundant skin and pulmonary emphysema. Since the Marfan syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly are due to mutations in different genes, it has been uncertain whether neonatal Marfan syndrome is due to mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 or in another gene. The authors studied an infant with severe neonatal Marfan syndrome. Dermal fibroblasts were metabolically labeled and found to secrete fibrillin inefficiently when compared with control cells. Reverse transcription and amplification of the proband's fibroblast RNA was used to identify a 3-bp insertion between nucleotides 480-481 or 481-482 of the fibrillin cDNA. The insertion maintains the reading frame of the protein and inserts a cysteine between amino acids 160 and 161 in an epidermal growth-factor-like motif of fibrillin. This 3-bp insertion was not found in the fibrillin gene in 70 unrelated, unaffected individuals and 11 unrelated individuals with the Maran syndrome. The authors conclude that neonatal Marfan syndrome is the result of mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 and is part of the Marfan syndrome spectrum. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  10. Study of pH (low) insertion peptides (pHLIPs) interaction with lipid bilayer of membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakkody, Dhammika

    The pH-dependent interactions of pHLIPsRTM (pH (Low) Insertion Peptides) with lipid bilayer of membrane provides an opportunity to study and address fundamental questions of protein folding/insertion into membrane and unfolding/exit, as well as develop novel approach to target acidic diseased tissue such as cancer, ischemic myocardium, infection and others. The main goal of the work presented here is to answer the following questions: - What is the molecular mechanism of spontaneous insertion and folding of a peptide in a lipid bilayer of membrane; - What is the molecular mechanism of unfolding and exit of a peptide from a lipid bilayer of membrane; - How polar cargo attached to a peptide's inserting end might affect the process of insertion into a lipid bilayer of membrane; How sequence variation will affect a peptide's interactions with a lipid bilayer of membrane (partitioning into bilayer at neutral and low pH; apparent pK of insertion) with the main goal to identify the best pHLIP variants for imaging and therapy of pathological states such as cancer and others. It has been demonstrated that pHLIP insertion into a membrane is associated with the protonation of Asp/Glu residues, which leads to an increase of hydrophobicity that triggers the folding and insertion of the peptide across a lipid bilayer. The insertion of the pHLIP is unidirectional and it is accompanied by the release of energy. Therefore, the energy of membrane associated-folding can be used to favor the movement of cell-impermeable polar cargo molecules across the hydrophobic membrane bilayer when they are attached to the inserting end of pHLIP. Both pH-targeting behavior and molecular translocation have been demonstrated in cultured cells and in vivo. Thus, there is an opportunity to develop a novel concept in drug delivery, which is based on the use of a monomeric, pH-sensitive peptide molecular transporter, to deliver agents that are significantly more polar than conventional drugs

  11. Variables associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection in high risk newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uesliz Vianna Rangel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection.METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12.RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively.CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form.

  12. Research of Insertion Mechanism of Flexible Search and Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Linyong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to various factors, the global scope disaster events occur inevitably every year. Terrorism, natural disasters or destructive earthquakes tend to cause a large number of people buried in the ruins of buildings. The research of search and rescue instruments research is mainly focused on snake-like robot and life detector both at home and abroad. The endoscopic search and rescue robot in this paper combines the characteristics of these two kinds of search and rescue equipment. This thesis mainly studies the insertion mechanism of endoscopic flexible search and rescue robot. Based on the mechanics characteristics of the flexible robot body, this paper analyzes several common failure modes during the insertion into the ruins. This article puts forward the scheme of segmented gradual pulling-pushing, which plays an important role in promoting search and rescue work.

  13. Calculation of magnetic error fields in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory requires insertion devices with fields sufficiently accurate to take advantage of the small emittance of the ALS electron beam. To maintain the spectral performance of the synchrotron radiation and to limit steering effects on the electron beam these errors must be smaller than 0.25%. This paper develops a procedure for calculating the steering error due to misalignment of the easy axis of the permanent magnet material. The procedure is based on a three dimensional theory of the design of hybrid insertion devices developed by one of us. The acceptable tolerance for easy axis misalignment is found for a 5 cm period undulator proposed for the ALS. 11 refs., 5 figs

  14. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  15. An overview of the insertion device development at SRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, C S; Fan, T C; Wang, C; Chen, J R; Chen, C T

    2001-01-01

    Five high performance insertion devices, namely W20, U10, U5, U9 and EPU5.6, have been constructed and installed in the storage ring of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC). Among them, the 2-m-long conventional undulator U10 and the 4-m-long elliptically polarized undulator EPU5.6 were designed and built in-house. These two devices have achieved high magnetic field quality and high spectral performance. To facilitate hard-X-ray experiments, the project of building a superconducting wavelength shifter (SWLS) and a superconducting multi-pole wiggler (SMPW) is ongoing. These two superconducting insertion devices were designed to be cryogen-free.

  16. Transients analysis by reactivity insertion in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARET code was used to simulate accidental situations arising from positive reactivity insertions, in order to analyze the behavior of RP-10 reactor. The simulations considered three different cases: First is for the reactor operating at 10 Mw nominal power with 3 pumps in use, the second, at 6.6 Mw with only one pump working. In all cases the reactor trip was assumed when a 12 Mw power level is reached. An additional simulation for the reactor operating at 50w before the reactivity insertion, showed to be the worst accidental situation of all cases because of the higher temperature and power rise. Hot channel thermohydraulic and kinetic parameters have been evaluated at each axial mesh point and transient time step. None of the cases showed melting of fuel plates

  17. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  18. Operation of synchrotron light sources with multiple insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability requirements of the next generation of synchrotron radiation facilities have been achieved on insertion device beamlines of existing rings. However, one insertion device (ID) affects the stored beam and hence the performance of all the other beamlines. Since the effects of the undulators are cumulative, higher levels of performance are required of the accelerator in order to meet and exceed present day standards in rings with many undulators. This paper will report experience to date in the areas mentioned above at several multi-undulator facilities and efforts to address these problems at facilities in the planning and construction phase. Section II will treat orbit control and feedback. Section III will describe work on linear and nonlinear effects of ideal undulators in accelerators. Section IV will mention undulator imperfections and the demands they make on the accelerator control system

  19. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  20. Strain measurement at the knee ligament insertion sites

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterwimmer, S; Baumgart, R.; Plitz, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the modification of an existing method of ligament strain measurement at the knee joint in detail. At ten fresh joint specimens we used that technique where strain gauges are attached to the ligamentous insertions and origins. We both improved the preparation of the attachment site and the application of the strain gauges. In a special apparatus the specimens were moved from 0degrees extension to 100degrees flexion while simulating muscle strength and axial force. Testing was perf...

  1. Tumor track seeding: A new complication of fiducial marker insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Zeal Patel, MD; Michele Retrouvey, MD; Harlan Vingan, MD; Scott Williams, MD

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Candidates for tumor ablation using CyberKnife® require fiducial placement in or near the target tumor to achieve precision. Placing these reference points may lead to complications including pneumothorax and/or hemorrhage. We report a new complication: the appearance of metastatic foci along the track of the fiducial marker. Since the marker was inserted by traversing the original primary tumor, we hypothesize th...

  2. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  3. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winick, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  4. Epigenetic Suppression of T-DNA Insertion Mutants in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangbin Gao; Yunde Zhao

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants have been widely used to define gene functions in Arabidopsis and in other plants.Here,we report an unexpected phenomenon of epigenetic suppression of T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis.When the two T-DNA insertion mutants,yucl-1 and ag-TD,were crossed together,the defects in all of the ag-TD plants in the F2 population were partially suppressed regardless of the presence of yucl-1.Conversion of ag-TD to the suppressed ag-TD (named as ag-TD*) did not follow the laws of Mendelian genetics.The ag-TD* could be stably transmitted for many generations without reverting to ag-TD,and ag-TD* had the capacity to convert ag-TD to ag-TD*.We show that epigenetic suppression of T-DNA mutants is not a rare event,but certain structural features in the T-DNA mutants are needed in order for the suppression to take place.The suppressed T-DNA mutants we observed were all intronic T-DNA mutants and the T-DNA fragments in both the trigger T-DNA as well as in the suppressed T-DNA shared stretches of identical sequences.We demonstrate that the suppression of intronic T-DNA mutants is mediated by trans-interactions between two ToDNA insertions.This work shows that caution is needed when intronic T-DNA mutants are used.

  5. Power distribution from insertion device x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insertion device (ID) synchrotron x-ray sources on present day and next-generation synchrotron facilities have very attractive spectral properties. In addition however, they are capable of producing x-ray beams with large powers and in some cases, unprecedented power densities. An overview of the spatial and frequency distributions of these sources including the effects of synchrotron particle beam emittance is presented

  6. Insertion DNA Accelerates Meiotic Interchromosomal Recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ding-Hong; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yang, Si-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide insertions/deletions are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and the resulting hemizygous (unpaired) DNA has significant, heritable effects on adjacent DNA. However, little is known about the genetic behavior of insertion DNA. Here, we describe a binary transgenic system to study the behavior of insertion DNA during meiosis. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated to carry two different defective reporter genes on nonhomologous chromosomes, designated as "recipient" and "donor" lines. Double hemizygous plants (harboring unpaired DNA) were produced by crossing between the recipient and the donor, and double homozygous lines (harboring paired DNA) via self-pollination. The transfer of the donor's unmutated sequence to the recipient generated a functional β-glucuronidase gene, which could be visualized by histochemical staining and corroborated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. More than 673 million seedlings were screened, and the results showed that meiotic ectopic recombination in the hemizygous lines occurred at a frequency  >6.49-fold higher than that in the homozygous lines. Gene conversion might have been exclusively or predominantly responsible for the gene correction events. The direct measurement of ectopic recombination events provided evidence that an insertion, in the absence of an allelic counterpart, could scan the entire genome for homologous counterparts with which to pair. Furthermore, the unpaired (hemizygous) architectures could accelerate ectopic recombination between itself and interchromosomal counterparts. We suggest that the ectopic recombination accelerated by hemizygous architectures may be a general mechanism for interchromosomal recombination through ubiquitously dispersed repeat sequences in plants, ultimately contributing to genetic renovation and eukaryotic evolution. PMID:27189569

  7. Cytoplasmic Organelle DNA Preferentially Inserts into Open Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Timmis, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    DNA transfer from chloroplasts and mitochondria to the nucleus is ongoing in eukaryotes but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA was observed to integrate into the nuclear genome through DNA double-strand break repair in Nicotiana tabacum. Here, 14 nuclear insertions of chloroplast DNA (nupts) that are unique to Oryza sativa subsp. indica were identified. Comparisons with the preinsertion nuclear loci identified in the related subspecies, O. sativa subsp. japonica,...

  8. A training simulator for ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrostomy insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, B G; Leonard, A P; Freeman, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing trainee numbers and changes to working patterns have resulted in a scarcity of training opportunities for training-grade doctors wishing to learn nephrostomy tube insertion techniques. A method of introducing trainees to the skills required to perform percutaneous nephrostomy in a safe, non-threatening environment, without risk to patients, is desirable. Commercial and biological nephrostomy phantoms are available, but they are expensive and not widely available, and a cheap, safe,...

  9. Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibinger, Alexander; Forte, Antonio E; Tan, Zhengchu; Oldfield, Matthew J; Beyrau, Frank; Dini, Daniele; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-08-01

    Phantoms are common substitutes for soft tissues in biomechanical research and are usually tuned to match tissue properties using standard testing protocols at small strains. However, the response due to complex tool-tissue interactions can differ depending on the phantom and no comprehensive comparative study has been published to date, which could aid researchers to select suitable materials. In this work, gelatin, a common phantom in literature, and a composite hydrogel developed at Imperial College, were matched for mechanical stiffness to porcine brain, and the interactions during needle insertions within them were analyzed. Specifically, we examined insertion forces for brain and the phantoms; we also measured displacements and strains within the phantoms via a laser-based image correlation technique in combination with fluorescent beads. It is shown that the insertion forces for gelatin and brain agree closely, but that the composite hydrogel better mimics the viscous nature of soft tissue. Both materials match different characteristics of brain, but neither of them is a perfect substitute. Thus, when selecting a phantom material, both the soft tissue properties and the complex tool-tissue interactions arising during tissue manipulation should be taken into consideration. These conclusions are presented in tabular form to aid future selection. PMID:26666228

  10. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insertion sort are presented. Bi-directional Selection Sort and MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort are the enhancement on basic selection sort while Bidirectional bubble sort and MIDBidirectional bubble sort are the enhancement on basic bubble sort by changing the selection and swapping mechanism of data for sorting. Enhanced sorting algorithms reduced the iteration by half and quarter times respectively. Asymptotically complexities of these algorithms are reduced to O (n2/2 and O (n2/4 from O (n2. Linear insertion sort is the enhancement of insertion sort by changing the design of algorithm (convert two loops to one loop. So asymptotically this algorithm is converted to linear time complexity from quadratic complexity. These sorting algorithms are described using C. The proposed algorithms are analyzed using asymptotic analysis and also using machine-running time and compared with their basic sorting algorithms. In this study we also discuss how the performance and complexity can be improved by optimizing the code and design.

  11. Coaxial needle insertion assistant with enhanced force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; Koseki, Yoshihiko; De Momi, Elena; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-02-01

    Many medical procedures involving needle insertion into soft tissues, such as anesthesia, biopsy, brachytherapy, and placement of electrodes, are performed without image guidance. In such procedures, haptic detection of changing tissue properties at different depths during needle insertion is important for needle localization and detection of subsurface structures. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties deep inside the tissue are difficult for human operators to sense, because the relatively large friction force between the needle shaft and the surrounding tissue masks the smaller tip forces. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant, which enhances operator force perception, is presented. This one-degree-of-freedom cable-driven robot provides to the operator a scaled version of the force applied by the needle tip to the tissue, using a novel design and sensors that separate the needle tip force from the shaft friction force. The ability of human operators to use the robot to detect membranes embedded in artificial soft tissue was tested under the conditions of 1) tip force and shaft force feedback, and 2) tip force only feedback. The ratio of successful to unsuccessful membrane detections was significantly higher (up to 50%) when only the needle tip force was provided to the user. PMID:23193302

  12. Localized control of the orbit in the RHIC insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1992-08-01

    It is proposed here that, for RHIC92 insertions, we remove the corrector from Ql and the beam position monitor (BPM) from Q2 in order to alleviate difficulties associated with the physical layout of the quadrupole triplet (Ql-Q2-Q3). Furthermore, it is suggested that there should be both (horizontal and vertical) types of BPMs at each end of the free space between Q3 and Q4 and between Q7 and Q8 so that one can measure the direction of the closed orbit. With this model, a localized control of the beam position and angle at the interaction point (IP) with either four or six correctors has been investigated. Similarly, a control of the orbit within an insertion for minimizing the orbit displacements at seven (or eight) BPM locations with nine (or ten) correctors in each transverse direction has been studied. Examples are given for the beta at IP = 2m, 10m, 20m, and 200m. It is shown that the design value of the integrated field strength of 0.3 T-m for each corrector should be sufficient for the tasks considered here except for some cases with extreme parameter values. At the same time, it is emphasized that the overall correction of the closed orbit for the entire ring (arcs and insertions) should be re-examined for RHIC92 lattice with the proposed arrangement of correctors and BPMS.

  13. NURSING CARE IN PATIENTS NEONATES WITH PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL CATHETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacilda Oliveira Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter is a long flexible catheter which is inserted through a peripheral vein, progresses through a needle introducer until the final portion of the vena cava, acquiring characteristics of a central catheter. Objective: To point out the main theoretical and scientific ideas that demonstrate the reliability, competence and ability of nurses to perform the PICC. Methodology: Systematic review of articles, which were found by searching the database scientific journals and bibliographies area. Results: The success of integration depends on the patient assessment and choice of venous access where the catheter will be positioned, and its tip should be in the middle third of the superior vena cava, or the middle third of the inferior vena cava. In neonates, which are used more frequently, proper positioning of the catheter is through nursing care in making the dressing, and the first 24 hours it should be compressive. Ideally, the PICC remains in the vein for periods longer than seven days or until the end of treatment, thus decreasing invasive procedures. Conclusion: According to the Federal Board of Nursing (COFEN, it is lawful for the insertion of PICC nurses, provided it has undergone professional training.

  14. Modeling and characterization of partially inserted electrical connector faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgöz, ćaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh; Soldner, Nicholas C.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Faults within electrical connectors are prominent in avionics systems due to improper installation, corrosion, aging, and strained harnesses. These faults usually start off as undetectable with existing inspection techniques and increase in magnitude during the component lifetime. Detection and modeling of these faults are significantly more challenging than hard failures such as open and short circuits. Hence, enabling the capability to locate and characterize the precursors of these faults is critical for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation well before hard failures occur. In this paper, an electrical connector model based on a two-level nonlinear least squares approach is proposed. The connector is first characterized as a transmission line, broken into key components such as the pin, socket, and connector halves. Then, the fact that the resonance frequencies of the connector shift as insertion depth changes from a fully inserted to a barely touching contact is exploited. The model precisely captures these shifts by varying only two length parameters. It is demonstrated that the model accurately characterizes a partially inserted connector.

  15. ANATOMICAL VARIATION OF PALMARIS LONGUS: TENDINOUS ORIGIN AND FLESHY INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhadeb Ghosh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tendinous origin and fleshy insertion of palmaris longus muscle was observed in the left forearm during routine dissection which was performed on adult male cadaver in the department of Anatomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College. It was having long tendinous origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the surrounding deep fascia. It was fusiform at the lower middle of the forearm. The fleshy muscular insertion was noted to the flexor retinaculum and few muscular fibers interdigitate with flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and palmar aponeurosis. The length of tendon was 19 inches and fleshy muscular length was 11inches. The median nerve and ulnar nerve was covered by this fleshy insertion. This palmaris longus variation is helpful for the surgeon and the radiologist, orthopaedic, plastic surgeon during any diagnosis of the forearm because this fleshy part of muscle can compress the median nerve and ulnar nerve or it can be mistaken as a tumor or ganglion during radiological or clinical examination.

  16. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    CERN Document Server

    Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...

  17. False-positive pH aspirates after nasogastric tube insertion in head and neck tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Claudia Kate

    2012-08-27

    Nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes are commonly inserted to supplement enteral nutrition in certain patient groups, including those with head and neck cancers where swallowing may be compromised. An NHS National Patient Safety Alert was released in 2011 detailing ongoing cases of significant morbidity and mortality attached to the incorrect placement of NG feeding tubes in hospital inpatients. Since 2005, there were 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm nationally due to feeding into the lung through misplaced tubes. pH testing remains the first-line method of placement confirmation, with chest x-ray used when no aspirate is gained or where pH testing fails to confirm suitable acidity. We present a case report describing false-positive NG tube placement confirmation tests in a patient with head and neck cancer, who was administered feed into lung parenchyma with significant morbidity. We discuss the case for specific NG tube placement protocols in head and neck cancer patients.

  18. Reconstitution technology of Charpy surveillance specimens with short insert length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the shortage of the surveillance specimens to monitor the effect of the irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) materials in case of longer-term operation than present surveillance program of nuclear power plants, the reconstitution of them is considered to be the promising measures. Although the length of the specimen insert is required not less than 18 mm in ASTM E1253-99 which is the technical standard to reconstitute Charpy specimens, the minimum length of the specimen insert required should be 10 mm when L-T direction Charpy specimens that have been applied to the early domestic nuclear power plants are reconstituted into T-L direction specimens in order to test the upper shelf absorbed energy of T-L direction specimens. This paper presents the current status of the research consigned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in Japan on the applicability of the reconstituted Charpy specimens with short length of the specimen insert. The length of the specimen insert to preserve the absorbed energy of the Charpy specimen is correlated to the absorbed energy of its material. The significant part of upper shelf energy is attributed to the energy for the plastic deformation zone near V-notch in the Charpy specimen. To preserve the absorbed energy, the anticipated plastically deformed zone shall not be affected by the reconstitution procedure. In order to clarify the condition for preserving the absorbed energy in the case of reconstitution, the preliminary data has been obtained using un-irradiated and irradiated Charpy specimens, and the following results have been obtained by the tests carried out in this research. 1) The plastic deformation widths have been estimated by measuring the hardness distribution near the V-notch of the un-irradiated Charpy impact tested specimens, correlated to the absorbed energy. 2) The absorbed energy shifts of reconstituted, un-irradiated Charpy specimens with various length of the specimen

  19. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C.G

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  20. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  1. Palladium(II)-catalyzed intramolecular carboxypalladation-olefin insertion cascade: direct access to indeno[1,2-b]furan-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Perumal; Vivekanand, Thavaraj; Suryavanshi, Padmakar A; Menéndez, J Carlos; Sasai, Hiroaki; Sridharan, Vellaisamy

    2015-05-14

    A catalytic, atom-economical, domino 5-endo-dig cyclization-intramolecular olefin insertion sequence was developed under mild conditions. Aryl alkynoic acids bearing a tethered enone partner afforded the indeno[1,2-b]furan-2-ones, the core skeleton present in a number of biologically significant molecules including the natural product solanacol, under ligand-free, palladium-catalyzed reaction conditions in high yields. The competitive β-hydride elimination in the final step leading to the conjugated analogs was avoided by the addition of lithium bromide. A plausible mechanism for this domino sequence is proposed involving intramolecular carboxypalladation and olefin insertion steps.

  2. Adaptation of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 to bromoacetate due to activation and mobilization of the haloacetate dehalogenase gene by insertion element IS1247

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Ploeg, J; Willemsen, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;

    1995-01-01

    Monobromoacetate (MBA) is toxic for the 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Mutants which are able to grow on higher concentrations of MBA were isolated and found to overexpress haloacid dehalogenase, which is encoded by the dhl...... acids which showed similarity to putative transposases from two other insertion elements. In most of the other MBA-resistant mutants of GJ10, IS1247 was also present in one more copy than in the wild type, which had two copies located within 20 kb. After insertion to a site proximal to dhlB, IS1247...

  3. Ultrasound-guided central line insertion and standard peripherally inserted catheter placement in preterm infants: Comparing results from prospective study in a single-center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Antanios Al Hamod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center nonrandomized prospective study evaluating preterm infants between October 2013 and June 2014. Patients were allocated into two groups: The standard group (control group who underwent blind PICC line insertion and the intervention group who underwent a percutaneous US-guided central line insertion in the IJV. The epicutaneo-cava-catheter was used in both groups. Results: Fifty neonates were enrolled on study. A statistically difference in favor of US-IJV insertion was noted concerning the rate of successful first attempt (P < 0.001, insertion (P = 0.001, and procedure duration (P < 0.001 and number of trials (P < 0.001 compared to PICC. No difference in complications (P = 1.000 was noted. Conclusion: US guided catheterization of the IJV technique is faster than PICC line insertion with higher rates of successful first attempt and insertion, less procedure duration and fewer number of trials compared to PICC line insertion. There were no differences in complications.

  4. Insertion of the CMS coil into the barrel yoke on 14 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Insertion of the CMS coil into the barrel yoke on 14 September 2005. The pictures have been taken in the CMS experimental hall SX5 in Cessy, neighbouring France. The second picture shows the insertion of the Inner Vacuum Tank.

  5. Ultrasound-guided Central Line Insertion and Standard Peripherally Inserted Catheter Placement in Preterm Infants: Comparing Results from Prospective Study in a Single-center

    OpenAIRE

    Dany Antanios Al Hamod; Smart Zeidan; Ayah Al Bizri; Georges Baaklini; Yolla Nassif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US)-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV) by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Metho...

  6. External ear canal cholesteatoma after ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Dragoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Etiopathogenetically, there are two types of chollesteatomas: congenital, and acquired. Numerous theories in the literature try to explain the nature of the disease, however, the question about cholesteatomas remain still unanswered. The aim of the study was to present a case of external ear canal cholesteatoma (EEC developed following microsurgery (ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy, as well as to point ant possible mechanisms if its development. Case report. A 16-yearold boy presented a 4-month sense of fullness in the ear and otalgia on the left side. A year before, mastoidectomy and posterior atticotomy were performed with ventilation tube placement due to acute purulent mastoiditis. Diagnosis was based on otoscopy examination, audiology and computed tomography (CT findings. CT showed an obliterative soft-tissue mass completely filled the external ear canal with associated erosion of subjacent the bone. There were squamous epithelial links between the canal cholesteatoma and lateral tympanic membrane surface. They originated from the margins of tympanic membrane incision made for a ventilation tube (VT insertion. The position of VT was good as well as the aeration of the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane was intact and of normal appearance without middle ear extension or mastoid involvement of cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma and ventilation tube were both removed. The patient recovered without complications and shortly audiology revealed hearing improving. Follow-up 2 years later, however, showed no signs of the disease. Conclusion. There could be more than one potential delicate mechanism of developing EEC in the ear with VT insertion and mastoidectomy. It is necessary to perform routine otologic surveillance in all patients with tubes. Affected ear CT scan is very helpful in showing the extent of cholesteatoma and bony defects, which could not be assessed by otoscopic examination alone.

  7. Effects of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in Subgroups of Primary Angle Closure Based on Iris Insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Cheol Yun; Ji Wook Hong; Kyung Rim Sung; Jin Young Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in subgroups of primary angle closure based on iris insertion configuration. Methods. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images were obtained before and two weeks after LPI. Qualitative classification of angle closure eyes according to iris insertion (basal insertion group (BG) and nonbasal insertion group (NBG)) was performed. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens vault (LV), iris curvature, iris area, ir...

  8. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies

    OpenAIRE

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a gr...

  9. Shotgun Cloning of Transposon Insertions in the Genome of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Plasterk, Ronald H.A.; van der Linden, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify and map large numbers of transposon insertions in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Our approach makes use of the mutator strain mut-7, which has germline-transposition activity of the Tc1/mariner family of transposons, a display protocol to detect new transposon insertions, and the availability of the genomic sequence of C. elegans. From a pilot insertional mutagenesis screen, we have obtained 351 new Tc1 transposons inserted in or near 219 predicted C. ...

  10. Online robust model estimation during in vivo needle insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Laurent; Bayle, Bernard; de Mathelin, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Soft tissue modeling is of key importance in medical robotics and simulation. In the case of percutaneous operations, a fine model of layers transitions and target tissues is required. However, the nature and the variety of these tissues is such that this problem is extremely complex. In this article, we propose a method to estimate the interaction between in vivo tissues and a surgical needle. The online robust estimation of a varying parameters model is achieved during an insertion in standard operating conditions. PMID:16404010

  11. TRACKER INSERTED INTO YB0 & HEAVY LOWERING COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

          The Tracker travelled very smoothly from Meyrin to Point 5 during the early hours of December 13th. Lowered later the same day, insertion was completed 18th December. The intense campaign of Tracker connections, involving 980 pipes, 2330 cables and 3623 fibre ribbons, has since begun and is making good progress. The final large element of CMS YE-1 was lowered gently into the cavern on January 22nd. This marks the end of fourteen months of heavy lowering operations.  

  12. Arbitrarily long distance quantum communication using inspection and power insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WanYing; WANG Chuan; ZHANG GuangYu; LONG GuiLu

    2009-01-01

    The biggest obstacle for long distance quantum communication is the channel loss and the channel noise on photons. In this paper, a method to solve this problem was analyzed using inspection and power insertion (IPI). It is proved that quantum communication may be established over arbitrarily long distance using this technology. The amount of resources required is a polynomial function of the dis-tance. IPI is proposed as a general technique to prolong quantum secure direct communication where secret messages are transmitted directly over a quantum channel.

  13. The design and analysis of transposon insertion sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Michael C; Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach that can be extensively applied to the genome-wide definition of loci that are required for bacterial growth under diverse conditions. However, experimental design choices and stochastic biological processes can heavily influence the results of TIS experiments and affect downstream statistical analysis. In this Opinion article, we discuss TIS experimental parameters and how these factors relate to the benefits and limitations of the various statistical frameworks that can be applied to the computational analysis of TIS data.

  14. Reverse genetics in Chlamydomonas: a platform for isolating insertional mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Montaigu Amaury

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method was developed to identify insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupted for selected target genes. The approach relies on the generation of thousands of transformants followed by PCR-based screenings that allow for identification of strains harboring the introduced marker gene within specific genes of interest. Our results highlight the strengths and limitations of two independent screens that differed in the nature of the marker DNA used (PCR-amplified fragment containing the plasmid-free marker versus entire linearized plasmid with the marker and in the strategies used to maintain and store transformants.

  15. Cache Replacement Policy Using Map-based Adaptive Insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii,Yasuo; Inaba, Mary; Hiraki, Kei

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we propose a map-based adaptive insertion policy (MAIP) for a novel cache replacement. The MAIP estimates the data reuse possibility on the basis of data reuse history. To track data reuse history, the MAIP employs a bitmap data structure, which we call memory access map. The memory access map holds all memory accessed locations in a fixed sized memory area to detect the data reuse. It can cover a large memory area that is compared to the size of a lar...

  16. Waveguide e-plane all-metal inserted diplexer

    OpenAIRE

    Rakić Milica; Jokanović Branka; Budimir Đ.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the procedure for designing a wave guide E-plane diplexer for Ku band with inserted metal septa. The diplexer is designed with filters of the fifth order and with T-junction in E-plane for the purpose of easier integration with microwave transceiver. The aim of this work is to master the design of a diplexer that should obtain 60 dB insulation between receiver and transmitter of a radio link and that will not need to be adjusted in serial production.

  17. Waveguide e-plane all-metal inserted diplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Milica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the procedure for designing a wave guide E-plane diplexer for Ku band with inserted metal septa. The diplexer is designed with filters of the fifth order and with T-junction in E-plane for the purpose of easier integration with microwave transceiver. The aim of this work is to master the design of a diplexer that should obtain 60 dB insulation between receiver and transmitter of a radio link and that will not need to be adjusted in serial production.

  18. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  19. An Empirical Evaluation of Probabilistic Lexicalized Tree Insertion Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1998-01-01

    We present an empirical study of the applicability of Probabilistic Lexicalized Tree Insertion Grammars (PLTIG), a lexicalized counterpart to Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars (PCFG), to problems in stochastic natural-language processing. Comparing the performance of PLTIGs with non-hierarchical N-gram models and PCFGs, we show that PLTIG combines the best aspects of both, with language modeling capability comparable to N-grams, and improved parsing performance over its non-lexicalized counterpart. Furthermore, training of PLTIGs displays faster convergence than PCFGs.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  1. Test of an element (power insertion) loaded by an internal explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An element (power insertion) loaded by an internal explosion has been experimentally studied. The aim of tests is to study the deformation ability of a protective element-power steel-sand insertion. Data on radial migrations of the insertion after explosive loading have been obtained

  2. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Quadros

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves born persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV frequently develop a fatal gastroenteric illness called mucosal disease. Both the original virus (ncpBVDV and an antigenically identical but cytopathic virus (cpBVDV can be isolated from animals affected by mucosal disease. Cytopathic BVDVs originate from their ncp counterparts by diverse genetic mechanisms, all leading to the expression of the non-structural polypeptide NS3 as a discrete protein. In contrast, ncpBVDVs express only the large precursor polypeptide, NS2-3, which contains the NS3 sequence within its carboxy-terminal half. We report here the investigation of the mechanism leading to NS3 expression in 41 cpBVDV isolates. An RT-PCR strategy was employed to detect RNA insertions within the NS2-3 gene and/or duplication of the NS3 gene, two common mechanisms of NS3 expression. RT-PCR amplification revealed insertions in the NS2-3 gene of three cp isolates, with the inserts being similar in size to that present in the cpBVDV NADL strain. Sequencing of one such insert revealed a 296-nucleotide sequence with a central core of 270 nucleotides coding for an amino acid sequence highly homologous (98% to the NADL insert, a sequence corresponding to part of the cellular J-Domain gene. One cpBVDV isolate contained a duplication of the NS3 gene downstream from the original locus. In contrast, no detectable NS2-3 insertions or NS3 gene duplications were observed in the genome of 37 cp isolates. These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology.

  3. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Detector (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards SLHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during a longer shutdown of the LHC machine, the so-called Phase I Upgrade. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. In order to achieve these goals the pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. Main component of the module development for the IBL is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip, FE-I4, designed in 130 nm technology which features an array of 80 by 336 pixels with a pixel size of 50x250 µ...

  4. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from 1 to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAs. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in the mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAs. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, ''h,'' in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  5. Gastrostomy insertion: comparing the options - PEG, RIG or PIG?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasch, H.-U. E-mail: hul@smtr.nhs.uk; Wilbraham, L.; Bullen, K.; Marriott, A.; Lawrance, J.A.L.; Johnson, R.J.; Lee, S.H.; England, R.E.; Gamble, G.E.; Martin, D.F

    2003-05-01

    AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Technical success was 98%, 100% and 100% for PEG, RIG and PIG, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced stoma infection for orally placed tubes (p=0.02). Ten out of 50 (20%) small-bore RIG tubes blocked. Replacement tubes were required in six out of 50 PEGs (12%), 10 out of 50 RIGs (20%), but no PIGs (p<0.001). No procedure-related complications occurred. The function of radiologically placed tubes was significantly improved with the larger PIG (p<0.001), with similar wound infection rates. PIG was successful in 24 patients where endoscopic insertion could not be performed. Significant endoscopic abnormalities were found in 42 out of 200 PEG patients (21%), all related to peptic disease. Insignificant pathology was found in 8.5%. CONCLUSION: PIG combines advantages of both traditional methods with a higher success and lower re-intervention rate. Endoscopy is unlikely to detect clinically relevant pathology other than peptic disease. PIG is a very effective gastrostomy method; it has better long-term results than RIG and is successful where conventional PEG has failed.

  6. Mass Insertions vs. Mass Eigenstates calculations in Flavour Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dedes, A; Rosiek, J; Suxho, K; Tamvakis, K

    2015-01-01

    We present and prove a theorem of matrix analysis, the Flavour Expansion Theorem (or FET), according to which, an analytic function of a Hermitian matrix can be expanded polynomially in terms of its off-diagonal elements with coefficients being the divided differences of the analytic function and arguments the diagonal elements of the Hermitian matrix. The theorem is applicable in case of flavour changing amplitudes. At one-loop level this procedure is particularly natural due to the observation that every loop function in the Passarino-Veltman basis can be recursively expressed in terms of divided differences. FET helps to algebraically translate an amplitude written in mass eigenbasis into flavour mass insertions, without performing diagrammatic calculations in flavour basis. As a non-trivial application of FET up to a third order, we demonstrate its use in calculating strong bounds on the real parts of flavour changing mass insertions in the up- squark sector of the MSSM from neutron Electric Dipole Moment...

  7. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and the sensor which can stand radiation levels beyond 5E15 neq/cm2. ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation and allows detector cooling with CO2 at -40C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and test ready for installation in ATLAS in 2013. The presentation summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip with new sensors, the construction ...

  8. End of the EM Barrel Presampler Construction and Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a thin detector placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, made up of two half barrels also, but with 32 sectors per half barrel instead of 16. Each of these 64 sectors is 3.1 m long, 28 cm large and 2.9 cm thick. Three countries took part in its construction: France (LPSC-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat universities, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started 11 years ago and the series production began at the end of 2000. Cabling, mechanical and electronic tests of the anodes were achieved in Morocco. Forty-one sectors were assembled and validated at the LPSC-Grenoble and 25 at the KTH-Stockholm. In November 2002, the first half was inserted on the inner face of the first EM calorimeter wheel. The insertion of the other 32 sectors in the second EM calorimeter wheel was achieved in July 2003 (see pictures). The production of two additional sectors will allow us to study the p...

  9. A minimalist technique for insertion of intrauterine devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman David Goldstuck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The world’s population is approaching 7 billion. As a general rule, the countries with the highest population have the least available healthcare resources, the most notable exception being the United States of America (USA. Most of these countries have an urgent need to reduce their populations. The intrauterine device (IUD is used by the largest number of contraceptives world-wide and it has a proven record in reducing unwanted pregnancies. Its efficacy rate as a long-acting reversible contraceptive is matched only by subdermal implants which are not as cost effective. Although the rates of pelvic infection are elevated in many countries with low-resource health care systems, we now know that pelvic infection rates are independent of IUD usage. This is therefore no longer a contraindication for using IUDs on a large scale in family planning programs. The technique of IUD insertion as described in most textbooks and journals is unnecessarily complex and based on ritual rather than good clinical evidence. This is particularly interesting in that at a time where we prefer evidence based medicine there are still so many clinical practice sacred cows. This article advocates a simplification of the technique for inserting IUDs. The scientific rationale for simplifying the technique is presented, as well as evidence that it is as safe if not safer than the currently suggested methods, if used for the correct type of IUD acceptors.

  10. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  11. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.

    2012-02-27

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  12. Numerical Simulation of and Experiment on Electroforming Microstructure Mold Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-Nan

    2008-09-01

    Microstructures are a vital component in various systems such as bionic chips, micro-fluidics sensor, optical communication systems, and micro-fuel cells. Micro-mold inserts should be produced by precise electroforming; however, interchanging the plating solution in an extremely small tunnel has been a main problem, where flow field and mass transfer are the major variances. In this paper we will concentrate on single- and three-micro hole array mode insert electroform flow fields and the mass transfer effect. Single-hole results show that the interchange of the plating fluid is more efficient at a lower aspect ratio of similar apertures with different aspect ratios. A lower coefficient of viscosities results in a weaker microelectroforming effect. The electroforming effect is better at an entry flow field speed of 0.01 m/s than at that of 0.001 m/s. The three-hole array results show that the first hole proved the best among the three holes, followed by the second hole; the third hole showed the worst results. The 10:1 ratio of distance to diameter of the hole produces better electroforming results than the 1:1 ratio. Lastly, this paper will contribute to the development of microelectro-mechanical manufacturing technologies.

  13. Gastrostomy insertion: comparing the options - PEG, RIG or PIG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Technical success was 98%, 100% and 100% for PEG, RIG and PIG, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced stoma infection for orally placed tubes (p=0.02). Ten out of 50 (20%) small-bore RIG tubes blocked. Replacement tubes were required in six out of 50 PEGs (12%), 10 out of 50 RIGs (20%), but no PIGs (p<0.001). No procedure-related complications occurred. The function of radiologically placed tubes was significantly improved with the larger PIG (p<0.001), with similar wound infection rates. PIG was successful in 24 patients where endoscopic insertion could not be performed. Significant endoscopic abnormalities were found in 42 out of 200 PEG patients (21%), all related to peptic disease. Insignificant pathology was found in 8.5%. CONCLUSION: PIG combines advantages of both traditional methods with a higher success and lower re-intervention rate. Endoscopy is unlikely to detect clinically relevant pathology other than peptic disease. PIG is a very effective gastrostomy method; it has better long-term results than RIG and is successful where conventional PEG has failed

  14. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from I to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAS. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAS. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, open-quotes hclose quotes, in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  15. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia; Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C.

    2015-03-01

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH2OO and anti/syn-CH3C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH2OO and anti-CH3C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH3C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C-H bonds. For syn-CH3C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH3 group by the terminal O atom producing CH2C(H)O-OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH2OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction.

  16. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Department of Physical Chemistry, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C., E-mail: chemmcl@emory.edu [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-28

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH{sub 2}OO and anti/syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH{sub 2}OO and anti-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH{sub 3}C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C–H bonds. For syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH{sub 3} group by the terminal O atom producing CH{sub 2}C(H)O–OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH{sub 2}OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction.

  17. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  18. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... the insertions. Seven pigs were included in the study and a total of 118 randomized needle insertions were conducted. Histology was made of tissue samples inserted with 18G, 28G, and 32G needles, and stained to quantify red and white blood cell response. Based on area under curve, calculated for each individual...

  19. Research on the Influence of Orthopaedic Inserts on Pressure Distribution in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rutulys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of individual orthopaedic inserts on pressure distribution in the foot. Feet deformations, types of orthopaedic inserts, materials and pressure in the foot testing methods are discussed. Experimental computer measurements of pressure in the foot before and after the use of inserts have been done. During research, the inserts made of different kinds of materials selected according to human weight, pathology, skin sensitivity and many other reasons has been used. It has been determinated that orthopaedic inserts have a more noticeable impact on children whose feet is adjusted easier if compared with those of adults.Article in Lithuanian

  20. One-dimensional Array Grammars and P Systems with Array Insertion and Deletion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the (one-dimensional array counterpart of contextual as well as insertion and deletion string grammars and consider the operations of array insertion and deletion in array grammars. First we show that the emptiness problem for P systems with (one-dimensional insertion rules is undecidable. Then we show computational completeness of P systems using (one-dimensional array insertion and deletion rules even of norm one only. The main result of the paper exhibits computational completeness of one-dimensional array grammars using array insertion and deletion rules of norm at most two.

  1. Membrane Fusion Mediated by pH-Low-Insertion-Peptide (pHLIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jennifer; Yao, Lan; Engelman, Donald; Andreev, Oleg; Reshetnyak, Yana

    2012-02-01

    Liposomes are traditionally used as drug delivery carriers. The major mechanism of liposome entry into cell is endocytotic. First, the endocytotic pathway of cellular entry is non-specific: the delivery of therapeutics occurs to cells in both diseased and healthy tissues. Second, liposomes are usually trapped in endosome/lysosome, which prevents delivery of therapeutics to cytoplasm. We proposed to use pHLIP (pH-Low-Insertion-Peptide) to promote selective delivery of the liposome content to cytoplasm of cancer cells. We showed that liposomes coated with PEG polymer and pHLIP peptide enhance membrane fusion in acidic environments. pHLIP promotes fusion between lipid bilayer of liposome and plasma membrane or membrane of endosome/lysosome, which results in intracellular delivery of payload. Liposomes composed of 5 % pHLIP and 5 % PEG were ideal for the delivery. Since cancer and other pathological states produce an acid extracellular environment, this allows the liposome to target diseased tissue while avoiding healthy tissue (with neutral pH in extracellular space). The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  2. Automated seamless DNA co-transformation cloning with direct expression vectors applying positive or negative insert selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular DNA cloning is crucial to many experiments and with the trend to higher throughput of modern approaches automated techniques are urgently required. We have established an automated, fast and flexible low-cost expression cloning approach requiring only vector and insert amplification by PCR and co-transformation of the products. Results Our vectors apply positive selection for the insert or negative selection against empty vector molecules and drive strong expression of target proteins in E.coli cells. Variable tags are available both in N-terminal or C-terminal position. A newly developed β-lactamase (ΔW290 selection cassette contains a segment inside the β-lactamase open reading frame encoding a stretch of hydrophilic amino acids that result in a T7 promoter when back-translated. This position of the promoter permits positive selection and attenuated expression of fusion proteins with C-terminal tags. We have tested eight vectors by inserting six target sequences of variable length, provenience and function. The target proteins were cloned, expressed and detected using an automated Tecan Freedom Evo II liquid handling work station. Only two colonies had to be picked to score with 85% correct inserts while 80% of those were positive in expression tests. Conclusions Our results establish co-transformation and positive/negative selection cloning in conjunction with the provided vectors and selection cassettes as an automatable alternative to commercialized high-throughput cloning systems like Gateway® or ligase-independent cloning (LIC .

  3. Effect of delayed insertion of composite resin on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves CAMPOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are characterized bythe dental acid etching previously to the monomer application. Thesematerials can be classified as 3-step (when primer and bond are applied separately or 2-step (when the primer and bond functions are carried out by a single component. Objective: To determine the influence of immediate or delayed insertion of restorative material on the values of bond strength of 2-step and 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems using the microtensile test. Material and methods: Bovine incisors were used, which had its vestibular surface abraded to obtain a flat dentin surface. 3-step (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose – SMP; Optibond FL – OFL; Bond-It – BIT and 2-step (Single-Bond – SB; Optibond Solo Plus – OSP; Bond-1 – B1 etch-and-rinse adhesive systems were used, and composite resin (Z-350 was adhered to this substrate at two different times: immediately and later (after 24 hours. Procedures were performed with simulated physiological pulpal pressure. Results were submitted to statistical analysis through Anova and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Results: When the composite resin was immediately inserted all the adhesive systems showed similar results. 3-step adhesive systems did not show reduction in bond strength values related to delayed insertion of composite. On the other hand, 2-step adhesive systems showed significant reduction in the values of bond strength. Reduction was around 30.24% to SB, 27.19% to OSP and 28.21% to B1. Conclusion: 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems should be used very carefully. It is advisable to insert and polymerize the composite resin immediately after the conclusion of adhesive procedure.

  4. Refurbishing of domestic natural gas service pipelines with Live Service Insertion; Sanierung von Erdgas-Hausanschluessen mit Live Service Insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittl, M.

    1996-03-01

    When using the `live service injection` refurbishing process, the old steel domestic connection is reproduced without any underground work. The refurbishing is done exclusively from the building cellar. A considerable reduction in costs from conventional methods of construction is therefore possible. The main application for `live service injection` is for supply undertakings with extensive refurbishment potential. Main pipelines and domestic connection pipes can be renewed at different times and independently of one another. This makes flexible and quick completion at site possible; the gas customer is only cut off from the supply for about four hours. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Einsatz des Sanierungsverfahrens Live Service Insertion wird der alte Stahl-Hausanschluss komplett ohne Tiefbau wiederhergestellt. Die Sanierung wird dabei ausschliesslich vom Gebaeudekeller aus vorgenommen. Eine erhebliche Kostenreduzierung zur konventionellen Bauweise ist damit moeeglich. Der Haupteinsatz fuer Live Service Insertion ergibt sich fuer Versorgungsunternehmen mit umfangreichem Sanierungspotential. Hauptleitungen und Hausanschlussleitungen koennen zeitlich getrennt und unabhaengig voneinander erneuert werden. Dadurch ist eine flexible und zuegige Baustellenabwicklung moeglich; der Gaskunde ist nur fuer etwa vier Stunden von der Versorgung getrennt. (orig.)

  5. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Malolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    and insertion site identification. So far, only floral dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols...... including software for automated data analysis, which take full advantage of high next-generation sequencing throughput. Here we address these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package and we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8,935 LORE1 insertions in 3,744 Lotus japonicus...... plants. The identified insertions showed that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to its homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. Since LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating...

  6. Polymerase chain reaction targeting insertion sequence for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Makeshkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is difficult using conventional diagnostic methods. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in diagnosis of definitive and probable extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients, and to assess the performance of insertion sequence (IS 6110 based PCR assay as compared to conventional culture by Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ method for the diagnosis of EPTB. Methods: A total of 178 non repeated clinical specimens were collected from clinically suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients. The specimens included 59 ascitic fluid, 54 pleural fluid, 25 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 12 fine needle aspiration (FNA, 8 urine, 7 pus, 6 synovial fluid, 2 skin tissue, one pericardial fluid, one liver abscess, one pancreatic cyst fluid, one omental biopsy and one semen sample. All these clinical samples were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN for acid fast bacilli (AFB and culture on LJ medium. PCR was performed by targeting 123bp fragment of insertion sequence IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Results: Of the 178 specimens, 10 (5.61% were ZN smear positive for AFB, six (3.37% were L-J culture positive from 10 AFB smear positive cases and 48 (26.96% were PCR IS 6110 positive for M. tuberculosis. Interpretation & conclusions: PCR using IS6110 primer was able to pick up more EPTB patients compared to conventional L-J culture method for detection of M. tuberculosis. False positive PCR IS6110 in three CSF samples may be due to latent TB infection which was limitation in this study.

  7. Reactivity insertion accident in a small molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have a long history with the first design studies beginning in the 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). MSRs have many advantages such as improved potential in safety, proliferation resistance, resource sustainability and waste reduction. But MSR developmental activities have slowed considerably except for some small scale efforts, mostly in Russia, France, Japan and a few other places and there are few data available to support detailed analyses. Recently, a conceptual design of a small MSR, name Fuji-12 has been proposed. Fuji-12 operates with the same fuel salt as the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) designed by ORNL. But it differs from the ORNL design in several ways, such as no on-site chemical processing plant and a low rated power. The authors are interested in the MSR concept due to its high potential in the areas of safety, proliferation resistance, resource sustainability and waste reduction, all necessary requirements for the generation IV nuclear power systems. Therefore the MSR concept has been selected as one of the more promising candidates for future consideration. The authors believe that additional investigations are necessary for future study. From this point of view, the authors have analyzed various reactivity insertion accidents due to control rod malfunctions in a MSR named FUJI-12. The MSR can be operated with a small excess reactivity and also the control rods for power adjustment consist of graphite, which has buoyancy in the fuel salt. Thus the reactivity addition could be limited by design. However at the same time the delayed neutron fraction is quite small due to the usage of U-233 as fissile material and the circulation of the fuel salt. Therefore reactivity insertion accident should be qualitatively evaluated. The reactor transients were analyzed without scram in order to evaluate the severity of such accidents against the safety. The severity of the accident was discussed for the outlet

  8. Machinability and scratch wear resistance of carbon-coated WC inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cemented WC inserts were coated with carbon by CVD. • The deposits were either loosely held MWCNTs or adherent carbides. • Co-efficient of friction (ramp load; 1–13 N); 0.2 and 0.1 μ, respectively, for the uncoated and carbide-coated inserts. • The carbide-coated insert exhibited better machinability and surface finish than a commercial TiCN-coated insert. - Abstract: In this work, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) inserts were coated with nanocarbons/carbides by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their machinability and scratch wear resistance were investigated. The hardness and surface conditions of the WC substrate were studied before and after coating. The CVD-generated nanocarbons on the insert surfaces were examined by SEM, FE-SEM and TEM. The electron microscopic images revealed that the carbons generated were multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbides depending on the experimental conditions. In both the cases, the cutting edges of the inserts had dense deposits. Scratch wear test with the coated inserts showed that the co-efficient of friction was 0.1 μ as against 0.2 μ for the uncoated inserts under a ramp load of 1–13 N. The machinability characteristics of commercially available TiCN-coated inserts and the carbon-coated WC inserts were compared by using a CNC machine and a Rapid I vision inspection system. It was found that the carbide-coated inserts exhibited machinability with better surface finish comparable to that of the TiCN-coated inserts while the MWCNT-coated inserts showed inferior adhesion properties

  9. Peripherally inserted central catheter placement using the Sonic Flashlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesur, Nikhil B; Wang, David C; Chang, Wilson; Weiser, David; Klatzky, Roberta; Shukla, Gaurav; Stetten, George D

    2009-10-01

    The Sonic Flashlight is an ultrasound (US) device that projects real-time US images into patients with use of a semireflective/transparent mirror. The present study evaluated the feasibility of use of the Sonic Flashlight for clinical peripherally inserted central catheter placements, originally with the mirror located inside a sterile cover (n = 15), then with the mirror outside (n = 11). Successful access was obtained in all cases. Results show that this new design improved visibility, as judged subjectively firsthand and in photographs. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the Sonic Flashlight and the new design to help assure sterility without degrading visibility, allowing further clinical trials involving physicians and nurses. PMID:19699661

  10. Text Steganography using LSB insertion method along with Chaos Theory

    CERN Document Server

    S., Bhavana

    2012-01-01

    The art of information hiding has been around nearly as long as the need for covert communication. Steganography, the concealing of information, arose early on as an extremely useful method for covert information transmission. Steganography is the art of hiding secret message within a larger image or message such that the hidden message or an image is undetectable; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscure. The goal of a steganographic method is to minimize the visually apparent and statistical differences between the cover data and a steganogram while maximizing the size of the payload. Current digital image steganography presents the challenge of hiding message in a digital image in a way that is robust to image manipulation and attack. This paper explains about how a secret message can be hidden into an image using least significant bit insertion method along with chaos.

  11. Prototype of Superconducting Quadrupole for ISR Low-Beta Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    In colliders, smaller beam cross-section means higher luminosity. Beam-size being proportional to the square-root of the "beta function" value, a small beta means small beam size, hence high luminosity. The first p-p collision in the ISR occurred in January 1971 and in 1973 a study was launched on low-beta insertions, which focus beams to even smaller sizes at the beam crossing points. In 1976 the first prototype of a superconducting quadrupole was tested. Here we see Theodor Tortschanoff with a prototype of 1.25 m magnetic length. Manufacture of 8 quadrupoles (4 of L=1.15 m, 4 of L=0.65 m) began at Alsthom in 1978. They were installed at point 8 of the ISR, enhancing luminosity there until final low-beta operation in December 1983. For details see "Yellow Report" CERN 76-16.

  12. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds Medical IT, MEDISIP-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B/5, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  13. Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil, Sol 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), at the end of the Robotic Arm, on the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2008). The TECP is inserted at a site called Vestri, which was monitored several times over the course of the mission. The probe's measurements at this site yielded evidence that water was exchanged, daily and seasonally, between the soil and atmosphere. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  15. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis and between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC.

  16. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  17. Assessment of a percutaneous iliosacral screw insertion simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Tonetti, J; Girard, P; Dubois, M; Merloz, P; Troccaz, Jocelyne; 10.1016/j.otsr.2009.07.005

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Navigational simulator use for specialized training purposes is rather uncommon in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. However, it reveals providing a valuable tool to train orthopaedic surgeons and help them to plan complex surgical procedures. PURPOSE: This work's objective was to assess educational efficiency of a path simulator under fluoroscopic guidance applied to sacroiliac joint percutaneous screw fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 23 surgeons' accuracy inserting a guide-wire in a human cadaver experiment, following a pre-established procedure. These medical trainees were defined in three prospective respects: novice or skilled; with or without theoretical knowledge; with or without surgical procedure familiarity. Analysed criteria for each tested surgeon included the number of intraoperative X-rays taken in order to achieve the surgical procedure as well as an iatrogenic index reflecting the surgeon's ability to detect any hazardous trajectory at the time of performing said procedu...

  18. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  19. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy)

  20. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao de Mendizabal, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Preparing the hight luminosity LHC phase, the ATLAS experiment will upgrade his Pixel tracking system with the installation of a new pixel layer. The new sub detector, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed during the LHC first shut down in 2013-2014, in between the innermost actual pixel layer and the beampipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip FE-I4 and two different silicon sensor technologies, planar and 3D have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size and a new mechanical support using lightweight staves. Two pre-series staves were made in order to qualify the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the read-out chain before going into production.

  1. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis and between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC.

  2. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  3. Li+ extraction/insertion reaction with Mg2Mn0.5Ti0.5O4 inverse spinel in the aqueous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An inverse spinel-type metal oxide, magnesium-manganese-titanium oxide (Mg2Mn0.5Ti0.5O4), were prepared using the coprecipitation/thermal crystallization method. The extraction/insertion reaction with this material was investigated by X-ray, saturation capacity of exchange, pH titration, and distribution coefficient (Kd) measurement The acid treatments of Mg2Mn0.5Ti0.5O4 caused Mg2+ extractions of more than 81%, whereas the dissolutions of Mn4+ and Ti4+ were less than 10%. The experimental results proved that the acid-treated sample has a capacity of exchange 56 mg·g-1 for Li+ in the solution. The chemical analysis showed that the Li+ extraction/insertion progressed mainly by ion-exchange mechanism and surface adsorption.

  4. A single base insertion in the putative transmembrane domain of the tyrosinase gene as a cause for tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintamaneni, C.D.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kwon, B.S. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States)); Halaban, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Witkop, C.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

    1991-06-15

    The authors have determined a molecular defect to be the likely basis for inactivity of the tyrosinase from a patient with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. A single base (thymine) was inserted in exon 5 of the tyrosinase gene following codon 471 in the putative transmembrane coding region. This insertion caused a shift in the reading frame of 19 amino acids at the 3{prime} end and introduced a premature termination signal that would be expected to truncate the protein by 21 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. The albino tyrosinase was not recognized by antibodies directed to the carboxyl terminus of tyrosinase. Furthermore, as shown by gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitated protein, the tyrosinase was {approx} 3kDa smaller than normal. Similar immunoprecipitation data were obtained when cloned normal and mutant tyrosinases were expressed in COS-1 cells.

  5. A concise synthesis of (±)-pregabalin via intramolecular C-H insertion of N-cumyl á-diazoacetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen-liang; LIU Wei-jun; CHEN Zhi-yong; Jiang Yao-zhong; HU Wen-hao

    2004-01-01

    Pregabalin 1 (3-aminomethyl-5-methyl hexanoic acid) is a potent anticonvulsant related to the inhibitory neurotransmitter a-aminobutyric acid (GABA).1 In preclinical trials of anticonvulsant activity, pregabalin is three to ten times more potent than gabapentin. Therefore,pregabalin can be used for the potential treatment of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including epilepsy, neuropathic pain, anxiety and social phobia. Many synthetic routes have been developed to prepare pregabalin.2-3 However, there is a need to explore novel, practical and better synthetic approaches to pregabalin. Herein we report a concise synthesis of (±)-pregabalin from hydrolysis of corresponding (a)-lactam, which was obtained from the intramolecular C-H insertion of N-cumyl a-diazoacetamide 4.

  6. MECHANISM AND HYDROPHOBIC FORCES DRIVING MEMBRANE PROTEIN INSERTION OF SUBUNIT II OF CYTOCHROME BO OXIDASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Nil; Dalbey, Ross E.; Yuan, Jijun

    2009-01-01

    Subunit II (CyoA) of cytochrome bo oxidase, which spans the inner membrane twice in bacteria, has several unusual features in membrane biogenesis. It is synthesized with an amino-terminal signal peptide. In addition, distinct pathways are used to insert the two ends of the protein. The amino-terminal domain is inserted by the YidC pathway whereas the large carboxyl-terminal domain is translocated by the SecYEG pathway. Insertion of the protein is also pmf-independent. In this study we examined the topogenic requirements and mechanism of insertion of CyoA in bacteria. We find that both the signal peptide and the first membrane spanning region are required for insertion of the amino-terminal periplasmic loop. The pmf-independence of insertion of the first periplasmic loop is due to the loop’s neutral net charge. We observe also that the introduction of negatively charged residues into the periplasmic loop makes insertion pmf dependent, whereas the addition of positively charged residues prevents insertion unless the pmf is abolished. Insertion of the carboxyl-terminal domain in the full-length CyoA occurs by a sequential mechanism even when the CyoA amino and carboxyl-terminal domains are swapped with other domains. However, when a long spacer peptide is added to increase the distance between the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains, insertion no longer occurs by a sequential mechanism. PMID:18155041

  7. Single-residue insertion switches the quaternary structure and exciton states of cryptophyte light-harvesting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Stephen J; Wilk, Krystyna E; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Collini, Elisabetta; Mirkovic, Tihana; Teng, Chang Ying; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Green, Beverley R; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Hiller, Roger G; Scholes, Gregory D; Curmi, Paul M G

    2014-07-01

    Observation of coherent oscillations in the 2D electronic spectra (2D ES) of photosynthetic proteins has led researchers to ask whether nontrivial quantum phenomena are biologically significant. Coherent oscillations have been reported for the soluble light-harvesting phycobiliprotein (PBP) antenna isolated from cryptophyte algae. To probe the link between spectral properties and protein structure, we determined crystal structures of three PBP light-harvesting complexes isolated from different species. Each PBP is a dimer of αβ subunits in which the structure of the αβ monomer is conserved. However, we discovered two dramatically distinct quaternary conformations, one of which is specific to the genus Hemiselmis. Because of steric effects emerging from the insertion of a single amino acid, the two αβ monomers are rotated by ∼73° to an "open" configuration in contrast to the "closed" configuration of other cryptophyte PBPs. This structural change is significant for the light-harvesting function because it disrupts the strong excitonic coupling between two central chromophores in the closed form. The 2D ES show marked cross-peak oscillations assigned to electronic and vibrational coherences in the closed-form PC645. However, such features appear to be reduced, or perhaps absent, in the open structures. Thus cryptophytes have evolved a structural switch controlled by an amino acid insertion to modulate excitonic interactions and therefore the mechanisms used for light harvesting.

  8. Site-selected insertional mutagenesis of tomato with maize Ac and Ds elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, M B; Goldsbrough, A P; Still, D W; Yoder, J I

    1996-08-27

    Site-selected insertion (SSI) is a PCR-based technique which uses primers located within the transposon and a target gene for detection of transposon insertions into cloned genes. We screened tomato plants bearing single or multiple copies of maize Ac or Ds transposable elements for somatic insertions at one close-range target and two long-range targets. Eight close-range Ds insertions near the right border of the T-DNA were recovered. Sequence analysis showed a precise junction between the transposon and the target for all insertions. Two insertions in separate plants occurred at the same site, but others appeared dispersed in the region of the right T-DNA border with no target specificity. However, insertions showed a preference for one orientation of the transposon. Use of plants with multiple Ac (HiAc) or Ds (HiDs) elements allowed detection of somatic insertions at two single-copy genes, PG (polygalacturonase) and DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase). Certain HiDs plants showed much higher rates of insertion into PG than others. Insertions in PG and DFR were found throughout the gene regions monitored and, with the exception of one insertion in PG, the junctions between transposon and target were exact. SSI analysis of progeny from the HiDs parents revealed that in some cases the tendency to incur high levels of somatic insertions in PG was inherited. Inheritance of this character is an indication that SSI could be used to direct a search for germinal PG insertions in tomato. PMID:8804392

  9. A 5-bp insertion in Mip causes recessive congenital cataract in KFRS4/Kyo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Watanabe

    Full Text Available We discovered a new cataract mutation, kfrs4, in the Kyoto Fancy Rat Stock (KFRS background. Within 1 month of birth, all kfrs4/kfrs4 homozygotes developed cataracts, with severe opacity in the nuclei of the lens. In contrast, no opacity was observed in the kfrs4/+ heterozygotes. We continued to observe these rats until they reached 1 year of age and found that cataractogenesis did not occur in kfrs4/+ rats. To define the histological defects in the lenses of kfrs4 rats, sections of the eyes of these rats were prepared. Although the lenses of kfrs4/kfrs4 homozygotes showed severely disorganised fibres and vacuolation, the lenses of kfrs4/+ heterozygotes appeared normal and similar to those of wild-type rats. We used positional cloning to identify the kfrs4 mutation. The mutation was mapped to an approximately 9.7-Mb region on chromosome 7, which contains the Mip gene. This gene is responsible for a dominant form of cataract in humans and mice. Sequence analysis of the mutant-derived Mip gene identified a 5-bp insertion. This insertion is predicted to inactivate the MIP protein, as it produces a frameshift that results in the synthesis of 6 novel amino acid residues and a truncated protein that lacks 136 amino acids in the C-terminal region, and no MIP immunoreactivity was observed in the lens fibre cells of kfrs4/kfrs4 homozygous rats using an antibody that recognises the C- and N-terminus of MIP. In addition, the kfrs4/+ heterozygotes showed reduced expression of Mip mRNA and MIP protein and the kfrs4/kfrs4 homozygotes showed no expression in the lens. These results indicate that the kfrs4 mutation conveys a loss-of-function, which leads to functional inactivation though the degradation of Mip mRNA by an mRNA decay mechanism. Therefore, the kfrs4 rat represents the first characterised rat model with a recessive mutation in the Mip gene.

  10. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  11. In vitro microbiological evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol-based ocular inserts of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramaniam J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble inserts of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride using high and low molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol alone and in various combinations were fabricated by a casting technique. The in vitro drug release from the prepared inserts was studied using a continuous flow-through model, developed in our laboratory. The antimicrobial efficacies of the prepared inserts against common ocular pathogens, viz., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were evaluated using a modified in vitro microbiological model. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride release from the inserts followed matrix diffusion kinetics showing an anomalous release mechanism (erosion-controlled based on the calculated release exponent (n values. Drug release increased with an increase in the proportion of high molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol in the inserts. The in vitro microbiological model demonstrated the effectiveness of the inserts against the two microorganisms. Further, the results of the in vitro release studies correlated well with that of the antimicrobial studies.

  12. Nelaton catheter assisted versus standard nasogastric tube insertion: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, M; Mousavinasab, N; Jalili, S

    2014-01-09

    It is sometimes difficult to insert a nasogastric tube in an anaesthetized patient. We evaluated the benefit of reinforcing the distal portion of the nasogastric tube with a Nelaton catheter: 8 and 10 French Nelaton catheters were inserted into 16 and 18 French nasogastric tubes respectively through the first proximal holes of tubes up to their tips. The patients anaesthetized were randomly allocated into either the control or the Nelaton groups, and nasogastric tube was inserted as deeply as the catheter length, then the catheter was withdrawn and the tube was inserted farther to reach the stomach. Eighty patients (40 in each group) were included in this study. The success rate of nasogastric tube insertion was 90% in the Nelaton group and 57% in the control group (P = 0.001). The mean insertion time was 80 (SD 43) and 92 (SD 35) seconds in the Nelaton and the control groups respectively.

  13. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  14. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  15. Insertion design for e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, A

    1979-01-01

    The insertion design of an e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring determines not only the physics potential of the facility but also the basic machine parameters, and considerable economies can be made by suitably tailoring the insertions to the detector requirements. This paper shows how the use of specialized insertions can improve the machine characteristics and discusses the solution adopted for LEP, the large e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage rings currently under study at CERN. (10 refs).

  16. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    If a system is required to be protected using triple modular redundancy (TMR), improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process and the complexity of digital designs, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems.

  17. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning--seamless DNA insertion into any target plasmid without sequence constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulrich

    Full Text Available We present a fast, reliable and inexpensive restriction-free cloning method for seamless DNA insertion into any plasmid without sequence limitation. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning requires two consecutive PCR steps and can be carried out in one day. We show that EMP cloning has a higher efficiency than restriction-free (RF cloning, especially for long inserts above 2.5 kb. EMP further enables simultaneous cloning of multiple inserts.

  18. Early versus delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after medical abortion - a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sääv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, a large proportion of early abortions are medical terminations, in accordance to the woman's choice. Intrauterine contraceptives (IUC provide highly effective, reversible, long-acting contraception. However, the effects of timing of IUC insertion after medical abortion are not known. METHODS: Women undergoing medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol up to 63 days gestation and opting for IUC were randomised to early insertion (day 5-9 after mifepristone or delayed (routine insertion (at 3-4 weeks after mifepristone. The primary outcome was the rate of IUC expulsion at six months after IUC insertion. RESULTS: A total of 129 women were randomized, and 116 women had a successful IUC insertion. There was no difference in expulsion rate between early (9.7% vs. delayed (7.4% IUC insertion (risk difference -9.2-13.4. Furthermore, 1.5% of women randomized to early and 11.5% to delayed insertion did not attend the follow up (proportion difference 10.0%, 95% CI: 1.8-20.6%, p = 0.015, and a higher proportion of women (41% had had unprotected intercourse prior to returning for insertion in the delayed group compared with the early group (16% (p = 0.015. Adverse events were rare and did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early insertion of IUC after medical abortion was safe and well tolerated with no increased incidence for expulsions or complications. Women were more likely to return for the IUC insertion if scheduled early after the abortion, and less likely to have had an unprotected intercourse prior to the IUC insertion. Early insertion should be offered as a routine for women undergoing first trimester medical abortion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01537562.

  19. Insert size of YAC clones - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP physicalma...a contents Insert size of YAC clones in the physical map Data file File name: rgp_physicalmap_insert_size.zi...p File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rgp-physicalmap/LATEST/rgp_physicalma...p_insert_size.zip File size: 3.4 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/rgp_physicalma...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Insert size of YAC clones - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (<3% difference) and in most cases the differences were not statistically significant. Also, R2 values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  1. Insertional translocations: report of two new families and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Barsel-Bowers, G; Richardson, A

    1988-10-01

    We describe two families with insertional translocations. In the first, a large family ascertained because of repeated pregnancy loss, the insertional translocation, ins(1;3)(q32;p13pter), was found to be segregating through three generations. In the second family, ascertained through a proposita with congenital malformations, multiple spontaneous abortions also occurred. The father had an insertional translocation, inv 4(p14,q21.1)ins(7,4)(q32;q21.1 q23). These cases illustrate that recurrent fetal wastage may be caused by insertional translocations and in fact may be the only clinical manifestation of this unusual type of chromosome rearrangement.

  2. Electron beam optics of Indus-2 for proposed insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indus-2 storage ring is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source. In Indus-2, it is planned to install five insertion devices (IDs). Presently ring is being regularly operated with the moderate optics having beam emittance of 135 nm-rad at 2.5 GeV. It is required to reduce its emittance, so that source brightness from IDs can be increased. The beta function at the location of IDs will also decide the source properties as well as its effect on the machine performance. It necessities that a procedure has to be adopted so that present operating optics can be changed into the low emittance optics as well as the β function at the location of IDs also be adjusted as per requirements. The procedure to change its emittance is already tested. In this procedure, beta function optimization at the location of IDs is also included. In this paper its result and its suitability to operate this procedure is discussed. (author)

  3. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao de Mendizabal, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The upgrades for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be staged in preparation for high luminosity LHC. The Pixel detector upgrade will start with the construction of a new layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine, in 2013-14. The new sub-detector, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the hight radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, the development of several new technologies has been required. The IBL design, which is different to the current pixel design, is using a new read-out chip FE-I4 designed in 130 nm technology, and two different and promising silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size while targeting for a low material budget should be imposed, pushing for a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO...

  4. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Rohne, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The upgrades for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be staged in preparation for high luminosity LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector is the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine, in 2013-14. The new detector, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new, smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL has required the development of several new technologies to cope with increased radiation and pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance through reduction of the pixel size and a more stringent material budget. The IBL presents several changes to the design of the present hybrid pixel system: two different and promising silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, will be used for the IBL. A new read-out chip FE-I4 has been designed in 130 nm technology, the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based co...

  5. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer in 2013/14. The new subdetector, named Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller diameter beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed and are currently under investigation and production for the IBL. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size whereas targeting for a low material budget, pushing for a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system. An overview of the IBL project, the results of beam tests on different sensor technologies, as well as current production flow and first test results with production staves will be given.

  6. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project.

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer in 2013-14. The new sub-detector, named Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size while targeting for a low material budget should be imposed, pushing for a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system. An overview of the IBL project and the status of the two pre-series staves made before going into production in order to qualify the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the read-out chain will be presented.

  7. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  8. Control rod assembly drops to fully inserted position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, Pavlin P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg; Stefanova, Antoaneta E. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg

    2005-11-15

    This paper describes validation of a computer model that has been developed for VVER 440 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) for use with RELAP5/MOD 3.2 computer code in the analysis of the following transient: 'Control rod assembly drops to fully inserted position'. This validation is a process that compares the analytical results obtained by RELAP5/MOD3.2 model of the VVER 440 with experimental transient data received from Kozloduy NPP, Unit no. 2. The model of VVER 440 was developed at the the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events and design basis scenarios. It will provide a significant analytical capability for the Bulgarian technical specialists located at the Kozloduy NPP. The criteria used in selecting transient are: importance to safety, availability and suitability of data followed by suitability for RELAP5 code validation. The comparisons between the RELAP5 results and the test data indicate good agreement.

  9. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J. [Mears Technologies, Inc., Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts 02481 (United States); Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong [SK Hynix, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  10. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters Complicated by Vascular Erosion in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Brian P; Farrow, Kathryn N; Kim, Stan; Hunter, Catherine J

    2016-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in the pediatric population, and their use continues to grow in popularity. These catheters provide a reliable source of venous access to neonatal patients but can also be the cause of life-threatening complications. There are several well-documented complications such as infections, catheter thrombosis, vascular extravasations, and fractured catheters. However, the complication of vascular erosion into the pleural space using both small and silicone-based catheters is rarely described. After obtaining institutional review board approval, we identified 4 cases to review of PICCs complicated by vascular erosions in the past 2 years. Herein, we also review the current literature of PICC complications. Getting the catheter tip as close to the atrial-caval junction as possible and confirmation of this placement are of the utmost importance. The thick wall of the vena cava near the atrium seems to be less likely to perforate; in addition, this position provides increased volume and turbulence to help dilute the hyperosmolar fluid, which seems to also be a factor in this complication. A daily screening chest x-ray in patients with upper extremity PICCs and ongoing parenteral nutrition (PN) are not necessary at this time given the overall low rate of vascular erosion and concerns regarding excessive radiation exposure in pediatric populations. However, a low threshold for chest x-ray imaging in patients with even mild respiratory symptoms in the setting of upper extremity PN is recommended. PMID:25700180

  11. Test Results for LHC Insertion Region Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Muratore, Joseph F; Cozzolino, John P; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Kumar-Jain, Animesh; Marone, Andrew; Richard-Plate, Stephen; Schmalzle, Jesse D; Thomas, Richard A; Wanderer, Peter; Willen, Erich; Wu, Kuo-Chen

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They produce fields up to 3.8 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, which have the most challenging design. In these, the dipole fields in both apertures point in the same direction, unlike LHC arc dipoles. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality. Magnetic field measurements were done at 4.5K and at room temperature, and warm-...

  12. Insertion of tetracysteine motifs into dopamine transporter extracellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M Navaroli

    Full Text Available The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC to facilitate dye binding. In the current study, we took advantage of intrinsic proline-glycine (Pro-Gly dipeptides encoded in predicted DAT extracellular domains to introduce tetraCys motifs into DAT extracellular loops 2, 3, and 4. [(3H]DA uptake studies, surface biotinylation and fluorescence microscopy in PC12 cells indicate that tetraCys insertion into the DAT second extracellular loop results in a functional transporter that maintains PKC-mediated downregulation. Introduction of tetraCys into extracellular loops 3 and 4 yielded DATs with severely compromised function that failed to mature and traffic to the cell surface. This is the first demonstration of successful introduction of a tetracysteine motif into a DAT extracellular domain, and may hold promise for use of biarsenic dyes in live DAT imaging studies.

  13. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  14. PNEUMOPERITO NEUM BY DIRECT TROCAR INSERTION : SAFE LAPAROSCOPIC ACCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to access the safety and efficacy of direct trocar insertion (DTI for accessing the abdominal cavity for operative laparoscopy without prior pneumoperitoneum. DTI is one of the safe and effective alternative to veress needle inser tion , open access (Hassan’s technique and visual entry systems (disposable optic trocars and endotip visual cannula in laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: The study included 2480 patients who has undergone laparoscopic procedures at civil hospital , Jalandhar from Nov . 2003 to Sept . 2012 and at Punjab Institu t e of Medical Sciences ( PIMS Jalandhar from S ept . 2012 to June 2014. Procedures include 2310 laparoscopic cholecystectomies , 148 laparoscopic appendectomies , 10 cases of TAPP Groin hernia repairs and 12 cases of simple ovarian cysts. For DTI , abdominal wall was lifted and trocar was pushed through the fascia and muscle layer. The surgeon felt click when the trocar had pierced the peritoneum and entered the abdominal cavity. RESULTS: Direct trocar insertio n was feasible in 100% of patients. There was no evidence of intestinal or vascular injury during trocar placement. Peritoneal access and creation of laparoscopic workspace were attained faster and more efficiently by the DTI technique. CONCLUSIONS: DTI is a fast , safe and reliable alternative to traditional techniques of primary port placement in laparoscopic procedures for creation of pnuemoperitoneum.

  15. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  16. Wear mechanisms of WC–Co drill bit inserts against alumina counterface under dry friction: Part 1 — WC–Co inserts with homogenous binder phase content

    OpenAIRE

    Yahiaoui, Malik; Paris, Jean-Yves; Denape, Jean; Dourfaye, Alfazazi

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behavior of commercial roller cone bit inserts was studied by using a rotary tribometer and abrasive alumina counterfaces. Three cemented carbide WC–Co inserts were selected with different cobalt content and WC grain size distribution. During tests, a nominal load was set at 264 N, the velocity at 0.5 m ⋅ s− 1 and the test time at 1 h. The experimental measurements were performed using load, torque, displacement sensors, an acoustic emission sensor and four thermocouples. The...

  17. Use of pentapeptide-insertion scanning mutagenesis for functional mapping of the plum pox virus helper component proteinase suppressor of gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrelmann, Mark; Maiss, Edgar; Pilot, Ruth; Palkovics, Laszlo

    2007-03-01

    Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) of Plum pox virus is a multifunctional potyvirus protein that has been examined intensively. In addition to its involvement in aphid transmission, genome amplification and long-distance movement, it is also one of the better-studied plant virus suppressors of RNA silencing. The first systematic analysis using pentapeptide-insertion scanning mutagenesis of the silencing suppression function of a potyvirus HC-Pro is presented here. Sixty-three in-frame insertion mutants, each containing five extra amino acids inserted randomly within the HC-Pro protein, were analysed for their ability to suppress transgene-induced RNA silencing using Agrobacterium infiltration in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing green fluorescent protein. A functional map was obtained, consisting of clearly defined regions with different classes of silencing-suppression activity (wild-type, restricted and disabled). This map confirmed that the N-terminal part of the protein, which is indispensable for aphid transmission, is dispensable for silencing suppression and supports the involvement of the central region in silencing suppression, in addition to its role in maintenance of genome amplification and synergism with other viruses. Moreover, evidence is provided that the C-terminal part of the protein, previously known to be necessary mainly for proteolytic activity, also participates in silencing suppression. Pentapeptide-insertion scanning mutagenesis has been shown to be a fast and powerful tool to functionally characterize plant virus proteins. PMID:17325375

  18. Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Nie, Zimin; Yu, Jianguo; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

    2011-07-26

    Single crystalline Na4Mn9O18 nanowires were synthesized via pyrolysis of polyacrylate salt precursors prepared by in-situ polymerization of the metal salts and acrylate acid, followed by calcinations at an appropriate temperature to achieve good crystalline structure and uniform nanowire morphology with an average diameter of 50 nm. The Na4Mn9O18 nanowires have shown a high, reversible, and near theoretical sodium ion insertion capacity (128 mA h g-1 at 0.1C), excellent long cyclability (77% capacity retention for 1000 cycles at 0.5 C), along with good rate capability. Good capacity and charge-discharge stability are also observed for full cell experiments using a pyrolyzed carbon as the anode, therefore demonstrating the potential of these materials for sodium-ion batteries for large scale energy storage. Furthermore, this research shows that a good crystallinity and small particles are required to enhance the Na-ion diffusion and increase the stability of the electrode materials for long charge-discharge cycles.

  19. Supported and inserted monomeric niobium oxide species on/in silica: a molecular picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranca, Diana C; Wojtaszek-Gurdak, Anna; Ziolek, Maria; Tielens, Frederik

    2015-09-14

    The geometry, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of molecular structures of silica-supported niobium oxide catalysts are studied using periodic density functional calculations (DFT) and compared with experimental data. The calculations are done for Nb oxide species inserted or grafted in/on an amorphous hydroxylated silica surface. Different positions of the Nb atom/atoms in the silica structure have been investigated. By means of DFT calculations the geometry and the degree of hydration of Nb oxide species with oxidation state +5 have been studied. The local Nb geometry depends on different parameters such as the number of Nb-O-Si groups vs. Nb-O-H groups, the formation of H bonds and the distance between Nb atoms. The interaction between the oxide and silanol groups occurs by formation of Si-O-Nb bonds with chemically and thermally stable Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. UV-Vis, reflection absorption infrared vibrational spectra (RAIRS) as well as various thermodynamic properties have also been investigated in order to get a better insight into the system studied and to provide support to possible experimental studies. PMID:26250394

  20. Applied anatomy of the lower cervical pedicle screw insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-guo; LIU Zong-liang; HE Yun; ZHAO Yan; ZOU Zhi-rong; ZHANG Peng; LUO Ji-hong; GUO Yong-fu; ZHANG Yang-jie; ZHANG Yu-ran

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain an accurate approach to inserting the pedicle screw into C3-C7 segments of the cervical vertebra.Methods: Anatomic morphology of lateral mass and pedicle, and their anatomic relationship with the adjacent tissue were observed on C3-C7 segments of 25 adult embalmed cadavers (50 sides).Results: 1 ) The inferior edge of the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process and the inferior edge of the pedicle were connected with each other on 25 adult embalmed cadavers (50 sides ). The transverse section which passed through the median point between the superior edge and the inferior edge of the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process, and the transverse section which passed through the central axis between the superior edge and the inferior edge of the pedicle, were in the same horizontal plane. The superior and inferior position of placing the pedicle screw was determined by this transverse section, which passed through the median point between the superior and the inferior edge of the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process. 2 ) There was a directed internaldownwards "triangular sulcule" between the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process and the anterolateral edge of the inferior articular process. The anterior wall of the triangular sulcule was the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process, the posterior wall was the anterolateral edge of the inferior articular process, and the bottom of the sulcule was connected with the interior edge of the pedicle. The vertical length between the top of triangle and the planes of inferior edge of the pedicle was (2.78 ± 1.71 ) mm. The inferior edge of the cervical pedicle could be detected using a blunt probe along the "triangular sulcule" between the base of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process and the anterolateral edge of the inferior articular process in surgical operation. 3 )The lateral fovea of the articular

  1. Alkaline earth alkyl insertion chemistry of in situ generated aminoboranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellham, Peter; Hill, Michael S; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Liptrot, David J

    2013-01-21

    Reactions of equimolar quantities of secondary amine boranes, R(2)NH·BH(3), with the homoleptic group 2 alkyl compounds [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)] (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) provide the alkyl group 2 amido borane derivatives [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}{NR(2)BH(3)}(THF)](2). While the strontium derivatives of reactions with dimethylamine and pyrrolidine borane are stable and isolable compounds, the analogous magnesium and calcium compounds are found to be unstable at room temperature. Studies of the thermolysis of the alkylstrontium derivatives have allowed this instability to be rationalised as a result of β-hydride elimination, the facility of which varies with changing M(2+) charge density, to form the products of M-C insertion of H(2)B=NR(2). Subsequent to this process, alkylaminoboranes, [HB(NR(2)){CH(SiMe(3))(2)}], are observed to form through a further suggested β-hydride elimination reaction. This chemistry is also extended to the reaction of the primary amine borane (t)BuNH(2)·BH(3) with [Sr{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)]. In this case the crystal structure of a heteroleptic species, which may be considered as a tetrameric aggregate of two [Sr{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}{(NH(t)Bu)BH(3)}(2)] anions and two cationic [Sr{(NH(t)Bu)(BH(3))}(THF)(2)] components, has been determined. Kinetic studies of the reactions of [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)] (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) with dimethylamine borane have also been undertaken and describe a complex mechanism in which the barriers to formation of the various intermediate species are a consequence of M(2+) radius and resultant charge density as well as the steric demands of the coordinated amidoborane ligands. PMID:23070304

  2. Discovering sequence motifs with arbitrary insertions and deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Frith

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BIOLOGY IS ENCODED IN MOLECULAR SEQUENCES: deciphering this encoding remains a grand scientific challenge. Functional regions of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences often exhibit characteristic but subtle motifs; thus, computational discovery of motifs in sequences is a fundamental and much-studied problem. However, most current algorithms do not allow for insertions or deletions (indels within motifs, and the few that do have other limitations. We present a method, GLAM2 (Gapped Local Alignment of Motifs, for discovering motifs allowing indels in a fully general manner, and a companion method GLAM2SCAN for searching sequence databases using such motifs. glam2 is a generalization of the gapless Gibbs sampling algorithm. It re-discovers variable-width protein motifs from the PROSITE database significantly more accurately than the alternative methods PRATT and SAM-T2K. Furthermore, it usefully refines protein motifs from the ELM database: in some cases, the refined motifs make orders of magnitude fewer overpredictions than the original ELM regular expressions. GLAM2 performs respectably on the BAliBASE multiple alignment benchmark, and may be superior to leading multiple alignment methods for "motif-like" alignments with N- and C-terminal extensions. Finally, we demonstrate the use of GLAM2 to discover protein kinase substrate motifs and a gapped DNA motif for the LIM-only transcriptional regulatory complex: using GLAM2SCAN, we identify promising targets for the latter. GLAM2 is especially promising for short protein motifs, and it should improve our ability to identify the protein cleavage sites, interaction sites, post-translational modification attachment sites, etc., that underlie much of biology. It may be equally useful for arbitrarily gapped motifs in DNA and RNA, although fewer examples of such motifs are known at present. GLAM2 is public domain software, available for download at http://bioinformatics.org.au/glam2.

  3. Increased Microbial Butanol Tolerance by Exogenous Membrane Insertion Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinks, Jamie; Wang, Yaofeng; Matysik, Artur; Kraut, Rachel; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Mu, Yuguang; Bazan, Guillermo C; Wuertz, Stefan; Seviour, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Butanol is an ideal biofuel, although poor titers lead to high recovery costs by distillation. Fluidization of microbial membranes by butanol is one of the major factors limiting titers in butanol-producing bioprocesses. Starting with the hypothesis that certain membrane insertion molecules would stabilize the lipid bilayer in the presence of butanol, we applied a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques within an in silico framework to describe a new approach to achieve solvent tolerance in bacteria. Single-molecule tracking of a model supported bilayer showed that COE1-5C, a five-ringed oligo-polyphenylenevinylene conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE), reduced the diffusion rate of phospholipids in a microbially derived lipid bilayer to a greater extent than three-ringed and four-ringed COEs. Furthermore, COE1-5C treatment increased the specific growth rate of E. coli K12 relative to a control at inhibitory butanol concentrations. Consequently, to confer butanol tolerance to microbes by exogenous means is complementary to genetic modification of strains in industrial bioprocesses, extends the physiological range of microbes to match favorable bioprocess conditions, and is amenable with complex and undefined microbial consortia for biobutanol production. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the π-conjugated aromatic backbone of COE1-5C likely acts as a hydrophobic tether for glycerophospholipid acyl chains by enhancing bilayer integrity in the presence of high butanol concentrations, which thereby counters membrane fluidization. COE1-5C-mitigated E. coli K12 membrane depolarization by butanol is consistent with the hypothesis that improved growth rates in the presence of butanol are a consequence of improved bilayer stability. PMID:26404512

  4. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  5. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  6. Self-insertion of needle as urethral foreign body after sexual gratification: An unusual case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Tahaoglu; Serkan Ozturk; Hayrettin Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Self-inserted foreign bodies in the urethra are rare among children. We describe here a 13-year-old boy who had self-inserted a needle into his urethra. Selfinsertion of the needle wrapped with cotton into the urethra for cleaning after masturbation by patient was applied. A foreign body in the urethra was removed by cystoscopy.

  7. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B

    2009-08-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions. PMID:19566682

  8. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanonococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H2 or formate for the reduction of CO2 to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions.

  9. Self-insertion of needle as urethral foreign body after sexual gratification: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Tahaoglu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-inserted foreign bodies in the urethra are rare among children. We describe here a 13-year-old boy who had self-inserted a needle into his urethra. Selfinsertion of the needle wrapped with cotton into the urethra for cleaning after masturbation by patient was applied. A foreign body in the urethra was removed by cystoscopy.

  10. Hearing loss in young adults who had ventilation tube insertion in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, B.A. de; Schilder, A.G.M.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Graamans, K.

    2004-01-01

    It is known that insertion of ventilation tubes can cause damage to the tympanic membrane and hearing deterioration in the long-term. To investigate long-term effects of recurrent otitis media and of ventilation tube insertion, we used a study group (n = 358 subjects), with or without a history of o

  11. Vector insert-targeted integrative antisense expression system for plasmid stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Jeremy M; Carnes, Aaron E; Hodgson, Clague P; Williams, James A

    2011-01-01

    Some DNA vaccine and gene therapy vector-encoded transgenes are toxic to the E. coli plasmid production host resulting in poor production yields. For plasmid products undergoing clinical evaluation, sequence modification to eliminate toxicity is undesirable because an altered vector is a new chemical entity. We hypothesized that: (1) insert-encoded toxicity is mediated by unintended expression of a toxic insert-encoded protein from spurious bacterial promoters; and (2) that toxicity could be eliminated with antisense RNA-mediated translation inhibition. We developed the pINT PR PL vector, a chromosomally integrable RNA expression vector, and utilized it to express insert-complementary (anti-insert) RNA from a single defined site in the bacterial chromosome. Anti-insert RNA eliminated leaky fluorescent protein expression from a target plasmid. A toxic retroviral gag pol helper plasmid produced in a gag pol anti-insert strain had fourfold improved plasmid fermentation yields. Plasmid fermentation yields were also fourfold improved when a DNA vaccine plasmid containing a toxic Influenza serotype H1 hemagglutinin transgene was grown in an H1 sense strand anti-insert production strain, suggesting that in this case toxicity was mediated by an antisense alternative reading frame-encoded peptide. This anti-insert chromosomal RNA expression technology is a general approach to improve production yields with plasmid-based vectors that encode toxic transgenes, or toxic alternative frame peptides. PMID:20607625

  12. Research on impact behaviour and silicon insert fracture phenomenon in microinjection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Lv, Zhi-bin; Wang, Lin-gang; Jiang, Kai-yu; Ji, Zhi; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan

    2015-04-01

    Silicon insert is a promising tool for microinjection moulding (MIM). However, its fracture problem induced by impact in MIM creates a bottleneck for application. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact behaviour in MIM and the effect on the fracture of silicon inserts. The finite element method is utilised to calculate the crack propagation of silicon inserts with pressure load and thermal load in the MIM process. The simulation result shows that the crack propagation is more easily induced by the increase of pressure load, while the temperature change has little effect on the crack propagation. An experimental platform, including a novel rotatable insert mould, is developed to investigate the dynamic pressure in the MIM process. The result shows that both the maximum pressure and the maximum loading rate occur in the initial period of MIM process. It indicates that the silicon insert is more prone to fracture at the beginning of the MIM process, and spatial pressure peaks are observed in the cavity as well. The nearly consistent distribution between the peak positions and the insert fracture zones shows that the pressure distribution is quite relevant to the fracture of the silicon insert. The result is helpful because it reveals the fracture phenomenon of silicon inserts.

  13. Severe Intraperitoneal Haemorrhage following Suprapubic Catheter Insertion in a Patient Treated with Iloprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. J. Spence

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suprapubic catheter (SPC insertion is a common urological procedure, performed both in the elective and emergency settings. The authors present an unusual case of severe intraperitoneal bleeding following the insertion of an SPC under direct vision, where the use of prostacyclin analogue may have been a contributing factor.

  14. Velamentous and Furcate Cord Insertion with Placenta Accreta in an IVF Pregnancy with Unicornuate Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tunç Canda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Velamentous and furcate cord insertion with concomitant placenta accreta is a very rare and life-threatening event of pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Obstetricians should be cautious about umbilical cord insertion and placental adherence abnormalities in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART particularly in women with Müllerian anomalies.

  15. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-09-10

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M(®), a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M(®) (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M(®) was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M(®), in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  16. Low insertion loss SOI microring resonator integrated with nano-taper couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ou, Haiyan;

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a microring resonator working at TM mode integrated with nano-taper couplers with 3.6dB total insertion loss. The measured insertion loss of the nano-taper coupler was only 1.3dB for TM mode....

  17. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Dorian Fabian; Małolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2012-02-01

    Use of insertion mutants facilitates functional analysis of genes, but it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics in most plant species. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis and identification of insertion sites. To date, only floral-dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols, including software for automated data analysis, that take full advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We have addressed these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package, and here we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8935 LORE1 insertions in 3744 Lotus japonicus plants. The identified insertions show that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. As LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis, combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource.

  18. Anatomic considerations of cochlear morphology and its implications for insertion trauma in cochlear implant surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, B.M.; Ferrarini, L.; Briaire, J.J.; Zarowski, A.; Admiraal-Behloul, F.; Olofsen, H.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Frijns, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The goal of this study is to analyze the 3-dimensional anatomy of the cochlear spiral and to investigate the consequences of its course to insertion trauma during cochlear implantation. BACKGROUND: Insertion trauma in cochlear implant surgery is a feared surgical risk, potentially causin

  19. Acute changes associated with electrode insertion measured with optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Boretsky, Adam; Agrawal, Anant; Welle, Cristin G.

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in functional neural imaging, penetrating microelectrodes provide the most direct interface for the extraction of neural signals from the nervous system and are a critical component of many high degree-of-freedom braincomputer interface devices. Electrode insertion is a traumatic event that elicits a complex neuroinflammatory response. In this investigation we applied optical coherence microscopy (OCM), particularly optical coherence angiography (OCA), to characterize the immediate tissue response during microelectrode insertion. Microelectrodes of varying dimension and footprint (one-, two-, and four-shank) were inserted into mouse motor cortex beneath a window after craniotomy surgery. The microelectrodes were inserted in 3-4 steps at 15-20°, with approximately 250 μm linear insertion distance for each step. Before insertion and between each step, OCM datasets were collected, including for quantitative capillary velocimetry. A cohort of control animals without microelectrode insertion was also imaged over a similar time period (2-3 hours). Mechanical tissue deformation was observed in all the experimental animals. The quantitative angiography results varied across animals, and were not correlated with device dimensions. In some cases, localized flow drop-out was observed in a small region surrounding the electrode, while in other instances a global disruption in flow occurred, perhaps as a result of large vessel compression caused by mechanical pressure. OCM is a tool that can be used in various neurophotonics applications, including quantification of the neuroinflammatory response to penetrating electrode insertion.

  20. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2016-01-01

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (model also revealed the effects of manufacturing flaws on insertion potential. PMID:26959021

  1. Additive manufacturing for the production of inserts for micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2015-01-01

    The production of inserts for micro injection moulding using additive manufacturing technology has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of pilot production and reduce overall time to market. In this work, Digital Light Processing (DLP) was used to produce micro injection moulding inserts...

  2. High-throughput semiquantitative analysis of insertional mutations in heterogeneous tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, M.J.; Klijn, C.; van der Weyden, L.; Kool, J.; ten Hoeve, J.; Sie, D.; Prasetyanti, P.R.; Schut, E.; Kas, S.; Whipp, T.; Cuppen, E.; Wessels, L.; Adams, D.J.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Retroviral and transposon-based insertional mutagenesis (IM) screens are widely used for cancer gene discovery in mice. Exploiting the full potential of IM screens requires methods for high-throughput sequencing and mapping of transposon and retroviral insertion sites. Current protocols are based on

  3. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  4. Observations of three-dimensional needle deflection during insertion into soft tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahya, Alex; Heijden, van der Ferdinand; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Accurate needle placement is important during percutaneous needle insertion procedures such as biopsy and brachytherapy. However, needle-tissue interactions may cause the needle to deviate from its intended path. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of insertion velocity, tip bevel angle

  5. Bridging PCR and partially overlapping primers for novel allergen gene cloning and expression insert decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Lin Tao; Shao-Heng He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To obtain the entire gene open reading frame (ORF)and to construct the expression vectors for recombinant allergen production.METHODS: Gene fragments corresponding to the gene specific region and the cDNA ends of pollen allergens of short ragweed (Rg, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) were obtained by pan-degenerate primer-based PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), and the products were mixed to serve as the bridging PCR (BPCR) template. The full-length gene was then obtained. Partially overlapping primer-based PCR (POP-PCR) method was developed to overcome the other problem, i.e., the non-specific amplification of the ORF with routine long primers for expression insert decoration.Northern blot was conducted to confirm pollen sources of the gene. The full-length coding region was evaluated for its gene function by homologue search in GenBank database and Western blotting of the recombinant protein Amb a 8 (D106) expressed in Escherichia colipET-44 system.RESULTS: The full-length cDNA sequence of Amb a 8(D106)was obtained by using the above procedure and deduced to encode a 131 amino acid polypeptide. Multiple sequence alignment exhibited the gene D106sharing a homology as high as 54-89% and 79-89% to profilin from pollen and food sources, respectively. The expression vector of the allergen gene D106was successfully constructed by employing the combined method of BPCR and POP-PCR. Recombinant allergen rAmb a 8(D106) was then successfully generated.The allergenicity was hallmarked by immunoblotting with the allergic serum samples and its RNA source was confirmed by Northern blot.CONCLUSION: The combined procedure of POP-PCR and BPCR is a powerful method for full-length allergen gene retrieval and expression insert decoration, which would be useful for recombinant allergen production and subsequent diagnosis and immunotherapy of pollen and food allergy.

  6. ANALYSIS OF FORCES, ROUGHNESS, WEAR AND TEMPERATURE IN TURNING CAST IRON USING CRYOTREATED CARBIDE INSERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Ramji,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment of the coated carbide inserts on their performance in turning gray cast iron work pieces. The cryogenic treatment cycle consisted of cooling the test samples from room temperature to cryogenic temperature of -178.9 C in three hours, soaking at cryogenictemperature around 24 hours and warming to room temperature in about five hours. Cutting forces, surface roughness, flank wear and tool tip temperature were studied for both coated and coated-treated inserts. ANOVA was performed to identify the effect of the parameters on the response variables. Cryogenically treated inserts proved superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser flank wear of the inserts and reduced surface roughness of the specimens. The after turned inserts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy for studying the flank wear mechanism.

  7. A study of the suitability of ferrite for use in low-field insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1995-02-01

    Most insertion devices built to date use rare-earth permanent-magnet materials, which have a high remanent field and are more expensive than many other permanent-magnet materials. Low-field insertion devices could use less-expensive, lower performance magnetic materials if they had suitable magnetic characteristics. These materials must be resistant to demagnetization during construction and operation of the insertion device, have uniform magnetization, possess low minor-axis magnetic moments, and have small minor field components on the surfaces. This paper describes an investigation to determine if ferrite possesses magnetic qualities suitable for insertion device applications. The type of ferrite investigated, MMPA Ceramic 8 from Stackpole Inc., was found to be acceptable for insertion device applications.

  8. Design and Implementation of Simultaneous Shield And Repeater Insertion for On-chip Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surendra Goud Mr. Y. Sreenivas Goud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A Resource based optimization is a new approach for high performance integrated circuits. The method is applied to simultaneous shield and repeater insertion, resulting in minimum coupling noise under power, delay, and area constraints Repeater insertion is a well known design technique to reduce the delay required to propagate a signal along a line. Shielding inserts an additional line between a victim line and an aggressor line. Finally placing a shield beside and inserting repeaters along a victim line and are chosen to exemplify the resource based optimization process. In the active shielding architecture shield driving circuits as 4:1 multiplexer, full adder, multipliers are inserted. The power consumption of active shielding architecture is observed to be approximately 20% less compare to passive shielding architecture. The main aim of this is minimize the coupling noise under power, delay, and area constraints

  9. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves as insertion electrodes for rechargeable Mg batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium has been inserted electrochemically into manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-5 MnO2) at room temperature. Discharge/charge profiles show that a large amount of Mg, i.e., 0.37 Mg/Mn can be inserted electrochemically using 1 M Mg(ClO4)2/AN electrolyte when OMS-5 is prepared in presence of acetylene black. X-ray diffraction analysis and discharge/charge profiles verify that a solid state solution reaction takes place upon Mg insertion into the host lattice with concurrent reduction of Mn4+ to Mn2+. However, upon each reduction of Mn by Mg insertion and resultant dissolution into electrolyte, decrease in the active compound occurs consequently. A low intrinsic electronic conductivity of OMS-5 was suggested to play a vital role in Mg insertion into the host. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Transhepatic insertion of vascular dialysis catheters in children: a safe, life-prolonging procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, E.A.; Kaye, R.D.; Reyes, J.; Towbin, R.B. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Introduction. Central venous catheters (CVC) have been inserted percutaneously since 1989. This technique has been adapted for transhepatic insertion of large-bore catheters in children with occluded central veins. Materials and methods. Three children aged 5, 11, and 12 years required hemodialysis or plasmaphoresis for treatment of life-threatening conditions. All central veins were occluded, thus transhepatic insertion of a large-bore catheter was necessary. All children underwent successful placement using a combination of ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. No complications occurred. Discussion. Transhepatic insertion of large-bore catheters can be performed safely in children. Catheter removal should be accompanied by track embolization to prevent exsanguinating hemorrhage. Conclusion. Transhepatic insertion of dialysis catheters is a safe alternative in children with occluded central veins. (orig.) With 2 figs., 7 refs.

  11. The role of the inserted layer in resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dainan; Ma, Guokun; Zhang, Huaiwu; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Jie, Li; Su, Hua

    2016-07-01

    NiO resistive switching devices were fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature containing different inserted layers. From measurements, we demonstrated the filaments were made up by metal Co rather than the oxygen defect or other metal. A current jumping phenomenon in the SET process was observed, evidencing that the filament generating procedure was changed due to the inserted layers. In this process, we demonstrate the current jumping appeared in higher voltage region when the position of inserted layer was close to the bottom electrode. The I-V curves shifted to the positive direction as the thickness of inserted layer increasing. With the change of the number of inserted layers, SET voltages varied while the RESET voltage kept stable. According to the electrochemical metallization memory mechanism, detailed explanations on all the phenomena were addressed. This discovery is supposed of great potentials in the use of designing multi-layer RRAM devices.

  12. Sonographic guided insertion of electrodes into the cruciate ligaments of the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D B; Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Magnusson, S P;

    1999-01-01

    The present cadaver study examined the probability of accurate ultrasound guided insertion of electrodes into the anterior (ACL) and posterior (PCL) cruciate ligament with a fine needle. Visualisation of the structures appeared clearest from the posterior approach. From this approach 24 electrodes...... were inserted into the PCL and six into the ACL. From the anterior 16 were inserted into the ACL and six into the PCL. Twenty-one out of 24 electrodes were placed correctly into the PCL from the posterior view, and four out of six were placed correctly from the anterior view. From the posterior view...... four out of six were placed correctly in the ACL, and eight electrodes out of 16 were placed correctly from the anterior view. In conclusion, ultrasound guided insertion of electrodes from the posterior view can be performed with high accuracy into the PCL, whereas insertion into the ACL seems...

  13. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent.In the present study, we found a new natural reces-sive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hnbp, which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna.The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein.Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more β-sheets, which may cause instability of two α-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain.Hnbp mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction.The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hnbp background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hnbp/Hnbp transgenic line.All taken together, it can be concluded that the mu-tation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hnbp, which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis.

  14. General Approach for Introduction of Various Chemical Labels in Specific RNA Locations Based on Insertion of Amino Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of reporter groups at designed RNA sites is a widely accepted approach to gain information about the molecular environment of RNAs in their complexes with other biopolymers formed during various cellular processes. A general approach to obtain RNAs bearing diverse reporter groups at designed locations is based on site-specific insertion of groups containing primary aliphatic amine functions (amino linkers with their subsequent selective derivatization by appropriate chemicals. This article is a brief review on methods for site-specific introduction of amino linkers in different RNAs. These methods comprise: (i incorporation of a nucleoside carrying an amino-linker or a function that can be substituted with it into oligoribonucleotides in the course of their chemical synthesis; (ii assembly of amino linker-containing RNAs from short synthetic fragments via their ligation; (iii synthesis of amino linker-modified RNAs using T7 RNA polymerase; (iv insertion of amino linkers into unmodified RNAs at functional groups of a certain type such as the 5'-phosphates and N7 of guanosine residues and (v introduction of an amino linker into long highly structured RNAs exploiting an approach based on sequence-specific modification of nucleic acids. Particular reporter groups used for derivatization of amino linker-containing RNAs together with types of RNA derivatives obtained and fields of their application are presented.

  15. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qin; ZHAO ChunJiang; BAI LiHua; DENG XueMei; WU ChangXin

    2008-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent. In the present study, we found a new natural reces-sive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hnbp, which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna. The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein. Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more β-sheets, which may cause instability of two α-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain. Hnbp mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction. The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hnbp background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hn/Hnbptransgenic line. All taken together, it can be concluded that the mu-tation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hnbp, which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis.

  16. Intraoperative insertion torque of lumbar pedicle screw and postoperative radiographic evaluation. Short-term observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the insertion torque of a lumbar pedicle screw and the mechanical stability of the screw in the bone has been mentioned in in vitro studies. The purpose of this study was to confirm the factors affecting the insertion torque of such screws in vivo. Also, the contribution of insertion torque to the initial stability of the fusion area was to be analyzed in vivo. A series of 23 cases representing 50 lumbar vertebrae were included in this study, in which we examined bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography (CT) prior to operation. Two screw shapes were utilized, with the insertion torque for each screw measured at two points in time. The correlation between insertion torque and mineral density was investigated. Screw positions were confirmed on postoperative CT scans, and the effect of the screw thread cutting into the cortex bone was investigated. Radiographic changes at three points during a period of 3 months were also measured, and we then evaluated the interrelations between these changes and insertion torque. Furthermore, the relation between insertion torque and instability at 3 months was investigated. Correlations of insertion torque and bone mineral density depended on screw shape. There was no correlation found with mineral density in the case of cylindrical screws. Insertion torque was not affected by the screw thread cutting into the cortex of bone. As for postoperative alignment changes, no definitive trends could be ascertained, and no interrelations with torque and alignment changes were observed. There is a possibility that insertion torque was related to early-stage stability, but no statistical relation could be determined. (author)

  17. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error. The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating

  18. Membrane Insertion by Anthrax Protective Antigen in Cultured Cells†

    OpenAIRE

    Qa'Dan, Maen; Christensen, Kenneth A; Zhang, Lei; Roberts, Thomas M.; Collier, R. John

    2005-01-01

    The enzymatic moieties of anthrax toxin enter the cytosol of mammalian cells via a pore in the endosomal membrane formed by the protective antigen (PA) moiety. Pore formation involves an acidic pH-induced conformational rearrangement of a heptameric precursor (the prepore), in which the seven 2β2-2β3 loops interact to generate a 14-strand transmembrane β-barrel. To investigate this model in vivo, we labeled PA with the fluorophore 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) at cysteine residues intro...

  19. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  20. Insertion anomaly of control rod assemblies in nuclear reactors; Anomalies d'insertion des grappes de commande des reacteurs electronucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-06

    Some malfunction have been noticed in the insertion of the control rod assemblies in some PWR reactors of Electricite de France (EdF). These anomalies (insufficient speed, incomplete insertion) are due to a deformation of the most irradiated fuel assemblies. A prevention and monitoring program has been implemented by EdF, first in 1997 on its 1300 MW plants, and extended in 1999 to its 900 MW plants. The progress of this program is controlled by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) and the preventive and surveillance measures (falling time, rebound, and insertion stress measurements of control rods) are described in the appendixes of this document for the 900 MWe, 1300 MWe and 1450 MWe reactors, respectively. (J.S.)

  1. The FADE mass-stat: a technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Matthew K; Lockerby, Duncan A; Reese, Jason M

    2014-02-21

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually "fades-in" (inserts) or "fades-out" (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C60 Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  2. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Philipp Kobler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL’s FLEX28, FLEX24, and FLEX20 electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes.

  3. Assessment of Insert Sizes and Adapter Content in Fastq Data from NexteraXT Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Susan Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Illumina NexteraXT transposon protocol is a cost effective way to generate paired end libraries. However the resulting insert size is highly sensitive to the concentration of DNA used, and the variation of insert sizes is often large. One consequence of this is some fragments may have an insert shorter than the length of a single read, particularly where the library is designed to produce overlapping paired end reads in order to produce longer continuous sequences. Such small insert sizes mean fewer longer reads, and also result in the presence of adapter at the end of the read. Here is presented a protocol to use publicly available tools to identify read pairs with small insert sizes and so likely to contain adapter, to check the sequence of the adapter, and remove adapter sequence from the reads. This protocol does not require a reference genome or prior knowledge of the sequence to be trimmed. Whilst the presence of fragments with small insert sizes may be a particular problem for NexteraXT libraries, the principle can be applied to any Illumina dataset in which the presence of such small inserts is suspected.

  4. Intracochlear Fluid Pressure Changes Related to the Insertional Speed of a CI Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Todt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To preserve residual hearing the atraumaticity of the cochlea electrode insertion has become a focus of cochlear implant research. In addition to other factors, the speed of insertion is thought to be a contributing factor in the concept of atraumatic implantation. The aim of our study was to observe intracochlear fluid pressure changes due to different insertional speeds of an implant electrode in a cochlear model. Materials and Methods. The experiments were performed using an artificial cochlear model. A linear actuator was mounted on an Advanced Bionics IJ insertional tool. The intracochlear fluid pressure was recorded through a pressure sensor which was placed in the helicotrema area. Defined insertions were randomly performed with speeds of 0.1 mm/sec, 0.25 mm/sec, 0.5 mm/sec, 1 mm/sec, and 2 mm/sec. Results. A direct correlation between speed and pressure was observed. Mean maximum values of intracochlear fluid pressure varied between 0.41 mm Hg and 1.27 mm Hg. Conclusion. We provide the first results of fluid pressure changes due to insertional speeds of CI electrodes in a cochlear model. A relationship between the insertional speed and intracochlear fluid pressure was observed. Further experiments are needed to apply these results to the in vivo situation.

  5. Mono-allelic retrotransposon insertion addresses epigenetic transcriptional repression in human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Hyang-Min

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons have been extensively studied in plants and animals and have been shown to have an impact on human genome dynamics and evolution. Their ability to move within genomes gives retrotransposons to affect genome instability. Methods we examined the polymorphic inserted AluYa5, evolutionary young Alu, in the progesterone receptor gene to determine the effects of Alu insertion on molecular environment. We used mono-allelic inserted cell lines which carry both Alu-present and Alu-absent alleles. To determine the epigenetic change and gene expression, we performed restriction enzyme digestion, Pyrosequencing, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Results We observed that the polymorphic insertion of evolutionally young Alu causes increasing levels of DNA methylation in the surrounding genomic area and generates inactive histone tail modifications. Consequently the Alu insertion deleteriously inactivates the neighboring gene expression. Conclusion The mono-allelic Alu insertion cell line clearly showed that polymorphic inserted repetitive elements cause the inactivation of neighboring gene expression, bringing aberrant epigenetic changes.

  6. Thermal performance of tubular heat exchanger with multiple twisted-tape inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya Chokphoemphun; Monsak Pimsarn; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation on enhanced heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics by using single, double, triple, and quadruple twisted-tape inserts in a round tube having a uniform heat-fluxed wal . The investigation has been conducted in the heat exchanger tube inserted with various twisted-tape numbers for co-and counter-twist arrangements for the turbulent air flow, Reynolds number (Re) from 5300 to 24000. The typical single twisted-tape inserts at two twist ratios, y/w=4 and 5, are used as the base case, while the other multiple twisted-tape inserts are at y/w=4 only. The experimental results of heat transfer and pressure drop in terms of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f), respectively, reveal that Nu increases with the increment of Re and of twisted-tape number. The values of Nu for the inserted tube are in a range of 1.15–2.12 times that for the plain tube while f is 1.9–4.1 times. The thermal enhancement factor of the inserted tube under similar pumping power is evaluated and found to be above unity except for the single and the double co-twisted tapes. The quadruple counter-twisted tape insert provides the maximum thermal performance.

  7. A novel technique to insert nasogastric tube for the anesthetized patients during cervical esophageal reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie Zhang; Yu Deng; Shengling Fu; Yixin Cai; Ni Zhang; Xiangning Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We are describing a novel technique to insert nasogastric tube (NGT) in the anesthetized patients dur-ing cervical esophageal reconstruction. Methods:Forty patients with mid and upper esophageal tumor enrol ed into this study were randomly al ocated into two groups (the control group, group C and the novel method group, group N). Al the patients were applied mechanical anastomosis to finish the cervical esophageal reconstruction. The procedure of NGT insertion for group C use the conventional method;wel , the group N use the novel technique. Results:Al the patients in group N had been finished the NGT insertion in the first attempt, and the total time for insertion was (5.05 ± 1.15) mins;on the contrary, for the group C, duration of insertion (min) was (24.45 ± 5.23) mins, and the successful rate of NGT insertion in the first attempt was 40%(P<0.05);no one in group N had coiling/kinking, and 6/20 (30%) in group C had it (P=0.020). The complication rate of bleeding between the two group had no significant dif erence. Conclusion:For the patient with mid and upper esophageal tumor who need cervical esophageal reconstruction, this novel method can save the NGT insertion time, and make it easier with higher successful rate.

  8. Heads or tails: L1 insertion-associated 5' homopolymeric sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L1s are one of the most successful autonomous mobile elements in primate genomes. These elements comprise as much as 17% of primate genomes with the majority of insertions occurring via target primed reverse transcription (TPRT. Twin priming, a variant of TPRT, can result in unusual DNA sequence architecture. These insertions appear to be inverted, truncated L1s flanked by target site duplications. Results We report on loci with sequence architecture consistent with variants of the twin priming mechanism and introduce dual priming, a mechanism that could generate similar sequence characteristics. These insertions take the form of truncated L1s with hallmarks of classical TPRT insertions but having a poly(T simple repeat at the 5' end of the insertion. We identified loci using computational analyses of the human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque and marmoset genomes. Insertion site characteristics for all putative loci were experimentally verified. Conclusions The 39 loci that passed our computational and experimental screens probably represent inversion-deletion events which resulted in a 5' inverted poly(A tail. Based on our observations of these loci and their local sequence properties, we conclude that they most probably represent twin priming events with unusually short non-inverted portions. We postulate that dual priming could, theoretically, produce the same patterns. The resulting homopolymeric stretches associated with these insertion events may promote genomic instability and create potential target sites for future retrotransposition events.

  9. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually “fades-in” (inserts) or “fades-out” (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C60 Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors

  10. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually "fades-in" (inserts) or "fades-out" (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C60 Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  11. Central venous catheter insertion problem solving using intravenous catheter: technical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemohammad M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous catheter is an accepted method for hemodynamic monitor-ring, drug and fluid administration, intravenous access, hemodialysis and applying cardiac pace-maker in hospitalized patients. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to prevent catheter malposition in states that the guide wire will not pass freely.During central venous insertion in internal jugular vein using modified seldinger technique, when after venous insertion, the passage of the guide wire shows difficulties and don’t pass freely, insertion of an intravenous cannula over the wire and re-insertion of the wire can help to prevent malposition of the wire and the catheter. Use of an intravenous cannula over the guide, in situations that the guide wire cannot pass freely among the needle inserted in internal jugular vein, and re-insertion of the guide can probably prevent or reduce the tissue or vascular trauma and the associated complica-tions. This simple maneuver can be helpful in difficult cases especially in cardiac surgery patients who receive high dose heparin and it is necessary to avoid traumatize-tion of carotid artery.

  12. Temporary partially-covered metal stent insertion in benign esophageal stricture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Wei-Xiong Chen; Ni-Wei Chen; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of temporary partiallycovered metal stent insertion on benign esophageal stricture.METHODS: Temporary partially-covered metal stent was inserted in 83 patients with benign esophageal stricture. All the patients had various dysphagia scores.RESULTS: Insertion of 85 temporary partially-covered metal stents was performed successfully in 83 patients with benign esophageal stricture and dysphagia was effectively remitted in all the 83 cases. The dysphagia score was 3.20±0.63(mean±SD) and 0.68±0.31 before and after stent insertion,and 0.86±0.48 after stent removal. The mean diameter of the strictured esophageal lumen was 3.37±1.23 mm and 25.77±3.89 mm before and after stent insertion, and 16.15±2.96 mm after stent removal. Follow-up time was from 1 week to 96 months (mean 54.26±12.75 months). The complications were chest pain (n=37) after stent insertion,and bleeding (n=12) and reflux (n=13) after stent removal.CONCLUSION: Temporary partially-covered metal stent insertion is one of the best methods for treatment of benign esophageal stricture.

  13. A pathogen-specific epitope inserted into recombinant secretory immunoglobulin A is immunogenic by the oral route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthésy, B; Kaufmann, M; Phalipon, A; Peitsch, M; Neutra, M R; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    1996-12-27

    Oral administration of rabbit secretory IgA (sIgA) to adult BALB/c mice induced IgA+, IgM+, and IgG+ lymphoblasts in the Peyer's patches, whose fusion with myeloma cells resulted in hybridomas producing IgA, IgM, and IgG1 antibodies to the secretory component (SC). This suggests that SC could serve as a vector to target protective epitopes into mucosal lymphoid tissue and elicit an immune response. We tested this concept by inserting a Shigella flexneri invasin B epitope into SC, which, following reassociation with IgA, was delivered orally to mice. To identify potential insertion sites at the surface of SC, we constructed a molecular model of the first and second Ig-like domains of rabbit SC. A surface epitope recognized by an SC-specific antibody was mapped to the loop connecting the E and F beta strands of domain I. This 8-amino acid sequence was replaced by a 9-amino acid linear epitope from S. flexneri invasin B. We found that cellular trafficking of recombinant SC produced in mammalian CV-1 cells was drastically altered and resulted in a 50-fold lower rate of secretion. However, purification of chimeric SC could be achieved by Ni2+-chelate affinity chromatoraphy. Both wild-type and chimeric SC bound to dimeric IgA, but not to monomeric IgA. Reconstituted sIgA carrying the invasin B epitope within the SC moiety triggers the appearance of seric and salivary invasin B-specific antibodies. Thus, neo-antigenized sIgA can serve as a mucosal vaccine delivery system inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:8969237

  14. Distribution and insertion numbers of transposable elements in species of the Drosophila saltans group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. de Castro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution and insertion numbers of many transposable elements is restricted to few species of Drosophila, although these elements are widely distributed throughout the genus. The aim of this work was to describe the distribution and insertion numbers of four retrotransposons (copia, gypsy, micropia, I and four transposons (hobo, mariner, Minos and Bari-1 in the saltans group of Drosophila. Our data shows that, except for mariner, all the other elements are widespread within the saltans group and show variable insertion numbers of up to 24 copies.

  15. Characterization of Tn904 insertions in octopine Ti plasmid mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ooms, G.; Klapwijk, P M; Poulis, J A; Schilperoort, R A

    1980-01-01

    Seven Tn904 insertion mutants of pTi Ach5 affecting Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence were studied. The mutant character was shown to be plasmid borne. Four of these mutants were avirulent and carried an insertion in restriction endonuclease HpaI fragment 12, a 3.3-megadalton fragment, which therefore appears to be a Ti plasmid region essential for virulence. Two mutants were attenuated in virulence. The inserts mapped close to HpaI fragment 12. One mutant giving rise to small tumors with e...

  16. Separation and insertion of optical bit-serial label in optical packet switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ling; Kun Qiu; Mian Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The bipolar phase-shift-keying (BPSK) optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) are inserted into the optical packet format of bit-serial label. The ultra-fast separation of the label and payload is performed through the auto-correlation pulses indicating the time position at which the optical switch changes the state.The insertion of the new label can also be realized by detecting the auto-correlation pulse at the line rate. Especially, the scheme can be adapted to the asynchronous separation and insertion and realize the variable-length packet switching. The results of simulation verify the feasibility of the scheme.

  17. Design and testing of microfabricated surgical tools for large animal probe insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Shelly [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Neural probes provide therapeutic stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders or record neural activity to investigate the workings of the brain. Researchers utilize 6 mm long temporary silicon stiffeners attached with biodissolvable adhesive to insert flexible neural probes into rat brains, but increasing the probe length fivefold makes inserting large animal probes a significant challenge because of an increased potential for buckling. This study compared the insertion success rates of 6 mm and 30 mm long silicon stiffeners that were 80 μm wide and 30 μm thick, and ascertained the material thickness and modulus of elasticity that would provide successful insertion for a 30 mm probe. Using a microdrive, stiffeners were inserted into an agarose brain phantom at controlled insertion speeds while being video-recorded. Twenty-five percent of the 30 mm silicon stiffeners fully inserted at speeds approximately four times higher than the target rate of 0.13 mm/s, while 100 percent of the 6 mm silicon stiffeners inserted successfully at target speed. Critical buckling loads (Pcr) were calculated for the 6 mm and 30 mm silicon stiffeners, and for 30 mm diamond and tungsten stiffeners, with thicknesses varying from 30-80 μm. Increasing the thickness of the material by 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm improved the Pcr by 2.4, 4.7 and 8.2 times, respectively, independent of the material, and substituting diamond for silicon multiplied the buckling capacity by 5.0 times. Stiffeners made of silicon for large animal probe insertion are not strong enough to withstand buckling upon insertion without a significant increase in thickness. Replacing silicon with diamond and increasing the thickness of the stiffener to 50 μm would afford a stiffener with the same Pcr capacity as the 6 mm silicon stiffener that had a 100 percent insertion success rate. Experiments should continue with diamond to determine a minimum thickness that will ensure successful

  18. A new technique for T tube insertion in severe subglottic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Taichiro; Akanabe, Kumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-06-01

    T tube insertion for subglottic stenosis is often difficult due to bending of the T tube itself. A T tube could be inserted safely and consistently in a patient with severe subglottic stenosis employing a method that we newly devised. Our method can be performed under local anesthesia without special instruments and is technically straightforward. And also, our method is considered to be applicable to marked stenosis and stenosis with a complex morphology. Herein we present an improved method for inserting a silicone T tube through a tracheostomy stoma in patients with severe subglottic stenosis.

  19. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Iain, E-mail: iain.franklin@health.qld.gov.au; Gilmore, Christopher [The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  20. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation

  1. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  2. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  3. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  4. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems. If a system is expected to be protected using TMR, improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. This manuscript addresses the challenge of confirming that TMR has been inserted without corruption of functionality and with correct application of the expected TMR topology. The proposed verification method combines the usage of existing formal analysis tools with a novel search-detect-and-verify tool. Field programmable gate array (FPGA),Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR),Verification, Trust, Reliability,

  5. Identifying and calling insertions, deletions, and single-base mutations efficiently from sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole genome sequencing studies can directly identify causative mutations for subsequent use in genomic evaluations, but sequence variant identification is a lengthy and sometimes inaccurate process. The speed and accuracy of identifying small insertions and deletions of sequence, collectively terme...

  6. Biased insert for installing data transmission components in downhole drilling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Garner, Kory K.; Wilde, Tyson J.

    2007-04-10

    An apparatus for installing data transmission hardware in downhole tools includes an insert insertable into the box end or pin end of drill tool, such as a section of drill pipe. The insert typically includes a mount portion and a slide portion. A data transmission element is mounted in the slide portion of the insert. A biasing element is installed between the mount portion and the slide portion and is configured to create a bias between the slide portion and the mount portion. This biasing element is configured to compensate for varying tolerances encountered in different types of downhole tools. In selected embodiments, the biasing element is an elastomeric material, a spring, compressed gas, or a combination thereof.

  7. Lipid-insertion enables targeting functionalization of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Chen, Kevin N. H.; Luk, Brian T.; Carpenter, Cody W.; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Shulin; Zhang, Dong-Er; Lu, Weiyue; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-09-01

    RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines.RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03064d

  8. Reactive Diffusion Bonding of SiCp/Al Composites by Insert Powder Layers with Eutectic Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihua HUANG; Yueling DONG; Jiangang ZHANG; Yun WAN; Guoan ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Mixed Al-Si and Al-Cu powders were investigated as insert layers to reactive diffusion bond SiCp/6063 metal matrix composite (MMC). The results show that SiCp/6063 MMC joints bonded by the insert layers of the mixed Al-Si and Al-Cu powders have a dense joining layer of high quality. The mass transfer between the bonded materials and insert layers during bonding leads to the hypoeutectic microstructure of the joining layers bonded by both the mixed Al-Si and Al-Cu powders with eutectic composition. At fixed bonding time (temperature), the shear strength of the joints by both insert layers of the mixed Al-Si and Al-Cu powders increases with increasing the bonding temperature (time), but get maxima at bonding temperature 600℃ (time 90 min).

  9. Increasing of the cutting power at inserts for application in the area of power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the influence of cutting edge preparation on tool life, cutting forces and the roughness of machined surface. The cutting edge preparation was done on the inserts with wiper geometry which are used during machining of dividing plane at a steam turbine casing. This cutting inserts were prepared by the technology of drag finishing on the edge radius 5, 10 and 15 µ m. The work piece material was ferritic – martensitic steel with the content of 9%Mo and 1%Cr and the material of cutting inserts was submicron sintered carbide. There was used only one cutting insert in the milling cutter. Key words: edge radius, milling, tool life, roughness, forces

  10. Tactile feedback as a sensory subtraction technique in haptics for needle insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Prattichizzo, D; Rosati, G

    2011-01-01

    A sensory substitution technique is presented in which the kinesthetic and tactile feedback are substituted by tactile feedback only provided by two wearable devices able to apply forces to the index finger and thumb holding a handle during a needle insertion task. The force pattern fed back to the user while using the tactile device is similar, in terms of intensity and area of application, to that perceived while interacting with a haptic device providing both tactile and kinesthetic feedback and it can be thought as a subtraction between the complete haptic and kinesthetic feedback. For this reason we refer to this approach as sensory subtraction instead of sensory substitution. A needle insertion scenario is considered. The haptic device is connected to a virtual environment simulating a needle insertion task. Experiments show that the perception of inserting a needle using the tactile feedback only is nearly indistinguishable from the one felt by the user using both tactile and kinesthetic feedback. As m...

  11. A method for the analysis of 32 X chromosome insertion deletion polymorphisms in a single PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Iva;

    2012-01-01

    Studies of human genetic variation predominantly use short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but Insertion deletion polymorphisms (Indels) are being increasingly explored. They combine desirable characteristics of other genetic markers, especially the possibility of...

  12. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management.

  13. Pars tensa retraction pockets in children: treatment by excision and ventilation tube insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V; Banhegyi, G; O'Sullivan, G; Sherman, I W

    2000-08-01

    Tympanic membrane retraction pockets involving the pars tensa are not uncommon in clinical practice. Recurrent infections, ossicular erosion and cholesteatoma are the recognized sequelae. The management options include surveillance, medical treatment and surgery. The surgical procedures range from grommet insertion to extensive tympanoplasty procedures. We report our experience with simple excision and grommet insertion, performed in 31 ears in 26 patients as day cases. The follow-up ranged from 8 to 34 months with a mean of 16 months. The procedure was successful in 23 ears (success rate of 74%). Recurrence of retraction occurred in seven ears and in one ear there was a persistent perforation. Age, previous grommet insertion and severity of retraction did not have a statistically significant influence on the final outcome. We conclude that excision and grommet insertion is a simple, safe and efficient procedure for the management of tympanic membrane retraction pockets and can be considered in preference to extensive tympanoplasty. PMID:10971530

  14. Bilateral inferior vena cava filter insertion in a patient with duplication of the infrarenal vena cava.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, S

    2010-06-19

    BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion is a commonly performed procedure for indications such as recurrent pulmonary emboli or contraindication to anticoagulation. Symptomatic duplication of the IVC is exceedingly rare with only a handful of cases being described in the literature. AIM: We report an unusual case of a patient with symptomatic duplication of the IVC. RESULT: A 53-year-old woman presented at our hospital for resection of a cerebral metastasis from a non-small cell lung cancer following a recent diagnosis of bilateral lower limb deep venous thrombosis. This required perioperative reversal of anticoagulation and IVC filter insertion. Conventional venography performed during filter insertion documented the existence of a duplicated IVC. CONCLUSION: We present a case of a symptomatic duplication of the IVC requiring filter insertion. We review the developmental anatomy of the IVC along with the diagnostic findings and management strategies available.

  15. Development and applications of an orbital insertion surface for the space shuttle orbiter/tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, A. W.; Brandon, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    The concept of a space shuttle orbit/tug orbital insertion surface is developed. Practical applications in the area of ascent targeting, on-orbit rendezvous targeting, payloads/OMS propellant off-loading, and mission analysis are identified.

  16. Neutron diffraction study of the stress distribution in steel matrix around active NiTi inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with a non-conventional application of multifunctional materials such as shape memory alloy in engineering components. The concept of active inserts has been adopted in order to redistribute compressive stresses emerged in cutting disc during its operation. According to the present design, the small pre-strained elliptical NiTi elements were placed into openings of steel cutting disc in places with expected maximum stress concentration. To study the stress interaction of the NiTi inserts with steel matrix in detail, the in-situ method of neutron diffraction was employed for residual stress mapping. The diffraction experiments were focused substantially on scan of internal stresses around inserts and their evolution with increased temperature. The performed studies confirm the potential ability of NiTi insert to induce the compressive stress within steel matrix with applied temperature.

  17. Comparison of Indian package inserts in public and private sector: an urgent need for self regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini S. Mahatme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Package inserts are the authentic source of information for the new molecules in the market. Incomplete and incorrect product information may promote irrational prescribing and may have serious consequences. Hence, our aim was to analyse and compare the information supplied in the package insert according to the section 6.2 and section 6.3 of schedule D of Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940 in public (government and private (non-government sector. Methods: Package inserts of allopathic drugs which were supplied by government from drug store of tertiary care centre and hospital and from pharmacies on request were collected. A total of 270 package inserts in English were collected that is 38 from government hospital and 232 from the pharmacies nearby the hospital. The package inserts were analysed for the presentation of completeness of the information as per section 6.2 and 6.3. Results: The presentation of information on analysing 233 package inserts (28 government and 205 non government was not uniform and it was difficult to locate and retrieve information easily due to lack of common layout and heading. Moreover, the package inserts were of variable shape and size with different font size which made it inconvenient for analysing as well as for reference. Posology and method of administration was incomplete in 3% package insert in non- government cases whereas in government supply it was 7%. Use of drug in pregnancy and lactation was deficient in 11% and 14% packages inserts of non-government sources and government sources respectively. Instructions for use were lacking in 25% and 29% package inserts of government and non-government sources respectively. Conclusions: The need of the hour is to further refine contents of the circulated package inserts to make them complete, reliable and up to date. This can be a step forward for ethical and effective dissemination of healthcare services in our growing society. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol

  18. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuya R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Okuya,1 Masaomi Kimura,2 Michiko Ohkura,2 Fumito Tsuchiya3 1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could

  19. Evaluation of a projection-domain lung nodule insertion technique in thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Chen, Baiyu; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Levin, David L.; Kuzo, Ronald S.; Viers, Lyndsay D.; Vincent Sheldon, Stephanie A.; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    Task-based assessment of computed tomography (CT) image quality requires a large number of cases with ground truth. Inserting lesions into existing cases to simulate positive cases is a promising alternative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently-developed raw-data based lesion insertion technique in thoracic CT. Lung lesions were segmented from patient CT images, forward projected, and reinserted into the same patient CT projection data. In total, 32 nodules of various attenuations were segmented from 21 CT cases. Two experienced radiologists and 2 residents blinded to the process independently evaluated these inserted nodules in two sub-studies. First, the 32 inserted and the 32 original nodules were presented in a randomized order and each received a rating score from 1 to 10 (1=absolutely artificial to 10=absolutely realistic). Second, the inserted and the corresponding original lesions were presented side-by-side to each reader, who identified the inserted lesion and provided a confidence score (1=no confidence to 5=completely certain). For the randomized evaluation, discrimination of real versus artificial nodules was poor with areas under the receiver operative characteristic curves being 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.78), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46-0.68), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54-0.69) for the 2 radiologists, 2 residents, and all 4 readers, respectively. For the side-by-side evaluation, although all 4 readers correctly identified inserted lesions in 103/128 pairs, the confidence score was moderate (2.6). Our projection-domain based lung nodule insertion technique provides a robust method to artificially generate clinical cases that prove to be difficult to differentiate from real cases.

  20. Nanoprobe arrays for multiple single cell insertion using heterogeneous nanosphere lithography (HNSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoon Ho; Kim, Lo Hyun; Kim, Young-Beom; Ryu, Wonhyoung

    2013-08-01

    Nanoprobe arrays for multiple single cell insertion were developed using heterogeneous nanosphere lithography. Using two heterogeneous nanoparticles as sacrificial and masking particles, high aspect ratio Si nanoprobes were fabricated in an array with spacing between the nanoprobes ranging from a few to tens of micrometers. For registered single cell analysis, multiple and precise insertion of nanoprobes into multiple single cells in a parallel fashion was demonstrated using micropipette suction and micromanipulators.

  1. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  2. Enlargement of the narrow aortic root and oblique insertion of a St Jude prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsley, R H; Antunes, M J; McKibbin, J K

    1983-01-01

    The aortic root was enlarged and a St Jude Medical valve obliquely inserted in 11 patients. Prosthetic valve sizes at least one, but often two, sizes larger than that which would normally be accommodated by the dimensions of the host aortic annulus were used. Closure of the valve was not affected by obliquity. This simple technique is recommended whenever the host aortic annulus does not allow the insertion of a substitute valve of an appropriate size.

  3. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure of tower in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisiecki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible sources of the concrete damage due to high welding temperature and stresses.Findings: It was shown that MMA welding at vertical-up position, by a rutile coated electrode of diameter 3,2 [mm], at welding current 110-120 [A], of the butt welds of tee-joints of girders and the insert plate does not cause any harmful and damaging effect to concrete, which temperature in a region of the contact with the bottom surface of the insert plate does not exceed 240 [°C] during full cycle of welding. Tensile and compression stresses of concrete are transmitted mainly by anchoring bars, fixed in concrete and also by reinforcing fabric of concrete, and do not cause any cracks of concrete.Research limitations/implications: To achieve more consistent results of the numerical analysis of stresses and deformation distribution in the insert plate with experimental results, it is necessary to calculate plastic deformation of materials and also take into consideration nonlinear change of yield point (plasticity as a function of temperature.Practical implications: The technology was applied for welding of the girders to insert plates of the telecommunication tower in Kuwait.Originality/value: Welding procedure specification ensuring high quality of the welded joints of girders and insert plate of composite steel-concrete structure.

  4. YOUNGSTERS INSERTION ON THE LABOUR MARKET. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ROMANIA - EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Mihaela Hrisanta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The insertion of young people into the labor market represents an important issue amongst all the countries within the European Union and this process is studied differently from one country to another. At present the European Union counts about 75 million young people with the age between 15 and 24 years old. This article main objective is to study insertion rate of young people the labour market as well as it deals with their problems.

  5. IS231A from Bacillus thuringiensis is functional in Escherichia coli: transposition and insertion specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallet, Bernard; Rezsohazy, René; Delcour, Jean

    1991-01-01

    A kanamycin resistance gene was introduced within the insertion sequence IS231A from Bacillus thuringiensis, and transposition of the element was demonstrated in Escherichia coli. DNA sequencing at the target sites showed that IS231A transposition results in direct repeats of variable lengths (10, 11, and 12 bp). These target sequences resemble the terminal inverted repeats of the transposon Tn4430, which are the preferred natural insertion sites of IS231 in B. thuringiensis.

  6. Higher insertion in marketing and vulnerability of cattle farms in North Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Djamen, Patrice; Lossouarn, Jean; Havard, Michel; Hassana,; Bouba, Raymond; Tiékwa, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Does higher commercial insertion constitutes for livestock keepers an opportunity in fostering the transformation of their farms, or a risk likely to further weaken their farms? This issue is arising in Northern Cameroon where traditional livestock farming systems are hampered by high pressure on land while high population growth and rapid urbanization stimulate the development of dairy products and beef markets. A research was carried out to identify the effects of commercial insertion on th...

  7. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  8. Nasogastric tube insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients: a new and reliable method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Yung-Fong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The “Rusch” intubation stylet is used to make endotracheal tube intubation easy. We designed this study to evaluate the usage of this equipment in the guidance of nasogastric tube (NGT insertion. Methods A total of 103 patients, aged 23 to 70 years, undergoing gastrointestinal or hepatic surgeries that required intraoperative NGT insertions were enrolled into our study. The patients were randomly allocated to the control group (Group C or the stylet group (Group S according to a computerized, random allocation software program. In the control group, the NGT was inserted with the patient’s head in an intubating position. In the stylet group, the NGT was inserted with the assistance of a “Rusch” intubation stylet tied together at the tips by a slipknot. The success rates of the two methods, the durations of the insertions, and the occurrences of complications were recorded. All of the failed cases in the control group were subjected to the new technique used in the stylet group, and the successful rescue rate was also evaluated. Results Successful insertions were recorded for 52/53 patients (98.1% in Group S and for 32/50 patients (64% in Group C. The mean insertion times were 39.5 ± 19.5 seconds in Group C and 40.3 ± 23.2 seconds in Group S. Successful rescues of failure cases in Group C were achieved in 17/18 patients (94.4% with the assistance of a “Rusch” intubation stylet. Conclusions The “Rusch” intubation stylet-guided method is reliable with a high success rate of NGT insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients. Trial registration Institutional Review Board of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (IRB: 98-2669B and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000423910

  9. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klimpel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible sources of the concrete damage due to high welding temperature and stresses.Findings: It was shown that MMA welding at vertical-up position, by a rutile coated electrode of diameter 3,2 [mm], at welding current 110-120 [A], of the butt welds of tee-joints of girders and the insert plate does not cause any harmful and damaging effect to concrete, which temperature in a region of the contact with the bottom surface of the insert plate does not exceed 240 [˚C] during full cycle of welding. Tensile and compression stresses of concrete are transmitted mainly by anchoring bars, fixed in concrete and also by reinforcing fabric of concrete, and do not cause any cracks of concrete.Research limitations/implications: To achieve more consistent results of the numerical analysis of stresses and deformation distribution in the insert plate with experimental results, it is necessary to calculate plastic deformation of materials and also take into consideration nonlinear change of yield point (plasticity as a function of temperature.Practical implications: The technology was applied for welding of the girders to insert plates of the telecommunication tower in Kuwait.Originality/value: Welding procedure specification ensuring high quality of the welded joints of girders and insert plate of composite steel-concrete structure.

  10. Selection of Cutting Inserts in Dry Machining for Reducing Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Domingo; Marta María Marín; Juan Claver; Roque Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are responsible for climate change due to the emissions produced as result of energy consumption. This paper analyzes the influence of the cutting conditions and the characteristics of cutting tools on the energy required in machining processes and the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions generated per material removed ratio (MRR) in an effort to define common criteria for using cutting inserts in a sustainable manner. Consequently, four cutting inserts were ev...

  11. FRET-Based Localization of Fluorescent Protein Insertions Within the Ryanodine Receptor Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Raina, Shweta A.; Jeffrey Tsai; Montserrat Samsó; Fessenden, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent protein (FP) insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM) maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP) inse...

  12. Nitric Oxide Concentration and Other Salivary Changes after Insertion of New Complete Dentures in Edentulous Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Lourdes Breseghelo; Lídia Andreu Guillo; Túlio Eduardo Nogueira; Cláudio Rodrigues Leles

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes in levels of salivary nitric oxide (NO) after insertion of new complete dentures and its association with clinical and salivary parameters. Methods. Nineteen fully edentulous subjects were included, mean age 64.4. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after insertion of the dentures, at follow-up visits, and after 12 months. The concentration of the final stable NO product (nitrite) was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the Griess reaction. Cl...

  13. Zirconia Intra Mucosal Inserts as a Retentive Aid for Maxillary Complete Dentures: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Harianawala, Husain; Kheur, Mohit; Jambhekar, Shantanu S.

    2014-01-01

    Complete dentures fabricated for edentulous patients with resorbed ridges generally have compromised retention and stability. The use of intramucosal inserts in order to aid retention of a maxillary denture has been reported in the past. Zirconia is a tissue compatible biomaterial whose scope and application in dentistry is on the rise. This paper reports the fabrication of zirconia intramucosal inserts and the technique of its incorporation in the maxillary complete denture in order to enhan...

  14. High performance lithium insertion negative electrode materials for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channu, V. S. Reddy; Rambabu, B.; Kumari, Kusum; Kalluru, Rajmohan R.; Holze, Rudolf

    2016-11-01

    Spinel LiCrTiO4 oxides to be used as electrode materials for a lithium ion battery and an asymmetric supercapacitor were synthesized using a soft-chemical method with and without chelating agents followed by calcination at 700 °C for 10 h. Structural and morphological properties were studied with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Particles of 50-10 nm in size are observed in the microscopic images. The presence of Cr and Ti is confirmed from the EDS spectrum. Electrochemical properties of LiCrTiO4 electrode were examined in a lithium ion battery. The electrode prepared with oxalic acid-assisted LiCrTiO4 shows higher specific capacity.This LiCrTiO4 is also used as anode material for an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor. The cell exhibits a specific capacity of 65 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm2. The specific capacity decreases with increasing current densities.

  15. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 23 factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  16. Co-incident insertion enables high efficiency genome engineering in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Brian R.; MacDougall, Matthew S.; Clarke, Ryan; Merrill, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases have enabled powerful, new genome editing capabilities; however, the preponderance of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mediated repair events over homology directed repair (HDR) in most cell types limits the ability to engineer precise changes in mammalian genomes. Here, we increase the efficiency of isolating precise HDR-mediated events in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by more than 20-fold through the use of co-incidental insertion (COIN) of independent donor DNA sequences. Analysis of on:off-target frequencies at the Lef1 gene revealed that bi-allelic insertion of a PGK-Neo cassette occurred more frequently than expected. Using various selection cassettes targeting multiple loci, we show that the insertion of a selectable marker at one control site frequently coincided with an insertion at an unlinked, independently targeted site, suggesting enrichment of a sub-population of HDR-proficient cells. When individual cell events were tracked using flow cytometry and fluorescent protein markers, individual cells frequently performed either a homology-dependent insertion event or a homology-independent event, but rarely both types of insertions in a single cell. Thus, when HDR-dependent selection donors are used, COIN enriches for HDR-proficient cells among heterogeneous cell populations. When combined with a self-excising selection cassette, COIN provides highly efficient and scarless genome editing. PMID:27484482

  17. An order insertion scheduling model of logistics service supply chain considering capacity and time factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  18. An Order Insertion Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Considering Capacity and Time Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC, which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order’s volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  19. A Non-canonical Transferred DNA Insertion at the BRI 1 Locus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhao; Yan Zhu; Mathieu Erhardt; Ying Ruan; Wen-Hui Shen

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used in transgenic plant englnserlng and has been proven to be a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis of the plant genome.The transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterlum is Integrated into the plant genome through illegitimate recombination between the T-DNA and the plant DNA.Contrasting to the canonical insertion,here we report on a locus showing a complex mutation associated with T-DNA insertion at the BRI 1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.We obtained a mutant line,named salade for its phenotype of dwarf stature and proliferating rosette,Molecular charactedzation of this mutant revealed that in addition to T-DNA a non.T.DNA-Iocalized transposon from bacteda was inserted in the Arabidopsis genome and that a region of more than 11.5 kb of the Arebidopsis genome was deleted at the insertion site.The deleted region contains the brassinosteroid receptor gene BRI 1 and the transcdption factor gene WRKY13.Our finding reveals non-canonical T-DNA insertion,implicating horizontal gene transfer and cautioning the use of T-DNA as mutagen in transgenic research.

  20. Performance of deep cryogenically treated and non-treated PVD inserts in milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thamizhmanii

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was to analysis the tool performance between cryogenic treated and non-treated PVD inserts by milling process on Inconel 718 material in terms of surface roughness and tool wear. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology adopted is milling process with various cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and constant depth of cut. Cutting speeds are 20,30,40 m/min with feed rate 0.05, 0.08 & 0.10 mm/ tooth and constant depth of cut is 0.50 mm. Findings: From the experimental work, the results were encouraging and performance is analysed on surface roughness and tool wear. Cryogenic treated inserts performed better than non treated inserts. Treated PVD inserts produced low surface roughness at high cutting speed with low feed rate. PVD treated inserts formed low flank wear where as untreated inserts formed more flank wear. Chips produced were saw tooth chips.Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations in carrying out this work due to machine vibration. There was a constraint in measuring the crater wear of the tool. Originality/value: This experimental work will help other researchers to follow on flank and crater wear using cryogenic treatment. This process can be used for difficult to cut materials like Titanium.

  1. Tendon insertion at the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux: surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Jules, Kevin T

    2012-01-01

    Hallux valgus, limitus, and rigidus are conditions affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint that can be treated by arthroplasty. Excessive arthroplasty can compromise the insertion of the tendons at the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux, leading to first metatarsophalangeal joint plantarflexion weakness, cock-up toe deformity, and altered forefoot loading. The present study investigated the anatomic length of insertion of the medial and lateral flexor hallucis brevis, extensor hallucis brevis, abductor hallucis, and adductor hallucis tendons into the base of the hallux proximal phalanx and the amount of bone that can be safely resected without compromising the insertional limits. A total of 43 specimens (22 right and 21 left) from 22 embalmed cadavers (11 male and 11 female) were dissected. The insertion lengths of the 5 tendons were measured, along with the dimensions of the hallux proximal phalanx. No statistically significant differences were found in any proximal phalanx measurements or tendon insertion lengths according to side (p > .05). Significant differences were found between the genders in most dimensions of the hallux proximal phalanx (p hallux proximal phalanx resection should not exceed 3 mm. Resection of the tendons is ensured by removal of more than 7.88 mm and 9.37 mm in females and males, respectively. When performing hallux arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, we recommend calculating the length of the tendon insertions, instead of the length of the hallux proximal phalanx. PMID:22789484

  2. Effects of insertion speed and trocar stiffness on the accuracy of needle position for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, accurate positioning of the needle tip to place radioactive seeds at its target site is critical for successful radiation treatment. During the procedure, needle deflection leads to seed misplacement and suboptimal radiation dose to cancerous cells. In practice, radiation oncologists commonly use high-speed hand needle insertion to minimize displacement of the prostate as well as the needle deflection. Effects of speed during needle insertion and stiffness of trocar (a solid rod inside the hollow cannula) on needle deflection are studied. Methods: Needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed using a 2{sup 2} factorial design (2 parameters at 2 levels), with each condition having replicates. Analysis of the deflection data included calculating the average, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: The stiffer tungsten carbide trocar is effective in reducing the average and standard deviation of needle deflection. The fast insertion speed together with the stiffer trocar generated the smallest average and standard deviation for needle deflection for almost all cases. Conclusions: The combination of stiff tungsten carbide trocar and fast needle insertion speed are important to decreasing needle deflection. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the accuracy of needle insertion during brachytherapy procedures.

  3. Heat Transfer Behavior in a Square Duct with Tandem Wire Coil Element Insert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smith Eiamsa-ard; Narin Koolnapadol; Pongjet Promvonge

    2012-01-01

    Effects of insertion of tandem wire coil elements used as turbulator on heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat-flux square duct are experimentally investigated in this work. The experiment is conducted for turbulent flow with the Reynolds number from 4000 to 25000. The wire coil element is inserted into the duct with a view to generating a swirl flow that assists to wash up the flow trapped in the duct corners and then increase the heat transfer rate of the test duct. Apart from the full-length coil, 1D and 2D length coil elements placed in tandem inside the duct with various free-space lengths are introduced to reduce the friction loss. The results obtained from these wire coil element inserts are also compared with those from the smooth duct. The experimental results reveal that the use of wire coil inserts for the full-length coil, 1D and 2D coil elements with a short free-space length leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over the smooth duct with no insert. The full-length wire coil provides higher heat transfer and friction factor than the tandem wire coil elements under the same operating conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using the wire coil insert into the square duct are determined.

  4. The characteristics of laser welded magnesium alloy using silver nanoparticles as insert material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak, M., E-mail: mahadzir@ump.edu.my [University Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 26600 Pekan, Pahang Darul Makmur (Malaysia); Maekawa, K., E-mail: mae@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Ibaraki University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Yamasaki, K., E-mail: kyama@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Ibaraki University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag nanoparticles are used as insert material for welding Mg alloy with laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded Mg alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nananoparticle promote grain refinement to the weld structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer nanoparticle produces high weld efficiency and mechanical properties. - Abstract: This paper describes the characteristics of the laser welding of thin-sheet magnesium alloys using silver (Ag) nanoparticles as an insert material. The experiment was conducted using nanoparticles with 5 nm and 100 nm diameters that were welded with a Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the specimens welded using inserts with different sizes of nanoparticles and without an insert material, were examined. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) analysis was conducted to confirm the existence of Ag in the welded area. The introduction of the Ag nanoparticle insert promoted large area of fine grain and broadened the acceptable range of scanning speed parameters compared to welds without an insert. Welds with 5 nm nanoparticles yielded the highest fracture load of up to 818 N while the lowest fracture load was found for weld specimens with 100 nm nanoparticles. This lower fracture load was due to larger voids and a smaller throat length, which contributed to a lower fracture load when using larger nanoparticles.

  5. MD-simulations of Beta-Amyloid Protein Insertion Efficiency and Kinetics into Neuronal Membrane Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2011-03-01

    Early interaction events of beta-amyloid (A β) peptides with the neuronal membranes play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We have used all-atom MD simulations to study the protein insertion efficiency and kinetics of monomeric A β40 and A β42 into phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers (PC) with and without 40 mole% cholesterol (CHOL) that mimic the cholesterol-enriched and depleted lipid nanodomains of the neuronal plasma membranes. Independent replicates of 200-ns simulations of each protein pre-inserted in the upper lipid layer were generated. In PC bilayers, only 25% of A β40 and 50% of A β42 in the replicates showed complete insertion into the lower lipid layer, whereas the percentages increased to 50% and 100%, respectively, in PC/CHOL bilayers, providing evidence that cholesterol improves the protein insertion efficiency into the bilayers. The rate of protein insertion was proportional to the hydrophobic, transmembrane helix length of the inserted peptide and depended on the cholesterol content. We propose that the lysine snorkeling and C-terminus anchoring of A β to the PC headgroups at the upper and lower lipid/water interfaces represent the dual-transmembrane stabilization mechanisms of A β in the neuronal membrane domains.

  6. Automatic insertion of simulated microcalcification clusters in a software breast phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankla, Varsha; Pokrajac, David D.; Weinstein, Susan P.; DeLeo, Michael; Tuite, Catherine; Roth, Robyn; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2014-03-01

    An automated method has been developed to insert realistic clusters of simulated microcalcifications (MCs) into computer models of breast anatomy. This algorithm has been developed as part of a virtual clinical trial (VCT) software pipeline, which includes the simulation of breast anatomy, mechanical compression, image acquisition, image processing, display and interpretation. An automated insertion method has value in VCTs involving large numbers of images. The insertion method was designed to support various insertion placement strategies, governed by probability distribution functions (pdf). The pdf can be predicated on histological or biological models of tumor growth, or estimated from the locations of actual calcification clusters. To validate the automated insertion method, a 2-AFC observer study was designed to compare two placement strategies, undirected and directed. The undirected strategy could place a MC cluster anywhere within the phantom volume. The directed strategy placed MC clusters within fibroglandular tissue on the assumption that calcifications originate from epithelial breast tissue. Three radiologists were asked to select between two simulated phantom images, one from each placement strategy. Furthermore, questions were posed to probe the rationale behind the observer's selection. The radiologists found the resulting cluster placement to be realistic in 92% of cases, validating the automated insertion method. There was a significant preference for the cluster to be positioned on a background of adipose or mixed adipose/fibroglandular tissues. Based upon these results, this automated lesion placement method will be included in our VCT simulation pipeline.

  7. A prospective study of immediate postpartum intra uterine device insertion in a tertiary level hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India there is an unmet need for contraception. Intrauterine device is a long acting reversible method. This study was done to determine the efficacy and safety of immediate Post-Partum Intrauterine Device (PPIUD and to compare the outcome of PPIUD insertion after vaginal delivery and caesarean section. Methods: A total of 113 women who underwent PPIUD insertion were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months post-partum. Outcome in term of side effects, removal and expulsion was compared in vaginal delivery and caesarean section insertions. Results: In 61.45% women there was no complaint. Menstrual disturbances were found in 16.66% women and pelvic pain in 13.54% women. The expulsion rate was 5.20% and IUD removal was done in 13.54% women. Incidence of removal was more in vaginal insertions than in caesarean insertions and this difference was statistically significant. Continuation rate at 6 months was 81.25%. Conclusion: Immediate postpartum IUD insertion is a safe, convenient and effective method. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 183-187

  8. Manufacturing lot affects polyethylene tibial insert volume, thickness, and surface geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Matthew G; Milner, Jaques S; MacDonald, Steven J; Naudie, Douglas D R

    2013-08-01

    To perform wear measurements on retrieved joint replacement implants, a reference geometry of the implant's original state is required. Since implants are rarely individually scanned before implantation, a different, new implant of the same kind and size is frequently used. However, due to manufacturing variability, errors may be introduced into these measurements, as the dimensions between the retrieved and reference components may not be exactly the same. The hypothesis of this study was that new polyethylene tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots would demonstrate greater variability than those from the same lot. In total, 12 new tibial inserts of the same model and size were obtained, 5 from the same lot and the remainder from different lots. The geometry of each tibial insert was obtained using microcomputed tomography. Measurements of tibial insert volume, thickness, and three-dimensional surface deviations were obtained and compared between tibial inserts from the same and different manufacturing lots. Greater variability was found for the tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots for all types of measurements, including a fourfold difference in volume variability (p manufacturing lots for use as the reference geometry.

  9. Reorientation simplified: A device for recording and reproducing the path of insertion for removable partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav D Kamble

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The record of path of insertion on the dental cast is part of the dentist′s work authorization to the dental laboratory technician. The path of insertion record enables the dental technician to replace the cast on a surveyor in the same position that the dentist selected. Analysis of factors that influence the path of insertion should determine a path of insertion that will reduce the potential for dislodgement and promote stability of removable partial denture (RPD. Materials and Methods: The recording of the relation of a cast to a dental surveyor and the transfer of this relationship to the dental laboratory may be done by tripodization, by scoring the base of the cast, or by cementing a reference pin on the cast. Conclusion: Recording the established path of insertion can be difficult when the procedure uses a cemented pin and the casts are mounted in an articulator. This article describes a procedure for innovative dowel pin and sleeve device to record the path of insertion of RPDs, which serves the same purpose as the cemented pin but can be easily removed and replaced.

  10. Characterization of broadly pleiotropic phenotypes caused by an hfq insertion mutation in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, H C; Leung, H C; Winkler, M E

    1994-07-01

    The region immediately downstream from the miaA tRNA modification gene at 94.8 min contains the hfq gene and the hflA region, which are important in the bacteriophage Q beta and lambda life cycles. The roles of these genes in bacteria remain largely unknown. We report here the characterization of two chromosomal hfq insertion mutations. An omega (omega) cassette insertion near the end of hfq resulted in phenotypes only slightly different from the parent, although transcript mapping demonstrated that the insertion was completely polar on hflX expression. In contrast, an equally polar omega cassette insertion near the beginning of hfq caused pronounced pleiotropic phenotypes, including decreased growth rates and yields, decreased negative supercoiling of plasmids in stationary phase, increased cell size, osmosensitivity, increased oxidation of carbon sources, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light, and suppression of bgl activation by hns mutations. hfq::omega mutant phenotypes were distinct from those caused by omega insertions early in the miaA tRNA modification gene. On the other hand, both hfq insertions interfered with lambda phage plaque formation, probably by means of polarity at the hflA region. Together, these results show that hfq function plays a fundamental role in Escherichia coli physiology and that hfq and the hflA-region are in the amiB-mutL-miaA-hfq-hflX superoperon. PMID:7984093

  11. Processing of diamond enhanced cemented tungsten carbide insert for rock drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-chang; SUN You-hong; ZHANG Zu-pei

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure, component and sintering procedure of the Diamond/WC-Co composite insert fabricated by high pressure and high temper ature (HPHT) method as well as by hot pressing method. In HPHT method, to avoid breakage and delamination of the diamond layer, two transition layers were added between the most outer diamond layer and the WC-Co body. The transition layers compensate for differences in thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of diamond layer and WC-Co substrate. Thus reduces the residual stress induced by cooling the inserts from sintering temperature to room temperature. In hot pressing method, to decrease sintering temperature so as to protect diamond, an active sintering process which achieved by adding nickel and phosphorus into the starting mixed powder is adopted. To increase the toughness of the inserts to resist breakage, proper amount of rare earth compound, LaNi5 and CeO2, are added into the original mixed powder, too. Laboratory tests indicated that both of the diamond enhanced inserts fabricated by HPHT method and by hot pressing method have relatively high hardness and impact toughness, while their wear resistance is about hundreds of times greater than that of conventional cemented tungsten carbide inserts. The results of field drilling test indicated that the diamond enhanced inserts can meet the demands of rotary percussion drilling.

  12. Prior Surface Integrity Assessment of Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Almazrouee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coated carbide inserts are considered vital components in machining processes and advanced functional surface integrity of inserts and their coating are decisive factors for tool life. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM implementation has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. When used in a proper systematic manner, the AFM features can be a valuable tool for assessment of tool surface integrity. The aim of this paper is to assess the integrity of coated and uncoated carbide inserts using AFM analytical parameters. Surface morphology of as-received coated and uncoated carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode AFM microscope in contact mode. The results indicate that it is preferable to start with a wider scan size in order to get more accurate interpretation of surface topography. Results are found credible to support the idea that AFM can be used efficiently in detecting flaws and defects of coated and uncoated carbide inserts using specific features such as “Roughness” and “Section” parameters. A recommended strategy is provided for surface examination procedures of cutting inserts using various AFM controlling parameters.

  13. Paramedic insertion of intrauterine device in a Malaysian family planning clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwa Siew Kim; Arshat, H; Abdul Jalil, A H; Ang Eng Suan; Suhaimi, A

    1987-06-01

    A study was done by the Malaysian family planning clinic to check the feasibility in using paramedical personnel to insert IUDs. There were 250 insertions by trained senior nurses and 369 insertions by doctors. In the follow-up, no differences were found in terminations due to IUD complications, and also none in terminations for pregnancy, bleeding, pain, expulsion and pelvic infections. Studies in Turkey, Philippines, Korea, Iran, and Thailand showed similar results in that paramedical personnel are just as effective as doctors in the insertion of IUDs. The follow-up was done in this study by nurses at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months and from then, on a yearly basis. There was a large unexplained loss of follow-up in the nurses group, 12.7% and only 6% in the doctors. There was a 8.9% rate for removal for a planned pregnancy, and both groups had a high continuation rate: 63.3% for nurses and 70.5% for doctors. The conclusion of the study indicates that trained paramedical people can perform insertion of IUD's as effectively as doctors when there are no medical or gynecological problems in the patients. It is also noted that in some areas women prefer to have nurses do the insertion because of their conservative nature.

  14. Inserting CO2 into Aryl C-H Bonds of Metal-Organic Frameworks: CO2 Utilization for Direct Heterogeneous C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Wu, Haifan; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-04-25

    Described for the first time is that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of the backbone of a metal-organic framework (MOF) to generate free carboxylate groups, which serve as Brønsted acid sites for efficiently catalyzing the methanolysis of epoxides. The work delineates the very first example of utilizing CO2 for heterogeneous C-H activation and carboxylation reactions on MOFs, and opens a new avenue for CO2 chemical transformations under mild reaction conditions.

  15. [Mutants of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with Omegon insertion in mmsB or fabG genes of lipid metabolism are defective in motility and flagellation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtunov, E A; Shelud'ko, A V; Chernyshova, M P; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria Azospirillum brasilense have mixed flagellation: in addition to the polar flagellum, numerous lateral flagella are formed in their cells on medium with increased density. Flagella determine the active swimming and swarming capacities of azospirilla. Using A. brasilense Sp245 as an example, we showed that the Omegon-Km artificial transposon insertion into the chromosomal gene for 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (mmsB) was concurrent with the appearance of significant defects in the formation of polar flagella and with the paralysis of lateral flagella. The Sp245 mutant with the Omegon insertion into the plasmid AZOBR_p1-borne gene for 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]-reductase (fabG) showed the complete loss of flagella and the swarming capacity, as well as significant defects in polar flagellar assembly (though some cells are still motile in liquid medium). The viability of the A. brasilense Sp245 mutants with the Omegon insertion into the mmsB or fabG gene was not reduced. No considerable differences in the fatty acid composition of whole cell lipid extracts were found for the A. brasilense Sp245 strain and its mmsB and fabG mutants.

  16. The effects on the expression of β-lactamase by targeted insertion of a Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant into the coding region of the gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The product of this plasmid gene protects bacteria from the antibiotic, ampicillin. When the Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant DNA (MuLV-K-Vd) was inserted into the Pst 1 site of the β-lactamase gene, the transformed bacteria (E. coli, DH5) were resistant to ampicillin. The purpose of this study is to explain the presence of a functional β-lactamase gene with additional nucleotides inserted into the coding region of the gene. The recombinant plasmid codes for a functional β-lactamase. Northern blot analysis of RNA using a 32P-labelled 16mer oligonucleotide as a probe revealed the β-lactamase transcript from the recombinant plasmid to be shorter than the transcript from the wild-type β-lactamase gene. Also, greater levels of β-lactamase mRNA were present in cells containing the recombinant plasmid compared to those containing the wild-type plasmid. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the 3' end of MuLV-K-Vd insert contains sequences of β-lactamase. Nucleic acid sequencing substantiated the hybridization data that β-lactamase sequences are present in the 3' end of MuLV-K-Vd. However, exact sequence homology is not evident

  17. The effects on the expression of. beta. -lactamase by targeted insertion of a Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant into the coding region of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias-Ferrao, V.P.T.

    1988-01-01

    The product of this plasmid gene protects bacteria from the antibiotic, ampicillin. When the Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant DNA (MuLV-K-Vd) was inserted into the Pst 1 site of the {beta}-lactamase gene, the transformed bacteria (E. coli, DH5) were resistant to ampicillin. The purpose of this study is to explain the presence of a functional {beta}-lactamase gene with additional nucleotides inserted into the coding region of the gene. The recombinant plasmid codes for a functional {beta}-lactamase. Northern blot analysis of RNA using a {sup 32}P-labelled 16{sup mer} oligonucleotide as a probe revealed the {beta}-lactamase transcript from the recombinant plasmid to be shorter than the transcript from the wild-type {beta}-lactamase gene. Also, greater levels of {beta}-lactamase mRNA were present in cells containing the recombinant plasmid compared to those containing the wild-type plasmid. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the 3{prime} end of MuLV-K-Vd insert contains sequences of {beta}-lactamase. Nucleic acid sequencing substantiated the hybridization data that {beta}-lactamase sequences are present in the 3{prime} end of MuLV-K-Vd. However, exact sequence homology is not evident.

  18. Controlled acrylate insertion regioselectivity in diazaphospholidine- sulfonato palladium(II) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Wucher, Philipp

    2012-12-24

    Diazaphospholidine-sulfonato Pd(II) complexes [{κ2-P,O-(N- Ar2C2H4N2P)C6H 4SO3}PdMe(L)] 1-L (L = dmso, pyridine, lutidine, or μ-LiCl(solvent); 1a: Ar = Ph, 1b: Ar = 2-MeC6H4, 1c: Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 1d: Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C 6H2, 1e: Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H 3, 1f: Ar = 2,6-(p-tolyl)2C6H3) were prepared and structurally characterized. The regioselectivity of methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond is entirely inverted from >93% 1,2-insertion for bulky substituents (1d-f, yielding the insertion products [(P̂O)Pd{κ2-C,O-CH2CHMeC(O)OMe], 12) to the usual electronically controlled 2,1-insertion (>95%) for the less bulky Ar = Ph (1a, yielding the insertion product [(P̂O)Pd{κ2-C,O- CHEtC(O)OMe], 11, and β-H elimination product methyl crotonate). DFT studies underline that this is due to a more favorable insertion transition state (2,1- favored by 12 kJ mol-1 over 1,2- for 1a) vs destabilization of the 2,1-insertion transition state in 1d,e. By contrast, MA insertion into the novel isolated and structurally characterized hydride and deuteride complexes [{κ2-P,O-(N-Ar2C 2H4N2P)C6H4SO 3}PdR(lutidine)] (Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3; 9e: R = H, 10e: R = D) occurs 2,1-selectively. This is due to the insertion occurring from the isomer with the P-donor and the olefin in trans arrangement, rather than the insertion into the alkyl from the cis isomer in which the olefin is in proximity to the bulky diazaphospholidine. 1a-f are precursors to active catalysts for ethylene polymerization to highly linear polyethylene with M n up to 35 000 g mol-1. In copolymerization experiments, norbornene was incorporated in up to 6.1 mol % into the polyethylene backbone. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. The Conserved Arginine Cluster in the Insert of the Third Cytoplasmic Loop of the Long Form of the D₂ Dopamine Receptor (D2L-R) Acts as an Intracellular Retention Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubale, Valentina; Blagotinšek, Kaja; Nøhr, Jane; Eidne, Karin A; Vrecl, Milka

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the conserved arginine cluster present within the 29-amino acid insert of the long form of the D₂ dopamine receptor (D2L-R) confers its predominant intracellular localization. We hypothesized that the conserved arginine cluster (RRR) located within the insert could act as an RXR-type endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. Arginine residues (R) within the cluster at positions 267, 268, and 269 were charge-reserved to glutamic acids (E), either individually or in clusters, thus generating single, double, and triple D2L-R mutants. Through analyses of cellular localization by confocal microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioligand binding assay, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET²) β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) recruitment assay, and cAMP signaling, it was revealed that charge reversal of the R residues at all three positions within the motif impaired their colocalization with ER marker calnexin and led to significantly improved cell surface expression. Additionally, these data demonstrate that an R to glutamic acid (E) substitution at position 2 within the RXR motif is not functionally permissible. Furthermore, all generated D2L-R mutants preserved their functional integrity regarding ligand binding, agonist-induced βarr2 recruitment and Gαi-mediated signaling. In summary, our results show that the conserved arginine cluster within the 29-amino acid insert of third cytoplasmic loop (IC3) of the D2L-R appears to be the ER retention signal. PMID:27447620

  20. The study of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and determination of kinetic parameters in aqueous Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.; Mahesh, K.C. [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Suresh, G.S., E-mail: sureshssmrv@yahoo.co.i [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Venkatesha, T.V. [Department of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577451 Shimoga (India)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report a basic study on the mechanism of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion process from/into LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material in aqueous Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An equivalent circuit distinguishing the kinetic parameters of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion is used to simulate the experimental impedance data. The fitting results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the parameters of the kinetic process of Li{sup +} de-insertion and insertion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} at different potentials during charge and discharge are obtained using the same circuit. The results indicate that the de-insertion/insertion behavior of lithium ions at LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode in Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution is similar to that reported in the organic electrolytes. The charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), warburg resistance, double layer capacitance and chemical diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}{sup +}) vary with potentials during de-insertion/insertion processes. R{sub ct} is lowest at the CV peak potentials and the important kinetic parameter, D{sub Li}{sup +} exhibits two distinct minima at potentials corresponding to CV peaks during de-insertion-insertion and it was found to be between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}during lithium de-insertion/insertion processes.

  1. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Insertion in Partial Immunized Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (β = −0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative β value means a downward trend and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive β values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05. The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83–0.97 and 0.19–0.23, resp.. Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of nodular cast iron insert edge distance using curved linear PA-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipponen, A.; Sarkimo, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Pitkaenen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Nuclear fuel disposal canisters consist of a copper tube and a cast iron insert. The copper tube is designed for corrosion protection. The design and use of the nodular cast iron insert is based on strength and fracture mechanic aspects and it is the load carrying part of the structure. The preliminary acceptance criteria for the cast iron insert are under study. There are several aspects in accepting the inspection results of nodular cast iron insert for use. One aspect among others is the position of the edge which is nearest to surface. In an earlier study this was stated to have a tolerance of edge position +- 5 mm. There have been studies both on eccentricity and the real position of the nearest edge tolerances. To determine the edge position, different ultrasonic techniques were tested using a curved linear PA-probe. To evaluate whether the distance variation is within the tolerance limit, the real geometrical nominal distance must be computed. Because the tolerances of the cast iron insert and its internal geometry can give a large variation in the edge position, these must be carefully evaluated. The applied ultrasonic system is a 128 element phased array equipment. The used probe is curved and adjusted to curvature of the cast iron insert. The curved probe was designed to inspect the edge of the channel with one long axial line scanning. During line scanning the phased array probe does at the same time electronical scanning. To optimize this electronic scanning, three different ultrasonic techniques were used. This evaluation of edge distance was tested in four inspections of real size cast iron inserts. It was seen that the variation of the edge position is about 1 to 12 mm in radial direction (straightness) and in circumferential direction about 2 to 8 mm (twist) in range of about 4 m. (orig.)

  3. Microleakage of Posterior Composite Restorations with Fiber Inserts Using two Adhesives after Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Microleakage is one of the most frequent problems associated with resin composites, especially at the gingival margin of posterior restorations. Inser-tion of fibers in composite restorations can reduce the total amount of composite and help to decrease the shrinkage.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyethylene fiber inserts on gingival microleakage of class II composite restorations using two different adhe-sive systems.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, class II cavities were prepared on 60 premolars. The gingival floor was located 1.0 mm below the CEJ. Dimension of each cavity were 3 mm buccolingually and 1.5 mm in axial depth. The specimens were divided into 4 groups according to the adhesive type and fiber insert (n=4. Single bond and Clearfill SE bond and Filtek p60 were used to restore the cavities. In groups without fiber inserts composite was adapted onto cavities using layering technique. For cavities with fiber inserts, 3 mm piece of fiber insert was placed onto the composite increment and cured. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37oC for 6 months. All specimens were subjected to 3000 thermo-cycling. The tooth surfaces except for 1 mm around the restoration margins covered with two layers of nail varnish .The teeth were immersed in 2% Basic Fuchsin for 24 hours, then rinsed and sectioned mesiodistally. The microleakage was determined under a stereomicroscope (40X. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p< 0.05.Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no significant differences in mean microlea-kage scores among all groups (p= 0.281.Conclusion: Use of polyethylene fiber inserts and etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives had no effect on microleakage in class II resin composite restorations with gingival margins below the CEJ after 6- month water storage.

  4. The NF1 gene contains hotspots for L1 endonuclease-dependent de novo insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wimmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long interspersed (L1 and Alu elements are actively amplified in the human genome through retrotransposition of their RNA intermediates by the -100 still retrotranspositionally fully competent L1 elements. Retrotransposition can cause inherited disease if such an element is inserted near or within a functional gene. Using direct cDNA sequencing as the primary assay for comprehensive NF1 mutation analysis, we uncovered in 18 unrelated index patients splicing alterations not readily explained at the genomic level by an underlying point-mutation or deletion. Improved PCR protocols avoiding allelic drop-out of the mutant alleles uncovered insertions of fourteen Alu elements, three L1 elements, and one poly(T stretch to cause these splicing defects. Taken together, the 18 pathogenic L1 endonuclease-mediated de novo insertions represent the largest number of this type of mutations characterized in a single human gene. Our findings show that retrotransposon insertions account for as many as -0.4% of all NF1 mutations. Since altered splicing was the main effect of the inserted elements, the current finding was facilitated by the use of RNA-based mutation analysis protocols, resulting in improved detection compared to gDNA-based approaches. Six different insertions clustered in a relatively small 1.5-kb region (NF1 exons 21(16-23(18 within the 280-kb NF1 gene. Furthermore, three different specific integration sites, one of them located in this cluster region, were each used twice, i.e. NM_000267.3(NF1:c.1642-1_1642 in intron 14(10c, NM_000267.3(NF1:c.2835_2836 in exon 21(16, and NM_000267.3(NF1:c.4319_4320 in exon 33(25. Identification of three loci that each served twice as integration site for independent retrotransposition events as well as 1.5-kb cluster region harboring six independent insertions supports the notion of non-random insertion of retrotransposons in the human genome. Currently, little is known about which features make sites

  5. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  6. Stress distributions in peri-miniscrew areas from cylindrical and tapered miniscrews inserted at different angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze stress distributions in the roots, periodontal ligaments (PDLs), and bones around cylindrical and tapered miniscrews inserted at different angles using a finite element analysis. Methods We created a three-dimensional (3D) maxilla model of a dentition with extracted first premolars and used 2 types of miniscrews (tapered and cylindrical) with 1.45-mm diameters and 8-mm lengths. The miniscrews were inserted at 30°, 60°, and 90° angles with respect to the bone surface. A simulated horizontal orthodontic force of 2 N was applied to the miniscrew heads. Then, the stress distributions, magnitudes during miniscrew placement, and force applications were analyzed with a 3D finite element analysis. Results Stresses were primarily absorbed by cortical bone. Moreover, very little stress was transmitted to the roots, PDLs, and cancellous bone. During cylindrical miniscrew insertion, the maximum von Mises stress increased as insertion angle decreased. Tapered miniscrews exhibited greater maximum von Mises stress than cylindrical miniscrews. During force application, maximum von Mises stresses increased in both groups as insertion angles decreased. Conclusions For both cylindrical and tapered miniscrew designs, placement as perpendicular to the bone surface as possible is recommended to reduce stress in the surrounding bone. PMID:27478796

  7. Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

    2012-07-01

    Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

  8. Effects of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in Subgroups of Primary Angle Closure Based on Iris Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Cheol Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI in subgroups of primary angle closure based on iris insertion configuration. Methods. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT images were obtained before and two weeks after LPI. Qualitative classification of angle closure eyes according to iris insertion (basal insertion group (BG and nonbasal insertion group (NBG was performed. Anterior chamber depth (ACD, lens vault (LV, iris curvature, iris area, iris thickness (IT750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 750 microns from scleral spur were calculated. Uni- and multivariate regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors associated with AOD750 before and after LPI. Results. Ninety-two eyes of 92 subjects were categorized as NBG (39 eyes or BG (53 eyes. The mean change after LPI was not significantly different between two groups in all parameters. In both groups, AOD750 was affected by ACD (p<0.001, p=0.044 before LPI. AOD750 was affected by LV (p=0.012 in NBG, but by ACD (p<0.001 and IT750 (p=0.039 in BG after LPI. Conclusions. The outcomes of LPI are not significantly different between angle closure subgroups with different iris insertions. However, factors affecting AOD750 show differences between two subgroups after LPI.

  9. Design and Characterization of Bioadhesive In-Situ Gelling Ocular Inserts of Gatifloxacin Sesquihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra D.N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Several polymeric systems have been used to fabricate ocular inserts for better ocular bioavailability and retention to drug of which gelling systems have shown advantages of convenient administration and increased contact time. The purpose of the present study was to develop a bioadhesive in-situe gelling ocular insert of Gatifloxacin using polymeric system of sodium alginate as gelling and chitosan as bioadhesive agent.Materials and methods: Polymeric ocular inserts of Gatifloxacin sesquehydrate (GS were composed using sodium alginate and chitosan with glycerin as plasticizer by solvent casting method. The ocular inserts were investigated for physicochemical properties (thickness, weight variation, folding endurance and surface pH, mechanical strength (tensile strength, elongation at break, swelling index, and bioadhesion parameters. In vitro release studies were carried using a fabricated donor-receptor compartment model. Results: Cumulative drug released from the formulation ranged from 95-99% within 8-12h. The formulation D (2% sodium alginate and 1% chitosan sustained the drug release for the longest period of time (12h. Zero-order release of the drug was from optimized formulation D. A high correlation coefficient (r=0.9845 was recorded between in vitro and in vivo drug release.Conclusion: Gatifloxacin sesquehydrate inserts have appreciable film forming properties and were found to posses good antimicrobial efficacy.

  10. Investigations on Forging Dies with Ceramic Inserts by means of Finite-Element-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Schäfer, F.; Bistron, M.

    2007-05-01

    The tools in hot forging processes are exposed to high thermal and mechanical loadings. Tempering of the tool edge layer occurs as a result of thermal loadings. This leads to a gradual hardness loss of the tool material and increase of wear over forging cycles. Hence, the tool life in hot forging is mainly limited by wear. An extension of the die service life can be achieved by the use of ceramic inserts. The integration of ceramics into the die base plate made of hot-work steel is realised by active brazing, whereby it possible to apply ceramic in region with high wear. It has to be ensured in the design process of ceramic inserts for forging dies that no critical tensile stresses occur in the ceramics. A reliable design of the ceramic inserts is possible only through consideration of brazing and forming process. The development of a Finite-Element-model for the design of forging dies with ceramic inserts is the intention of the work presented in this paper. At first the forging process with a conventional die is analyzed concerning abrasive die wear to identify regions with high wear risk applying a modified Archard model. Based on the results of wear calculation, a forging die with ceramic inserts is investigated in terms of joint stresses at the end of the active brazing process. Subsequently, the forging process considering the residual stresses caused by joining is simulated in order to obtain the die stress in use.

  11. Performance Comparison of Twisted Tape and Screw Tape Inserts in Square Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Vinaya Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of insertion of a full length twisted tape and full length screw tape insert in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger ,square duct inner, and circular annulus on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were experimentally studied. Experiments were carried out under constant wall temperature using water as working fluid. Stainless steel twisted tape and screw tape inserts have equal twist ratio(y=4.0.Cold water flows through inner square duct, and hot water flows through circular annulus, in counter current fashion. Screw tape inserts found better over twisted tape from thermal performance point of view. Results of the Isothermal friction factor for the present twisted tape and helical screw-tape are higher than those for the plain duct around 7.7 times and 14 times respectively. Experiments were conducted well within laminar region. Over entire investigated laminar range, mean Nusselt number for the present twisted tape and helical screw tape are higher than those for the plain duct around 2.85 times and 5.3 times respectively. Further, Thermal performance ratio of twisted tape and screw tape inserts were found 2.81 and 3.52 times the plain square duct on constant pumping power respectively.

  12. Anatomical relationships between Wrisberg meniscofemoral and posterior cruciate ligament's femoral insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetor Campora de Sousa Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and morphometry of the Wrisberg's ligament and its relationships with the posterior cruciate ligament's femoral insertion. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: 24 unpaired knee pieces, 12 right and 12 left were submitted to a deep dissection of the Wrisberg and posterior cruciate ligaments. The pieces were photographed with a digital camera and ruler; the Image J software was used to measure the ligaments' insertion areas, in square millimeters. RESULTS: The Wrisberg ligament was present in 91.6% of the studied pieces. In those its shape was elliptical in 12 pieces (54.54%. In 68% of the knees, the WL insertion was proximal to the medial intercondilar ridge, close to the PCL posteromedial bundle. The average area for the WL was 20.46 ± 6.12 mm2. This number corresponded to 23.3% of the PCL's average area. CONCLUSIONS: WL ligament is a common structure in knees. There is a wide variation of its insertion area. Proportionally to the PCL's insertion area the WL ones suggests that it may contribute to the posterior stability of the knee joint.

  13. Cryo-EM structure of lysenin pore elucidates membrane insertion by an aerolysin family protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Martin, Thomas G.; Naylor, Claire E.; Basak, Ajit K.; Titball, Richard W.; Savva, Christos G.

    2016-04-01

    Lysenin from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida belongs to the aerolysin family of small β-pore-forming toxins (β-PFTs), some members of which are pathogenic to humans and animals. Despite efforts, a high-resolution structure of a channel for this family of proteins has been elusive and therefore the mechanism of activation and membrane insertion remains unclear. Here we determine the pore structure of lysenin by single particle cryo-EM, to 3.1 Å resolution. The nonameric assembly reveals a long β-barrel channel spanning the length of the complex that, unexpectedly, includes the two pre-insertion strands flanking the hypothetical membrane-insertion loop. Examination of other members of the aerolysin family reveals high structural preservation in this region, indicating that the membrane-insertion pathway in this family is conserved. For some toxins, proteolytic activation and pro-peptide removal will facilitate unfolding of the pre-insertion strands, allowing them to form the β-barrel of the channel.

  14. Performance of cryogenically treated CBN inserts on difficult to cut materials during turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thamizhmanii

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Machining of materials is recognized as removing unwanted materials by using different cutting inserts. In this research, cutting inserts used are CBN inserts and treated cryogenically at -196°C in liquid nitrogen chamber. The inserts are subjected to 30 hours of treatment in controlled atmosphere. The materials used are Titanium and AISI 440 C hard Martensitic Stainless steel. The cutting parameters are cutting velocity 30, 40 and 50 m/min with feed rate of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.05, 0.75 and 1.00 mm. The performance evaluated was tool wear, surface roughness. Cryogenically treated CBN inserts produced less tool wear on titanium than AISI 440 C Martensitic stainless steel. The roughness produced was low at high cutting speed with low feed rate. Flank wear was not progressive and varied. In turning AISI 440 C stainless steel, built up edge formed in all cutting speed which is a common phenomena and lead to crater wear formation. The chips produced were saw tooth chips by both materials.

  15. Evaluation of the Sherlock 3CG Tip Confirmation System on peripherally inserted central catheter malposition rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A J; Holder, A; Bishop, S M; See, T C; Streater, C T

    2014-12-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters are often positioned blindly in the central circulation, and this may result in high malposition rates, especially in critically ill patients. Recently, a new technology has been introduced (Sherlock 3CG Tip Positioning System) that uses an electro-magnetic system to guide positioning in the superior vena cava, and then intra-cavity ECG to guide positioning at the cavo-atrial junction. In this observational study, we investigated how the Sherlock 3CG Tip Positioning System would affect peripherally inserted central catheter malposition rates, defined using a post-insertion chest radiograph, in critically ill patients. A total of 239 catheters positioned using the Sherlock 3CG Tip Positioning System were analysed. When an adequate position was defined as low superior vena cava or cavo-atrial junction, 134 catheters (56.1%; 95% CI 50-62%) were malpositioned. When an adequate position was defined as mid/low superior vena cava, cavo-atrial junction or high right atrium (≤ 2 cm from cavo-atrial junction), 49 (20.5%; 95% CI 16-26%) catheters were malpositioned. These malposition rates are significantly lower than our own historical data, which used a 'blind' anthropometric technique to guide peripherally inserted central catheter insertion.

  16. Dental implants inserted in male versus female patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the failure rates, marginal bone loss (MBL) and post-operative infection for implants inserted in male or female patients, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in December 2014. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not. Ninety-one publications were included, with a total of 27,203 implants inserted in men (1185 failures), and 25,154 implants inserted in women (1039 failures). The results suggest that the insertion of dental implants in male patients statistically affected the implant failure rates (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.37, P = 0.002). Due to the limited number of studies reporting results on MBL, it is difficult to estimate the real effect of the insertion of implants in different sexes on the marginal bone level. Due to lack of satisfactory information, meta-analysis for the outcome 'post-operative infection' was not performed. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies.

  17. The role of lipids in membrane insertion and translocation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Annemieke; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-11-11

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of membranes and maintain the membrane permeability barrier of cells and organelles. They provide not only the bilayer matrix in which the functional membrane proteins reside, but they also can play direct roles in many essential cellular processes. In this review, we give an overview of the lipid involvement in protein translocation across and insertion into the Escherichia coli inner membrane. We describe the key and general roles that lipids play in these processes in conjunction with the protein components involved. We focus on the Sec-mediated insertion of leader peptidase. We describe as well the more direct roles that lipids play in insertion of the small coat proteins Pf3 and M13. Finally, we focus on the role of lipids in membrane assembly of oligomeric membrane proteins, using the potassium channel KcsA as model protein. In all cases, the anionic lipids and lipids with small headgroups play important roles in either determining the efficiency of the insertion and assembly process or contributing to the directionality of the insertion process. PMID:15546660

  18. Prolonged pulse-entry of pilocarpine with a soluble drug insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, L; Urtti, A; Kujari, H; Juslin, M

    1983-01-01

    Apparent biophase availability of pilocarpine was studied in the eyes of albino rabbits. Pilocarpine doses of 0.85 and 2.30 mg in aqueous solutions, 1.00 mg in oil and 0.85 mg in a solid insert, were applied ocularly. The insert was a water soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix, which released 80% of its pilocarpine content in 35 min in vitro. In the inferior fornix of the eye this insert gelled in about 5 min and dissolved in 1 h. Pupillary diameters were measured and converted to values for the response parameter (RP). Time delay and magnitude of peak response, apparent biophasic availability (area under the curve of RP vs time), and a constant for the apparent rate of elimination were calculated from RP values. The time delay for the peak response was 16.l3-24.0 min, and the constant for apparent rate of elimination was 0.69-0.81 h-1. Neither time delay nor this constant was affected by the dose or the dosage form. Magnitude of the peak response and apparent biophasic availability were influenced by the vehicle and the dose: insert (0.85 mg) greater than oily solution (1.00 mg) greater than aqueous solution (2.30 mg) greater than aqueous solution (0.85 mg). The insert and oily solution did not show vehicle-controlled drug absorption and can be regarded as prolonged pulse-entry medication. PMID:6654048

  19. Human-specific HERV-K insertion causes genomic variations in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Shin

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV sequences account for about 8% of the human genome. Through comparative genomics and literature mining, we identified a total of 29 human-specific HERV-K insertions. We characterized them focusing on their structure and flanking sequence. The results showed that four of the human-specific HERV-K insertions deleted human genomic sequences via non-classical insertion mechanisms. Interestingly, two of the human-specific HERV-K insertion loci contained two HERV-K internals and three LTR elements, a pattern which could be explained by LTR-LTR ectopic recombination or template switching. In addition, we conducted a polymorphic test and observed that twelve out of the 29 elements are polymorphic in the human population. In conclusion, human-specific HERV-K elements have inserted into human genome since the divergence of human and chimpanzee, causing human genomic changes. Thus, we believe that human-specific HERV-K activity has contributed to the genomic divergence between humans and chimpanzees, as well as within the human population.

  20. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  1. Evaluation of feasibility of tungsten/oxide dispersion strengthened steel bonding with vanadium insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffusion bonding (DB) technique to reduce thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between tungsten (W) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS-FS) was developed by applying a vanadium (V) alloy as an insert material. In order to suppress σ phase precipitation at the interface, DB of ODS-FS and V-4Cr-4Ti was carried out by introducing a Ti insert as a diffusion barrier between V-4Cr-4Ti and ODS-FS, and examined feasibility of W/V/Ti/ODS-FS joint for application to fusion reactor components by comparing the three-point bending strength and microstructure between the joints with and without a Ti diffusion barrier layer. It is shown that the fracture strength of the joint without a Ti insert was decreased by 25% after aging at 700°C for 100 h, but that with a Ti insert shows no change after the aging treatment up to 1000 h. The result indicates that the introduction of a Ti insert leads to the prevention of the formation of σ phase during aging and resultant control of the degradation of the bonding strength. (author)

  2. Gastronet survey on the use of one- or two-person technique for colonoscopy insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjellevold Øystein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usually, colonoscopy insertion is performed by the colonoscopist (one-person technique. Quite common in the early days of endoscopy, the assisting nurse is now only rarely doing the insertion (two-person technique. Using the Norwegian national endoscopy quality assurance (QA programme, Gastronet, we wanted to explore the extent of two-person technique practice and look into possible differences in performance and QA output measures. Methods 100 colonoscopists in 18 colonoscopy centres having reported their colonoscopies to Gastronet between January and December 2009 were asked if they practiced one- or two-person technique during insertion of the colonoscope. They were categorized accordingly for comparative analyses of QA indicators. Results 75 endoscopists responded to the survey (representing 9368 colonoscopies - 62 of them (83% applied one-person technique and 13 (17% two-person technique. Patients age and sex distributions and indications for colonoscopy were also similar in the two groups. Caecal intubation was 96% in the two-person group compared to 92% in the one-person group (p Conclusion Two-person technique for colonoscope insertion was practiced by a considerable minority of endoscopists (17%. QA indicators were either similar to or better than one-person technique. This suggests that there may be some beneficial elements to this technique worth exploring and try to import into the much preferred one-person insertion technique.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan-Chondroitin Sulphate Based Nasal Inserts for Zolmitriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirandeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioadhesive nasal dosage forms are an attractive method for overcoming rapid mucociliary clearance transport in the nose and for delivering the drug directly to brain. The present study was designed to formulate chondroitin sulphate (CS and chitosan (CH nasal inserts employing zolmitriptan, an antimigraine drug. The interpolymer complexes (IPC formed between –COO− and – groups of CS and group of CH were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning analysis (DSC, and zeta potential studies. The unloaded and loaded nasal inserts were evaluated for water uptake studies, and bioadhesive strength studies, scanning electron microscopic studies (SEM. The in vitro drug release and in situ permeation studies were carried out on loaded nasal inserts. The DSC and IR studies confirmed the formation of a complex between the two polymers. The results indicated that the formulation F1 (CH : CS; 30 : 70 was demonstrating the highest bioadhesive strength and zeta potential. The presence of porous structure in the nasal inserts was confirmed by the SEM analysis. Further, in vitro and in situ release studies demonstrated that formulations F9 and F11 (drug : polymer; 1 : 10 were releasing 90% and 98% zolmitriptan over a period of 8 h. It can be concluded that nasal inserts formulated from chitosan-chondroitin sulphate (CH-CS interpolymer complex (IPC can be used for delivery of antimigraine drug to brain.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan-Chondroitin Sulphate Based Nasal Inserts for Zolmitriptan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesive nasal dosage forms are an attractive method for overcoming rapid mucociliary clearance transport in the nose and for delivering the drug directly to brain. The present study was designed to formulate chondroitin sulphate (CS) and chitosan (CH) nasal inserts employing zolmitriptan, an antimigraine drug. The interpolymer complexes (IPC) formed between –COO− and –OSO3− groups of CS and –NH3+ group of CH were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning analysis (DSC), and zeta potential studies. The unloaded and loaded nasal inserts were evaluated for water uptake studies, and bioadhesive strength studies, scanning electron microscopic studies (SEM). The in vitro drug release and in situ permeation studies were carried out on loaded nasal inserts. The DSC and IR studies confirmed the formation of a complex between the two polymers. The results indicated that the formulation F1 (CH : CS; 30 : 70) was demonstrating the highest bioadhesive strength and zeta potential. The presence of porous structure in the nasal inserts was confirmed by the SEM analysis. Further, in vitro and in situ release studies demonstrated that formulations F9 and F11 (drug : polymer; 1 : 10) were releasing 90% and 98% zolmitriptan over a period of 8 h. It can be concluded that nasal inserts formulated from chitosan-chondroitin sulphate (CH-CS) interpolymer complex (IPC) can be used for delivery of antimigraine drug to brain. PMID:24175310

  5. Insertion of Vertically Aligned Nanowires into Living Cells by Inkjet Printing of Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donggyu; Lee, Daehee; Won, Yulim; Hong, Hyeonaug; Kim, Yongjae; Song, Hyunwoo; Pyun, Jae-Chul; Cho, Yong Soo; Ryu, Wonhyoung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    Effective insertion of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) into cells is critical for bioelectrical and biochemical devices, biological delivery systems, and photosynthetic bioenergy harvesting. However, accurate insertion of NWs into living cells using scalable processes has not yet been achieved. Here, NWs are inserted into living Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells (Chlamy cells) via inkjet printing of the Chlamy cells, representing a low-cost and large-scale method for inserting NWs into living cells. Jetting conditions and printable bioink composed of living Chlamy cells are optimized to achieve stable jetting and precise ink deposition of bioink for indentation of NWs into Chlamy cells. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is used to verify the viability of Chlamy cells after inkjet printing. Simple mechanical considerations of the cell membrane and droplet kinetics are developed to control the jetting force to allow penetration of the NWs into cells. The results suggest that inkjet printing is an effective, controllable tool for stable insertion of NWs into cells with economic and scale-related advantages. PMID:26800021

  6. A macaque's-eye view of human insertions and deletions: differences in mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M Kvikstad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Insertions and deletions (indels cause numerous genetic diseases and lead to pronounced evolutionary differences among genomes. The macaque sequences provide an opportunity to gain insights into the mechanisms generating these mutations on a genome-wide scale by establishing the polarity of indels occurring in the human lineage since its divergence from the chimpanzee. Here we apply novel regression techniques and multiscale analyses to demonstrate an extensive regional indel rate variation stemming from local fluctuations in divergence, GC content, male and female recombination rates, proximity to telomeres, and other genomic factors. We find that both replication and, surprisingly, recombination are significantly associated with the occurrence of small indels. Intriguingly, the relative inputs of replication versus recombination differ between insertions and deletions, thus the two types of mutations are likely guided in part by distinct mechanisms. Namely, insertions are more strongly associated with factors linked to recombination, while deletions are mostly associated with replication-related features. Indel as a term misleadingly groups the two types of mutations together by their effect on a sequence alignment. However, here we establish that the correct identification of a small gap as an insertion or a deletion (by use of an outgroup is crucial to determining its mechanism of origin. In addition to providing novel insights into insertion and deletion mutagenesis, these results will assist in gap penalty modeling and eventually lead to more reliable genomic alignments.

  7. Insertional transformation of hematopoietic cells by self-inactivating lentiviral and gammaretroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlich, Ute; Navarro, Susana; Zychlinski, Daniela; Maetzig, Tobias; Knoess, Sabine; Brugman, Martijn H; Schambach, Axel; Charrier, Sabine; Galy, Anne; Thrasher, Adrian J; Bueren, Juan; Baum, Christopher

    2009-11-01

    Gene transfer vectors may cause clonal imbalance and even malignant cell transformation by insertional upregulation of proto-oncogenes. Lentiviral vectors (LV) with their preferred integration in transcribed genes are considered less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors (GV) with their preference for integration next to transcriptional start sites and regulatory gene regions. Using a sensitive cell culture assay and a series of self-inactivating (SIN) vectors, we found that the lentiviral insertion pattern was approximately threefold less likely than the gammaretroviral to trigger transformation of primary hematopoietic cells. However, lentivirally induced mutants also showed robust replating, in line with the selection for common insertion sites (CIS) in the first intron of the Evi1 proto-oncogene. This potent proto-oncogene thus represents a CIS for both GV and LV, despite major differences in their integration mechanisms. Altering the vectors' enhancer-promoter elements had a greater effect on safety than the retroviral insertion pattern. Clinical grade LV expressing the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein under control of its own promoter had no transforming potential. Mechanistic studies support the conclusion that enhancer-mediated gene activation is the major cause for insertional transformation of hematopoietic cells, opening rational strategies for risk prevention.

  8. Presence of extensive Wolbachia symbiont insertions discovered in the genome of its host Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Brelsfoard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the cyclical vectors of Trypanosoma spp., which are unicellular parasites responsible for multiple diseases, including nagana in livestock and sleeping sickness in humans in Africa. Glossina species, including Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm, for which the Whole Genome Sequence (WGS is now available, have established symbiotic associations with three endosymbionts: Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius and Wolbachia pipientis (Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in both natural and laboratory populations of Glossina species, including the presence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT events in a laboratory colony of Gmm, has already been shown. We herein report on the draft genome sequence of the cytoplasmic Wolbachia endosymbiont (cytWol associated with Gmm. By in silico and molecular and cytogenetic analysis, we discovered and validated the presence of multiple insertions of Wolbachia (chrWol in the host Gmm genome. We identified at least two large insertions of chrWol, 527,507 and 484,123 bp in size, from Gmm WGS data. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of Wolbachia insertions in Gmm genome, and FISH revealed multiple insertions located on the two sex chromosomes (X and Y, as well as on the supernumerary B-chromosomes. We compare the chrWol insertions to the cytWol draft genome in an attempt to clarify the evolutionary history of the HGT events. We discuss our findings in light of the evolution of Wolbachia infections in the tsetse fly and their potential impacts on the control of tsetse populations and trypanosomiasis.

  9. Construction and characterization of recombinant flaviviruses bearing insertions between E and NS1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubelka Claire F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yellow fever virus, a member of the genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. The attenuated yellow fever 17D virus strain has been used for human vaccination for 70 years and has several characteristics that are desirable for the development of new, live attenuated vaccines. We described here a methodology to construct a viable, and immunogenic recombinant yellow fever 17D virus expressing a green fluorescent protein variant (EGFP. This approach took into account the presence of functional motifs and amino acid sequence conservation flanking the E and NS1 intergenic region to duplicate and fuse them to the exogenous gene and thereby allow the correct processing of the viral polyprotein precursor. Results YF 17D EGFP recombinant virus was grew in Vero cells and reached a peak titer of approximately 6.45 ± 0.4 log10 PFU/mL at 96 hours post-infection. Immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the expression of the EGFP, which was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and not secreted from infected cells. The association with the ER compartment did not interfere with YF assembly, since the recombinant virus was fully competent to replicate and exit the cell. This virus was genetically stable up to the tenth serial passage in Vero cells. The recombinant virus was capable to elicit a neutralizing antibody response to YF and antibodies to EGFP as evidenced by an ELISA test. The applicability of this cloning strategy to clone gene foreign sequences in other flavivirus genomes was demonstrated by the construction of a chimeric recombinant YF 17D/DEN4 virus. Conclusion This system is likely to be useful for a broader live attenuated YF 17D virus-based vaccine development for human diseases. Moreover, insertion of foreign genes into the flavivirus genome may also allow in vivo studies on flavivirus cell and tissue tropism as well as cellular processes related

  10. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  11. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  12. Comparison of Wear and Oxidation in Retrieved Conventional and Highly Cross-Linked UHMWPE Tibial Inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Barbara H; Currier, John H; Franklin, Katherine J; Mayor, Michael B; Reinitz, Steven D; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2015-12-01

    Two groups of retrieved tibial inserts from one manufacturer's knee system were analyzed to evaluate the effect of a highly cross-linked bearing surface on wear and in vivo oxidation. The two groups ((1) conventional gamma-inert sterilized and (2) highly cross-linked, coupled with the same rough (Ra=0.25) Ti-6Al-4V tray) were matched with statistically similar in vivo duration and patient variables. The retrieved inserts were analyzed for ketone oxidation and wear in the form of dimensional change. The difference in oxidation rate between highly cross-linked and conventional gamma-inert sterilized inserts did not reach statistical significance. Observations suggest that the majority of wear can be accounted for by the backside interface with the rough Ti-6Al-4V tray; however, wear measured by thickness-change rate was statistically indistinguishable between the two bearing materials.

  13. Depth of insertion of right internal jugular central venous catheter: Comparison of topographic and formula methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, M; Tejesh, CA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are inserted in many critically ill patients, but there is no gold standard in estimating their approximate depth of insertion. Many techniques have been described in literature. In this study, we compare the topographic method with the standard formula technique. Materials and Methods: 260 patients, in whom central venous catheterization was warranted, were randomly assigned to either topographic method or formula method (130 in each group). The position of the CVC tip in relation to carina was measured on a postprocedure chest X-ray. The primary endpoint was the need for catheter repositioning. Results: The majority of the CVCs tips positioned by the formula method were situated below the carina, and 68% of these catheters required repositioning after obtaining postprocedure chest X-ray (P formula approach in estimating the depth of insertion of right internal jugular CVCs.

  14. Ceramic versus cobalt-chrome femoral components; wear of polyethylene insert in total knee prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Ueno, Masaru; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Mikio; Kyomoto, Masayuki

    2009-04-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of femoral component materials and sterilization methods on wear properties of total knee prostheses by using a knee simulator test and retrieval analysis. The simulator test revealed that ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts had remarkably lower wear against the ceramic femoral component than against the Co-Cr femoral component. However, the retrieval study revealed no significant difference in the linear wear between the former and the latter. The alumina ceramic/UHMWPE insert combination showed a mild wear. However, whether cross-linking by gamma-ray sterilization reduces wear remained unconfirmed. In contrast, oxidative degradation and/or delamination was confirmed. Thus, we conclude that alumina ceramic/ethylene oxide gas-sterilized UHMWPE insert in a total knee prosthesis might exhibit a good wear resistance. PMID:18524533

  15. Polymerization shrinkage and contraction force of composite resin restorative inserted with "Megafiller".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Y; Nambu, T; Ishikawa, A; Katsuyama, S

    1993-12-01

    This study quantified the contraction force and polymerization shrinkage of composite resins with/without beta-Quartz Glass Ceramic Inserts (BQCI) as "Megafiller". The materials used for the determination included a chemically cured composite and five light-cured composites. The system for measuring contraction force consisted of a transparent teflon tube for preparing the specimen, a small load cell, a dynamic strain gauge and a pen-recorder. After the composite was packed into the teflon mold, a BQCI (Type R3) was inserted through the opening and the specimen was cured. Linear polymerization shrinkage of the composites was measured every 10 seconds from the start of mixing or irradiation to 90 minutes by the mercury bath method. Three pieces each of BQCI (Type T3) were inserted in each specimen. The results suggested that BQCI was markedly effective in reducing polymerization shrinkage, but was not always effective in reducing the contraction force during polymerization.

  16. [Cardiovascular responses during laryngeal mask airway insertion in normotensive, hypertensive and chronic renal failure patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M; Igarashi, M; Tsunoda, K; Edanaga, M; Suzuki, H; Tohdoh, Y; Namiki, A

    1999-08-01

    The hemodynamic response to the insertion of the laryngeal mask airway (LM) following induction with propofol 2 mg.kg-1 was assessed and compared in normotensive (Normal), hypertensive (HT) and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (n = 23 in each group). Before induction, in HT and CRF groups blood pressure and rate pressure products (RPP) were higher than in Normal group (P < 0.05). Although blood pressure and RPP were decreased in every patient by induction with propofol, no patients needed vasopressor drugs. The decreases of blood pressure and RPP were larger in HT and CRF groups than in Normal group (P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in heart rate and rate of successful LM insertion. We concluded that LM insertion with propofol 2 mg.kg-1 was an effective induction method preventing the adverse circulatory responses in normotensive, hypertensive and chronic renal failure patients. PMID:10481421

  17. Digital Image Watermarking With Random Selection of Watermark Insertion Having Adaptive Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kalra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have presented an algorithm of digital image watermarking for gray scale images which we implemented in frequency domain. Before inserting the watermark, we added the Hamming codes row wise as well column wise. Two encryption techniques were implemented on the ECC inserted watermark for its security. The pixel position for inserting the watermark was calculated using starting row and column number for that 8×8 block. Pixel embedding strength is calculated using criteria that low frequency is robust in general signal processing attacks, thus choosing less value to be embedded and vice-versa. Results show that the watermarking algorithm is robust against common signal processing attacks. The algorithm is tested against multiple attacks also.

  18. Fast and reversible insertion of carbon dioxide into zirconocene-alkoxide bonds. A mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Alice; Truedsson, Ida; Fleckhaus, André; Johnson, Magnus T; Norrby, Per Ola; Roodt, Andreas; Wendt, Ola F

    2014-06-21

    In two consecutive equilibria the compound (Cp*)2Zr(OMe)2 undergoes insertion of CO2 to form the mono- and bis-hemicarbonates. Both equilibria are exothermic but entropically disfavoured. Magnetisation transfer experiments gave kinetic data for the first equilibrium showing that the rate of insertion is overall second order with a rate constant of 3.20 ± 0.12 M(-1) s(-1), which is substantially higher than those reported for other early transition metal alkoxides, which are currently the best homogeneous catalysts for dimethyl carbonate formation from methanol and CO2. Activation parameters for the insertion reaction point to a highly ordered transition state and we interpret that as there being a substantial interaction between the CO2 and the metal during the C-O bond formation. This is supported by DFT calculations showing the lateral attack by CO2 to have the lowest energy transition state. PMID:24796283

  19. Wavelength influence on nitrogen insertion into titanium by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied in this work the influence of the wavelength (532 vs. 1064 nm) on the insertion of nitrogen in titanium targets by surface laser treatments in air. The laser pulses were of 5 ns and the irradiance was lower than 25 × 1012 W/m2. Results obtained using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm were compared with those previously reported for laser treatments at 1064 nm. Nuclear reaction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used for determining the composition and the structure of the surface layers, respectively. Results showed the lower efficiency of irradiation at 532 nm for nitrogen insertion, which is possible only above threshold conditions depending on both the laser irradiance and the number of cumulated impacts per point. This was explained as being due to a higher ablative effect in the visible range. The insertion of oxygen giving rise to the growth of titanium oxynitrides was also discussed.

  20. Peripherally inserted central catheters in infants and children - indications, techniques, complications and clinical recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, B; Classen, V; Walther-Larsen, S

    2013-01-01

    Venous access required both for blood sampling and for the delivery of medicines and nutrition is an integral element in the care of sick infants and children. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been shown to be a valuable alternative to traditional central venous devices...... of perioperative complications. Assisted visualisation, preferably with ultrasound, yields high rates of insertion success. With good catheter care, rates of mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are low and compare favourably with those of traditional central venous catheters. Even in the case...... of the current literature. Although the literature is heterogeneous with few randomised studies, PICCs emerge as a safe and valuable option for intermediate- to long-term central venous access in children both in and out of hospital. Insertion can often be performed in light or no sedation, with little risk...

  1. Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, N; Claesson Lingehall, H; Al Zaidi, N; Claesson, J; Jensen-Waern, M; Lehtipalo, S

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30 kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50 kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable.

  2. Device for facilitating the insertion and withdrawal of fuel assemblies from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is provided which is installed in a reactor prior to carrying out refueling operations and which accurately locates and isolates a selected core location to permit rapid withdrawal and insertion of fuel subassemblies at that location. A shielded plug designed to cooperate with the refueling apparatus is inserted into an access port in the reactor head. A structural shroud extends down from the plug and carries at its lower end a radially floating, hexagonal spreader tube with mechanisms to rotate it for angular alignment purposes and a linear drive for inserting it into the core. The upper end of the spreader tube serves as a guide for leading the fuel handling apparatus into alignment with the chosen subassembly

  3. Control and initial operation of the Fermilab BO low β insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Fermilab BO low β insertion involves the coordinated control of the 4 strings of quadrupoles of the insertion itself along with several magnetic correction elements (20 dipoles for the closed orbit, 2 quad circuits for betatron tunes, 1 skew quad circuit for coupling, and 2 sextupole circuits for chromaticity). When the beam is stored at high energy, these elements must correct the errors induced by the strong superconducting quadrupoles of the insertion as the optics are smoothly changed from the fixed target configuration to the low β state. The techniques and control programs for these manipulations and initial tests using a single coasting beam are described. 6 refs., 4 figs

  4. Wavelength influence on nitrogen insertion into titanium by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, F.; Lavisse, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Berger, P. [CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); SIS2M, UMR CEA-CNRS 3299, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jouvard, J.-M.; Andrzejewski, H.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S.; Marco de Lucas, M.C. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    We studied in this work the influence of the wavelength (532 vs. 1064 nm) on the insertion of nitrogen in titanium targets by surface laser treatments in air. The laser pulses were of 5 ns and the irradiance was lower than 25 × 10{sup 12} W/m{sup 2}. Results obtained using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm were compared with those previously reported for laser treatments at 1064 nm. Nuclear reaction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used for determining the composition and the structure of the surface layers, respectively. Results showed the lower efficiency of irradiation at 532 nm for nitrogen insertion, which is possible only above threshold conditions depending on both the laser irradiance and the number of cumulated impacts per point. This was explained as being due to a higher ablative effect in the visible range. The insertion of oxygen giving rise to the growth of titanium oxynitrides was also discussed.

  5. Karect: accurate correction of substitution, insertion and deletion errors for next-generation sequencing data

    KAUST Repository

    Allam, Amin

    2015-07-14

    Motivation: Next-generation sequencing generates large amounts of data affected by errors in the form of substitutions, insertions or deletions of bases. Error correction based on the high-coverage information, typically improves de novo assembly. Most existing tools can correct substitution errors only; some support insertions and deletions, but accuracy in many cases is low. Results: We present Karect, a novel error correction technique based on multiple alignment. Our approach supports substitution, insertion and deletion errors. It can handle non-uniform coverage as well as moderately covered areas of the sequenced genome. Experiments with data from Illumina, 454 FLX and Ion Torrent sequencing machines demonstrate that Karect is more accurate than previous methods, both in terms of correcting individual-bases errors (up to 10% increase in accuracy gain) and post de novo assembly quality (up to 10% increase in NGA50). We also introduce an improved framework for evaluating the quality of error correction.

  6. Report from MD380: Nonlinear errors in experimental insertions and off-momentum dynamic aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear errors in low-¯¤ insertions can have a significant impact upon the beam dynamics. In particular reductions in the LHC dynamic aperture of the order of 3 ¾nominal (105 turns) are expected due to the presence of such errors in IR1 and IR5 at ¯¤ = 0.4m. This represents a slight risk to 40 cm operation in 2016. More optimistically correction of nonlinear errors in experimental insertions has led to significant gains in luminosity production in other accelerators: a ¸ 4% increase in integrated luminosity per fill was achieved in RHIC from the correction of such errors. The nonlinear errors of the ATLAS and CMS insertions were therefore studied at top energy during machine development time in 2015. During one of these studies it was also possible to perform AC-dipole kicks at injection, which have indicated a reduction in dynamic aperture off-momentum.

  7. Filter and window assemblies for high power insertion device synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The powerful beams of x-ray radiation generated by insertion devices at high power synchrotron facilities deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the front end and optical components that they intercept. X-ray beams from undulator sources, in particular, are confined to very narrow solid angles and therefore impose very high absorbed heat fluxes. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the design of windows for the Advanced Photon Source undulators and wigglers, emphasizing alternative design concepts, material considerations, and cooling techniques necessary for handling the high heat load of the insertion devices. Various designs are thermally and structurally analyzed by numerically simulating full-power operating conditions. This analysis also has relevance to the design and development of other beam line components which are subjected to the high heat loads of insertion devices

  8. High Inter-Individual Diversity of Point Mutations, Insertions, and Deletions in Human Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Memory B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Reiche

    Full Text Available The diversity of virus-specific antibodies and of B cells among different individuals is unknown. Using single-cell cloning of antibody genes, we generated recombinant human monoclonal antibodies from influenza nucleoprotein-specific memory B cells in four adult humans with and without preceding influenza vaccination. We examined the diversity of the antibody repertoires and found that NP-specific B cells used numerous immunoglobulin genes. The heavy chains (HCs originated from 26 and the kappa light chains (LCs from 19 different germ line genes. Matching HC and LC chains gave rise to 43 genetically distinct antibodies that bound influenza NP. The median lengths of the CDR3 of the HC, kappa and lambda LC were 14, 9 and 11 amino acids, respectively. We identified changes at 13.6% of the amino acid positions in the V gene of the antibody heavy chain, at 8.4% in the kappa and at 10.6 % in the lambda V gene. We identified somatic insertions or deletions in 8.1% of the variable genes. We also found several small groups of clonal relatives that were highly diversified. Our findings demonstrate broadly diverse memory B cell repertoires for the influenza nucleoprotein. We found extensive variation within individuals with a high number of point mutations, insertions, and deletions, and extensive clonal diversification. Thus, structurally conserved proteins can elicit broadly diverse and highly mutated B-cell responses.

  9. COMPARISON OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE PROPOFOL VIRUS FENTANYL – PROPOFOL FOR CONDITIONS OF LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY INSERTION IN ELECTIVE SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA is a supraglottic airway device, requiring optimal conditions for insertion to minimize the hemodynamic perturbation associated with LMA insertion. The aim of our study is to compare Dexmedetomidine – Propofol (Dp and Fentanyl – Propofol (Fp for conditions of LMA insertion in short surgeries under general anesthesia. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy of Dexmedetomidine- Propofol and Fentanyl - Propofol for LMA insertion in terms of 1 Ease of insertion, 2 The Hemodynamic responses to LMA insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ours was a double blinded randomized comparative study having 30 patients in each group, Dp and Fp, where patients received 1µg/kg of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl respectively followed by Propofol 2.5mg/kg as per protocol. The ease of LMA insertion parameters (Jaw relaxation, Coughing or movement during insertion, number of attempts required and hemodynamic parameters (Mean heart rate, mean Systolic BP, mean Diastolic BP, Respiratory rate, SPO2 were monitored at following time intervals: Baseline, Pre-med, Pre LMA, Post LMA (at insertion, 1 min, 2 mins, 3 mins, 5 mins, 7 mins, 10 mins. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics using Chi square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann Whitney U test. The software used in the analysis was SPSS 17.0 version and Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and p< 0.05 is considered as level of significance. RESULTS: Jaw relaxation was statistically better, with less incidence of coughing in dexmedetomidine group. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable in Dexmedetomidine group whereas in fentanyl group a rise in HR and SBP was seen Post LMA insertion which stabilized quickly. Numbers of attempts of LMA insertion were comparable, with SPO2 and ETCO2 values within normal limits. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine gives better insertion conditions and better attenuation of pressor response to LMA insertion

  10. Effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion: a biomechanics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Patrick SH

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive pronation (or eversion at ankle joint in heel-toe running correlated with lower extremity overuse injuries. Orthotics and inserts are often prescribed to limit the pronation range to tackle the problem. Previous studies revealed that the effect is product-specific. This study investigated the effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion in standing, walking and running. Methods Thirteen pronators and 13 normal subjects participated in standing, walking and running trials in each of the following conditions: (1 barefoot, and shod condition with insert with (2 no, (3 low, (4 medium, and (5 high medial arch-heel support. Motions were captured and processed by an eight-camera motion capture system. Maximum ankle eversion was calculated by incorporating the raw coordinates of 15 anatomical positions to a self-compiled Matlab program with kinematics equations. Analysis of variance with repeated measures with post-hoc Tukey pairwise comparisons was performed on the data among the five walking conditions and the five running conditions separately. Results Results showed that the inserts with medial arch-heel support were effective in dynamics trials but not static trials. In walking, they successfully reduced the maximum eversion by 2.1 degrees in normal subjects and by 2.5–3.0 degrees in pronators. In running, the insert with low medial arch support significantly reduced maximum eversion angle by 3.6 and 3.1 degrees in normal subjects and pronators respectively. Conclusion Medial arch-heel support in inserts is effective in reducing ankle eversion in walking and running, but not in standing. In walking, there is a trend to bring the over-pronated feet of the pronators back to the normal eversion range. In running, it shows an effect to restore normal eversion range in 84% of the pronators.

  11. The effect of insert conformity and material on total knee replacement wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgaied, Abdellatif; Brockett, Claire L; Liu, Feng; Jennings, Louise M; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2014-01-01

    The mean average life is increasing; therefore, there is a need to increase the lifetime of the prostheses. To fulfil this requirement, new prosthetic designs and materials are being introduced. Two of the design parameters that may affect wear of total knee replacements, and hence the expected lifetime, are the insert conformity and material. Computational models have been used extensively for wear prediction and optimisation of artificial knee designs. The objective of the present study was to use a previously validated non-dimensional wear coefficient-based computational wear model to investigate the effect of insert conformity and material on the predicted wear in total knee replacements. Four different inserts (curved, lipped, partial flat and custom flat), with different conformity levels, were tested against the same femoral and under two different kinematic inputs (intermediate and high), with different levels of cross-shear. The insert bearing materials were either conventional or moderately cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear predictions were validated against the experimental data from Leeds knee simulation tests. The predicted wear rates for the curved insert (most conformed) were more than three times those for the flat insert (least conformed). In addition, the computationally predicted average volumetric wear rates for moderately cross-linked UHMWPE bearings were less than half of their corresponding conventional UHMWPE bearings. Moreover, the wear of the moderately cross-linked UHMWPE was shown to be less dependent on the degree of cross-shear, compared to conventional UHMWPE. These results along with supporting experimental studies provide insight into the design variables, which may reduce wear in knee replacements.

  12. Suction catheter guided insertion of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: Experience by untrained physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Perilli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of suction catheter (SC has been shown to improve success rate during ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA insertion in expert users. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare insertion of PLMA performed by untrained physicians using a SC or the digital technique (DT in anaesthetised non-paralysed patients. Methods: In this prospective randomised double-blind study, conducted in the operating setting, 254 patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists I-II, aged 18-65 years, undergoing minor surgery were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were body mass index >35 kg/m 2 , laryngeal or oesophageal varices, risk of aspiration or difficult face mask ventilation either referred or suspected (Langeron′s criteria ≥2 and modified Mallampati classification score >2. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the two groups in which PLMA was inserted using DT (DT-group or SC (SC-group. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test with Yates′ correction, Mann-Whitney U-test or Student′s t-test were carried-out as appropriate. Results: The final insertion success rate was greater in SC-groupcompared with DT-group 90.1% (n = 109 versus 74.4% (n = 99 respectively (P = 0.002. Mean airway leak pressure was higher in SC-group compared to DT-group (23.7 ± 3.9 vs. 21.4 ± 3.2 respectively; (P = 0.001. There were no differences in insertion time, post-operative airway morbidity and complications. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that SC-technique improves the success rate of PLMA insertion by untrained physicians.

  13. Observation of lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical insertion of lithium into zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium was electrochemically inserted into zinc from the mixed solution of ethylene carbonate and methyl ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiClO4, and the lithium isotope effect accompanying the insertion was investigated. The x value of LixZn after the electrolysis ranged from 0.013 to 0.139. The single-stage separation factor, S, ranged from 1.005 to 1.023 with the lighter isotope, 6Li, being preferentially fractionated into the zinc phase. The present results on lithium isotope effect qualitatively agreed with calculated results based on the molecular orbital theory. (author)

  14. Generation of highly N-type, defect passivated transition metal oxides using plasma fluorine insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, L. Robert; Seo, Hyungtak; Hervier, Antoine; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-04-12

    A new composition of matter is disclosed wherein oxygen vacancies in a semiconducting transition metal oxide such as titanium dioxide are filled with a halogen such as Fluorine, whereby the conductivity of the composition is greatly enhanced, while at the same time the chemical stability of the composition is greatly improved. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide having less than 3 % oxygen vacancies is subject to fluorine insertion such that oxygen vacancies are filled, limited amounts of fluorine replace additional oxygen atoms and fluorine interstitially inserts into the body of the TiO.sub.2 composition.

  15. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ocular inserts of ofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwar Y.S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inserts of ofloxacin were prepared with objectives of reducing the frequency of administration, obtaining controlled release and greater therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of eye infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers, etc. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA ofloxacin films were prepared by mercury substrate method. The ocular inserts were evaluated for drug-excipient interaction, physico-chemical characteristics, microbiological and in vitro and in vivo release studies.  There was no interaction between drug and excipients as revealed by UV absorption and IR spectra of the pure drug, medicated and placebo formulations. The weight and thickness of the inserts were in the range of 57.3-126.0 mg and 55.6-99.3 microns, respectively for different formulations; casting of rate-controlling membrane increased the weight and thickness of the inserts. Tensile strength and percent elongation at break varied with the nature of rate-controlling membrane and film thickness. Moisture vapour transmission through films followed zero-order kinetics and decreased with increase in film thickness. The drug content varied from 99.53-99.86%. The method of exposure to UV radiation was used for sterilization of ocular inserts and no microbial growth was observed in any formulation during sterility testing by direct inoculation method. The influence of rate-controlling membrane of different polymers of ethyl cellulose (EC and polymethacrylates (Eudragit RL100, Eudragit RS100 on release kinetics was studied. The drug release for prepared formulations with rate-controlling membrane of EC, Eudragit RS100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL was found to be 85.80, 93.85 and 98.71%, respectively and followed zero-order kinetics. Ocular insert F3 with rate-controlling membrane of Eudragit RS100, when inserted into the eye of rabbit showed controlled release up to 24 hours. There was a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo release data. The developed

  17. Performance-driven Routing Tree Construction with Buffer .Insertion and Wire Sizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Chang; WANG Gao-feng

    2008-01-01

    A new approach was propoeed to construct a performance-driven rectilinear Steiner tree with simul-taneous buffer insertion and wiresizing optimization (PDRST/BW) under a higher order resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) delay model. This approach is based on the concept of sharing-buffer insertion and dynamic programming approach combined with a bottom-up rectilinear Steiner tree construction. The performances include the timing delay and the quality of signal waveform. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is scalable and obtains better performance than SP-tree and graph-RTBW approaches for the test signal nets.

  18. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  19. The Improved Transient Stabilities of HTS Coils by Removing the Insulation and Inserting the Metal Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kajikawa, H.; Ikoma, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

    NMR/MRI magnets have a protection device to prevent the damages due to a quench. On the other hand, the protection device design of HTS coils or magnets are very difficult because it has a very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicate behaviors of quench. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the turn-to-turn insulation and inserting the metal tape instead of insulation. In this paper, the improved transient stabilities and self- protection abilities of HTS coils by removing the insulation and inserting metal tapes will be presented by minimum quench energy (MQE).

  20. Effect of reactivity insertion rate on peak power and temperatures in swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to study the reactor behavior under different accidental conditions and take proper measures for its safe operation. We have studied the effect of reactivity insertion, with and without scram conditions, on peak power and temperatures of fuel, cladding and coolant in typical swimming pool type research reactor. The reactivity ranging from 1 $ to 2 $ and insertion times from 0.25 to 1 second have been considered. The computer code PARET has been used and results are presented in this article. (author)

  1. Effect of repeated insertions of curved sequences in DNA plasmids: a light-scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Stefano; Chirico, Giuseppe; Baldini, Giancarlo; Kapp, U.; Badaracco, G.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of the insertion of different amounts (from 0 to 6) of the curved sequence AluI in pUC18m plasmid (2686 base pairs, bp) is studied by dynamic light scattering. This sequence is a highly repeated 113 base pairs long sequence from Artemia Franciscana shrimp. A 30% compaction of the plasmids containing 2 and 6 adjacent AluI sequences compared to pUC8 plasmid (2717 bp) is observed. Furthermore the behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient Dt versus the number of adjacent AluI insertion is not monotonic.

  2. pUR 250 allows rapid chemical sequencing of both DNA strands of its inserts.

    OpenAIRE

    Rüther, U

    1982-01-01

    A multipurpose plasmid, pUR 250, has been constructed. It contains seven unique cloning sites (Hind III, Xba I, Sal I, Acc I, Hinc II, BamH I and EcoR I) in a small region of its lac Z gene part. Insertion of foreign DNA into the plasmid can be easily detected. Plasmid DNA isolated from a clone by a rapid method can be used to determine the DNA sequence of the insert from both ends directly without isolation of labeled fragment.

  3. Automorphisms and Derivations of the Insertion-Elimination Algebra and Related Graded Lie Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrus, Matthew; Wiesner, Emilie

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses several structural aspects of the insertion-elimination algebra {mathfrak{g}}, a Lie algebra that can be realized in terms of tree-inserting and tree-eliminating operations on the set of rooted trees. In particular, we determine the finite-dimensional subalgebras of {mathfrak{g}}, the automorphism group of {mathfrak{g}}, the derivation Lie algebra of {mathfrak{g}}, and a generating set. Several results are stated in terms of Lie algebras admitting a triangular decomposition and can be used to reproduce results for the generalized Virasoro algebras.

  4. 20 TeV collider lattices with low-β insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lattice containing insertions designed for collisions of 20 TeV proton beams at crossing points having beta values of two meters or less is presented. The machine would use high-field double bore superconducting magnets, with opposite focusing action on the two beams passing through each quadrupole. Hence the focusing pattern in the insertions is antisymmetric about the crossings. The beams, separated by 16 cms in the arcs are made colinear by dipoles common to both beams and then focused to the low-β collision points by quadrupole triplets. A similar machine design for pp collisions is also included

  5. Intimal hyperplasia within biliary Wallstents: failure of recanalisation by insertion of a second endoprosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two patients with benign biliary strictures in whom we attempted recanalisation of metallic biliary endoprostheses, occluded by intimal hyperplasia, by the insertion of further endoprostheses within the occluded stents. Initial technical success was achieved in deploying the stents and restoring patency with elimination of mural filling defects. However, we found the intimal hyperplasia to be restrained for less than 48 h. From our initial results it appears that biliary metallic stent occlusion by intimal hyperplasia is not effectively treated by insertion of a second endoprosthesis. (orig.)

  6. Insertion stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-cholesteryl-based lipid anchors in liposome membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Daniel; Linders, Jürgen; Mayer, Christian; Schubert, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Liposomes consist of a hydrophilic core surrounded by a phospholipid (PL) bilayer. In human blood, the half-life of such artificial vesicles is limited. To prolong their stability in the circulation, liposomal bilayers can be modified by inserting poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules using either PL or sterols as membrane anchors. This establishes a hydrophilic steric barrier, reducing the adsorption of serum proteins, recognition and elimination by cells of the immune system. In addition, targeting ligands (such as antibodies) are frequently coupled to the distal end of the PEG chains to direct the vesicles (then called 'immuno-liposomes') to specific cell types, such as tumor cells. To our knowledge, experiments on the stability of ligand anchoring have so far only been conducted with PL-based PEGs and not with sterol-based PEGs after insertion via the sterol-based post-insertion technique (SPIT). Therefore, our study examines the insertion stability of PEG-cholesteryl ester (Chol-PEG) molecules with PEG chains of 1000, 1500 and 2000Da molecular mass which have been inserted into the membranes of liposomes using SPIT. For this study we used different acceptor media and multiple analytical techniques, including pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR), free-flow electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation. The obtained data consistently showed that a higher molar mass of PEG chains positively correlates with higher release from the liposome membranes. Furthermore, we could detect and quantify the migration of Chol-PEG molecules from radioactively double-labeled surface-modified liposomes to negatively charged acceptor liposomes via free-flow electrophoresis. Insertion of Chol-PEG molecules into the membrane of preformed liposomes using SPIT is an essential step for the functionalization of liposomes with the aim of specific targeting. For the first time, we present a kinetic analysis of this insertion process using PFG

  7. Directly UV-written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Kulstad, K.; Rathje, Jacob;

    1998-01-01

    The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved.......The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved....

  8. Fluoroscopically Guided Three-Tube Insertion for the Treatment of Postoperative Gastroesophageal Anastomotic Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Guowen; Xu, Qingyu; Chen, Shixi; Bai, Xiangjun; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Qin; Xu, Lin; Xu, Weidong [Cancer Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of three-tube insertion for the treatment of postoperative gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage (GEAL). From January 2007 to January 2011, 28 cases of postoperative GEAL after an esophagectomy with intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomotic procedures for esophageal and cardiac carcinoma were treated by the insertion of three tubes under fluoroscopic guidance. The three tubes consisted of a drainage tube through the leak, a nasogastric decompression tube, and a nasojejunum feeding tube. The study population consisted of 28 patients (18 males, 10 females) ranging in their ages from 36 to 72 years (mean: 59 years). We evaluated the feasibility of three-tube insertion to facilitate leakage site closure, and the patients' nutritional benefit by checking their serum albumin levels between pre- and post-enteral feeding via the feeding tube. The three tubes were successfully placed under fluoroscopic guidance in all twenty-eight patients (100%). The procedure times for the three tube insertion ranged from 30 to 70 minutes (mean time: 45 minutes). In 27 of 28 patients (96%), leakage site closure after three-tube insertion was achieved, while it was not attained in one patient who received stent implantation as a substitute. All patients showed good tolerance of the three-tube insertion in the nasal cavity. The mean time needed for leakage treatment was 21 {+-} 3.5 days. The serum albumin level change was significant, increasing from pre-enteral feeding (2.5 {+-} 0.40 g/dL) to post-enteral feeding (3.7 {+-} 0.51 g/dL) via the feeding tube (p < 0.001). The duration of follow-up ranged from 7 to 60 months (mean: 28 months). Based on the results of this study, the insertion of three tubes under fluoroscopic guidance is safe, and also provides effective relief from postesophagectomy GEAL. Moreover, our findings suggest that three-tube insertion may be used as the primary procedure to treat postoperative GEAL.

  9. Theoretical Description for the Focused Parametric Field After Inserting a Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆荣荣; 龚秀芬; 章东

    2001-01-01

    In the parabolic and quasi-linear approximations, a theoretical description for the acoustical parametric field from a focusing source after inserting a sample is derived by using the superposition method of Gaussian beams. This model takes into consideration the attenuation, diffraction and nonlinear effects. The namerical computations of the axial sound pressure amplitude curves for the difference frequency sounds after the insertion of a sample are presented. The results indicate that this new model can be extended to measure or image the nonlinear parameter in the focused field.

  10. [Process of training and insertion in the labor market: a vision of nursing graduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Study to analyze nursing graduates' perception about the contribution of the training process in its insertion in the labour market. Descriptive exploratory study, a qualitative approach. The data was collected in 2011 through semistructured interviews. Attended by 15 professionals, graduated from the Nursing Course at a South Brazilian university in 2009-2010, inserted in the labour market. Data was analysed according to Minayo's proposals. From this analysis emerged the category Training route, including the subcategory: following the travel itineray. The results demonstrate the need for curricular integration, better use of clinical practices experiences, research valorization, and the importance of training based on dialogue between students and professors. PMID:24930277

  11. Malposition of a Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in the Graft Hepatic Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Zeynep; Araz, Coşkun; Taşkın, Duygu; Moray, Gökhan; Torgay, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters are used for delivering medications and parenteral nutrition, measuring hemodynamic variations, and providing long-term intravenous access. In our clinic, during liver transection using a living-liver donor, peripherally inserted central venous catheters are generally preferred because they involve a less invasive technique with a lower risk of complications. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old male liver donor into whom we peripherally inserted a central venous catheter from his left basilic vein. After transecting the hepatic vein, the surgeon found foreign material inside the venous lumen, which turned out to be the distal segment of the catheter.

  12. Inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of insertion sequence (IS136) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Rawat; Sanjeev Kumar; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2009-06-01

    Agrobacterium strains harbour insertion sequences, which are known to transpose into genomes as well as into Ti plasmids. In this study we report the inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of the A. tumefaciens insertion sequence IS136. The transposition was discovered following transformation of plant tissues, although the fidelity of the binary vector was confirmed following transformation into Agrobacterium. Such transpositions are rare but can occur and it is thus important to check the fidelity of the binary vector at different times of Agrobacterium growth in order to avoid failure in achieving transgene expression.

  13. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  14. Development of Magnesium-Insertion Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huatang YUAN; Lifang JIAO; Jiansheng CAO; Xiusheng LIU; Ming ZHAO; Yongmei WANG

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium-based rechargeable batteries might be an interesting future alternative to lithium-based batteries. It is so far well known that Mg2+ ion insertion into ion-transfer hosts proceeds slowly compared with Li+, so it is necessary to realize fast Mg2+ transport in the host in addition to other requirements as practical cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Positive electrode materials based on inorganic transition-metal oxides, sulfides, and borides are the only ones used up to now to insert magnesium ions. In this paper, the available results of research on materials suitable as possible, for secondary magnesium batteries, are reviewed.

  15. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250-555 p...

  16. Nasal inserts containing ondansetron hydrochloride based on Chitosan-gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex: In vitro-in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonje, Ashish G; Mahajan, Hitendra S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was the production of ondansetron hydrochloride loaded lyophilized insert for nasal delivery. The nasal insert was prepared by the lyophilisation technique using Chitosan-gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex as the polymer matrix. The ondansetron loaded inserts were evaluated with respect to water uptake, bioadhesion, drug release kinetic study, ex vivo permeation study, and in vivo study. Lyophilised nasal inserts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the porous sponge like structure of inserts whereas release kinetic model revealed that drug release followed non-fickian case II diffusion. The nasal delivery showed improved bioavailability as compared to oral delivery. In conclusion, the ondansetron containing nasal inserts based on Chitosan-gellan gum complex with potential muco-adhesive potential is suitable for nasal delivery. PMID:27127060

  17. Replicon rescue: a novel strategy to clone the genomic DNA flanking insertions of integrating shuttle vector DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, T L; Wilczynska, Z.; Barth, C.; Fraser, D. J.; Pontes, L; Fisher, P R

    1996-01-01

    A novel cloning strategy, replicon rescue, was developed for cloning genes disrupted by plasmid insertions. After ligation to a tetracycline resistance cassette, fragments containing a bacterial origin of replication from the insertion are recovered in Escherichia coli because they replicate autonomously. Restriction enzymes for cloning are so chosen that the only legitimate two fragment ligation yielding TetR clones involves a fragment spanning the boundary of the insertion. Replicon rescue ...

  18. Targeted, homology-driven gene insertion in stem cells by ZFN-loaded 'all-in-one' lentiviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yujia; Laustsen, Anders; Zhou, Yan;

    2016-01-01

    -driven mechanism into safe loci. This insertion mechanism is driven by time-restricted exposure of treated cells to ZFNs. We show targeted gene integration in human stem cells, including CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Notably, targeted insertions are identified in 89......% of transduced iPSCs. Our findings demonstrate the applicability of nuclease-loaded 'all-in-one' IDLVs for site-directed gene insertion in stem cell based gene therapies....

  19. Early detection and intervention in congenital deaf children inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador / BA

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Lavínia Santos de; Cavalheiro, Laura Giotto

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The hearing loss interferes with the child's linguistic development, impairs its insertion in the society and produces cognitive and emotional consequences in case he or she is not inserted in an early and suitable educational and therapeutic program. Objective: To characterized the early detection process and intervention in children with hearing loss inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador - BA. Method: We evaluated the records and carried out interview with mother...

  20. Insert dissociation after fixed bearing PS constrained Genesis II total knee arthroplasty. A case series of nine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuijl, Timothy; Nijenhuis, Thijs A; Van Hellemondt, Gijs G; Goosen, Jon H M

    2015-12-01

    Dissociation of the polyethylene insert after fixed bearing posterior stabilized Genesis II total knee arthroplasty has been rarely described. We present a case series of nine patients with a dissociation of the insert within a period of two years after surgery. Revision surgery was performed in all patients. In this report we discuss clinical presentation, patient characteristics and possible etiologies for tibial insert dissociation seen in the presented cases. In conclusion, tibial insert dissociation does not lead to a uniform clinical presentation. Therefore, in this point of view regular physical examination and imaging after TKA regardless the presence of symptoms seems to be indicated.