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Sample records for 7-valent conjugate vaccine

  1. Invasive pneumococcal infection despite 7-valent conjugated vaccine

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    Sebastien Joye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death.

  2. A Review of the Impact of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine (7-valent) on Pneumococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Tin Htar, Myint; Madhava, Harish; Balmer, Paul; Christopoulou, Dina; Menegas, Damianos; Bonnet, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Young children, the elderly and those who are immunocompromised or who suffer from chronic diseases have the highest risk of developing pneumococcal meningitis. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 in the US and in 2001 in Europe. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies assessing the impact of routine childhood PCV7 vaccination on pneumococcal di...

  3. Immunogenicity and Tolerance of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Nonresponders to the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Zielen, S; Bühring, I.; Strnad, N.; Reichenbach, J; Hofmann, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protoc...

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in Alberta pre- and postintroduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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    Jennie Johnstone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology and outcomes of patients of all ages with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis between 2000 and 2004; two years pre- and postintroduction of an S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program in Alberta in children younger than two years of age. The high mortality rate associated with S pneumoniae meningitis, despite appropriate therapy, suggests that prevention of S pneumoniae meningitis is critical. Despite implementation of a PCV-7 program in Alberta, rates of S pneumoniae meningitis in children younger than two years of age is still high. Thus, continued research into safe and efficacious vaccines covering a broader range of S pneumoniae serotypes is necessary.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal vaccination programme with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Annika; Hjelmgren, Jonas; Ortqvist, Ake;

    2008-01-01

    and cost-effectiveness of vaccination with the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine compared with no vaccination, in all infants in Sweden, taking herd immunity into account. A Markov model was used and a hypothetical birth cohort was simulated for a lifelong perspective. The results show...... of pneumococcal septicaemia among adults. The incremental cost per QALY and LY gained was estimated to Euro 29,200 and Euro 51,400, respectively. When herd immunity was accounted for, the cost per QALYand LY gained was estimated to Euro 5500 and Euro 6600, respectively. Thus, the health benefits of a national...

  6. Huge impact of assumptions on indirect effects on the cost-effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with 7-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar (R))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2010-01-01

    Several recently published European cost-effectiveness studies on the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7: Prevnar (R)) have included net-indirect vaccine benefits for non-vaccine protected groups into their studies, which might be too optimistic an approach given recent data. Net-indirec

  7. Compared effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with the 13-valent vaccine in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillat, J

    2013-06-01

    13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.

  8. Immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and impact on carriage in Venezuelan children at risk of invasive pneumococcal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Nogal, B. del; Fuentes, M.; Cortez, R.; Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and its impact on pneumococcal carriage in Venezuelan children at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: 82 children (age 2-59 months) with sickle cell anemia (n=22), chro

  9. Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Children After Introduction of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Tsigrelis, Constantine; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Huskins, W. Charles; Lahr, Brian D.; Nyre, Lisa M.; Virk, Abinash; Baddour, Larry M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a well-characterized population in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with a combination of urban and rural residents likely to have a relatively low risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).

  10. Serologic response to primary vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is better than with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Chin-Ting; Su, Yi-Ching; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the serologic responses at week 48 to primary vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) vs. 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); and to identify factors associated with serologic response in HIV-infected adult patients with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  11. Indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage in newborns in rural Gambia: a randomised controlled trial.

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    Uzochukwu Egere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gambian infants frequently acquire Streptococcus pneumoniae soon after birth. We investigated the indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 on pneumococcal acquisition in newborn Gambian babies. METHODS: Twenty-one villages were randomised to receive PCV-7 to all subjects (11 vaccinated villages or to infants aged 2-30 months (10 control villages. Other control villagers received Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine. From 328 babies born during the trial, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected after birth, then weekly until 8 weeks of age when they received their first dose of PCV-7. Pneumococcal carriage and acquisition rates were compared between the study arms and with a baseline study. RESULTS: 57.4% of 2245 swabs were positive for S. pneumoniae. Overall carriage was similar in both arms. In vaccinated villages fewer infants carried pneumococci of vaccine serotypes (VT (16.9% [31/184] vs. 37.5% [54/144], p<0.001 and more carried pneumococci of non-vaccine serotypes (NVT (80.9% [149/184] vs. 75.7% [109/144], p = 0.246. Infants from vaccinated villages had a significantly lower acquisition rate of VT (HR 0.39 [0.26-0.58], p<0.001 and increased acquisition of NVT (HR 1.16 [0.87-1.56], p = 0.312. VT carriage (51.6% vs. 37.5%, p = 031 in control and 46.1% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 in vaccinated villages and acquisition rates (HR 0.68 [0.50-0.92], p = 0.013 in control villages and HR 0.31 [0.19-0.50], p<.001 in vaccinated villages were significantly lower in both study arms than in the baseline study. NVT carriage (63.2% vs. 75.7%, p = 0.037 in control and 67.2% vs. 75.3%, p = 0.005 in vaccinated villages and acquisition rates (HR 1.48 [1.06-2.06], p = 0.022 and (HR 1.52 [1.11-2.10], p = 0.010 respectively were significantly higher. CONCLUSION: PCV-7 significantly reduced carriage of VT pneumococci in unvaccinated infants. This indirect effect likely originated from both the child and adult vaccinated populations. Increased

  12. Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France

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    Cohen Robert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 on pneumococcal (Sp and staphylococcal (Sa nasopharyngeal (NP carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months. After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8. Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05], H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09] and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]. By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]. Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp.

  13. An open-label randomized clinical trial of prophylactic paracetamol coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and hexavalent diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Markus A.; Jürgens, Christine; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate; Gruber, William C.; Baker, Sherryl; Zielen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue with vaccine tolerability, we performed this open-label study on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of paracetamol (acetaminophen, Benuron(R)) in children administered routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) coadministered with hexavalent vaccine (diph...

  14. Effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type invasive disease among children in Uruguay: an evaluation using existing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke

    2013-07-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among childrenUruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.

  15. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

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    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  16. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine

  17. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L. E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.ch; Lee, C.-J.; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  18. Impact of IgM Antibodies on Cross-Protection against Pneumococcal Serogroups 6 and 19 after Immunization with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Kyung; Park, In Ho; Burton, Robert L; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Although it is well known that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide cross-protection against some vaccine-related serotypes, these mechanisms are still unclear. This study was performed to investigate the role of cross-protective IgM antibodies against vaccine-related serotypes 6A, 6C, and 19A induced in children aged 12-23 months after immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). We obtained serum samples from 18 Korean children aged 12-23 months after a PCV7 booster immunization. The serum IgG and IgM concentrations of serotypes 6B and 19F were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum. The opsonic indices (OIs) against vaccine serotypes 6B and 19F and vaccine-related serotypes 6A, 6C, and 19A were determined by an opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) in IgM-depleted and control serum. Both IgG and IgM antibodies in ELISA and opsonic indices in OPA against serotypes 6B and 19F were demonstrated in the immune serum. IgM depletion decreased the OIs against vaccine serotypes 6B (geometric means of OIs (GMIs) of 3,009 vs. 1,396, 38% reduction) and 19F (1,117 vs. 750, 36% reduction). In addition, IgM depletion markedly decreased the OIs against vaccine-related serotypes 6A (GMIs of 961 vs. 329, 70% reduction), 6C (432 vs. 185, 72% reduction), and 19A (301 vs. 166, 58% reduction). The booster immunization PCV7 induced protective antibodies in the form of both IgG and IgM isotypes. IgM antibodies contributed to eliciting cross-protection against vaccine-related serotypes as well as against vaccine serotypes. PMID:27247505

  19. Effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage with Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Elske J M; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Rodenburg, Gerwin D; Hak, Eelko; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2011-01-01

    Seven-valent CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7(CRM197)) reduces both vaccine serotype nasopharyngeal colonization and vaccine serotype acute otitis media by 50-60%. However, overall pneumococcal carriage and impact on otitis media are partly offset by concomitant increase of non

  20. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

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    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  1. Impact of 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine to Global Pneumococcal Disease%7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗对全球肺炎球菌疾病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴迎新

    2014-01-01

    肺炎球菌疾病是全球的严重公共健康问题之一,据世界卫生组织2008年估算,全球约有47.6万例<5岁儿童死于肺炎球菌疾病.目前临床治疗过程中,抗生素治疗是首选.但随着抗生素的广泛使用,肺炎球菌耐药日趋严峻,因此,采用疫苗预防的必要性日益凸显.2000年全球首个可用于<2岁儿童的7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(7-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,PPCV7)在美国获批使用.现就PPCV7应用10多年来对全球肺炎球菌疾病的影响进行综述.结果表明,及早主动接种PPCV7进行预防,可有效降低侵袭性肺炎球菌疾病、社区获得性肺炎和中耳炎等的发病率和死亡率.同时,PPCV7可覆盖大部分耐药肺炎球菌的感染,其保护作用在婴儿期基础免疫后至少可持续2~3年,甚至更长.在流行性感冒(流感)大流行时期,PPCV7显著降低流感相关肺炎的住院率,且PPCV7在免疫缺陷等高危人群中效果显著.另外,当PPCV7接种率达到一定水平,其保护效果表现出更广泛的群体免疫效应,使全人群获益.

  2. Ecomomic Evaluation of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine(PCV7)%儿童七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的成本效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 刘国恩; 李冬美; 程迪尔; 董鹏

    2013-01-01

      目的:基于支付方角度,就七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(PCV7)纳入深圳市城市免疫规划(City Immunization Program, CIP)与否两种情况,对2岁以下儿童注射疫苗在全人群获得的免疫效果和成本效果进行实证研究。方法:疾病负担数据取自深圳市三甲医院2010年肺炎链球菌性疾病患者的电子病历;流行病学病学数据来自台湾健保局肺炎链球菌性疾病法定上报系统;疫苗效果数据来自国内外公开发表的临床试验文献;最后根据接种方案及结果构建的决策树模型和深圳市人口学数据模拟运算,评估实施接种政策后的免疫效果和成本效果。结果:当PCV7未纳入深圳CIP作为二类疫苗使用时,由于较低的接种率和较高的接种价格,结果不具备成本效果优势;当PCV7纳入深圳CIP作为一类疫苗使用时,预测CIP的3+1接种策略每年共可预防36594人患肺炎链球菌性脑膜炎、肺炎链球菌性菌血症、全因肺炎和全因中耳炎,并可避免162人死亡,共获得2223个生命年和2004个质量调整生命年,平均每获得一个质量调整生命年的成本为11.8万元。结论: PCV7纳入深圳CIP后,能大幅降低儿童及成人肺炎球菌相关疾病及死亡。根据WHO对药物经济学评价的推荐意见,其介于我国1倍至3倍的人均GDP 间,认为具有成本效果优势。%Objective: To evaluate the potential clinical and economic benefits of introducing a public financed City Immunization Program (CIP) to pay for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Methods: Disease burden data was gained from the patients’electronic record of streptococcus pneumoniae disease in tertiary hospital in 2010. Epidemic disease data was obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance legal reportiog systerm of streptococcus pneumociae was taken from the preliminary results summarized at home and abroad. The Vaccine efficacy for PCV7

  3. An Analysis on Coverage Rate of 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination among Children in Ningbo%儿童七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗接种情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周绍英; 许国章; 方挺; 马瑞

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宁波市儿童自使用七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(PCV7)以来的接种情况。方法通过“宁波市计划免疫管理信息系统”查找2008-2011年出生的所有儿童,从中筛选出接种过PCV7的儿童,对接种情况进行统计分析。结果376345名儿童中5935人接种过PCV7,接种率为1.58%。PCV7接种存在地区差异,城镇儿童接种率2.67%及全程接种率2.11%均高于农村儿童0.62%和0.52%(P<0.01)。男童接种率1.74%及全程接种率1.40%均高于女童1.41%和1.13%(P<0.01)。常住儿童接种率2.62%及全程接种率2.19%均高于流动儿童0.92%和0.68%(P<0.01)。不同出生年份儿童的PCV7接种率及全程接种率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。不同出生年份儿童首针PCV7接种时间和接种方式明显不同,出生年份越晚,首针接种年龄越小,接种针次越多。结论宁波市儿童PCV7接种率较低,且全程接种率不高,应加强疫苗接种的宣传力度,进一步推广疫苗的使用。%Objective To know the coverage rate of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV7)among children in Ningbo.Methods Children born from 2008 to 201 1 were collected through information management system of expanded program on immunization (EPI)in Ningbo.Those who had been inoculated against PCV7 were selected and their coverage rate was analyzed.Results A total of 5 935 among 376 345 children had been inoculated against PCV7 and the coverage rate was 1.58%.The rates of first-dose vaccination(2.67%)and whole course vaccination (2.1 1%)of urban children were significantly higher than those in rural area (0.62% and 0.52%,P<0.05 ).The rates of males (1.74% and 1.40%)were significantly higher than those of females (1.41%and 1.1 3%,P<0.01 ),the rates of locals (2.62%and 2.1 9%)were significantly higher than those of migrants (0.92% and 0.68%,P <0.01 ).There were statistical differences among the rates of

  4. Avaliação da resposta humoral à vacina pneumocócica 7-valente em crianças com Aids Evaluación de la vacuna neumocócica 7-valente en la respuesta humoral de niños con SIDA Evaluation of humoral response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Camargo Costa

    2008-10-01

    Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en 2002-2003. La dosis de anticuerpos IgG contra los polisacáridos de la cápsula neumocócica fue realizada por medio de ensayo inmuno enzimático (ELISA. Los anticuerpos fueron dosificados inmediatamente antes y un mes después de la aplicación de la segunda dosis de la vacuna. Se utilizaron dos criterios para evaluar la respuesta a la vacuna: títulos de anticuerpos ? 1,3 ?g/mL en la serología post-inmunización y aumento ?4 veces en los títulos de la serología post-inmunización con relación a la pre-inmunización. RESULTADOS: Para el primer criterio (?1,3 ?g/mL, 26 (65% niños obtuvieron respuesta serológica con la vacuna, 12 (30% de ellas presentaron títulos de IgG post-inmunización en niveles de por lo menos 1,3 ?g/mL para todos los serotipos. Para el segundo criterio (incremento >4 veces en los títulos para cuatro serotipos o mas, se obtuvo respuesta serológica en 15 (37,5% niños. CONCLUSIONES: La respuesta frente a la vacuna fue considerada satisfactoria, con aumento estadísticamente significativo de los títulos geométricos promedios post-vacunales con relación a los pre-vacunales para todos los serotipos estudiados.OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of death in HIV-infected children. The objective of the study was to assess the quantitative antibody response to the seven pneumococcal serotypes of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a group of HIV-infected children. METHODS: Study comprising 40 HIV-infected children aged between 2 and 9 years followed up in a specialized outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA was used to measure IgG antibody titers against pneumococcus capsule. Antibodies were measured immediately before and 1 month after the second dose of the vaccine. Two response criteria were used: IgG titers >1.3 µg/mL in the post-immunization serology and an increase of at least 4-fold in post- compared to pre

  5. Age-Stratified Prevalences of Pneumococcal-Serotype-Specific Immunoglobulin G in England and Their Relationship to the Serotype-Specific Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Prior to the Introduction of the Pneumococcal 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, Paul; Borrow, Ray; Findlow, Jamie; Warrington, Rosalind; Frankland, Sarah; Waight, Pauline; George, Robert; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Recent changes to the childhood immunization schedule in the United Kingdom have resulted in the inclusion of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. However, the seroprevalence of pneumococcal antibodies in the population was unknown. To address this, we measured pneumococcal, age-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations specific for nine serotypes by an assay run on the Bioplex platform, using 2,664 serum samples collected in England from 2000 to 2004. The lowest concentrations o...

  6. Safety and Immunogenicity of a 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PrevenarTM) Booster Dose in Healthy Chinese Toddlers%7价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(沛儿TM)用于健康中国儿童加强免疫的安全性和免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣成; Mariano Young; 李凤祥; 李艳萍; 郭素英; 农艺; 叶强; 方孔雄; 韦少超; Jay Graepel

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价已接种3剂7价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(7-Valent Peneumococcal conjugate Vaccine,PCV7)的健康中国儿童,使用PCV7进行加强免疫的安全性和免疫原性.方法 488名中国婴儿在3、4、5月龄接种3剂PCV7后,于12~15月龄时用PCV7加强免疫,接种3剂PCV7的婴儿分为与白喉-破伤风-无细胞百日咳联合疫苗分开接种(第1组)或同时接种(第2组)两组.加强免疫后,对每名受试者进行30d的随访,以观察疫苗的安全性.加强免疫前及加强免疫后30d时,从部分受试者抽取血样,以测定加强免疫的免疫原性.结果 PCV7加强免疫后,第1组和第2组分别有89%和91%的受试者体温正常.其局部反应通常为轻度反应.两组受试者每种血清型接种后/接种前抗体几何平均浓度增加的差异均具有非常显著的统计学意义(P<0.0001).结论 PCV7加强免疫对中国健康儿童具有良好的安全性,并能诱发加强免疫应答.

  7. Safety Surveillance for 7-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in 5 Cities of Guangdong Province%7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在广东省5个市使用的安全性监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 郑慧贞; 赵占杰; 邵晓萍; 梁剑

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(7-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,PCV7)上市后大规模人群应用的被动监测结果,评价PCV7的安全性.方法 通过疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Event Following Immunization,AEFI)信息管理系统,收集广东省珠江三角洲(珠三角)地区广州、深圳、东莞、中山、佛山5个市2009~2011年接种PCV7报告的AEFI个案,采用描述性流行病学方法分析相关信息.结果 5个市共接种PCV724.86万剂,报告AEFI 196例,报告发生率78.85/10万剂.报告一般反应102例,报告发生率41.04/10万剂;其中发热84例,报告发生率33.79/10万剂;局部红肿10例,报告发生率4.02/10万剂;异常反应73例,报告发生率29.37/10万剂;其中过敏性皮疹70例,报告发生率28.16/10万剂;热性惊厥2例,报告发生率0.80/10万剂;过敏性紫癜1例,报告发生率0.40/10万剂.97.96%的个案发生在接种后≤3d.结论 现有的PCV7被动监测数据未发现不同于其他疫苗的不良反应.

  8. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease 3 Years after Introduction of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, Mirjam J.; Wagenvoort, Gertjan H.J.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Elberse, Karin; Vlaminckx, Bart J.; Hester E. de Melker; van der Ende, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Three years after a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was replaced by a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands, we observed a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 5, and 7F. Our data do not support or exclude cross-protection against serotype 19A.

  9. Efficacy and effectiveness of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunju; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2014-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been shown to be highly efficacious against invasive pneumococcal diseases and effective against pneumonia and in reducing otitis media. The introduction of PCV7 has resulted in major changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases. However, pneumococcal vaccines induce serotype-specific immunity, and a relative increase in non-vaccine serotypes has been reported following the widespread use of PCV7, leading to a need for ext...

  10. Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 2 Years after Its Introduction, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; de Greeff, Sabine C.; Jansen, Angelique G. C. S.; de Melker, Hester E.; Schouls, Leo M.; Hak, Eelko; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was implemented in a 3+1-dose schedule in the national immunization program for infants born after April 1, 2006. To assess the vaccine's effectiveness, we compared disease incidence before and after vaccine implementation (June

  11. Reduced-dose schedules with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: impact on nasopharyngeal carriage and herd immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The success of the 4-dose schedule with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is based on direct protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal disease in vaccinees but also on the observed large herd effect in unvaccinated age groups. However, the nasopharyngeal vacant niche is filled by

  12. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Otitis Media: An Appraisal of the Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Bernard Fritzell

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POE...

  13. [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletz, M W; Maus, U; Hohlfeld, J M; Lode, H; Welte, T

    2008-02-01

    Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers and the elderly. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides from 23 pneumococcal serotypes and induces only a limited B-cell response because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was launched in the U.S. The conjugation of capsular polysaccharides with a highly immunogenic diphtheria toxoid protein induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. Since children are the main reservoir of pneumococci, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine seems to eradicate the respective pneumococcal serotypes within the population, as demonstrated by recent US data. Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates. However, recent data suggest a replacement of vaccine-serotypes by non-vaccine serotypes, which conquer the ecological niche created by the vaccine. In order to encounter this problem a 13-valent conjugated vaccine is currently under development.

  14. Risk factors for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in persons with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Søgaard, Ole S; Harboe, Zitta B;

    HIV-infected individuals have excess rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. We investigated risk factors for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization at baseline and after 9 months in 96 HIV patients immunized twice with 7- valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ±1mg CPG 7909. In total, 22 patien...

  15. Superior Immune Response to Protein-Conjugate versus Free Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dransfield, Mark T.; Nahm, Moon H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Harnden, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Fernando J Martinez; Scanlon, Paul D.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Washko, George R.; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Bailey, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Debate exists about the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of antibodies produced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) induces a more robust immune response than PPSV23 in healthy elderly adults.

  16. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination does not induce a persisting mucosal IgA response in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Ramdin, R.; Luijendijk, I.H.; Rijkers, G.T.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In a prospective controlled study in young children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media, we analyzed the salivary IgA and IgG antibody titers upon vaccination with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) given once or twice, followed by a 23-valent polysaccharide booster vacc

  17. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal colonization in response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Sluijter, M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Rijkers, G.T.; Mitchell, T.J.; Clarke, S.C.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Schilder, A.G.M.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in The Netherlands among 383 children, aged 1 to 7 years, with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. No effect of vaccination on the pneumococcal colonization rate was found. However, a shift in serotyp

  18. Recommendation for use of the newly introduced pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Hwa Choi; Kyung Hyo Kim; Yae Jean Kim; Jong Hyun Kim; Su Eun Park; Hoan Jong Lee; Byung Wook Eun; Dae Sun Jo; Kyong Min Choi; Young Jin Hong

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of invasive infections including bacteremia and meningitis, as well as mucosal infections such as otitis media and pneumonia among children and adults. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use among infants and young children in many countries including Korea. The routine use of PCV7 has resulted in a decreased incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by the vaccine serotypes among the vaccinees and substa...

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumococcal Colonization in Response to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children with Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Sluijter, M.; Wannet, W. J. W.; Rijkers, G.T.; Mitchell, T J; Clarke, S. C.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Schilder, A. G.; Sanders, E. A. M.; de Groot, R.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2005-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in The Netherlands among 383 children, aged 1 to 7 years, with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. No effect of vaccination on the pneumococcal colonization rate was found. However, a shift in serotype distribution was clearly observed (R. Veenhoven et al., Lancet 361:2189-2195, 2003). We investigated the molecular epidemiology of 921 pneumococcal isolates retrieved from both the pneumococcal v...

  20. Social Mixing with Other Children during Infancy Enhances Antibody Response to a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Early Childhood▿

    OpenAIRE

    Salt, Penny; Banner, Carly; Oh, Sarah; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lewis, Susan; Pan, DingXin; Griffiths, David; Ferry, Berne; Pollard, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Children who have siblings and/or who attend day care have higher rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci than lone children do. Pneumococcal colonization is usually asymptomatic but is a prerequisite for invasive disease. We studied the effect of social mixing with other children on immunity to a pneumococcal vaccine. One hundred sixty children aged 1 year were immunized with a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. A blood sample was obtained before and 9 to 11 days after th...

  1. Efficacy of conjugate vaccines in pneumococcal infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Perova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of pneumococcal infection is actual for many countries of the world in connection with high incidence and mortality. Vaccination by the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine of children till 2 years is available in Russia since 2009, 13-valent – since 2012. Objectives – an assessment of clinical and epidemiological efficacy in pneumococcal infection prevention infection by catamnesis after 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine application. Observation over incidence of pneumonia and otitis of 50 children imparted against a pneumococcal infection is made. The indicator of density of incidence of pneumonia in group of the imparted made 9,7 on 1000 (95% of CI; 9,1–10,3 in group of comparison – 92,6 on 1000 (95% of CI; 91,3–93,9. Index of efficacy of vaccination concerning pneumonia of any etiology – 9,5, effectiveness ratio – 89,5%. The indicator of density of incidence of otitis at the imparted was 1,8 times less – 155,3 on 1000 (95% of CI; 150,9–155,7 in group of comparison – 263,9 on 1000 (95% of CI; 261,7–266,1. The index and vaccination effectiveness ratio concerning acute otitis media made 1,8 and 44,3%. Thus, vaccination against pneumococcal infection is effective as concerning community acquired pneumonia, and acute otitis media of any etiology.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Carriage of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, Judith; Prevaes, Sabine M. P. J.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Bruin, Jacob P.; Bogaert, Debby; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shifts in pneumococcal serotypes following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) may alter the presence of other bacterial pathogens co-inhabiting the same nasopharyngeal niche. Methodology/Principal Findings: Nasopharyngeal prevalence rates of S. pneumoniae, S.

  3. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echániz-Avilés Irma Gabriela

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  4. Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 2 Years after Its Introduction, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwin D Rodenburg; Sabine C de Greeff; Jansen, Angelique G. C. S.; Hester E. de Melker; Leo M Schouls; Hak, Eelko; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was implemented in a 3+1-dose schedule in the national immunization program for infants born after April 1, 2006. To assess the vaccine’s effectiveness, we compared disease incidence before and after vaccine implementation (June 2004–June 2006 and June 2006–June 2008, respectively). We serotyped 2,552 invasive pneumococcal isolates from throughout the Netherlands, covering 25% of the country’s population. Clinical charact...

  5. Epidemiologic impact and cost-effectiveness of universal infant vaccination with a 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Rumke, H; Welte, R; Postma, MJ

    2003-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main causes of bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and otitis media in the Netherlands. These diseases lead to substantial mortality, morbidity, and costs. The societal impact is especially severe because most cases occur in very young infa

  6. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  7. Recommendation for use of the newly introduced pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwa Choi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of invasive infections including bacteremia and meningitis, as well as mucosal infections such as otitis media and pneumonia among children and adults. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was licensed for use among infants and young children in many countries including Korea. The routine use of PCV7 has resulted in a decreased incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD by the vaccine serotypes among the vaccinees and substantial declines in IPD among unvaccinated populations such as older children and adults as well. In addition, there are increasing evidences to suggest that routine immunization with PCV7 is changing the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases such as serotype distribution of IPD, nasopharyngeal colonization, and antibiotic resistance patterns. In contrast, there is an increase in the number of IPDs caused by nonvaccine serotypes, though it is much smaller than overall declines of vaccine serotype diseases. Several vaccines containing additional serotypes have been developed and tested clinically in order to expand the range of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recently two new pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13, have been approved for use in several countries including Korea. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society.

  8. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Kagucia, Eunice W; Loo, Jennifer D;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably...... representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7...... introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios...

  9. Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun-Young

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gambia is the second GAVI support-eligible country to introduce the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, but a country-specific cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccine is not available. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of PCVs of different valences in The Gambia. Methods We synthesized the best available epidemiological and cost data using a state-transition model to simulate the natural histories of various pneumococcal diseases. For the base-case, we estimated incremental cost (in 2005 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted under routine vaccination using PCV9 compared to no vaccination. We extended the base-case results for PCV9 to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13, each compared to no vaccination. To explore parameter uncertainty, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. We also explored the impact of vaccine efficacy waning, herd immunity, and serotype replacement, as a part of the uncertainty analyses, by assuming alternative scenarios and extrapolating empirical results from different settings. Results Assuming 90% coverage, a program using a 9-valent PCV (PCV9 would prevent approximately 630 hospitalizations, 40 deaths, and 1000 DALYs, over the first 5 years of life of a birth cohort. Under base-case assumptions ($3.5 per vaccine, compared to no intervention, a PCV9 vaccination program would cost $670 per DALY averted in The Gambia. The corresponding values for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were $910, $670, and $570 per DALY averted, respectively. Sensitivity analyses that explored the implications of the uncertain key parameters showed that model outcomes were most sensitive to vaccine price per dose, discount rate, case-fatality rate of primary endpoint pneumonia, and vaccine efficacy against primary endpoint pneumonia. Conclusions Based on the information available now, infant PCV vaccination would be expected to reduce

  10. Immunization of newborns with bacterial conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William S

    2013-05-17

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines are based on the principle of coupling immunogenic bacterial capsular polysaccharides to a carrier protein to facilitate the induction of memory T-cell responses. Following the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in the 1980s, conjugate vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections were developed and proven to be effective in protecting children against invasive disease. In this review, the use of conjugate vaccines in human newborns is discussed. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules have been trialed and proven to be safe, with the majority of studies demonstrating no evidence for the induction of immune tolerance. Whether their neonatal administration also results in an earlier induction of clinical protection in the first 2-3 critical months of life is still to be demonstrated. PMID:22728221

  11. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  12. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  13. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  14. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

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    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  15. Do pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide any cross-protection against serotype 19A?

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    Hoet Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM in several countries has led to a rapid, significant drop in vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in immunized children. In the United States and some other countries with high antibiotic use, a subsequent rise in serotype 19A IPD has been taken to indicate that the 19F conjugate in the vaccine provides no cross-protection against the immunologically related 19A. Discussion We systematically assessed the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 19F-containing vaccines against 19A disease or nasopharyngeal carriage by searching English-language articles in the electronic databases PubMed, Current contents, Scopus, and Embase from 1985 to 2008. The vaccine efficacy and effectiveness point estimates were consistently positive for modest protection against 19A IPD and acute otitis media (AOM. However, statistical significance was not reached in any individual study. No consistent impact of 7vCRM on 19A nasopharyngeal colonization could be detected. These findings are discussed in context of immunogenicity analyses indicating that 7vCRM induces functionally active anti-19A antibodies after the booster dose, and that other 19F-containing vaccine formulations may elicit higher levels of such antibodies after both primary and booster doses. Summary Taken together, these results suggest that 19F-conjugates can provide some protection against 19A disease. The magnitude of this protection in a given setting will likely depend on several factors. These include the anti-19A immunogenicity of the specific vaccine formulation, the number of doses of that formulation needed to elicit the response, and the burden of 19A disease that occurs after those doses. It is possible that a modest protective effect may be obscured by the presence of countervailing selection pressures (such as high antibiotic use that favor an increase in colonization with antibiotic

  16. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: optimizing global impact

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    Terranella A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Terranella1,2, Amanda Cohn2, Thomas Clark2 1Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Sciences, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, 2Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Meningococcal conjugate vaccines have several advantages over polysaccharide vaccines, including the ability to induce greater antibody persistence, avidity, immunologic memory, and herd immunity. Since 1999, meningococcal conjugate vaccine programs have been established across the globe. Many of these vaccination programs have resulted in significant decline in meningococcal disease in several countries. Recent introduction of serogroup A conjugate vaccine in Africa offers the potential to eliminate meningococcal disease as a public health problem in Africa. However, the duration of immune response and the development of widespread herd immunity in the population remain important questions for meningococcal vaccine programs. Because of the unique epidemiology of meningococcal disease around the world, the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term disease prevention will vary by country. Keywords: conjugate vaccine, meningitis, meningococcal vaccine, meningococcal disease

  17. Cost-effectiveness of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Turkey: a decision analytical model

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    Bakır Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which place a considerable burden on healthcare resources, can be reduced in a cost-effective manner using a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7. We compare the cost effectiveness of a 13-valent PCV (PCV-13 and a 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV with that of PCV-7 in Turkey. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted and a decision analytical model was used to estimate the proportion of the Turkish population Results PCV-13 and PHiD-CV are projected to have a substantial impact on pneumococcal disease in Turkey versus PCV-7, with 2,223 and 3,156 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and 2,146 and 2,081 life years, respectively, being saved under a 3+1 schedule. Projections of direct medical costs showed that a PHiD-CV vaccination programme would provide the greatest cost savings, offering additional savings of US$11,718,813 versus PCV-7 and US$8,235,010 versus PCV-13. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV dominated PCV-13 in terms of QALYs gained and cost savings in 58.3% of simulations. Conclusion Under the modeled conditions, PHiD-CV would provide the most cost-effective intervention for reducing pneumococcal disease in Turkish children.

  18. Evolving microbiology and molecular epidemiology of acute otitis media in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R

    2007-10-01

    The addition of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to the routine immunization schedule in the United States for infants has produced a much more favorable impact on the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) than anticipated. Because the serotypes included in PCV7 were those most frequently expressing antibiotic resistance in 2001, predictions were made that up to 98% of pneumococcal AOM episodes would be caused by penicillin susceptible strains. However, recent studies have shown that the benefits of PCV7 are becoming eroded. Replacement serotypes of pneumococci have emerged, expressing polysaccharide capsules different from those included in PCV7, with increasing frequency. These replacement strains are coming to dominate in the nasopharynx and in AOM isolates (and in invasive disease). Expansion in the isolation of serotypes 3, 7F, 15B/C/F, 19A, 22F, 33F, and 38 has been described in various surveillance systems. Pneumococcal strains expressing non-PCV7 capsular serotypes also appear to be rapidly acquiring resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. Emergence of strains of pneumococci expressing non-PCV7 capsular serotypes is occurring by multiple mechanisms including capsular switching as suggested by molecular epidemiology studies. Expansion of the number of serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is needed to sustain a long-term benefit from immunization against these bacteria.

  19. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Devitt, Catherine J; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2009-02-25

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM(197) compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  20. The impact of B-cell perturbations on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine response in HIV-infected adults.

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    Thomas G Johannesson

    Full Text Available Untreated HIV infection results in severe perturbations of the B-cell population and hyporesponsiveness to vaccination. We studied associations between circulating B-cell subsets and antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in treated and untreated HIV patients.Ninety-five HIV-infected adults were grouped according to antiretroviral therapy (ART and CD4+ cell count as follows: 20 ART-naïve (no prior ART, 62 ART-responders (received ART, and CD4 count >500 cells/µl, and 13 impaired responders (received ART for more than 3 years, and CD4 count <500 cells/µl. All subjects were immunized twice with double-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 (toll-like receptor 9 agonist at baseline and after three months. Pre-vaccination B-cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum IgG concentrations for vaccine serotypes were quantified by ELISA at baseline and 3, 4, and 9 months post-vaccination. ART responders had more isotype-switched memory B cells and more marginal-zone (MZ-like B cells compared with impaired responders. Furthermore, ART-naïve patients had higher concentration of transitional B cells and plasmablasts compared with B cells of other patient groups. The concentration of MZ-like, isotype switched memory cells and plasmablasts correlated positively with post-vaccination IgG concentration at 3, 4, and 9 months. Low concentrations of isotype-switched memory B cells was the strongest independent predictor of poor pneumococcal conjugate vaccine responsiveness, emphasizing that B-cell subset disturbances are associated with poor vaccine response among HIV-infected patients.

  1. A neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in Papua New guinea: study population, methods and operational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuanukoonnon, S; Reeder, J C; Pomat, W S; Van den Biggelaar, A H J; Holt, P G; Saleu, G; Opa, C; Michael, A; Aho, C; Yoannes, M; Francis, J; Orami, T; Namuigi, P; Siba, P M; Richmond, P C; Lehmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are at a high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and a substantial burden of this falls on children less than six months old. PNG is planning to introduce a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants in the near future, but to make the maximum impact neonatal immunization will have to be considered. To provide evidence on safety and immunogenicity for neonatal and early infant immunization, we undertook an open randomized controlled trial of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV). 318 children received 7vPCV at ages 0, 1 and 2 months or at 1, 2 and 3 months or not at all. All children received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 9 months. This was a large and complex trial: village reporters visited participants weekly during the first year and fortnightly for a further 6 months and nurses monitored self-reported morbidity and collected many thousands of biological samples. The study team was remarkably successful in achieving the study aims, with 18-month follow-up completed on 77% of enrolled children and over 80% of scheduled samples collected. While the results of the trial will be reported elsewhere, this paper discusses the design of the study and dissects out some of the main reasons for its successful completion. Strong community engagement was an essential factor in success and the principles of equitable partnership and service provision led to a strong research partnership. A two-stage consent process, comprising primary assent followed by later informed consent, led to a high drop-out before initial enrolment, but an outstanding retention of those enrolled in the study. We conclude that factors such as strong community participation, reciprocity and a good relationship between the study team and participants are just as important as the technical elements of laboratory testing and data handling in ensuring the success of a vaccine trial in PNG. PMID:23163191

  2. Safety and Immunogenicity of Cuban Antipneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine PCV7-TT in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nadezhda; Paredes, Beatriz; Pérez, Sonia; Mirabal, Mayelín; Rivero, Ivonne; González, Carlos A; Díaz, Alina; García, Dagmar; Rodríguez, Laura; Pérez, Amarilis; Soroa, Yamilka; Santana, Darielis; Alvarez, Alina; Valdés, Yury; Vérez, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and are associated with considerable economic burden on health systems. To prevent pneumococcal infections, 7-valent conjugate vaccines have been available for over a decade; more recently, 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccines have been formulated, which are more immunogenic than vaccines with capsular polysaccharides only. In Cuba, a new vaccine candidate has been developed, PCV7-TT, a conjugate of tetanus toxoid with antigens of seven of the serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with highest circulation in Cuba and in the world: 1, 5, 6B, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. OBJECTIVE Assess the safety of the vaccine candidate PCV7-TT in healthy adults and conduct a preliminary assessment of its immunogenicity. METHODS A phase I, double-blind clinical trial was performed at the National Toxicology Center in Havana, Cuba. Healthy male volunteers aged 18-35 years were randomly assigned to two groups: 20 received the vaccine candidate PCV7-TT and 20 the polyvalent antipneumococcal vaccine PNEUMO-23 used as control, each in a single intramuscular dose. To assess safety, the occurrence of adverse events was monitored for 30 days following inoculation. To explore immunogenicity, concentrations of serotype-specific antibodies was quantified before and 30 days after inoculation, as well titers of opsonophagocytic antibodies. (National Clinical Trial Registry RPCEC00000133) RESULTS Local adverse events were pain, redness, induration, increased sensitivity to touch, and warmth in the injection area. Pain was registered in 70% of individuals who received PCV7-TT and in 75% of those vaccinated with PNEUMO-23. Reported systemic adverse events were general malaise, headache and drowsiness. All adverse events appeared in the first 72 hours post inoculation and lasted no longer than 3 days. One event was reported that was classified as severe in intensity and serious in consequences, but it was unrelated to

  3. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Adults: A New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been studied in adults aged ≥50 years to compare the immune response to that induced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which has been the standard of care over the past 30 years. The results demonstrate that adults, regardless of whether they are naive or previously vaccinated with the polysaccharide vaccine, have an overall superior antibody response when vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine compared with the pneumococcal po...

  4. Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease

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    Edmunds W John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been introduced in national immunisation programmes of most industrialised countries and recently in two African GAVI eligible countries (Rwanda and The Gambia. However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement. Method A dynamic, age-structured, compartmental model of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission was developed to predict the potential impact of PCV7 on the incidence of invasive disease accounting for both herd immunity and serotype replacement effects. The model was parameterised using epidemiological data from England and Wales and pre and post-vaccination surveillance data from the US. Results Model projections showed that serotype replacement plays a crucial role in determining the overall effect of a PCV7 vaccination programme and could reduce, negate or outweigh its beneficial impact. However, using the estimate of the competition parameter derived from the US post-vaccination experience, an infant vaccination programme would prevent 39,000 IPD cases in the 20 years after PCV7 introduction in the UK. Adding a catch-up campaign for under 2 or under 5 year olds would provide a further reduction of 1,200 or 3,300 IPD cases respectively, mostly in the first few years of the programme. Conclusions This analysis suggests that a PCV vaccination programme would eradicate vaccine serotypes from circulation. However, the increase in carriage of non-vaccine serotypes, and the consequent increase in invasive disease, could reduce, negate or outweigh the benefit. These results are sensitive to changes in the protective effect of the vaccine, and, most importantly, to the level of competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types. The techniques developed here can be used to assess the introduction of vaccination programmes in developing countries and provide the basis for cost

  5. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Uruguay, a middle-income country.

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    Gabriela García Gabarrot

    Full Text Available In 2008, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced into the routine childhood immunization program in Uruguay, with a 2+1 schedule. In 2010, PCV13 replaced PCV7, and the same 2+1 schedule was used. The effect of these pneumococcal vaccines on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD and on serotype distribution was analyzed retrospectively, based on passive national laboratory surveillance.Data from 1,887 IPD isolates from 5 years before and 5 years after PCV7 introduction (7 before and 3 after PCV13 introduction was examined to assess the incidence rate per 100,000 age-specific population of all IPD, PCV7-serotypes, and PCV13-serotypes associated IPD among children < 2 years and 2 to 4 years old, and patients ≥ 5 years old. Trends of frequency for each serotype were also analyzed.Comparison of pre-vaccination (2003-2007 and post-vaccination (2008-2012 periods showed a significant decrease in IPD incidence among children < 2 years old (IR 68.7 to IR 29.6, p<0.001 and children 2 to 4 years (p < 0.04. IPD caused by serotypes in PCV7 was reduced by 95.6% and IPD caused by 6 serotypes added in PCV13 was reduced by 83.9% in children <5 years old. Indirect effects of both conjugate vaccines were observed among patients ≥ 5 years old one year after the introduction of each vaccine, in 2010 for PCV7 and in 2012 for PCV13. Nevertheless, for reasons that still need to be explained, perhaps due to ascertainment bias, total IPD in this group increased after 2007. In 2012, the relative frequency of vaccine serotypes among vaccinated and unvaccinated population declined, except for serotype 3. Non vaccine serotypes with increasing frequency were identified, in rank order: 12F, 8, 24F, 22F, 24A, 15C, 9N, 10A and 33.Consecutive immunization with PCV7 and PCV13 has significantly reduced IPD in children < 5 years of age in Uruguay.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of 2 + 1 dosing of 13-valent and 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Canada

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    Earnshaw Stephanie R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 are two recently approved vaccines for the active immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal disease in infants and children. PCV13 offers broader protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, PCV10 offers potential protection against non-typeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi. We examined public health and economic impacts of a PCV10 and PCV13 pediatric national immunization programs (NIPs in Canada. Methods A decision-analytic model was developed to examine the costs and outcomes associated with PCV10 and PCV13 pediatric NIPs. The model followed individuals over the remainder of their lifetime. Recent disease incidence, serotype coverage, population data, percent vaccinated, costs, and utilities were obtained from the published literature. Direct and indirect effects were derived from 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Additional direct effect of 4% was attributed to PCV10 for moderate to severe acute otitis media to account for potential NTHi benefit. Annual number of disease cases and costs (2010 Canadian dollars were presented. Results In Canada, PCV13 was estimated to prevent more cases of disease (49,340 when considering both direct and indirect effects and 7,466 when considering direct effects only than PCV10. This translated to population gains of 258 to 13,828 more quality-adjusted life-years when vaccinating with PCV13 versus PCV10. Annual direct medical costs (including the cost of vaccination were estimated to be reduced by $5.7 million to $132.8 million when vaccinating with PCV13. Thus, PCV13 dominated PCV10, and sensitivity analyses showed PCV13 to always be dominant or cost-effective versus PCV10. Conclusions Considering the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Canada, PCV13 is shown to be a cost-saving immunization program because it provides substantial public

  7. Pneumococcal vaccination of older adults: Conjugate or polysaccharide?

    OpenAIRE

    Fedson, David S; Guppy, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be important problem for older adults. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has a clinical effectiveness of 43–81%, and following primary vaccination and revaccination, antibody responses last 5–10 y. Hyporesponsiveness to a second dose of vaccine has not been shown to be a significant problem. The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (initially PCV7; more recently PCV13) has led to a dramatic fall in the incidence of conjugate vaccine-type ...

  8. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination at birth in a high-risk setting: no evidence for neonatal T-cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William; Bosco, Anthony; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Devitt, Catherine J; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Siba, Peter M; Richmond, Peter C; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2011-07-26

    Concerns about the risk of inducing immune deviation-associated "neonatal tolerance" as described in mice have restricted the widespread adoption of neonatal vaccination. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunological feasibility of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) which could potentially protect high-risk infants in resource poor countries against severe pneumococcal disease and mortality in the early critical period of life. Papua New Guinean infants were randomized to be vaccinated with the 7-valent PCV (7vPCV) at birth, 1 and 2 months (neonatal group, n=104) or at 1, 2 and 3 months of age (infant group, n=105), or to not receive 7vPCV at all (control group, n=109). Analysis of vaccine responses at 3 and 9 months of age demonstrated persistently higher type-1 (IFN-γ) and type-2 (IL-5 and IL-13) T-cell responses to the protein carrier CRM(197) and IgG antibody titres to 7vPCV serotypes in children vaccinated with 7vPCV according to either schedule as compared to unvaccinated children. In a comprehensive immuno-phenotypic analysis at 9 months of age, no differences in the quantity or quality of vaccine-specific T cell memory responses were found between neonatal vaccinations versus children given their first PCV dose at one month. Hospitalization rates in the first month of life did not differ between children vaccinated with PCV at birth or not. These findings demonstrate that neonatal 7vPCV vaccination is safe and not associated with immunological tolerance. Neonatal immunisation schedules should therefore be considered in high-risk areas where this may result in improved vaccine coverage and the earliest possible protection against pneumococcal disease and death. PMID:21645573

  9. Carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, J.; van Gils, E.J.M.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Hak, E.; Yzerman, E.P.F.; van der Ende, A.; Wijmenga-Monsuur, A.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, G.P.J.M.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) program, we conducted a cross-sectional observational study on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after implementation of the program in the Netherlands. We compared pneumococcal serotypes in

  10. Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, H; Borrow, R

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353

  11. Conjugation of Polysaccharide 6B from Streptococcus pneumoniae with Pneumococcal Surface Protein A: PspA Conformation and Its Effect on the Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Perciani, Catia T.; Barazzone, Giovana C.; Goulart, Cibelly; Carvalho, Eneas; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Gonçalves, Viviane M.; Luciana C. C. Leite; Tanizaki, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial beneficial effects of incorporating the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into immunization programs, serotype replacement has been observed after its widespread use. As there are many serotypes currently documented, the use of a conjugate vaccine relying on protective pneumococcal proteins as active carriers is a promising alternative to expand PCV coverage. In this study, capsular polysaccharide serotype 6B (PS6B) and recombinant pneumococcal surface pro...

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of three doses of an eleven-valent diphtheria toxoid and tetanus protein – conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Filipino infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Käyhty Helena

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide significantly larger reduction in pneumococcal disease burden than the currently available 7-valent vaccine formulation in many countries. Methods In total, 50 infants were enrolled to this open, uncontrolled study, which evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an aluminium adjuvanted 11-valent mixed-carrier diphtheria toxoid or tetanus protein-conjugated vaccine (11-PncTD when administered in three doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age simultaneously with DTwP//PRP-T and OPV vaccines in Filipino infants. Results The rates of local reactions between the two injection sites, those associated with the 11-PncTD vaccine and those with the DTwP//PRP-T were almost of equal frequency for all three vaccine doses except for induration, which was significantly more common in the DTP//PRP-T injection site. Fever was present in 39%, 22% and 21% of infants following each of the three doses. Antibody responses were determined by an enzyme immunoassay method before the first vaccination and after the three doses. The vaccine elicited a significant anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody response against all serotypes included in the vaccine, except for type 14, for which the pre-vaccination geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC was high (1.61 μg/ml. The GMCs one month after the vaccination series ranged from 1.1 micrograms/ml for type 6B to 23.4 μg/ml for type 4. Conclusion The 11-PncTD vaccine is safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic. The effectiveness of the non-adjuvanted formulation of the vaccine in preventing pneumonia is currently being evaluated in the Philippines.

  13. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  14. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  15. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  16. Impacts of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Esposito; Nicola Principi

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate va...

  17. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults: Let's see what happens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Peter R

    2016-07-01

    The recent recommendation for the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults 65 y of age and older, provides a new tool for preventing disease in this at-risk population. The conjugate vaccine induces a T-cell dependent response, which distinguishes it from the polysaccharide vaccine and could provide the longer-term protection necessary to have a significant impact in this population. PMID:26901618

  18. Postlicensure surveillance for pre-specified adverse events following the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Weintraub, Eric; Yih, Katherine; Baxter, Roger; Glanz, Jason M; Donahue, James; Naleway, Allison; Nordin, James; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-05-24

    Although no increased risk was detected for serious adverse events in the prelicensure trials for the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, Prevnar 13(®) (PCV13), continued monitoring of rare but serious adverse events is necessary. A surveillance system using cohort study design was set up to monitor safety of PCV13 immediately after it was included in the childhood immunization program in the United States. The exposed population included children of 1 month to 2 years old who received PCV13 from April, 2010 to January, 2012 from the eight managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project in the United States. The historical unexposed population was children of the same age who received the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar 7(®) (PCV7) in 2007 (or 2005 depending on the outcome of interest) to 2009. The risk of pre-specified adverse events in the risk window following PCV13 was repeatedly compared to that in the historical comparison group. The number of doses included in the study was 599,229. No increased risk was found for febrile seizures, urticaria or angioneurotic edema, asthma, thrombocytopenia, or anaphylaxis. An increased risk for encephalopathy was not confirmed following the medical record review. The relative risk for Kawasaki disease in 0-28 days following vaccination was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-4.86), comparing PCV13 to PCV7. Comparing to PCV7 vaccine, we identified no significant increased risk of pre-specified adverse events in the Vaccine Safety Datalink study cohort. The possible association between PCV13 and Kawasaki disease may deserve further investigation.

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype Distribution and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Serotype Coverage among Pediatric Patients in East and Southeast Asia, 2000–2014: a Pooled Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley S. Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children of developing and underdeveloped countries. Capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are available for the prevention of this disease. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was licensed in 2000 for use in children less than two years of age. Subsequently, to broaden the protection, 10-valent (PCV10 and 13-valent (PCV13 vaccines were licensed in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All of these conjugate vaccines elicit an immune response that only provides protection against the infection of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the formulation. Profiles of S. pneumoniae serotype distribution and serotype coverage for both PCV7 and PCV13 have been reported in some Asian countries/territories. But the published results cannot provide conclusive information due to the difference in studied population and geographic areas. The goals of this review are to obtain an accurate estimate of serotype coverage for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 and examine the change in the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution after PCV7 use among pediatric patients in East and Southeast Asia through the analysis of pooled data that were published in the English literature between 2000 and 2014.

  20. Vaccination of risk groups in England using the 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Fleming, Douglas; Trotter, Caroline L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Edmunds, W. John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost effectiveness of vaccinating people with high risk conditions against invasive pneumococcal disease using the 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Design Economic evaluation using a cohort model from the perspective of healthcare providers. Setting England. Partic

  1. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  2. Risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome after meningococcal conjugate vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velentgas, P.; Amato, A.A.; Bohn, R.L.; Arnold Chan, K.; Cochrane, T.; Funch, D.P.; Dashevsky, I.; Duddy, A.L.; Gladowski, P.; Greenberg, S.A.; Kramer, J.M.; McMahill-Walraven, C.; Nakasato, C.; Spettell, C.M.; Syat, B.L.; Wahl, P.M.; Walker, A.M.; Zhang, F.; Brown, J.S.; Platt, R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: A new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) was introduced in 2005. Shortly after, case reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a serious demyelinating disease, began to be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and

  3. Impacto da vacina conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae em doenças invasivas Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Rever os estudos que avaliam o impacto da vacina conjugada 7-valente na incidência de doenças invasivas por pneumococo e analisar o possível impacto dessa vacina no Brasil. FONTE DE DADOS:Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Database Reviews (janeiro de 2000 a janeiro de 2006, selecionando-se para análise os artigos contendo as seguintes palavras-chave: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococo, vacina conjugada, resistência, antibióticos e meningite. Também foi realizada busca de informações sobre o tema nos sites do Centers for Disease Control, Ministério da Saúde e Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado de São Paulo. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina conjugada 7-valente reduziu a incidência de doenças invasivas por pneumococo, número de consultas por doenças respiratórias de vias aéreas superiores e inferiores, consumo de antibióticos e incidência de doenças invasivas por pneumococo por cepas resistentes a antibióticos não apenas nas crianças vacinadas, como em adultos e idosos. No Brasil, os coeficientes de incidência de doenças invasivas por pneumococo em crianças menores de 5 anos são elevados, a taxa de letalidade de meningites pneumocócicas é alta e as taxas de resistência parcial e plena à penicilina aumentaram substancialmente nos últimos 5 anos. CONCLUSÕES:Devido aos benefícios diretos e indiretos do uso em larga escala da vacina conjugada 7-valente, essa vacina deve ser incluída no calendário básico de imunização do Brasil.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in invasive pneumococcal diseases in the United States, and to analyze the potential impact of this vaccine in Brazil. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Database Reviews, as well as the websites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Brazilian Ministry of Health and Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado de São Paulo from

  4. Update on the success of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, JD

    2011-01-01

    Several years after the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Canada and elsewhere, routine infant vaccination has led to near eradication of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotype strains in both children and adults. There have also been significant declines in pneumococcal-related disease including lobar pneumonia and otitis media. These declines have been offset, to some extent, by increases in nonvaccine serotype disease. Serotype 19A, whic...

  5. Development of Vi conjugate - a new generation of typhoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Shousun Chen

    2013-11-01

    Typhoid fever remains to be a serious disease burden worldwide with an estimated annual incidence about 20 million. The licensed vaccines showed moderate protections and have multiple deficiencies. Most important of all, none of the licensed typhoid vaccines demonstrated protection for children under 5 years old. These limitations impeded successful implementation of typhoid vaccination programs. To improve immunogenicity Vi was conjugated to rEPA, a recombinant exoprotein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vi-rEPA showed higher and longer lasting anti-Vi IgG in adults and children than Vi alone in high endemic areas. In school-age children and adults, the immunity persisted more than 8 years. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized efficacy trial in 2- to 5-year-old children, Vi-rEPA conferred 89% protective efficacy against typhoid fever and the protection lasted at least 4 years. When given concomitantly with infant routine vaccines, Vi-rEPA was safe, immunogenic and showed no interference with the routine vaccines. Vi conjugate vaccine was also attempted and successfully demonstrated by several other laboratories and manufactures. Using either rEPA or different carrier proteins, such as diphtheria or tetanus toxoid, recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197), the Vi conjugates synthesized was significantly more immunogenic than Vi alone. Recently, two Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugates were licensed in India for all ages, starts as young as 3 month old. This new generation of typhoid vaccine opens up a new era for typhoid prevention and elimination.

  6. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate in Canadian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Scheifele

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess adverse effects and immune responses with a three-dose series of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningococcal protein conjugate (PedvaxHIB or Hib.OMP vaccine, including any immunological response alterations from concurrent administration with routine vaccines for infants.

  7. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C; Mond, James J; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4(+) T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  8. The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on carriage of and disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Nurith; Benisty, Rachel; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Trefler, Ronit; Dagan, Ron

    2016-05-27

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by PCV13 resulted in a dramatic reduction in carriage and disease rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) serotype 6B (Sp6B) and Sp6A. The structural modifications of the capsule of Sp6A and Sp6B to become Sp6C and Sp6D, respectively, raised a concern that eradication of Sp6A/Sp6B by PCV could be accompanied by an increase in Sp6C/Sp6D. This study examines the dynamics and clonal distribution of Sp6C/Sp6D relative to Sp6A/Sp6B during 1999-2014, pre- and post-PCV implementation. Sp were cultured from Blood/CSF and MEF of children pneumococcal disease, complete elimination of serogroup 6 was found in the PCV era. Similar clonal composition was found for Sp6C and Sp6D pre- and post-PCV. We conclude that Sp6C and Sp6D do not act as replacement serotypes for Sp6A and Sp6B following vaccination with PCV13. The major Sp6C and Sp6D clones present pre-PCV persisted also post-PCV implementation, suggesting that these clones possess an advantage retained post-vaccination. PMID:27113163

  9. Biological and Epidemiological Features of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Pre- and Post-Conjugate Vaccine Eras: a United States Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lindsay; McGee, Lesley; Tomczyk, Sara; Beall, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae inflicts a huge disease burden as the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis. Soon after mainstream antibiotic usage, multiresistant pneumococcal clones emerged and disseminated worldwide. Resistant clones are generated through adaptation to antibiotic pressures imposed while naturally residing within the human upper respiratory tract. Here, a huge array of related commensal streptococcal strains transfers core genomic and accessory resistance determinants to the highly transformable pneumococcus. β-Lactam resistance is the hallmark of pneumococcal adaptability, requiring multiple independent recombination events that are traceable to nonpneumococcal origins and stably perpetuated in multiresistant clonal complexes. Pneumococcal strains with elevated MICs of β-lactams are most often resistant to additional antibiotics. Basic underlying mechanisms of most pneumococcal resistances have been identified, although new insights that increase our understanding are continually provided. Although all pneumococcal infections can be successfully treated with antibiotics, the available choices are limited for some strains. Invasive pneumococcal disease data compiled during 1998 to 2013 through the population-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance program (U.S. population base of 30,600,000) demonstrate that targeting prevalent capsular serotypes with conjugate vaccines (7-valent and 13-valent vaccines implemented in 2000 and 2010, respectively) is extremely effective in reducing resistant infections. Nonetheless, resistant non-vaccine-serotype clones continue to emerge and expand. PMID:27076637

  10. The role of economic evaluation in vaccine decision making : Focus on meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R.; Trotter, C.L.; Edmunds, W.J.; Postma, Maarten; Beutels, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have experienced increases in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease. It can be controlled with older polysaccharide vaccines and particularly the recently developed conjugate vaccines. For 21 developed countries, we investigated the role that economic

  11. Decrease in pneumococcal co-colonization following vaccination with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Valente; Jason Hinds; Francisco Pinto; Brugger, Silvio D.; Katherine Gould; Kathrin Mühlemann; Hermínia de Lencastre; Raquel Sá-Leão

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of pneumococcal co-colonization is important for monitoring vaccine effectiveness and the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer between pneumococcal strains. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal co-colonization among Portuguese children. Nasopharyngeal samples from children up to 6 years old yielding a pneumococcal culture were clustered into three groups: pre-vaccine era (n = 17...

  12. Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eileen M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Mulholland, E Kim; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The nasopharynx of children is often colonised by microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that can cause infections including pneumonia and otitis media. In this complex environment, bacteria and viruses may impact each other through antagonistic as well as synergistic interactions. Vaccination may alter colonisation dynamics, evidenced by the rise in non-vaccine serotypes following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Discovery of an inverse relationship between S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage generated concern that pneumococcal vaccination could increase S. aureus carriage and disease. Here we review data on co-colonisation of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on S. pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. Thus far, pneumococcal vaccination has not had a sustained impact on S. aureus carriage but it is associated with an increase in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media aetiology. Advances in bacterial and viral detection methodologies have facilitated research in nasopharyngeal microbiology and will aid investigation of potential vaccine-induced changes, particularly when baseline studies can be conducted prior to pneumococcal vaccine introduction.

  13. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Avances en el desarrollo de las vacunas neumocócicas conjugadas Update on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Chan-Acón

    2010-07-01

    -valente y los serotipos 3, 6A y 19A. En el caso de la vacuna 13-valente, todos los serotipos están conjugados con el transportador CRM197. Estas nuevas formulaciones pretenden ampliar la cobertura contra el S. pneumoniae, incluyendo serotipos frecuentes en países en vías de desarrollo (serotipo 1 y 5 y serotipos emergentes luego de una década de la vacunación con la vacuna 7-valente, como son: 3, 6A, 17F y 19A.Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing invasive and non invasive infections in children younger than 5 years as well as in the elderly. Primary clinical syndromes associated with pneumococcal infections are pneumonia, bacteremia, acute otitis media and meningitis. This microorganism contributes importantly to morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age, it is estimated that 1,000, 000 deaths occurs per year in that age range alone, mostly from developing countries, thus becoming a serious public health problem around the globe. In year 2000 the first heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine was licensed in the United States of America, it differed from the already available polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine, by its ability to provide an effective immune response for the protection of children under the age of 2. The efficacy of the heptavalent conjugated vaccine reported in initial clinical trials was 97, 4% against invasive pneumococcal disease related to vaccine serotypes (4, 9V, 14, 19F, 23F, 18C and 6B. Different health authorities worldwide, including the European Medicines Agency (EMEA had approved the introduction of a 10-valent formulation which includes all 7 PCV7 serotypes plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F; 8 serotypes are conjugated with protein D as a novel carrier, an element found in the outer core of the non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Another new conjugated vaccine is being assessed by several regulatory entities such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and EMEA and in Chile is already approved

  15. Effect of previous vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaballie, H; Wuyts, G; Dillaerts, D; Frans, G; Moens, L; Proesmans, M; Vermeulen, F; De Boeck, K; Meyts, I; Bossuyt, X

    2016-08-01

    During the past 10 years, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has become part of the standard childhood vaccination programme. This may impact upon the diagnosis of polysaccharide antibody deficiency by measurement of anti-polysaccharide immunoglobulin (Ig)G after immunization with unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). Indeed, contrary to PPV, PCV induces a T-dependent, more pronounced memory response. The antibody response to PPV was studied retrospectively in patients referred for suspected humoral immunodeficiency. The study population was divided into four subgroups based on age (2-5 years versus ≥ 10 years) and time tested (1998-2005 versus 2010-12). Only 2-5-year-old children tested in 2010-12 had been vaccinated with PCV prior to PPV. The PCV primed group showed higher antibody responses for PCV-PPV shared serotypes 4 and 18C than the unprimed groups. To a lesser extent, this was also found for non-PCV serotype 9N, but not for non-PCV serotypes 19A and 8. Furthermore, PCV-priming elicited a higher IgG2 response. In conclusion, previous PCV vaccination affects antibody response to PPV for shared serotypes, but can also influence antibody response to some non-PCV serotypes (9N). With increasing number of serotypes included in PCV, the diagnostic assessment for polysaccharide antibody deficiency requires careful selection of serotypes that are not influenced by prior PCV (e.g. serotype 8). Further research is needed to identify more serotypes that are not influenced. PMID:26939935

  16. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65 and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68. Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71. Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not

  17. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

  18. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-06-03

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential.

  19. Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models - Illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubben, G.A.A.; Bos, J.M.; Glynn, D.M.; van der Ende, A.; van Alphen, L.; Postma, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a web-based user-interface (web interface) to enhance the usefulness of health-economic evaluations to support decision making (http://pcv.healtheconomics.nl). It allows the user to interact with a health-economic model to evaluate predefined and customized scenarios and perform se

  20. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines Al encuentro del reto: prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica con vacunas conjugadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Gabriela Echániz-Avilés

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlStreptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causantes de enfermedades invasoras y no invasoras en la población pediátrica y sigue representando uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. La incidencia creciente de cepas resistentes a diversos antimicrobianos ha complicado el tratamiento y manejo de varias de las manifestaciones de la enfermedad neumocócica. Con éstas consideraciones, la mejor estrategia de manejo es la prevención de éstas enfermedades a través de la vacunación. A pesar de que se han estudiado diversas vacunas neumocócicas conjugadas en niños, solo una

  1. Vaccination of risk groups in England using the 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Fleming, Douglas; Caroline L Trotter; Miller, Elizabeth; Edmunds, W John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost effectiveness of vaccinating people with high risk conditions against invasive pneumococcal disease using the 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Design Economic evaluation using a cohort model from the perspective of healthcare providers. Setting England. Participants People aged 2 years and older at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease due to chronic kidney disease; splenic dysfunction; HIV infection; a compromised immune system; chronic heart...

  2. Impacts of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) currently covers the 7 PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and 6 additional serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A. After the first year of PCV13 applications in the immunization schedule in young children, global evaluation studies demonstrated that PCV13 provided a wider coverage and more effective prevention than PCV7 against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), mucosal pneumococcal diseases, and pneumococcal carriage. We reviewed the effects of PCV13 in the control of pneumococcal diseases in children based on previous studies.

  3. Salivary and Serum Antibody Response Against Neisseria meningitidis After Vaccination With Conjugate Polysaccharide Vaccines in Ethiopian Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bårnes, G K; Workalemahu, B; Kristiansen, P A; Beyene, D; Merdekios, B; Fissiha, P; Aseffa, A; Caugant, D A; Naess, L M

    2016-08-01

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines induce serum antibodies crucial for protection against invasive disease. Salivary antibodies are believed to be important for hindering meningococcal acquisition and/or clearance of established carriage. In this study, we measured salivary IgA and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with a monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine or a tetravalent A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, in comparison with antibody levels in serum. Saliva and serum samples from Ethiopian volunteers (1-29 years) collected before and eight times on a weekly basis after receiving the serogroup A conjugate vaccine, the tetravalent serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, or no vaccine (control group), were analysed using a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for antibody detection. Serogroup-specific IgG antibody levels in saliva increased significantly after vaccination with both vaccines. The monovalent serogroup A vaccine also induced an increase in salivary IgA antibodies. A strong correlation between serogroup-specific IgG antibodies in saliva and serum, and a somewhat lower correlation for IgA, was observed for all serogroups. There was also a strong correlation between specific secretory IgA and IgA antibodies in saliva for all serogroups. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines are able to elicit salivary antibodies against serogroup A, C, W and Y correlating with antibody levels in serum. The strong correlation between saliva and serum antibody levels indicates that saliva may be used as a surrogate of systemic antibody responses. PMID:27219622

  4. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Rasmussen, Jeppe N; Andersen, Peter H S;

    2013-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction...... of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one...... of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F...

  5. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2009-07-01

    Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunized individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and thereby lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunized individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK, targeting teenagers for immunization was crucial in maximizing indirect effects, as most meningococcal transmission occurs in this age group. Questions remain regarding the duration of herd protection and the most appropriate long-term immunization strategies. The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines.

  6. Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Michael; Barskey, Albert; Baughman, Wendy; Barker, Lawrence; Whitney, Cynthia G; Shaw, Kate M; Orenstein, Walter; Stephens, David S

    2007-07-20

    Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or >or=3 doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Prevnar (PCV7), containing serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. From 1994 to 2003, cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were prospectively identified in Georgia Health District-3 (eight metropolitan Atlanta counties) by Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). From 2000 to 2003, vaccine coverage levels of PCV7 for children aged 19-35 months in Fulton and DeKalb counties (of Atlanta) were estimated from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). Based on incidence data and the estimated average number of doses received by 15 months of age, a Poisson regression model was fit, describing the trend in invasive pneumococcal disease in groups not targeted for vaccination (i.e., adults and older children) before and after the introduction of PCV7. Highly significant declines in all the serotypes contained in PCV7 in all unvaccinated populations (5-19, 20-39, 40-64, and >64 years) from 2000 to 2003 were found under the model. No significant change in incidence was seen from 1994 to 1999, indicating rates were stable prior to vaccine introduction. Among unvaccinated persons 5+ years of age, the modeled incidence of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes as a group dropped 38.4%, 62.0%, and 76.6% for 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, received on average by the population of children by the time they are 15 months of age. Incidence of serotypes 14 and 23F had consistent significant declines in all unvaccinated age groups. In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent. Increasing trends of non-vaccine

  7. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  8. Lessons learned during the development and transfer of technology related to a new Hib conjugate vaccine to emerging vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A; Boog, C; Jadhav, S; Kreeftenberg, H

    2014-07-16

    The incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease in developed countries has decreased since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in their National Immunization Programs (NIP). In countries where Hib vaccination is not applied routinely, due to limited availability and high cost of the vaccines, invasive Hib disease is still a cause of mortality. Through the development of a production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine and related quality control tests and the transfer of this technology to emerging vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, a substantial contribution was made to the availability and affordability of Hib conjugate vaccines in these countries. Technology transfer is considered to be one of the fastest ways to get access to the technology needed for the production of vaccines. The first Hib conjugate vaccine based on the transferred technology was licensed in 2007, since then more Hib vaccines based on this technology were licensed. This paper describes the successful development and transfer of Hib conjugate vaccine technology to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Indonesia. By describing the lessons learned in this process, it is hoped that other technology transfer projects can benefit from the knowledge and experience gained.

  9. Serotype 19A bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia after 4 doses of 13-valent conjugate vaccine: a review of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    IrohTam, Pui-Ying; Hanisch, Benjamin R.; Forward, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia due to serotype 19A in a child who had received four doses of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and review the literature on effectiveness of this vaccine. Pediatricians should be alert to the fact that up-to-date immunization status with pneumococcal vaccine does not preclude illness from invasive disease caused by a vaccine serotype.

  10. [Impact of vaccination on acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Gervaix, Alain

    2016-02-17

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important reason for medical visits and antibiotic use in children, with possible complications. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been developed from 2000, with first the apparition of the 7-valent PCV (PCV7), and from 2013, of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13). First developed to prevent invasive pneumococcal infections, they have been shown to reduce the number of AOM as well. PC13 has allowed to reduce the nasopharyngeal carriage of the majority of pneumococcal serotypes found in AOM, with a reduction of 77% of pneumococcal AOM, according to one study.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Pomat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7 given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant schedule. METHODS: We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs and proportions with concentration ≥ 0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. RESULTS: We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001 and 9V (p<0.05 and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001 at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7 than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7. PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  12. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...

  13. Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2012-07-13

    This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology.

  14. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in Denmark during the first 3 years after PCV introduction in the childhood immunization programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingels, Helene; Rasmussen, Jeppe; Andersen, Peter Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Denmark in October 2007 in a 2+1 schedule with a catch-up programme for children up to 17 months of age. To assess the impact of PCV we evaluated on the whole population: (1) direct and indirect effects...... rate ratio 1.18; 95% CI [1.12-1.24]) with predominance of the serotypes 1.7F and 19A. CONCLUSIONS: We report a marked decline in incidence in IPD in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups and a minor but statistically significant increase in incidence of IPD due to NVTs in both vaccinated...... and non-vaccinated groups with predominance of serotypes covered by higher valence pneumococcal conjugate vaccines....

  15. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high.

  16. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  17. Cost-effectiveness models of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines : Variability and impact of modeling assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkouh, Raymond A; Klok, Rogier M; Postma, Maarten J; Roberts, Craig S; Strutton, David R

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); and ten-valent PCV vaccine are marketed. Neither vaccine obtained regulatory approval based on efficacy trials, but instead were approved based on a surrogate end point: immunogenicity data measuring effective antibody levels. Therefore, dir

  18. Surveillance and Safety Evaluation of Pneumococcal 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine%七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的安全性监测评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国红; 苏桂云; 于小红; 李烁; 逯广英; 王丽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的安全性.[方法]2010年10~11月对215名到济南市中心医院预防接种门诊接种七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗者,年龄为3个月至3岁的婴幼儿进行七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(沛儿prevenar)接种后不良反应的临床观察,分别于接种疫苗后30 min和12、24、48、72 h观察不良反应,直至不良反应消失.[结果]共观察215名婴幼儿,19人(占8.84%)发生不良反应,共23例次,不良反应发生率为8.84%.3个月至1岁11个月组接种112人,发生不良反应的10人,不良反应发生率8.93%;2~3岁组接种103人,发生不良反应的9人,不良反应发生率为8.74%,二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).局部反应为14例次,全身反应为9例次,均于对症治疗3日内缓解、消失.[结论]临床观察证明接种七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗有较好的安全性.

  19. Effect of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, E.J.M.; Hak, E.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Rodenburg, G.D.; Bogaert, D.; Bruin, J.P.; van Alphen, L.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) shifts nasopharyngeal colonisation with vaccine serotype pneumococci towards nonvaccine serotypes. Because of the reported negative association of vaccine serotype pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx, we explored the

  20. Surface Modification of Liposomal Vaccines by Peptide Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra M2

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to prepare liposomal vaccine formulation by incorporating naked plasmid DNA that can trigger humoral and cell mediated protective immunity against infection. For these cationic lipids like dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC, dioleyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE, [1, 2 – dioleyloxy -3-(trimethyl ammonium propane] (DOTAP, were taken in the ratio of 4:2:1 respectively. The liposomal formulations thus prepared were surface modified by peptide conjugation with the help of EDC and NHS. Physical characterization of liposomal formulationswas done by estimating the average size distribution, which gives an average liposomal size of 53.0nm. Concentration of peptide bound liposomes wasestimated by Lowry method which entails that bound protein concentration was 30.5 µg/ml.

  1. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitta B Harboe

    Full Text Available A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number and 105 (55% caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F. One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Vaccination for Infants and Children with the Conjugate Vaccine PnC-7 in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Christa Claes; Johann-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg

    2003-01-01

    Background: The introduction of the conjugate vaccine PnC-7 implies that a pneumococcal vaccine is available, for the first time, which also gives children under the age of 2 years reliable protection against invasive pneumococcal infections and offers some protection against non-invasive pneumococcal infections. Objective and perspective: In the context of a multiple-period Markov model, a cost-effectiveness analysis of a recommendation for general pneumococcal vaccination in Germany for inf...

  3. Protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a Bacillus anthracis capsule conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Donald J; Ribot, Wilson J; Joyce, Joseph; Cook, James; Hepler, Robert; Nahas, Debbie; Chua, Jennifer; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2016-07-25

    The efficacy of currently licensed anthrax vaccines is largely attributable to a single Bacillus anthracis immunogen, protective antigen. To broaden protection against possible strains resistant to protective antigen-based vaccines, we previously developed a vaccine in which the anthrax polyglutamic acid capsule was covalently conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B and demonstrated that two doses of 2.5μg of this vaccine conferred partial protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax . Here, we demonstrate complete protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a higher 50μg dose of the same capsule conjugate vaccine. These results indicate that B. anthracis capsule is a highly effective vaccine component that should be considered for incorporation in future generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:27329184

  4. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies. METHODS: The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data. RESULTS: The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns. DISCUSSION: We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine

  5. Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine : A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W-135, Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licens

  6. Protein conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: Challenges in development and global implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nair

    2012-01-01

    Replacement by nonvaccine serotypes;capsule switching;time duration of the antibody protective effect following vaccination;costs of the vaccines, programme costs, lack of knowledge of the disease burden, and targeting population groups for vaccination.

  7. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Andrew D; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2016-06-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  8. Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and nasopharyngeal microbiota in healthy children

    OpenAIRE

    Biesbroek, G.; Wang, X.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Eijkemans, R.M.J.; Trzciński, K.; Rots, N.Y.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Sanders, E. A. M.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV- 7) is effective against vaccine serotype disease and carriage. Nevertheless, shifts in colonization and disease toward nonvaccine serotypes and other potential pathogens have been described. To understand the extent of these shifts, we analyzed nasopharyngeal microbial profiles of 97 PCV-7-vaccinated infants and 103 control infants participating in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. PCV-7 immunization resulted in a temporary shi...

  9. Update on the use of meningococcal serogroup C CRM₁₉₇-conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) against meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Rashid, Harunor; Khatami, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitec is a CRM197-conjugated meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccine, first licensed in 1999. It has been used as a primary and booster vaccine in infants, toddlers, older children and adults, and has been shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in all age groups, including premature infants. Vaccine effectiveness has been demonstrated using combined data on all three licensed MenC conjugate vaccines. Evidence from clinical trials, however, suggests that the different MenC conjugate vaccines behave differently with respect to the induction and persistence of bactericidal antibody and generation of immune memory. It appears that Meningitec has a less favorable immunologic profile compared particularly to tetanus toxoid (TT) MenC conjugate vaccines. Data from comparative trials have raised interesting questions on priming of the immune system by conjugate vaccines, particularly in infants. The results from these and other studies are reviewed here with specific focus on Meningitec.

  10. 肺炎链球菌疫苗研究进展%Research progress in pneumococcal vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑虹

    2012-01-01

    Pneumococcal vaccination is one of the most important strategies against pneumococcal diseases.This article reviews the clinical and epidemiological features of pneumococcal diseases in the post-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era,application of two new approved pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and current developing status of protein-based vaccines.%肺炎链球菌疫苗接种是抵抗肺炎链球菌病的最主要策略之一.此文阐述了后7价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗接种时代的肺炎链球菌病的临床和流行特征、新批准的2种肺炎链球菌结合疫苗的应用以及基于蛋白的肺炎链球菌疫苗的研发现状.

  11. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine.

  12. Improving Capture of Vaccine History: Case Study from an Evaluation of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Aaron M; Aol, George; Ouma, Dominic; Bigogo, Godfrey; Montgomery, Joel M; Whitney, Cynthia G; Breiman, Robert F; Kim, Lindsay

    2016-06-01

    With the accelerated introduction of new vaccines in low-income settings, understanding immunization program performance is critical. We sought to improve immunization history acquisition from Ministry of Health vaccination cards during a vaccine impact study of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage among young children in Kenya in 2012 and 2013. We captured immunization history in a low proportion of study participants in 2012 using vaccination cards. To overcome this challenge, we implemented a household-based reminder system in 2013 using community health workers (CHWs), and increased the retrieval of vaccine cards from 62% in 2012 to 89% in 2013 (P history data quality in a resource-poor setting. PMID:27139446

  13. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... get vaccinated? HPV vaccine is important because it can prevent most cases of cervical cancer in... this HPV vaccine and when? Females: Routine Vaccination HPV vaccine is recommended for girls 11 or 12... is best to be vaccinated before the first sexual contact. HPV vaccine is given as a 3-dose series...

  14. [Subunit vaccines--antigens, carriers, conjugation methods and the role of adjuvants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarząb, Anna; Skowicki, Michał; Witkowska, Danuta

    2013-11-27

    Vaccines are effective tools protecting against the development of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Currently, we have vaccines protecting against many infections, where standard therapy is not only difficult but often impossible due to the ever-progressive increase in bacterial resistance to many available antibiotics. Among vaccines which have been used in the prevention of infection are the traditional vaccines containing live, killed or attenuated strains of microorganisms. However, it should be noted that such vaccines are not always effective, especially when the expected immune response is directed against specific antigens. Subunit vaccines belong to new generation vaccines and have gained more and more interest in recent years. These vaccines contain fragments of pathogenic microorganisms, which are highly purified and immunogenic antigens. Using these purified antigens excludes the risk of post-vaccination infection. In addition, subunit vaccines minimize side-effects associated with the use of whole bacterial cells. The paper discusses the most promising and the most tested antigens, vaccine carriers, conjugation methods and vaccine delivery systems which are being used in the design of subunit vaccines. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of adjuvants, which are substances to support the immune response in humans, and the relationship between adjuvants' efficacy and their mechanism of action.

  15. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2015-11-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries.

  17. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Dalby, Tine; Weinberger, Daniel M;

    2014-01-01

    conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2008-2010), and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods were estimated. Predicted incidences of serotypes were estimated controlling for cyclical trends from historical patterns observed during the past 20 years. RESULTS: We observed a 21% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-25%) in IPD......BACKGROUND: The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination...... incidence in the total population after PCV13's introduction, and a 71% reduction (95% CI, 62%-79%) in children aged vaccine effectiveness. We estimated a 28% reduction (95% CI, 18%-37%) in IPD-related 30-day mortality, from 3.4 deaths (95% CI, 3.2-3.6) per 100 000 population...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, S.; L. Terranova; M.F. Patria; Marseglia, G L; Miraglia del Giudice, M; Bodini, A; Martelli, A.; Baraldi, E; O. Mazzina; Tagliabue, C.; A. Licari; V. Ierardi; M. Lelii; Principi, N

    2016-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Methods Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9 %), and tested for the autolysin-A-...

  19. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    OpenAIRE

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD.

  20. Quantitation of antibody-secreting cells in the blood after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C; Andersen, V

    1990-01-01

    -specific antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) of the isotypes IgM, IgG, and IgA. The appearance of AbSC in the blood after vaccination of adults with diphtheria toxoid-conjugated Hib polysaccharide was investigated. AbSC were detected from post-vaccination day 5 to day 14. IgA was the predominant isotype among...... these cells. IgM AbSC peaked slightly earlier (median day 7) than IgG and IgA AbSC (both day 8). On post-vaccination day 8 the numbers of AbSC were: IgA, 1217/10(6) mononuclear cells (median); IgG, 211; and IgM, 30 (n = 11). Similar isotype distribution has earlier been found after vaccination with pure...... capsular polysaccharides from Hib and pneumococci. The predominance of IgA AbSC in response to both conjugate and pure polysaccharide vaccines is probably due to reactivation of the same clones of IgA-committed memory B cells originally primed at the mucosa by natural exposure to the polysaccharide...

  1. Preparation and immunogenicity-evaluation of typhoid O-specific polysaccharides bio-conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhehui, Peng; Chao, Pan; Peng, Sun; Erling, Feng; Jun, Wu; Li, Zhu; Qingzhong, Peng; Hengliang, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi is still a major public health problem in developing countries. In this study, we constructed a genetically modified Salmonella Typhi strain expressing O-specific polysaccharides (OPS) antigen conjugated to a carrier, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A(rEPA N29). The conjugates (OPS-rEPA N29) were further purified and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results of ELISA showed that the conjugates evoked higher titers of IgG than OPS, suggesting that rEPAN29 increased immunogenicity of OPS significantly as a carrier. Moreover, three injections with 3-week interval evoked slightly higher titers of IgG than three injections with 2-week interval. However, injection of excess conjugates could not evoke higher titers of IgG against lipid polysaccharide (LPS). In summary, our study provides a new strategy for preparing polysaccharides-protein conjugate vaccines as well as similar bio-conjugate vaccines of other Gram-negative pathogens.

  2. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S K; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-03-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from -14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  3. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaijk Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed.

  4. Evidence that pneumococcal serotype replacement in Massachusetts following conjugate vaccination is now complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanage, William P.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Huang, Susan S.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Stevenson, Abbie E.; Kleinman, Ken; Hinrichsen, Virginia L.; Fraser, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been reduced in the US following conjugate vaccination (PCV7) targeting seven pneumococcal serotypes in 2000. However, increases in IPD due to other serotypes have been observed, in particular 19A. How much this “serotype replacement” will erode the benefits of vaccination and over what timescale is unknown. We used a population genetic approach to test first whether the selective impact of vaccination could be detected in a longitudinal carriage sample, and secondly how long it persisted for following introduction of vaccine in 2000. To detect the selective impact of the vaccine we compared the serotype diversity of samples from pneumococcal carriage in Massachusetts children collected in 2001, 2004 and 2007 with others collected in the pre-vaccine era in Massachusetts, the UK and Finland. The 2004 sample was significantly (p >0.0001) more diverse than pre-vaccine samples, indicating the selective pressure of vaccination. The 2007 sample showed no significant difference in diversity from the pre-vaccine period, and exhibited similar population structure, but with different serotypes. In 2007 the carriage frequency of 19A was similar to that of the most common serotype in pre-vaccine samples. We suggest that serotype replacement involving 19A may be complete in Massachusetts due to similarities in population structure to pre-vaccine samples. These results suggest that the replacement phenomenon occurs rapidly with high vaccine coverage, and may allay concerns about future increases in disease due to 19A. For other serotypes, the future course of replacement disease remains to be determined. PMID:21031138

  5. Pediatricians′ perspectives on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: An exploratory study in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Zodpey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on supply-side determinants, their utilization, and the access to pneumococcal vaccination in India. The objective of this exploratory study was to document the perceptions and perspectives of practicing pediatricians with regard to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs in selected metropolitan areas of India. A qualitative study was conducted to generate evidence on the perspective of pediatricians practicing in the private sector regarding pneumococcal vaccination. The pediatricians were identified from 11 metropolitan areas on the basis of PCV vaccine sales in India through multilevel stratified sampling method. Relevant information was collected through in-depth personal interviews. Finally, qualitative data analysis was carried out through standard techniques such as the identification of key domains, words, phrases, and concepts from the respondents. We observed that the majority (67.7% of the pediatricians recommended pneumococcal vaccination to their clients, whereas 32.2% recommended it to only those who could afford it. More than half (62.9% of the pediatricians had no preference for any brand and recommended both a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 and a 13-valent PCV (PCV13, whereas 8.0% recommended none. An overwhelming majority (97.3% of the pediatricians reported that the main reason for a patient not following the pediatrician′s advice for pneumococcal vaccination was the price of PCV. To reduce childhood pneumonia-related burden and mortality, pediatricians should use every opportunity to increase awareness about vaccine-preventable diseases, especially vaccine-preventable childhood pneumonia among their patients.

  6. Pediatricians' perspectives on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: An exploratory study in the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodpey, Sanjay; Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Chokshi, Maulik; Kumar, Balu Ravi; Thacker, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information on supply-side determinants, their utilization, and the access to pneumococcal vaccination in India. The objective of this exploratory study was to document the perceptions and perspectives of practicing pediatricians with regard to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in selected metropolitan areas of India. A qualitative study was conducted to generate evidence on the perspective of pediatricians practicing in the private sector regarding pneumococcal vaccination. The pediatricians were identified from 11 metropolitan areas on the basis of PCV vaccine sales in India through multilevel stratified sampling method. Relevant information was collected through in-depth personal interviews. Finally, qualitative data analysis was carried out through standard techniques such as the identification of key domains, words, phrases, and concepts from the respondents. We observed that the majority (67.7%) of the pediatricians recommended pneumococcal vaccination to their clients, whereas 32.2% recommended it to only those who could afford it. More than half (62.9%) of the pediatricians had no preference for any brand and recommended both a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and a 13-valent PCV (PCV13), whereas 8.0% recommended none. An overwhelming majority (97.3%) of the pediatricians reported that the main reason for a patient not following the pediatrician's advice for pneumococcal vaccination was the price of PCV. To reduce childhood pneumonia-related burden and mortality, pediatricians should use every opportunity to increase awareness about vaccine-preventable diseases, especially vaccine-preventable childhood pneumonia among their patients. PMID:26354401

  7. Local tolerance and general toxicity of tetravalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortant PM; Loveren H van; Wester PW; LPI

    1999-01-01

    Om de veiligheid van een tetravalent pneumococcen conjugaat-vaccin te testen werd het eindproduct dat bedoeld was voor gebruik in een klinische trial, toegediend aan 24 vrouwelijke ratten van 6 weken oud middels twee intramusculaire injecties. Parameters voor algemene toxiciteit waren: groei, vo

  8. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae prior to Introduction of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Brazil, 2000-2007: Pneumococcal Serotypes Prior to Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Ana Paula de O.; Campos, Leila C.; dos Santos, Milena S.; Azevedo, Jailton; dos Santos, Renan Cardoso Nery; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Beall, Bernard W.; Martin, Stacey W.; Salgado, Katia; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Reis, Joice N

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance patterns among 397 S. pneumoniae meningitis case isolates recovered in Salvador, Brazil, during the period of 2000-2007, before introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

  9. Pneumococcal meningitis: epidemiological profile pre- and post-introduction of the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane E. Hirose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the possible effects of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate 10-valent vaccine schedule in the state of Parana on pneumococcal meningitis cases and to assess the distribution of serotypes among cases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of cases of pneumococcal meningitis in the state of Paraná reported to Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, from 1998 to 2011. A total of 1,339 cases of pneumococcal meningitis were analyzed; 1,205 cases from the pre-vaccine period (1998-2009 were compared to 134 cases from the post-vaccine period (2010-2011. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses (chi-squared test and prevalence ratio were performed using JMP 5.1.2 statistical software (JMP Statistical Discovery, North Carolina, USA and EPI INFO 6 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia, EUA. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the mean rates of incidence and mortality in the general population. The analysis of cases in the pre- and post-vaccination periods in the age groups covered by vaccination (younger than 2 years showed significant reductions in incidence rates (6.01 cases/100,000 to 2.49 cases/100,000 individuals and mortality (1.85 cases/100,000 population to 0.47 cases/100,000 population, while the mean lethality rate did not change significantly. There was a significant reduction in cases whose serotypes are included in the vaccine (80.7% to 53.3%. CONCLUSION: Even after a short time of use, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has already had a significant impact in reducing the incidence and mortality of meningitis cases among infants, as well as the reduction of cases whose serotypes are included in the vaccine.

  10. Meeting the Challenge: Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease with Conjugate Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Gabriela Echániz Avilés; Fortino Solórzano Santos

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal co...

  11. Local tolerance and general toxicity of tetravalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Dortant PM; van Loveren H; Wester PW; LPI

    1999-01-01

    Om de veiligheid van een tetravalent pneumococcen conjugaat-vaccin te testen werd het eindproduct dat bedoeld was voor gebruik in een klinische trial, toegediend aan 24 vrouwelijke ratten van 6 weken oud middels twee intramusculaire injecties. Parameters voor algemene toxiciteit waren: groei, voedselopname, algemene klinische parameters en hematologie. Lokale tolerantie werd beoordeeld aan de hand van histopathologisch onderzoek van de injectieplaatsen en de regionale lymfknopen. Deze lymfkno...

  12. Th1-directing adjuvants increase the immunogenicity of oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines related to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, DJ; Benaissa-Trouw, B; Vliegenthart, JFG; Kamerling, JP; Jansen, WTM; Kraaijeveld, K; Snippe, H

    2003-01-01

    Oligosaccharide (OS)-protein conjugates are promising candidate vaccines against encapsulated bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the effects of several variables such as OS chain length and protein carrier have been studied, littl

  13. Impact of More Than a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use on Carriage and Invasive Potential in Native American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer R.; Millar, Eugene V.; Lipsitch, Marc; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Weatherholtz, Robert; Perilla, Mindy J.; Jackson, Delois M.; Beall, Bernard; Craig, Mariddie J.; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O’Brien, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We assessed the impact of 12 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype-specific invasive disease potential among Native Americans.

  14. Outer Membrane Protein Complex of Meningococcus Enhances the Antipolysaccharide Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide–CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antib...

  15. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N.; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant...

  16. A bicomponent Plasmodium falciparum investigational vaccine composed of protein-peptide conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Majadly, Fathy; Biesova, Zuzana; Mocca, Christopher P; Guo, Chunyan; Nussenzweig, Ruth; Nussenzweig, Victor; Mishra, Satish; Wu, Yimin; Miller, Louis H; Keith, Jerry M; Liu, Teh-Yung; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2010-01-19

    There is yet no licensed vaccine against malaria, a serious human disease affecting mostly children, with an annual death rate of about one million. Plasmodia, the malaria-causing parasites, have two obligatory hosts: mammals or birds, in which they multiply asexually, and mosquitoes with sexual multiplication. The most common and serious type of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface antigen of sporozoites, is a protective antigen. A unique feature of P. falciparum CSP is its large central domain composed of over 30 tetrapeptide repeats of Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro (NANP). Several NANP peptide-protein conjugates were tested clinically but elicited a low level of CSP antibodies for a short duration. To provide a CSP-based candidate vaccine, we investigated recombinant CSP and NANP conjugates of various peptide lengths, with different N-terminal amino acids, bound at different ratios to various carrier proteins. Injected into mice, CSP alone and CSP or NANP conjugates induced antibodies with booster responses and were positive by the sporozoite immunofluorescent assay. The use of the mosquito stage P. falciparum ookinete surface protein, Pfs25, cross-linked onto itself as a carrier for NANP, induced in mice high levels of uniquely long-lasting antibodies to both vaccine components with secondary biological activities, that will provide immunity to liver infection by sporozoites and block transmission by mosquitoes.

  17. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S;

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children quality surveillance data, just prior to the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....

  18. Economic evaluation of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination programmes in the Netherlands and its impact on decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Bos, JM; de Melker, H; van Alphen, L; Spanjaard, L; Rumke, HC; Postma, MJ

    2004-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of one time vaccination of all persons aged 14 months to 18 years (catch-up programme) and of routine childhood immunisation at either ages 2 + 3 + 4 months, 5 + 6 months, or 14 months with a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine was estimated for The Netherlands, from a societal

  19. Cost effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in populations of high risk in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alvis Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the economic impact of the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 in high risk populations of Colombia.Methods: A full economic evaluation was done regarding potential introduction of PCV-7. A cost-effectiveness study from the perspective of the third payer was done using a Decision Model. The model considered two alternatives: with and without vaccination. As measurement of results the avoided events were taken [cases, hospitalizations, deaths and Life-Years Saved (LYS]. In addition the net costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER were evaluated.Results: In a cohort of 70 thousand children of under 2 years old in situation of high risk, can generate 532 deaths that would produce a little more than 21 thousand Years of Life Lost (YLL with costs between 7.7 and 13.3 million dollars. If we vaccinate this same cohort the deaths can be reduced to 355, and the costs of burden of disease would be between 5.7 and 10 million dollars. It is estimated a reduction of 25% of the costs of burden of disease and of 33% of the deaths. In addition the ICER by YLS would be between 590 and 762 dollars.Conclusion: The introduction of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in populations of high risk is highly cost effective in Colombia.

  20. Non-epitope-specific suppression of the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by preimmunization with vaccine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Skettrup, M; Juul, L;

    1993-01-01

    Recently, conjugate vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to protein carriers were introduced for use in infants and certain adult risk groups. Similar conjugate vaccines against other capsulated bacteria are currently under development for both...... children and adults. Despite its potential importance, the possible influence of preexisting immunity to the components of such conjugates on the vaccination response in humans has been addressed by few studies. To study this issue, we randomized 82 healthy adult volunteers into six groups and vaccinated...... them twice, with a 4-week interval between immunizations. Four groups received tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and then HibCP coupled to TT (HibCP-TT) or DT (HibCP-DT). Two groups received HibCP-TT followed by HibCP-DT or vice versa. The total antibody levels to HibCP, TT, and DT...

  1. Is there a potential role for protein‐conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Musher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding controversy over the efficacy of 23‐valentpneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 led to arecommendation by the Joint Committee on Vaccinationand Immunisation (JCVI of the United Kingdom in March2011, to discontinue routine use of PPV23 in older adults.1Following careful review of the evidence and feedbackfrom stakeholders, the JCVI decided to retain the originalpolicy of uniform vaccination of adults >65 years of age,while keeping the subject under continued review. In theUnited States, the Advisory Committee on ImmunizationPractices (ACIP which is also concerned about the efficacyof PPV23 is currently considering a different strategy, i.e.adding 13‐valent pneumococcal protein‐conjugate vaccine(PCV13 for recommended use in adults, following recentFood and Drug Administration (FDA approval for thispurpose in adults over 50 years of age. It is thereforetimely to review the options for prevention ofpneumococcal disease in adults.

  2. Antigen Processing of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Carrier Protein CRM197 Differs Depending on the Serotype of the Attached Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Ethan G.; Canaday, David H.; Harding, Clifford V.; Schreiber, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The pneumococcal (Pn) conjugate vaccine includes seven different polysaccharides (PS) conjugated to CRM197. Utilizing antigen-processing cells and a CRM197-specific mouse T-cell hybridoma, we found that the serotype of conjugated PnPS dramatically affected antigen processing of CRM197. Unconjugated CRM197 and serotype conjugates 14 and 18C were processed more efficiently.

  3. Immunogenicity of a combined DTPa-HB vaccine co-administered with Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine (PRP-T for primary and booster vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bracco Neto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity of a combined DTPa-HB vaccine co-administered with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (PRP-T in Brazilian infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective and open clinical study, in which 110 infants were immunized with a three-dose primary vaccination regime at two, four and six months of age and with a single booster vaccination. Blood samples were drawn immediately before the first dose, one month after the third dose, at the time of the booster dose and one month after the booster to assess seropositivity and antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs of antibodies for diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b and for the three pertussis antigens: Pertussis Toxin (PT, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA and Pertactin (PRN. RESULTS: Among the original 110 infants, 93 completed the study. Seropositivity was 100% for all seven involved antibodies, after the primary vaccination course. At the time of the booster dose, all antibodies (except diphtheria 33.7% and anti-PT 59% were seropositive for more than 94% of subjects. After the booster, seropositivity increased to 100% for all antibodies. The GMT of these antibodies followed a similar pattern, with a strong increase after the primary course, followed by a second increase after the booster dose. At this time, GMT was2- to 7-fold higher than after the primary course, for all vaccine components. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant administration of DTPa-HB and Hib vaccines elicited strong seroprotection for all the antigenic components. No interference with antibody response was evident. The vaccines provided high immunogenicity, following both the primary vaccinations and the booster dose.

  4. Development of a Pfs25-EPA malaria transmission blocking vaccine as a chemically conjugated nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, Richard L; Rowe, Christopher; Reiter, Karine; Chen, Beth; Nguyen, Vu; Aebig, Joan; Rausch, Kelly M; Kumar, Krishan; Wu, Yimin; Jin, Albert J; Jones, David S; Narum, David L

    2013-06-19

    Successful efforts to control infectious diseases have often required the use of effective vaccines. The current global strategy for control of malaria, including elimination and eradication will also benefit from the development of an effective vaccine that interrupts malaria transmission. To this end, a vaccine that disrupts malaria transmission within the mosquito host has been investigated for several decades targeting a 25 kDa ookinete specific surface protein, identified as Pfs25. Phase 1 human trial results using a recombinant Pfs25H/Montanide ISA51 formulation demonstrated that human Pfs25 specific antibodies block parasite infectivity to mosquitoes; however, the extent of blocking was likely insufficient for an effective transmission blocking vaccine. To overcome the poor immunogenicity, processes to produce and characterize recombinant Pfs25H conjugated to a detoxified form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (EPA) have been developed and used to manufacture a cGMP pilot lot for use in human clinical trials. The Pfs25-EPA conjugate appears as a nanoparticle with an average molar mass in solution of approximately 600 kDa by static light scattering with an average diameter 20 nm (range 10-40 nm) by dynamic light scattering. The molar ratio of Pfs25H to EPA is about 3 to 1 by amino acid analysis, respectively. Outbred mice immunized with the Pfs25-EPA conjugated nanoparticle formulated on Alhydrogel(®) had a 75-110 fold increase in Pfs25H specific antibodies when compared to an unconjugated Pfs25H/Alhydrogel(®) formulation. A phase 1 human trial using the Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel(®) formulation is ongoing in the United States.

  5. S. pneumoniae transmission according to inclusion in conjugate vaccines: Bayesian analysis of a longitudinal follow-up in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valleron Alain-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends of pneumococcal colonization in the United States, following the introduction of conjugate vaccination, indicate that non-vaccine serotypes tend to replace vaccine serotypes. The eventual extent of this replacement is however unknown and depends on serotype-specific carriage and transmission characteristics. Methods Here, some of these characteristics were estimated for vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes from the follow-up of 4,488 schoolchildren in France in 2000. A Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo data augmentation techniques was used for estimation. Results Vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes were found to have similar characteristics: the mean duration of carriage was 23 days (95% credible interval (CI: 21, 25 days for vaccine serotypes and 22 days (95% CI: 20, 24 days for non-vaccine serotypes; within a school of size 100, the Secondary Attack Rate was 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0%, 1.2% for both vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes. Conclusion This study supports that, in 3–6 years old children, no competitive advantage exists for vaccine serotypes compared to non-vaccine serotypes. This is an argument in favour of important serotype replacement. It would be important to validate the result for infants, who are known to be the main reservoir in maintaining transmission. Overall reduction in pathogenicity should also be taken into account in forecasting the future burden of pneumococcal colonization in vaccinated populations.

  6. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children with early onset of acute otitis media - a randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Gisselsson-Solén, Marie; Henriksson, Gunnel; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conclusion: Although children vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) had fewer episodes of acute otitis media (AOM), this trial was unable to prove a simultaneous decrease in nasopharyngeal carriage.

  7. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  8. A Novel R848-Conjugated Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine Is Efficacious and Safe in a Neonate Nonhuman Primate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Beth C; Kim, Jong R; Blevins, Lance K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kock, Nancy D; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Aycock, S Tyler; Hadimani, Mallinath B; King, S Bruce; Parks, Griffith D; Alexander-Miller, Martha A

    2016-07-15

    Influenza virus infection of neonates poses a major health concern, often resulting in severe disease and hospitalization. At present, vaccines for this at-risk population are lacking. Thus, development of an effective vaccine is an urgent need. In this study, we have used an innovative nonhuman primate neonate challenge model to test the efficacy of a novel TLR 7/8 agonist R848-conjugated influenza virus vaccine. The use of the intact virus represents a step forward in conjugate vaccine design because it provides multiple antigenic targets allowing for elicitation of a broad immune response. Our results show that this vaccine induces high-level virus-specific Ab- and cell-mediated responses in neonates that result in increased virus clearance and reduced lung pathology postchallenge compared with the nonadjuvanted virus vaccine. Surprisingly, the addition of a second TLR agonist (flagellin) did not enhance vaccine protection, suggesting that combinations of TLR that provide increased efficacy must be determined empirically. These data support further exploration of this new conjugate influenza vaccine approach as a platform for use in the at-risk neonate population. PMID:27279374

  9. Synthetic teichoic acid conjugate vaccine against nosocomial Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Insertion in Partial Immunized Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (β = −0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative β value means a downward trend and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive β values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05. The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83–0.97 and 0.19–0.23, resp.. Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.

  11. Long-term thermal stability of group C meningococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shwu-Maan; Petermann, Robert; Porte, Quallyna; Berezuk, Greg; Crowe, Brian; Shirtz, John

    2007-01-01

    The stability of vaccines during storage and handling is a prerequisite for optimal potency at the time of immunization. Meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines have been successfully incorporated in mass immunization programs, however, thus far no long-term real-time stability studies of these vaccines have been reported. Stability of de-O-acetylated group C meningococcal polysaccharide coupled to tetanus toxoid (GCMP-TT) was evaluated in real time on the basis of immunogenicity and physiochemical properties. The vaccine is formulated as a 0.5 mL suspension containing 10 mug GCMP conjugated to 10-20 mug of TT adsorbed on 0.5 mg aluminum in saline. The single dose syringes were stored under refrigeration (5 +/- 3 degrees C) and at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 42 months and at elevated temperature (40 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 6 months. At both refrigerated and room temperatures, no time-dependent change in animal potency was detectable through 42 months. After the nine months maximum recommended storage period at room temperature, 96% of the baseline serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer was maintained. Time-dependent decreases in SBA level and anti-GCMP-TT IgG level were observed at 40 +/- 2 degrees C. No changes in GCMP-TT adsorption and pH occurred in all the studies. Loss of integrity increased over six months at 40 +/- 2 degrees C (p = 0.004). Free sugar content did not change over 36 months under refrigeration. GCMP-TT retained immunogenicity and physicochemical properties under refrigeration and at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 42 months.

  12. Influence of prevaccination immunity on the human B-lymphocyte response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Kristensen, K; Henrichsen, J;

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preexisting immunity to components of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate influences the B-lymphocyte response to vaccination with the conjugate. Thirty-two healthy adults were vaccinated once or twice with a conjugate (PRP-D) consisting...... of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP) and diphtheria toxoid (DT), and the response was related to the prevaccination levels of PRP and DT antibodies. Positive correlations were found between increases in plasma PRP (median, 32.0 micrograms/ml) and DT (1.14 IU/ml) antibodies and numbers...... revaccination with PRP-D, small increases in the level of PRP antibodies (median, 2.9 micrograms/ml; n = 11) were found; no significant increase in the level of DT antibodies was seen. The numbers of PRP AbSC were lower (P = 0.04) and peaked earlier (day 7) than after the first vaccination. The isotype pattern...

  13. Impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Brazilian routine childhood national immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-05-27

    Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage and all the major pneumococcal disease manifestations in a single, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve, developing country. A total of 15 published articles and 13 congress abstracts were included in the analysis. In children vaccine-type and any-type invasive pneumococcal disease (including decreases in pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality), on pneumonia incidence and mortality, and on otitis media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. PMID:27113162

  14. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v

  15. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants

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    Wei Feifei

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether introduction of PCV affected immunization coverage for recommended childhood vaccinations among 13-month olds in four large provider groups. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed computerized data on vaccinations for 33,319 children in four large provider groups before and after the introduction of PCV. The primary outcome was whether the child was up to date for all non-PCV recommended vaccinations at 13 months of age. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between PCV introduction and the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was the number of days spent underimmunized by 13 months. The association between PCV introduction and the secondary outcome was evaluated using a two-part modelling approach using logistic and negative binomial regression. Results Overall, 93% of children were up-to-date at 13 months, and 70% received all non-PCV vaccinations without any delay. Among the entire study population, immunization coverage was maintained or slightly increased from the pre-PCV to post-PCV periods. After multivariate adjustment, children born after PCV entered routine use were less likely to be up-to-date at 13 months in one provider group (Group C: OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.8 and were less likely to have received all vaccine doses without any delay in two Groups (Group B: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.6; Group C: OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.7. This represented 3% fewer children in Group C who

  16. Neonatal and Infantile Immune Responses to Encapsulated Bacteria and Conjugate Vaccines

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    Peter Klein Klouwenberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated bacteria are responsible for the majority of mortality among neonates and infants. The major components on the surface of these bacteria are polysaccharides which are important virulence factors. Immunity against these components protects against disease. However, most of the polysaccharides are thymus-independent (TI-2 antigens which induce an inadequate immune response in neonates and infants. The mechanisms that are thought to play a role in the unresponsiveness of this age group to TI-2 stimuli will be discussed. The lack of immune response may be overcome by conjugating the polysaccharides to a carrier protein. This transforms bacterial polysaccharides from a TI-2 antigen into a thymus-dependent (TD antigen, thereby inducing an immune response and immunological memory in neonates and infants. Such conjugated vaccines have been shown to be effective against the most common causes of invasive disease caused by encapsulated bacteria in neonates and children. These and several other approaches in current vaccine development will be discussed.

  17. Immunosuppressive drugs impairs antibody response of the polysaccharide and conjugated pneumococcal vaccines in patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Thomsen, Ole Østergaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a higher risk of infectious diseases including pneumococcal infections, and the risk increases with immunotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the specific antibody response to two pneumococcal vaccines in CD patients...... with and without immunosuppressive treatment four weeks post vaccination. METHODS: In a randomized trial of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), a group of CD patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs (IS) alone or in combination...... with TNF-α antagonists were compared to a group of CD patients not treated with any of these drugs (untreated). Specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured against 12 serotypes common to the two vaccines before and 4 week after vaccination. RESULTS: PCV13 induced a significantly higher...

  18. The burden of pneumococcal disease in the Canadian population before routine use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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    Adrienne Morrow; Philippe De Wals; Geneviève Petit; Maryse Guay; Lonny James Erickson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, implementation of the seven-valent conjugate vaccine into childhood immunization schedules has had an effect on the burden of pneumococcal disease in all ages of the population. To evaluate the impact in Canada, it is essential to have an estimate of the burden of pneumococcal disease before routine use of the vaccine.METHODS: The incidence and costs of pneumococcal disease in the Canadian population in 2001 were estimated from various sources, including publ...

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

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    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  20. Effects of solution conditions on characteristics and size exclusion chromatography of pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines.

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    Hadidi, Mahsa; Buckley, John J; Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-11-01

    Molecular properties of bacterial polysaccharides and protein-polysaccharide conjugates play an important role in the efficiency and immunogenicity of the final vaccine product. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is commonly used to analyze and characterize biopolymers, including capsular polysaccharides. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of solution ionic strength and pH on the SEC retention of several capsular polysaccharides from S. pneumoniae bacteria in their native and conjugated forms. The retention time of the charged polysaccharides increased with increasing ionic strength and decreasing pH due to compaction of the polysaccharides associated with a reduction in the intramolecular electrostatic interactions. The calculated radius of gyration was in good agreement with model calculations based on the worm-like chain model accounting for the increase in chain stiffness and excluded volume of the charged polysaccharide at low ionic strength. These results provide important insights into the effects of solution ionic strength on physical properties and SEC behavior of capsular polysaccharides and their corresponding conjugates. PMID:27516244

  1. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR.

  2. Immunogenicity of a 2-dose priming and booster vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Høgh, Birthe; Bergsaker, Marianne Riise;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was determined following a simplified 2-dose priming and the more commonly employed 3-dose priming both followed by a booster dose. METHODS: A total of 351 healthy...

  3. Impact of the antipneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the occurrence of infectious respiratory diseases and hospitalization rates in children

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    Wanderci Marys Oliveira Abrão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, to reduce the occurrence of serious pneumococcal disease, the Ministry of Health in Brazil incorporated the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the immunization schedule of children younger than two years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of vaccination on the incidence of infectious respiratory diseases in infants before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved primary care and hospital networks from a city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: A 40% reduction in the prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was observed after introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Male children were 28% more likely to develop the disease. The prevalence ratio ([PR] = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.53, p < 0.05 suggested that not being vaccinated was associated with the occurrence of pneumonia. The prevalence of CAP was 70% lower (PR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.37, p<0.05 in children vaccinated as recommended compared to children with delayed vaccination, suggesting that the updated vaccine schedule improves protection. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine appeared to reduce the number of pneumonia cases in children during the study period. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the vaccine against the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia.

  4. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight years of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination have had a strong effect on the pneumococcal population in Germany, both among the target group for vaccination as well as among older children and adults.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar) in Germany: considering a high-risk population and herd immunity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam; Patel, Nishma; Scott, David A; Runge, Claus; Claes, Christa; Rose, Markus

    2008-02-01

    In Germany, the seven-valent conjugate vaccine Prevenar is recommended for use in children at high risk of pneumococcal disease. Recent data suggest that giving conjugate vaccine to all children may lead to a decline in pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated adults, a phenomenon known as herd immunity. This analysis evaluated the cost and economic consequences in Germany of vaccinating (1) children at high risk, (2) all children when considering only benefits for vaccinated individuals and (3) all children when also considering herd immunity benefits. Costs in the model included vaccination, management of meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia and acute otitis media, insurance payments to parents and the costs of care for long-term disabilities. The model estimated that the cost-effectiveness of vaccination would be 38,222 euros per life year gained in children at high risk and 100,636 euros per life year gained in all children when not considering herd immunity. When considering herd immunity effects, the model estimated that offering vaccination for all children would reduce adult deaths by 3,027 per year, and vaccination would be broadly cost neutral. The findings are sensitive to the effect of conjugate vaccine on the rates of pneumonia and invasive disease in the elderly. If the herd immunity effect of conjugate vaccination in Germany is similar to that observed elsewhere, offering vaccine to all children will be more attractive than the current policy of restricting vaccination to children at high risk of pneumococcal disease.

  6. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children morbidity and mortality in Peru: Time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Victor; Michel, Fabiana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Gonzales, Marco; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Andrus, Jon K; de Oliveira, Lucia H

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children worldwide. Despite available evidence on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact on pneumonia hospitalizations in children, studies demonstrating PCV impact in morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries are still scarce. Given the disease burden, PCV7 was introduced in Peru in 2009, and then switched to PCV10 in late 2011. National public healthcare system provides care for 60% of the population, and national hospitalization, outpatient and mortality data are available. We thus aimed to assess the effects of routine PCV vaccination on pneumonia hospitalization and mortality, and acute otitis media (AOM) and all cause pneumonia outpatient visits in children under one year of age in Peru. We conducted a segmented time-series analysis using outcome-specific regression models. Study period was from January 2006 to December 2012. Data sources included the National information systems for hospitalization, mortality, outpatient visits, and RENACE, the national database of aggregated weekly notifications of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases (both hospitalized and non-hospitalized). Study outcomes included community acquired pneumonia outpatient visits, hospitalizations and deaths (ICD10 codes J12-J18); and AOM outpatient visits (H65-H67). Monthly age- and sex-specific admission, outpatient visit, and mortality rates per 100,000 children aged impact in morbidity and mortality in children aged <1year. Vaccine effectiveness was 26.2% (95% CI 16.9-34.4) for AOM visits, 35% (95% CI 8.6-53.8) for mortality due to pneumonia, and 20.6% (95% CI 10.6-29.5) for weekly cases of pneumonia hospitalization and outpatient visits notified to RENACE. We used secondary data sources which are usually developed for other non-epidemiologic purposes. Despite some data limitations, our results clearly demonstrate the overall benefit of PCV vaccination in Peru.

  7. Continued Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Carriage in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susan S.; Hinrichsen, Virginia L.; Stevenson, Abbie E.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, Stephen I.; Lipsitch, Marc; Hanage, William P.; Lee, Grace M.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals were to assess serial changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and antibiotic resistance in young children and to evaluate whether risk factors for carriage have been altered by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS Nasopharyngeal specimens and questionnaire/medical record data were obtained from children 3 months to <7 years of age in primary care practices in 16 Massachusetts communities during the winter seasons of 2000–2001 and 2003–2004 and in 8 communities in 2006–2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed with S pneumoniae isolates. RESULTS We collected 678, 988, and 972 specimens during the sampling periods in 2000–2001, 2003–2004, and 2006–2007, respectively. Carriage of non-PCV7 serotypes increased from 15% to 19% and 29% (P < .001), with vaccine serotypes decreasing to 3% of carried serotypes in 2006–2007. The relative contribution of several non-PCV7 serotypes, including 19A, 35B, and 23A, increased across sampling periods. By 2007, commonly carried serotypes included 19A (16%), 6A (12%), 15B/C (11%), 35B (9%), and 11A (8%), and high-prevalence serotypes seemed to have greater proportions of penicillin nonsusceptibility. In multivariate models, common predictors of pneumococcal carriage, such as child care attendance, upper respiratory tract infection, and the presence of young siblings, persisted. CONCLUSIONS The virtual disappearance of vaccine serotypes in S pneumoniae carriage has occurred in young children, with rapid replacement with penicillin-nonsusceptible nonvaccine serotypes, particularly 19A and 35B. Except for the age group at highest risk, previous predictors of carriage, such as child care attendance and the presence of young siblings, have not been changed by the vaccine. PMID:19564254

  8. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  9. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  10. An innovative method for quality control of conjugated Haemophilus influenzae vaccines: A short review of two-dimensional nanoparticle electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Dietmar

    2009-12-25

    This article provides an overview of a 2D agarose electrophoretic procedure for the characterization of semi-synthetic Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis vaccines that were prepared for the immunization of small children. The analysis of such vaccines has been particularly challenging because the vaccine particles (i) are highly negatively charged, (ii) are as large as or even larger than intact viruses, and (iii) have a continuous (polydisperse) size distribution because of randomizing steps in the vaccine production (sonification and crosslinking). As a result of these characteristics, 1D electrophoresis of the vaccines produced smears without discernable peaks, but with a second dimension of separation a characteristic vaccine fingerprint was obtained. Whereas O'Farrell gels can accomplish a 2D separation according to size and charge for samples with protein-sized particles, nondenaturing 2D agarose electrophoresis achieves a similar result for much larger virus-sized particles. The separation principle, however, is different. Even though the 2D electrophoretic method was developed from 1983 to 1995, it remains a promising tool for vaccine quality control and for predicting vaccine effectiveness. Modern technology makes the analysis significantly more practical and affordable than it was more than 10 years ago, and the method is applicable to a variety of conjugated vaccines and complex mixtures of virus-sized particles.

  11. Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16 years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3 months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay.

  12. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands.

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    Hiltsje Hepkema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. METHODS: A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. RESULTS: Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity.

  13. Pneumococcal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance in Young Children before 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    WROE, PETER C.; LEE, GRACE M.; FINKELSTEIN, JONATHAN A.; PELTON, STEPHEN I.; HANAGE, WILLIAM P.; LIPSITCH, MARC; STEVENSON, ABBIE E.; RIFAS-SHIMAN, SHERYL L.; KLEINMAN, KEN; DUTTA-LINN, M. MAYA; HINRICHSEN, VIRGINIA L.; LAKOMA, MATTHEW; HUANG, SUSAN S.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to measure trends in Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children in Massachusetts communities after widespread adoption of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and before the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including collection of questionnaire data and nasopharyngeal specimens among children <7 years in primary care practices from 8 Massachusetts communities during the winter season of 2008–9 and compared with to similar studies performed in 2001, 2003–4, and 2006–7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed on pneumococcal isolates, and risk factors for colonization in recent seasons (2006–07 and 2008–09) were evaluated. Results We collected nasopharyngeal specimens from 1,011 children, 290 (29%) of whom were colonized with pneumococcus. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for 98% of pneumococcal isolates, most commonly 19A (14%), 6C (11%), and 15B/C (11%). In 2008–09, newly-targeted PCV13 serotypes accounted for 20% of carriage isolates and 41% of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP). In multivariate models, younger age, child care, young siblings, and upper respiratory illness remained predictors of pneumococcal carriage, despite near-complete serotype replacement. Only young age and child care were significantly associated with PNSP carriage. Conclusions Serotype replacement post-PCV7 is essentially complete and has been sustained in young children, with the relatively virulent 19A being the most common serotype. Predictors of carriage remained similar despite serotype replacement. PCV13 may reduce 19A and decrease antibiotic-resistant strains, but monitoring for new serotype replacement is warranted. PMID:22173142

  14. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with synthetic Candida cell wall mannan derived heptamannoside-protein conjugate: immunomodulatory properties of heptamannoside-BSA conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Lucia; Paulovičová, Ema; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bystrický, Slavomír

    2012-10-01

    Chemically defined glycoprotein conjugate composed of synthetically prepared mannan-derived heptamannoside with terminal β-1,2-linked mannose residue attached to the α-1,3-linked mannose residues and BSA as carrier protein (M7-BSA conjugate) was analysed for the capacity to induce protective humoral immunity and appropriate alteration cellular immunity. To identify protective antigenic structure of Candida cell wall mannan M7-BSA conjugate was used for BALB/c mice immunization. The obtained results were compared with placebo group and with heat-inactivated C. albicans whole cells immunization. The administration route of M7-BSA conjugate secondary booster injection significantly affected the intensity of humoral immune response and the specificity of produced antibodies. All prepared sera were able to elevate candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in cooperation with complement. Moreover, polyclonal sera obtained after secondary subcutaneous (s.c.) booster injection of M7-BSA conjugate were able to induce candidacidal activity of PMN also in complement independent manner. M7-BSA conjugate immunization induced increases of phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of granulocytes, caused a raise of the proportion of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and increased the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio. We observed also an increasing proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells compared to immunization with heat inactivated whole C. albicans cells, which in turn promoted an increase of the CD8(+)CD25(+) cell proportion. Immunization with M7-BSA conjugate induced Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses as indicated by the elevation of relevant cytokines levels. These data provide some insights on the immunomodulatory properties of oligomannosides and contribute to the development of synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against fungal diseases.

  15. Development of a new trend conjugate vaccine for the prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infections, especially in newborns, blood cancer patients, and other immunocompromised candidates. The control of K. pneumoniae is a complicated issue due to its tight pathogenesis. Immuno-prophylactic preparations, especially those directed toward the bacterium O-antigen, showed to be the most successful way to prevent the infection incidence. However, all previously proposed preparations were either of limited spectrum or non-maternal, and hence not targeting the main Klebsiella patients. Moreover, all preparations were directed only to prevent the respiratory diseases due to that pathogen. This article addresses the development of a method originally used to purify the non-capsular bacterial- endotoxins, as a new and easy method for vaccine production against K. pneumoniae. The application of this method was preceded by a biotechnological control of capsular polysaccharide production in K. pneumoniae. The new produced natural conjugate between the bacterial O-antigen and its outer membrane proteins was evaluated by physicochemical and immunological methods to investigate its purity, integrity, safety and immunogenicity. It showed to be pure, stable, safe for use, and able to elicit a protective immunoglobulin titer against different Klebsiella infections. This immune-response proved to be transferable to the offspring of the vaccinated experimental rabbits via placenta.

  16. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children morbidity and mortality in Peru: Time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Victor; Michel, Fabiana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Gonzales, Marco; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Andrus, Jon K; de Oliveira, Lucia H

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children worldwide. Despite available evidence on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact on pneumonia hospitalizations in children, studies demonstrating PCV impact in morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries are still scarce. Given the disease burden, PCV7 was introduced in Peru in 2009, and then switched to PCV10 in late 2011. National public healthcare system provides care for 60% of the population, and national hospitalization, outpatient and mortality data are available. We thus aimed to assess the effects of routine PCV vaccination on pneumonia hospitalization and mortality, and acute otitis media (AOM) and all cause pneumonia outpatient visits in children under one year of age in Peru. We conducted a segmented time-series analysis using outcome-specific regression models. Study period was from January 2006 to December 2012. Data sources included the National information systems for hospitalization, mortality, outpatient visits, and RENACE, the national database of aggregated weekly notifications of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases (both hospitalized and non-hospitalized). Study outcomes included community acquired pneumonia outpatient visits, hospitalizations and deaths (ICD10 codes J12-J18); and AOM outpatient visits (H65-H67). Monthly age- and sex-specific admission, outpatient visit, and mortality rates per 100,000 children aged Peru. PMID:27521230

  17. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  18. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage in Young Children in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace M.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, Stephen I.; Hanage, William; Huang, Susan S.; Lakoma, Matthew; Dutta-Linn, Maya; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Stevenson, Abbie; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In April 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 for use in the United States. We evaluated rates of pneumococcal colonization, by serotype and antibiotic resistance, in Massachusetts communities where serial cross-sectional surveillance has been conducted for the past decade. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from children 0 to <7 years of age and seen by primary care providers for well child or acute illness visits in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2011. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and classified as PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F), additional PCV13 serotypes (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A), or non-PCV13 serotypes. Changes in colonization and impact of PCV13 were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for known risk factors and accounting for clustering by community. Results Introduction of PCV13 did not affect the rate of overall pneumococcal colonization (31% in 2011). Colonization with non-PCV13 serotypes increased between 2001 and 2011 for all children (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10, 1.15; P < .0001). 19A remained the second most common serotype in 2011, although a decline from 2009 was observed. Penicillin (7%), erythromycin (28%), ceftriaxone (10%), and clindamycin (10%) nonsusceptibility were commonly identified, concentrated among a small number of serotypes (including 19A, 35B, 15B/C, and 15A). Among healthy children 6–23 months old, colonization with PCV13 serotypes was lower among recipients of PCV13 vaccine (adjusted OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.78). This effect was not observed in 6- to 23-month-old children with a concomitant respiratory tract infection (adjusted OR 1.36; 95% CI, 0.66, 2.77) or children 2 to <7 years old (adjusted OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.58, 2.34). Conclusions 13-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduced the prevalence of colonization with PCV13 serotypes among children 6–23 months old, but its

  19. Effects of an oxycodone conjugate vaccine on oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-induced brain gene expression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pravetoni

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid abuse is an increasing public health concern in the USA. A vaccine comprising a hapten (OXY conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (OXY-KLH has been shown to attenuate the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Here, the vaccine's ability to prevent acquisition of intravenous (i.v. oxycodone self-administration was studied in rats. Effects of vaccination on oxycodone-induced changes in the expression of several genes within the mesolimbic system, which are regulated by chronic opiate use, were also examined. Vaccination with OXY-KLH reduced the proportion of rats acquiring i.v. self-administration of oxycodone under a fixed ratio (FR 3 schedule of reinforcement compared to control rats immunized with the unconjugated KLH carrier protein. Vaccination significantly reduced the mean number of infusions at FR3, total number of infusions, and total oxycodone intake during the entire protocol. Compared to oxycodone self-administering control rats immunized with the carrier alone, rats vaccinated with the OXY-KLH immunogen showed increased levels of adenylate cyclase 5 (Adcy5 and decreased levels of early growth response protein 2 (Egr2 and the early immediate gene c-Fos in the striatum. These data suggest that vaccination with OXY-KLH can attenuate the reinforcing effects of oxycodone at a clinically-relevant exposure level. Analysis of mRNA expression identified some addiction-relevant markers that may be of interest in understanding oxycodone effects or the protection provided by vaccination.

  20. Moderate PEGylation of the carrier protein improves the polysaccharide-specific immunogenicity of meningococcal group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Weili; Wang, Yanfei; Hu, Tao

    2015-06-22

    Neisseria meningitidis can cause severe and fulminant diseases such as meningitis. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS) is a key virulence determinant that is not able to induce immunological memory. Conjugation of PS to a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of PS and induce immunological memory. Due to the classically described carrier-induced epitopic suppression (CIES) mechanisms, a strong immune response against the carrier protein could suppress the immune response to PS after coadministration of free carrier protein with the conjugate vaccine. However, it was not clear whether suppressing or enhancing the protein-specific immunogenicity could improve the PS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Thus, moderate PEGylation, extensive PEGylation and oligomerization were used to regulate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid (TT) in the conjugate vaccine (PS-TT). Moderate PEGylation led to a 2.7-fold increase in the PS-specific IgG titers elicited by PS-TT. In contrast, extensive PEGylation and oligomerization of TT led to 1.4-fold and 1.6-fold decrease in the PS-specific IgG titers elicited by PS-TT, respectively. The PS-specific immunogenicity of PS-TT can be increased by moderate PEGylation through mild suppression of the TT-specific immunogenicity. The PS-specific immunogenicity of PS-TT was decreased through significant suppression or enhancement of the TT-specific immunogenicity. Thus, our study contributes to understand the CIES mechanisms and improve the PS-specific immunogenicity of a meningococcal PS conjugate vaccine.

  1. Characterization and optimization of heroin hapten-BSA conjugates: method development for the synthesis of reproducible hapten-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Oscar B; Jalah, Rashmi; Rice, Kenner C; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Boutaghou, Mohamed Nazim; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2014-09-01

    A potential new treatment for drug addiction is immunization with vaccines that induce antibodies that can abrogate the addictive effects of the drug of abuse. One of the challenges in the development of a vaccine against drugs of abuse is the availability of an optimum procedure that gives reproducible and high yielding hapten-protein conjugates. In this study, a heroin/morphine surrogate hapten (MorHap) was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using maleimide-thiol chemistry. MorHap-BSA conjugates with 3, 5, 10, 15, 22, 28, and 34 haptens were obtained using different linker and hapten ratios. Using this optimized procedure, MorHap-BSA conjugates were synthesized with highly reproducible results and in high yields. The number of haptens attached to BSA was compared by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, modified Ellman's test and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Among the three methods, MALDI-TOF MS discriminated subtle differences in hapten density. The effect of hapten density on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performance was evaluated with seven MorHap-BSA conjugates of varying hapten densities, which were used as coating antigens. The highest antibody binding was obtained with MorHap-BSA conjugates containing 3-5 haptens. This is the first report that rigorously analyzes, optimizes and characterizes the conjugation of haptens to proteins that can be used for vaccines against drugs of abuse. The effect of hapten density on the ELISA detection of antibodies against haptens demonstrates the importance of careful characterization of the hapten density by the analytical techniques described.

  2. Elevated levels of maternal anti-tetanus toxin antibodies do not suppress the immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Panpitpat, C.; Thisyakorn, U.; Chotpitayasunondh, T; Fürer, E; Que, J U; Hasler, T.; Cryz, S J

    2000-01-01

    Reported are the effects of elevated levels of anti-tetanus antibodies on the safety and immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate (PRP)-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine. A group of Thai infants (n = 177) born to women immunized against tetanus during pregnancy were vaccinated with either a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) PRP-T vaccine or DTP and a PRP-conjugate vaccine using Neisseria meningitidis group B outer-membrane proteins as a carrier ...

  3. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (pacute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Sebastián García; Colantonio, Lisandro; Bardach, Ariel; Galante, Julieta; Lopez, Analía; Caporale, Joaquín; Knerer, Gerhart; Gomez, Jorge Alberto; Augustovski, Federico; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru....

  5. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/− a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. The...

  6. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Regis Leite; Jailton Azevedo; Vivian Santos Galvão; Otávio Moreno-Carvalho; Joice Neves Reis; Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during t...

  7. Pneumococcal Serotype 19F Conjugate Vaccine Induces Cross-Protective Immunity to Serotype 19A in a Murine Pneumococcal Pneumonia Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Håvard; Sigurdsson, Viktor D.; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig; Schulz, Dominique; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2003-01-01

    Immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PNC) containing serotype 19F induces cross-reactive antibodies to 19A in mice and human infants. Active immunization with PNC and passive immunization with serum samples from infants vaccinated with PNC containing serotype 19F, but not serotype 19A, protected against lung infection caused by both serotypes in a murine model.

  8. A 4-month-old baby presenting with dermal necrotizing granulomatous giant cell reaction at the injection site of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R; Albawardi, Alia; Khan, Navidul Haq; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adjuvants (for example, aluminum salts) are frequently incorporated in licensed vaccines to enhance the host immune response. Such vaccines include the pneumococcal conjugate, combinations of diphtheria–tetanus/acellular pertussis, tetanus– diphtheria/acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, some Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A, and human papillomavirus. These preparations have been associated with complicated local adverse events, especially if administered subcutaneously or...

  9. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of general immunisation of infants and young children with the heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA granted market authorisation to the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar (Wyeth in the year 2001. The indication of Prevenar is the active immunisation of infants and young children under the age of two against invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumonia serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. At the time of this study the German vaccination scheme advises the immunisation with Prevenar only for children at high risk. Objectives: The objective of the study is first to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of the immunisation of all children with the heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Germany and second, whether a general recommendation for vaccination of all children would be cost-effective. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 29 relevant databases for the period of January 1999 to June 2004. Thus 1,884 articles were identified which were then assessed according to predefined selection criteria. Results: There is evidence for the medical effectiveness of Prevenar against invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the covered serotypes from a major double-blinded RCT undertaken in California. The vaccine shows lower values of effectiveness against otitis media and pneumonia. The values for effectiveness of the vaccine in Germany are below the data for California because of the different incidence of Serotypes. The cost-effectiveness rates for an immunisation of all children with Prevenar vary across different countries. One reason - besides different Health Systems - can be seen in the uncertainty about the duration of protection, another in the assumption on regional serotype coverage of the vaccine. From the healthcare payers' perspective a general vaccination of all children in Germany is not cost-effective, from a societal perspective the benefits from vaccination could prevail the cost. The actual price of the

  11. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevention among adults: is the herd effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children as good a way as the active immunization of the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.

  12. Estimated effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease and associated mortality, Denmark 2000-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide an estimation of the direct and indirect benefits of pneumococcal vaccination with three protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCV) we described the epidemiology and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Denmark between 2000 and 2005. Approximately 1080 cases...... were registered annually during the period. The overall incidence of IPD increased significantly, from 15.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 20.7 cases per 100,000 in 2005 (pbacteraemia cases. The serotype coverage in children under 5 years varied from 64......% to 91% depending on the PCV used. The mean mortality proportion after IPD was 18%, with approximately 190 deaths annually. One to two deaths among children younger than 5 years and approximately 50 deaths related to IPD caused by vaccine serotypes among older age groups could be prevented annually...

  13. Estimated effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease and associated mortality, Denmark 2000-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Z.B.; Valentiner-Branth, P.; Benfield, T.L.;

    2008-01-01

    % to 91% depending on the PCV used. The mean mortality proportion after IPD was 18%, with approximately 190 deaths annually. One to two deaths among children younger than 5 years and approximately 50 deaths related to IPD caused by vaccine serotypes among older age groups could be prevented annually......In order to provide an estimation of the direct and indirect benefits of pneumococcal vaccination with three protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCV) we described the epidemiology and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Denmark between 2000 and 2005. Approximately 1080 cases...... were registered annually during the period. The overall incidence of IPD increased significantly, from 15.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 20.7 cases per 100,000 in 2005 (pchildren under 5 years varied from 64...

  14. August 2013 pulmonary journal club: pneumococcal vaccine déjà vu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Moore MR, Whitney CG, Grijalva CG. U.S. hospitalizations for pneumonia after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(2:155-63. [CrossRef] [PubMed] The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 into the U.S. childhood immunization schedule in 2000 has substantially reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease in young children and in unvaccinated older children and adults. By preventing the acquisition and carriage of pneumococcus in the nasopharynx of vaccinated children, PCV7 reduced the transmission of vaccine serotypes to the unvaccinated. The authors estimated the annual rates of hospitalization for pneumonia from any cause using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Average annual rates of pneumonia-related hospitalizations from 1997 through 1999 (before the introduction of PCV7 and from 2007 through 2009 (well after its introduction were used to estimate annual declines in hospitalizations due to pneumonia. The annual rate of hospitalization for pneumonia among …

  15. Evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera made from Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide.

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    Mohammad Murshid Alam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Generally, polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic, especially in young children. METHODOLOGY: Here we report the evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera (OSP:TThc made from V. cholerae O1 Ogawa O-Specific Polysaccharide-core (OSP and recombinant tetanus toxoid heavy chain fragment (TThc. We immunized mice intramuscularly on days 0, 21, and 42 with OSP:TThc or OSP only, with or without dmLT, a non-toxigenic immunoadjuvant derived from heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected significant serum IgG antibody responses targeting OSP following a single immunization in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without adjuvant. Anti-LPS IgG responses were detected following a second immunization in these cohorts. No anti-OSP or anti-LPS IgG responses were detected at any time in animals receiving un-conjugated OSP with or without immunoadjuvant, and in animals receiving immunoadjuvant alone. Responses were highest following immunization with adjuvant. Serum anti-OSP IgM responses were detected in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without immunoadjuvant, and in mice receiving unconjugated OSP. Serum anti-LPS IgM and vibriocidal responses were detected in all vaccine cohorts except in mice receiving immunoadjuvant alone. No significant IgA anti-OSP or anti-LPS responses developed in any group. Administration of OSP:TThc and adjuvant also induced memory B cell responses targeting OSP and resulted in 95% protective efficacy in a mouse lethality cholera challenge model. CONCLUSION: We describe a protectively immunogenic cholera conjugate in mice. Development of a cholera conjugate vaccine could assist in inducing long-term protective immunity, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  16. Uptake of meningococcal conjugate vaccine among adolescents in large managed care organizations, United States, 2005: Demand, supply and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortley Pascale M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February 2005, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4 for routine use among 11- to 12-year-olds (at the preadolescent health-care visit, 14- to 15-year-olds (before high-school entry, and groups at increased risk. Vaccine distribution started in March; however, in July, the manufacturer reported inability to meet demand and widespread MCV4 shortages were reported. Our objectives were to determine early uptake patterns among target (11-12 and 14-15 year olds and non-target (13- plus 16-year-olds age groups. A post hoc analysis was conducted to compare seasonal uptake patterns of MCV4 with polysaccharide meningococcal (MPSV4 and tetanus diphtheria (Td vaccines. Methods We analyzed data for adolescents 11-16 years from five managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD. For MCV4, we estimated monthly and cumulative coverage during 2005 and calculated risk ratios. For MPSV4 and Td, we combined 2003 and 2004 data and compared their seasonal uptake patterns with MCV4. Results Coverage for MCV4 during 2005 among the 623,889 11-16 years olds was 10%. Coverage for 11-12 and 14-15 year olds was 12% and 11%, respectively, compared with 8% for 13- plus 16-year-olds (p Conclusion A surge in vaccine uptake between June and August was observed among adolescents for MCV4, MPSV4 and Td vaccines. The increase in summer-time vaccinations and vaccination of non-targeted adolescents coupled with supply limitations likely contributed to the reported shortages of MCV4 in 2005.

  17. Uptake of meningococcal conjugate vaccine among adolescents in large managed care organizations, United States, 2005: Demand, supply and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In February 2005, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) for routine use among 11- to 12-year-olds (at the preadolescent health-care visit), 14- to 15-year-olds (before high-school entry), and groups at increased risk. Vaccine distribution started in March; however, in July, the manufacturer reported inability to meet demand and widespread MCV4 shortages were reported. Our objectives were to determine early uptake patterns among target (11-12 and 14-15 year olds) and non-target (13- plus 16-year-olds) age groups. A post hoc analysis was conducted to compare seasonal uptake patterns of MCV4 with polysaccharide meningococcal (MPSV4) and tetanus diphtheria (Td) vaccines. Methods We analyzed data for adolescents 11-16 years from five managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). For MCV4, we estimated monthly and cumulative coverage during 2005 and calculated risk ratios. For MPSV4 and Td, we combined 2003 and 2004 data and compared their seasonal uptake patterns with MCV4. Results Coverage for MCV4 during 2005 among the 623,889 11-16 years olds was 10%. Coverage for 11-12 and 14-15 year olds was 12% and 11%, respectively, compared with 8% for 13- plus 16-year-olds (p < 0.001). Of the 64,272 MCV4 doses administered from March-December 2005, 73% were administered June-August. Fifty-nine percent of all MPSV4 doses and 38% of all Td doses were administered during June-August. Conclusion A surge in vaccine uptake between June and August was observed among adolescents for MCV4, MPSV4 and Td vaccines. The increase in summer-time vaccinations and vaccination of non-targeted adolescents coupled with supply limitations likely contributed to the reported shortages of MCV4 in 2005. PMID:19887009

  18. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Francesca; Belmonti, Simone; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Morandi, Matteo; Rossetti, Barbara; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18–65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50) received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50) received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100) were also enrolled as baseline controls. Results Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group. Conclusions In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433 PMID:27258647

  19. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lombardi

    Full Text Available Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 in HIV-infected adults.We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18-65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50 received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50 received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100 were also enrolled as baseline controls.Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group.In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433.

  20. Process development of a New Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans; V D Pol, Leo; Ghimire, Saroj; V D Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions being a cost-effective tool in preventing deaths among young children. The earliest vaccines were developed following empirical methods, creating vaccines by trial and error. New process development tools, for example mathematical modeling, as well as new regulatory initiatives requiring better understanding of both the product and the process are being applied to well-characterized biopharmaceuticals (for example recombinant proteins). The vaccine industry is still running behind in comparison to these industries. A production process for a new Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, including related quality control (QC) tests, was developed and transferred to a number of emerging vaccine manufacturers. This contributed to a sustainable global supply of affordable Hib conjugate vaccines, as illustrated by the market launch of the first Hib vaccine based on this technology in 2007 and concomitant price reduction of Hib vaccines. This paper describes the development approach followed for this Hib conjugate vaccine as well as the mathematical modeling tool applied recently in order to indicate options for further improvements of the initial Hib process. The strategy followed during the process development of this Hib conjugate vaccine was a targeted and integrated approach based on prior knowledge and experience with similar products using multi-disciplinary expertise. Mathematical modeling was used to develop a predictive model for the initial Hib process (the 'baseline' model) as well as an 'optimized' model, by proposing a number of process changes which could lead to further reduction in price. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:568-580, 2016.

  1. Process development of a New Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans; V D Pol, Leo; Ghimire, Saroj; V D Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions being a cost-effective tool in preventing deaths among young children. The earliest vaccines were developed following empirical methods, creating vaccines by trial and error. New process development tools, for example mathematical modeling, as well as new regulatory initiatives requiring better understanding of both the product and the process are being applied to well-characterized biopharmaceuticals (for example recombinant proteins). The vaccine industry is still running behind in comparison to these industries. A production process for a new Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, including related quality control (QC) tests, was developed and transferred to a number of emerging vaccine manufacturers. This contributed to a sustainable global supply of affordable Hib conjugate vaccines, as illustrated by the market launch of the first Hib vaccine based on this technology in 2007 and concomitant price reduction of Hib vaccines. This paper describes the development approach followed for this Hib conjugate vaccine as well as the mathematical modeling tool applied recently in order to indicate options for further improvements of the initial Hib process. The strategy followed during the process development of this Hib conjugate vaccine was a targeted and integrated approach based on prior knowledge and experience with similar products using multi-disciplinary expertise. Mathematical modeling was used to develop a predictive model for the initial Hib process (the 'baseline' model) as well as an 'optimized' model, by proposing a number of process changes which could lead to further reduction in price. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:568-580, 2016. PMID:26821825

  2. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations of subjects in communities fully or partially vaccinated with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Martin O. C.; Anna Roca; Christian Bottomley; Philip C. Hill; Uzochukwu Egere; Brian Greenwood; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent trial with PCV-7 in a rural Gambian community showed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in fully vaccinated compared with control communities. We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. METHODS A single-blind, cluster-randomized (by village) trial was conducted in 21 Gambian villages. In 11 villages, all residents received PCV-7 (Vaccine group); in 10 contr...

  3. Relating Pneumococcal Carriage Among Children to Disease Rates Among Adults Before and After the Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Daniel M; Grant, Lindsay R; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Warren, Joshua L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Hammitt, Laura L

    2016-06-01

    The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in children has a strong indirect effect on disease rates in adults. When children are vaccinated with PCVs, other serotypes that are not targeted by the vaccine can increase in frequency (serotype replacement) and reduce the direct and indirect benefits of the vaccine. To understand and predict the likely impacts of serotype replacement, it is important to know how patterns in the transmission of serotypes among children relate to disease rates in adults. We used data on pneumococcal carriage and disease from Navajo Nation children and adults collected before and after the routine use of PCVs (1998-2012). Using regression models within a Bayesian framework, we found that serotype-specific carriage and invasiveness (disease incidence divided by carriage prevalence) had similar patterns in children and adults. Moreover, carriage in children, invasiveness in children, and a serotype-specific random intercept (which captured additional variation associated with the serotypes) could predict the incidence serotype-specific pneumococcal disease in adults 18-39 years of age and those 40 years of age or older in the era of routine use of PCVs. These models could help us predict the effects of future pneumococcal vaccine use in children on disease rates in adults, and the modeling approach developed here could be used to test these findings in other settings. PMID:27188949

  4. Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective

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    Weil-Olivier Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011. Discussion Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7 F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7 F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of a conjugate vaccine composed of Staphylococcus aureus poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine and clumping factor A.

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    Tomás Maira-Litrán

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency, severity and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infections has made the development of immunotherapies against this pathogen more urgent than ever. Previous immunization attempts using monovalent antigens resulted in at best partial levels of protection against S. aureus infection. We therefore reasoned that synthesizing a bivalent conjugate vaccine composed of two widely expressed antigens of S. aureus would result in additive/synergetic activities by antibodies to each vaccine component and/or in increased strain coverage. For this we used reductive amination, to covalently link the S. aureus antigens clumping factor A (ClfA and deacetylated poly-N-β-(1-6-acetyl-glucosamine (dPNAG. Mice immunized with 1, 5 or 10 µg of the dPNAG-ClfA conjugate responded in a dose-dependent manner with IgG to dPNAG and ClfA, whereas mice immunized with a mixture of ClfA and dPNAG developed significantly lower antibody titers to ClfA and no antibodies to PNAG. The dPNAG-ClfA vaccine was also highly immunogenic in rabbits, rhesus monkeys and a goat. Moreover, affinity-purified, antibodies to ClfA from dPNAG-ClfA immune serum blocked the binding of three S. aureus strains to immobilized fibrinogen. In an opsonophagocytic assay (OPKA goat antibodies to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine, in the presence of complement and polymorphonuclear cells, killed S. aureus Newman and, to a lower extent, S. aureus Newman ΔclfA. A PNAG-negative isogenic mutant was not killed. Moreover, PNAG antigen fully inhibited the killing of S. aureus Newman by antisera to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine. Finally, mice passively vaccinated with goat antisera to dPNAG-ClfA or dPNAG-diphtheria toxoid conjugate had comparable levels of reductions of bacteria in the blood 2 h after infection with three different S. aureus strains as compared to mice given normal goat serum. In conclusion, ClfA is an immunogenic carrier protein that elicited anti-adhesive antibodies that fail to

  6. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations of subjects in communities fully or partially vaccinated with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O C Ota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent trial with PCV-7 in a rural Gambian community showed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in fully vaccinated compared with control communities. We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. METHODS: A single-blind, cluster-randomized (by village trial was conducted in 21 Gambian villages. In 11 villages, all residents received PCV-7 (Vaccine group; in 10 control villages only children 5.0 µg/mL for all but serotype 9V of the PCV-7 serotypes in the older group, but not in the younger age group. CONCLUSION: Higher antibodies in vaccinated communities provide an explanation for the lower pneumococcal carriage rates in fully vaccinated compared to control communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51695599 51695599.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers

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    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed.

  8. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  9. Effects of early vaccination with a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate on boar taint and growth performance of male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantas, D; Papatsiros, V; Tassis, P; Tzika, E; Pearce, M C; Wilson, S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate safety (in terms of detecting possible adverse clinical effects attributable to vaccination), efficacy, and effects on growth performance of a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (commercially distributed as Improvac; Zoetis, Zaventem, Belgium) in male pigs raised in a commercial Greek farm. A total of 1,230 male pigs was enrolled in 16 weekly batches and allocated to 3 groups: barrows (castrated on the next day after birth [study Day 0]), pigs vaccinated with the above-mentioned product, and intact boars. Vaccinated pigs were injected subcutaneously with 2 mL of the anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine at 9 to 11 wk of age (60-78 d) and 15 to 17 wk of age (102-120 d) and slaughtered at 22 to 25 wk of age (152-176 d). No clinical abnormalities or adverse events attributable to vaccination occurred. Mean BW of vaccinated pigs was 6% greater compared with barrows at slaughter (P vaccinated pigs had greater ADG than barrows from castration to slaughter (8%). In detail, a lower ADG from first to second vaccination (-12%; P vaccination to slaughter (P vaccinated pigs and intact boars was not significantly different throughout the study, except from first to second vaccination (boars greater; P = 0.0059) and second vaccination to slaughter (vaccinates greater; P = 0.0390). Feed conversion ratio of barrows was 11 and 8% greater compared with vaccinated pigs (P = 0.0005) and boars (P = 0.0062) from first to second vaccination but was 23 to 26% lower compared with vaccinated pigs (P vaccination to slaughter and 7 to 9.5% lower from the second vaccination to slaughter (P = 0.0029 and P = 0.0003 for vaccinates and intact boars, respectively). At slaughter, the belly fat androstenone concentration of all vaccinated pigs and 64% of intact boars was below 200 ng/g. Belly fat skatole concentration was below 20 ng/g in samples from all groups. In conclusion, vaccination against GnRF using the Gn

  10. Anti-IgE Qb-VLP Conjugate Vaccine Self-Adjuvants through Activation of TLR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akache, Bassel; Weeratna, Risini D; Deora, Aparna; Thorn, Jennifer M; Champion, Brian; Merson, James R; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Qb bacteriophage virus-like particles (Qb-VLP) are utilized as carriers to enhance immune responses to weakly or non-immunogenic antigens such as peptides and haptens. Qb-VLPs are formed through the self-assembly of multiple Qb capsid protein monomers, a process which traps a large amount of bacterial RNA in the core of the VLP. Bacterial RNA is known to activate the innate immune system via TLR 7 and 8 found within the endosomes of certain immune cells and has been shown to contribute to the immunogenicity of Qb-VLP vaccines. Herein, we evaluated an anti-IgE vaccine comprised of two IgE peptides (Y and P) conjugated to Qb-VLP (Qb-Y and Qb-P, respectively) for in vitro stimulation of human PBMCs and in vivo immunogenicity in mice. The in vitro secretion of IFN-α from human PBMCs exposed to Qb-Y is consistent with TLR7 activation. Immunization of mice with the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugates induced high titers of anti-IgE antibodies in wild-type mice, but significantly lower titers in TLR7 knockout mice, supporting the self-adjuvanting role of the RNA. Inclusion of alum and alum/CpG as adjuvants partially or completely compensated for the lack of TLR7 activation in TLR7-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates the key role that TLR7 plays in the immunogenicity of the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugate vaccine. PMID:26805897

  11. Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: what are the advantages for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the elderly. There are three established approaches to pneumococcal vaccination: polysaccharide vaccines, protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and protein-based vaccines. This article reviews advances in anti-pneumococcal vaccines, with reference to advantages and shortcomings for the elderly in particular. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for high-risk patients and the general elderly population. Although the effectiveness of PPV against pneumonia is unclear, recent studies point to significant protective effects in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia and reducing the severity of disease in vaccinated elderly patients. PPV offers high serotype coverage and, although it is poorly immunogenic in some individuals, provides approximately 60% protection against invasive disease in the general elderly population. PPV vaccination appears cost effective for elderly patients although the vaccine might only be effective in preventing invasive disease. Additional benefits could mean a greater level of vaccine cost effectiveness. However, it is important to understand that PPV provides incomplete protection, especially in those with underlying high-risk conditions, and development of more effective pneumococcal vaccination strategies for elderly patients is still needed. In recent years, the most important advance in the prevention of pneumococcal infections in the elderly has been the introduction of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) as a routine vaccination for infants. In addition to dramatically reducing invasive infection in children, CPV has been observed to have a considerable indirect protective effect in parents and grandparents. While the possibility of using CPV in elderly patients has been suggested, currently there are only limited immunogenicity data and no efficacy data in adults. The low serotype coverage is an important

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  13. Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil

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    Indianara Maria Grando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009 and post-vaccination (2011-2012 periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness.

  14. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Robert B D; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP-Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  15. Assessment of health benefits and cost-effectiveness of 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Kenyan children.

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    Philip Ayieko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The GAVI Alliance supported 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 introduction in Kenya. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of introducing either PCV10 or the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13 from a societal perspective and explored the incremental impact of including indirect vaccine effects. METHODS: The costs and effects of pneumococcal vaccination among infants born in Kenya in 2010 were assessed using a decision analytic model comparing PCV10 or PCV13, in turn, with no vaccination. Direct vaccine effects were estimated as a reduction in the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis, sepsis, bacteraemic pneumonia and non-bacteraemic pneumonia. Pneumococcal disease incidence was extrapolated from a population-based hospital surveillance system in Kilifi and adjustments were made for variable access to care across Kenya. We used vaccine efficacy estimates from a trial in The Gambia and accounted for serotype distribution in Kilifi. We estimated indirect vaccine protection and serotype replacement by extrapolating from the USA. Multivariable sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. We assumed a vaccine price of US$ 3.50 per dose. FINDINGS: The annual cost of delivering PCV10 was approximately US$14 million. We projected a 42.7% reduction in pneumococcal disease episodes leading to a US$1.97 million reduction in treatment costs and a 6.1% reduction in childhood mortality annually. In the base case analysis, costs per discounted DALY and per death averted by PCV10, amounted to US$ 59 (95% CI 26-103 and US$ 1,958 (95% CI 866-3,425, respectively. PCV13 introduction improved the cost-effectiveness ratios by approximately 20% and inclusion of indirect effects improved cost-effectiveness ratios by 43-56%. The break-even prices for introduction of PCV10 and PCV13 are US$ 0.41 and 0.51, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing either PCV10 or PCV13 in Kenya is highly cost-effective from a societal perspective. Indirect

  16. Is there a potential role for protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Ridda, Iman; Musher, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Longstanding controversy over the efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) led to a recommendation by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) of the United Kingdom in March 2011, to discontinue routine use of PPV23 in older adults.1 Following careful review of the evidence and feedback from stakeholders, the JCVI decided to retain the original policy of uniform vaccination of adults >65 years of age, while keeping the subject under continued review....

  17. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  18. Temporal analysis of invasive pneumococcal clones from Scotland illustrates fluctuations in diversity of serotype and genotype in the absence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, J. M.; Smith, A. J.; Edwards, G.F.S.; McMenamin, J.; Mitchell, T J; Clarke, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2006, the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevenar) was introduced into the childhood vaccination schedule in the United Kingdom. We monitored the population of invasive pneumococci in Scotland in the 5 years preceding the introduction of PCV7 by using serogrouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and eBURST analysis. Here, we present a unique analysis of a complete national data set of invasive pneumococci over this time. We observed an increase in invasive...

  19. Development of approaches to a third-generation carbohydrate-conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae: the search for optimal oligosaccharide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gening, M. L.; Kurbatova, E. A.; Tsvetkov, Yu E.; Nifantiev, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    The review addresses the application of synthetic oligosaccharides related to fragments of capsular polysaccharides from different serotypes of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae for the design of third-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Special focus is given to characteristic features of the chemical structures of oligosaccharides required for the induction of the protective immune response when using synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines based on oligosaccharide ligands and carrier proteins. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  20. Occurrence of Haemophilus influenzae strains in three Brazilian states since the introduction of a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida A.E.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Few vaccines in history have induced such a dramatic decline in incidence over such a short period of time as the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate. This vaccine was introduced in 1988 in the United States, but only in 1999 was Hib immunization introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of Health as part of the routine infant National Immunization Program. The authors analyzed 229 H. influenzae (Hi isolates from Public Health Laboratories in three Brazilian states: Pernambuco (Northeast, N = 54, Santa Catarina (South, N = 19, and Rio de Janeiro (Southeast, N = 156. The isolates were collected from Brazilian children 0-10 years of age with meningitis and other infections from 1990 to 2003 and were part of the research collection of the National Institute of Quality Control in Health, FIOCRUZ. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping and biotyping. During the pre-vaccination period the prevalence infection due to Hib was of 165 isolates and only 2 non-b Hi among all the notified meningitis infections caused by Hi. Our results showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of Hib meningitis from 165 to 33 isolates after 1999. However, during the post-vaccination period of 2001-2003 we observed an increase in the number of non-b Hi isolates: only 2 non-b strains isolated from 1990 to 1999 and 29 from 1999 to 2003. Based on the present data, the authors emphasize the need for more sensitive epidemiological and bacteriological studies aiming the improvement of the available Hib vaccine, in order to protect the susceptible population to infections due to other serological types of Hi and the reevaluation of immunization schedules used by the National Immunization Program.

  1. Notes from the Field: Administration Error Involving a Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine--United States, March 1, 2010-September 22, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, John R; Miller, Elaine R; Duffy, Jonathan; Baer, Bethany M; Cano, Maria V

    2016-02-19

    Menveo (GlaxoSmithKline, previously Novartis AG) is a conjugate vaccine that was recommended in October 2010 for routine use in adolescents (preferably aged 11 or 12 years, with a booster at 16 years), and among persons aged 2 through 54 years with certain immunosuppressive conditions, to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 (1). These recommendations have since been updated (2). Menveo is supplied in two vials that must be combined before administration. The MenA lyophilized (freeze-dried) component must be reconstituted with the MenCYW-135 liquid component (Figure). To administer the vaccine, the liquid component is drawn into a syringe, and used to reconstitute the lyophilized component. The resulting solution is administered by intramuscular injection. Failure to prepare Menveo as directed by the manufacturer's instructions can lead to lack of protection against the intended pathogens (N. meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and/or W-135) (3). Recently, an immunization provider administered only the lyophilized component of Menveo, subsequently administered a properly prepared dose of Menveo to the same patient, and asked CDC if this practice was safe. This question prompted CDC to search the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database for reports during March 1, 2010-September 22, 2015, of only one component of Menveo being administered. Additionally, to more broadly identify disproportional reporting of adverse events in general following Menveo immunization compared with other vaccines in VAERS (including errors in vaccine preparation and administration), the Food and Drug Administration performed data mining with empiric Bayesian methods (4). PMID:26890604

  2. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Fortunato; Domenico Martinelli; Maria Giovanna Cappelli; Vanessa Cozza; Rosa Prato

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children

  3. Multiple colonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio D Brugger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simultaneous carriage of more than one strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae promotes horizontal gene transfer events and may lead to capsule switch and acquisition of antibiotic resistance. We studied the epidemiology of cocolonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal swabs (n 1120 were collected from outpatients between 2004 and 2009 within an ongoing nationwide surveillance program. Cocolonization was detected directly from swabs by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Serotypes were identified by agglutination, multiplex PCR and microarray. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rate of multiple colonization remained stable up to three years after PCV7 introduction. Cocolonization was associated with serotypes of low carriage prevalence in the prevaccine era. Pneumococcal colonization density was higher in cocolonized samples and cocolonizing strains were present in a balanced ratio (median 1.38. Other characteristics of cocolonization were a higher frequency at young age, but no association with recurrent acute otitis media, recent antibiotic exposure, day care usage and PCV7 vaccination status. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal cocolonization is dominated by serotypes of low carriage prevalence in the prevaccine era, which coexist in the nasopharynx. Emergence of such previously rare serotypes under vaccine selection pressure may promote cocolonization in the future.

  4. The Vi conjugate typhoid vaccine is safe, elicits protective levels of IgG anti-Vi, and is compatible with routine infant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Lin, Feng-Ying C; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Hong; Anh, Dang Duc; Mao, Nguyen Duc; Chu, Chiayung; Hunt, Steven W; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel; Szu, Shousun C

    2011-05-01

    Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in developing countries. Current vaccines are licensed for individuals who are 5 years old or older. A conjugate of the capsular polysaccharide (CP) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Vi) bound to recombinant exoprotein A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Vi-rEPA) enhanced Vi immunogenicity and protected 2- to 5-year-olds in Vietnam. In this study, Vi-rEPA was evaluated for use in infants. A total of 301 full-term Vietnamese infants received Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines alone or with Vi-rEPA or Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate (Hib-TT) at 2, 4, and 6 months and Vi-rEPA or Hib-TT alone at 12 months. Infants were visited 6, 24, and 48 h after each injection to monitor adverse reactions. Maternal, cord, and infant sera were assayed for IgG anti-Vi and for IgG antibodies to Hib CP and the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxins at 7, 12, and 13 months. No vaccine-related serious adverse reactions occurred. In the Vi-rEPA group, the IgG anti-Vi geometric mean (GM) increased from the cord level of 0.66 to 17.4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU) at 7 months, declined to 4.76 EU at 12 months, and increased to 50.1 EU 1 month after the 4th dose (95% of infants had levels of ≥ 3.5 EU, the estimated protective level). Controls had no increase of the IgG anti-Vi GM. Infants with cord anti-Vi levels of <3.5 EU responded with significantly higher IgG anti-Vi levels than those with levels of ≥ 3.5 EU. Anti-diphtheria, -tetanus, and -pertussis toxin levels were similar in all groups. Vi-rEPA was safe, induced protective anti-Vi levels, and was compatible with EPI vaccines, and it can be used in infants. High cord IgG anti-Vi levels partially suppressed infant responses to Vi-rEPA.

  5. Heavy-chain isotype patterns of human antibody-secreting cells induced by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in relation to age and preimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Juul, Lars; Gyhrs, A;

    1994-01-01

    The influence of preexisting immunity on the heavy-chain isotypes of circulating antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and by vaccination with TT or DT...... of natural HibCP antibodies (r = 0.59; P = 0.00002). A possible role of natural exposure for Hib or cross-reactive bacteria on the mucosal surfaces in the shaping of the isotype response to HibCP conjugate vaccines is discussed....

  6. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0-84.6%) in children children vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.

  7. Characterization of the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Barington, T; Pressler, T;

    1995-01-01

    once with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. Total IgG subclasses, total antipolysaccharide Hib antibodies, and antipolysaccharide Hib antibodies of IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG1-4 specificity were determined by ELISA. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any...

  8. Safety of the 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae-derived protein D in the first 2 years of life and immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and control hepatitis A vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Chlibek, Roman; Splino, Miroslav; Kaliskova, Eva; Kohl, Igor; Lommel, Patricia; Schuerman, Lode

    2008-08-18

    This randomized (1:1), double-blind, multicenter study, included 4,968 healthy infants to receive either the 11-valent pneumococcal protein D (PD)-conjugate study vaccine or the hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) (control) at 3, 4, 5, and 12-15 months of age. The three-dose primary course of both vaccines was co-administered with combined hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. The pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine did not impact the immune response of co-administered hexavalent vaccine and the control HAV vaccine induced seropositivity (antibodies >or=15 mIU/mL) in all infants. The incidence of solicited symptoms was higher with the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine, yet similar to that induced by concomitant DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Overall, the reactogenicity and safety profile of the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate vaccine when co-administered with the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine, as well as the immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent vaccine, were consistent with previous reports for the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  9. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Overcome Splenic Dependency of Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Breukels, Mijke A.; Zandvoort, Andre; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; van den Muijsenberg, Adrie; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Beurret, Michel; Pieter A Klok; Timens, Wim; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2001-01-01

    Protection against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on the presence of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides that facilitate phagocytosis. Asplenic patients are at increased risk for pneumococcal infections, since both phagocytosis and the initiation of the antibody response to polysaccharides take place in the spleen. Therefore, vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines is recommended prior to splenectomy, which, as in the case of trauma, is not always feasi...

  10. Ethical Challenges and Lessons Learned During the Clinical Development of a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Martellet, Lionel; Sow, Samba O.; Diallo, Aldiouma; Hodgson, Abraham; Kampmann, Beate; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Tapia, Milagritos; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Ndiaye, Assane; Diarra, Bou; Ansah, Patrick Odum; Akinsola, Adebayo; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bavdekar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background.  The group A meningococcal vaccine (PsA-TT) clinical development plan included clinical trials in India and in the West African region between 2005 and 2013. During this period, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) accumulated substantial experience in the ethical conduct of research to the highest standards. Methods.  Because of the public–private nature of the sponsorship of these trials and the extensive international collaboration with partners from a diverse setting of countr...

  11. Bacterial Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation among Children without Polyvalent Conjugate Vaccine: A Brief Report of an Iranian Cohort Study on 371 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Afsharpaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding risk of bacterial meningitis (BM after Cochlear implantation (CI, it was suggested to receive polyvalent conjugate vaccine. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of BM post CI in child recipients who do not receive polyvalent vaccine. Methods: We enrolled 371 children who had received cochlear implants from 2007 to 2010. None of them received pre or post implantation polyvalent conjugate vaccine for BM. We followed all of them for BM for 2 years after implantation. Results: We detected only one female case of BM (0.3% of patients with the age of 24 months. The mean age of noninfected children was 36.7 ± 23.2 months. The education level of parents was "college level or higher" in less than half of them, and about 65% of patients were products of consanguineous marriage. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the incidence of BM was not higher in our cochlear implanted children who did not receive immunization than patients from countries in which routine vaccination is done. We suggest that although proper immunization is recommended before surgery, this procedure could be performed without vaccination, especially in developing countries that face financial problems for preparing vaccines.

  12. Population genetic structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Kilifi, Kenya, prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Brueggemann

    Full Text Available The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 was introduced in Kenya in 2011. Introduction of any PCV will perturb the existing pneumococcal population structure, thus the aim was to genotype pneumococci collected in Kilifi before PCV10.Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST, we genotyped >1100 invasive and carriage pneumococci from children, the largest collection genotyped from a single resource-poor country and reported to date. Serotype 1 was the most common serotype causing invasive disease and was rarely detected in carriage; all serotype 1 isolates were members of clonal complex (CC 217. There were temporal fluctuations in the major circulating sequence types (STs; and although 1-3 major serotype 1, 14 or 23F STs co-circulated annually, the two major serotype 5 STs mainly circulated independently. Major STs/CCs also included isolates of serotypes 3, 12F, 18C and 19A and each shared ≤ 2 MLST alleles with STs that circulate widely elsewhere. Major CCs associated with non-PCV10 serotypes were predominantly represented by carriage isolates, although serotype 19A and 12F CCs were largely invasive and a serotype 10A CC was equally represented by invasive and carriage isolates.Understanding the pre-PCV10 population genetic structure in Kilifi will allow for the detection of changes in prevalence of the circulating genotypes and evidence for capsular switching post-vaccine implementation.

  13. Early effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction in the Danish Childhood Immunization Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 1 year after PCV7's introduction in the childhood immunization programme through a nationwide cohort study based on laboratory surveillance data. There was a decline......, the incidence decreased from 54 to 23 cases per 100,000 (IRR 0.43; 95% CI [0.29-0.62]) and for vaccine-serotypes from 36.7 to 7.7 (IRR 0.20; 95% CI [0.09-0.38]). The incidence of IPD declined approximately 10% (IRR 0.90; 95% CI [0.84-0.97]) in patients aged >or=2 years. The case fatality was 17% in both periods...... in the overall incidence of IPD from 19.4 to 17.1 cases per 100,000 population (incidence rate ratios (IRR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.81-0.96]), and of meningitis from 1.56 to 1.16 (IRR 0.74; 95% CI [0.57-0.97]) comparing pre-PCV7 (years 2000-2007) and PCV7 (year 2008) periods. In children

  14. Optimising assessments of the epidemiological impact in The Netherlands of paediatric immunisation with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using dynamic transmission modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta De Cao

    Full Text Available This work is the first attempt to quantify the overall effects of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 vaccination programme in the Dutch population taking into account all the direct and indirect effects of the vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease. Using available Dutch data, a dynamic transmission model for the spread of pneumococci and potential subsequent invasive pneumococcal disease has been adapted to the Dutch setting. Overall, invasive pneumococcal disease cases in the Netherlands are predicted to decrease from a pre-vaccination level of 2623 cases annually to 2475, 2289, 2185, 2179, and 2178 cases annually 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-years, respectively, post-vaccination. Therefore, vaccination with PCV13 in the Netherlands is predicted to lower invasive pneumococcal disease cases per year by up to 445 cases in the medium- to long-term. The results are quite robust for the sensitivity analyses performed on the parameters that regulate herd immunity and competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types.

  15. Stimulation of immune systems by conjugated polymers and their potential as an alternative vaccine adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Xiang, Jian; Xu, Ligeng; Song, Xuejiao; Dong, Ziliang; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Recently, conjugated polymers have been widely explored in the field of nanomedicine. Careful evaluations of their biological effects are thus urgently needed. Hereby, we systematically evaluated the biological effects of different types of conjugated polymers on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which play critical roles in the innate and adaptive immune systems, respectively. While naked poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits a high level of cytotoxicity, polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT:PSS-PEG) shows greatly reduced toxicity to various types of cells. To our surprise, PEGylation of PEDOT:PSS could obviously enhance the cellular uptake of these nanoparticles, leading to subsequent immune stimulations of both macrophages and DCs. In contrast, another type of conjugated polymer, polypyrrole (PPy), is found to be an inert material with neither significant cytotoxicity nor noticeable immune-stimulation activity. Interestingly, utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, it is further uncovered in our ex vivo experiment that PEDOT:PSS-PEG may serve as an adjuvant to greatly enhance the immunogenicity of OVA upon simple mixing. Our study on the one hand suggests the promise of developing novel nano-adjuvants based on conjugated polymers, and on the other hand highlights the importance of careful evaluations of the impacts of any new nanomaterials developed for nanomedicine on the immune systems.Recently, conjugated polymers have been widely explored in the field of nanomedicine. Careful evaluations of their biological effects are thus urgently needed. Hereby, we systematically evaluated the biological effects of different types of conjugated polymers on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which play critical roles in the innate and adaptive immune systems, respectively. While naked poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits a high level of cytotoxicity

  16. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim;

    1994-01-01

    hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies......Vaccination of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to carrier proteins has proven protective against invasive Hib diseases in several trials. However, insufficient immunogenicity has been noted in certain populations. Therefore, studies analyzing...... factors influencing the antibody response to conjugate vaccines are needed. In this study, the response to HibCP coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) was examined in relation to (i) priming with or coadministration of the carrier protein and (ii) the levels of passively acquired maternal TT antibodies. One...

  17. Immunogenicity of meningococcal quadrivalent (serogroup A, C, W135 and Y) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Perrone, Valentina; Radice, Sonia; Capuano, Annalisa; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    Meningococcal meningitis represents one of the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in developed countries. Among the thirteen described serogroups, only five are usually responsible of invasive infections making immunisation against multiple serogroups the best strategy to protect individuals from this disease. Herein we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, of the recently EU-licensed meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). We included 15 randomised clinical trials, comparing MenACWY-TT and Men-PS (ten studies), MenACWY-TT and MenC-CRM197 (four studies) and MenACWY-TT and MenACWY-DT (one study). All studies included in the meta-analysis showed high immunogenicity for MenACWY-TT vaccines in all tested serogroups. Our results suggest that the MenACWY-TT vaccine is as immunogenic as the other commercial available meningococcal vaccines. PMID:25447792

  18. Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre van Damme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM₁₉₇ for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ in European adults. METHODOLOGY: Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM₁₉₇ or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen, a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen with the polysaccharide vaccine. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM₁₉₇ induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM₁₉₇ formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Vi-CRM₁₉₇ did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907.

  19. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6% in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%; it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88% against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87% against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.

  20. The impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of childhood community-acquired pneumonia and bacteriologically confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, S; Tanaka, J; Nagashima, K; Chang, B; Hishiki, H; Takahashi, Y; Oikawa, J; Nagasawa, K; Shimojo, N; Ishiwada, N

    2016-02-01

    Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2010. We investigated the impact of PCV7 on childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Children aged Japan, who were admitted to hospitals were enrolled to estimate the incidence of CAP based on the mid-year population. PP was determined by the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cultured blood and/or sputum samples of CAP patients. The incidence of CAP and S. pneumoniae isolated from PP patients was compared before (April 2008-March 2009) and after (April 2012-March 2013) the introduction of PCV7 immunization. The annual incidence of CAP was reduced [incidence rate ratio 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·73-0·90]. When comparing post-vaccine with pre-vaccine periods, the odds ratio for PP incidence was 0·60 (95% CI 0·39-0·93, P = 0·024). PCV7-covered serotypes markedly decreased (66·6% in pre-vaccine vs. 15·6% in post-vaccine, P culture-confirmed PP of vaccine serotypes was observed at 2 years after PCV7 vaccination. PMID:26122538

  1. Working Group on quality, safety and efficacy of typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide conjugate, vaccines, Jeju, Republic of Korea, 5-7 September 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris; Lee, Chung Keel; Ahn, Chiyoung; Shin, Jinho; Knezevic, Ivana

    2013-09-23

    Typhoid fever is a gastrointestinal disease transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water or food. The bacterium, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is an important cause of illness and death in many poor countries where access to safe water and basic sanitation is limited. Humans are the only natural host and reservoir of S. Typhi. Typhoid fever causes around 21 million cases and at least 200,000 deaths per year. Currently, several groups are developing typhoid conjugate vaccines that are expected to be safe and effective in infancy or early childhood. The World Health Organization convened a meeting, in collaboration with the Korea Food and Drug Administration, with experts group in September 2012 to develop guidelines for regulatory evaluation of the quality, safety and efficacy of typhoid conjugate vaccines. This report summarizes collective views on scientific and technical issues that need to be considered in the guidelines.

  2. Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

    2014-09-01

    The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng μL(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus.

  3. Association of Serotype-Specific Antibody Concentrations and Functional Antibody Titers with Subsequent Pneumococcal Carriage in Toddlers Immunized with a 9-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Lahdenkari, Mika; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron; Jokinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Association of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage with the concentration and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of serum serotype-specific antibodies was determined for toddlers 1 month after immunization with a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Higher anti-serotype 14 and anti-serotype 19F IgG and anti-serotype 14 IgM correlated with a lowered probability of pneumococcal acquisition. Postvaccination OPA did not correlate with pneumococcal carriage.

  4. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Rodewald, A K; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1993-01-01

    Antisera elicited by type Ia group B streptococci (GBS) contain antibodies that react with both type Ia and type Ib strains. Previous studies suggested that antibodies elicited by type Ia organisms recognized a carbohydrate antigen or epitope common to Ia and Ib strains. We now report the synthesis and immunogenicity testing of a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (Ia-TT) conjugate vaccine. Ia-TT elicited type Ia polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three of the rabbi...

  5. 由结合疫苗产品历史沿革带来的思考%Some reflections from the history of conjugate vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳(综述); 蒋仁生(审校)

    2013-01-01

    由于优异安全性和有效性数据,结合疫苗已成为细菌性疫苗研制的一个方向,但因不同团体独立研发,产生了不同的结合技术,也带来了一些困惑。通过对几个具有代表性的结合疫苗研发团队的研究历程的回顾,探讨了结合方法、载体蛋白质、剂型等热点话题,以期对结合疫苗的研制有所帮助。%Due to the excellent safety and efficacy data , conjugate vaccine has become a direction for bacterial vaccine de-velopment ., but different conjugate technologies from different independent research groups also brought some confusion . After reviewing the research history of some representative team , conjugate methods , carrier protein , vaccine formulation and other hot topics were discussed .

  6. Efficacy and safety of vi-tetanus toxoid conjugated typhoid vaccine (PedaTyph™) in Indian children: School based cluster randomized study.

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    Mitra, Monjori; Shah, Nitin; Ghosh, Apurba; Chatterjee, Suparna; Kaur, Iqbal; Bhattacharya, Nisha; Basu, Suparna

    2016-04-01

    Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccines cannot be used in children vaccine prepared by binding Vi to tetanus toxoids (Vi-TT) induces protective levels even in children vaccination with a Vi-TT vaccine in children 6 months to 12 years of age. Overall, 1765 subjects were recruited from two registered municipal urban slums of southern Kolkata. Most of the children of the slum dwellers attended the schools in the locality which was selected with permission from the school authority. Schools were randomly divided into vaccinated (Test group) and unvaccinated group (Control group). Children and their siblings of test group received 2-doses of PedaTyph™ vaccine at 6 weeks interval. Control group received vaccines as per national guidelines. Adverse events (AEs) were examined after 30 minutes, 1 month and clinical events were observed till 12 months post-vaccination. Incidence of culture positive typhoid fever in the control group was 1.27% vis-a-vis none in vaccine group during 12 months. In subgroup evaluated for immunogenicity, an antibody titer value of 1.8 EU/ml (95% CI: 1.5 EU/ml, 2.2 EU/ml), 32 EU/ml (95% CI: 27.0 EU/ml, 39.0 EU/ml) and 14 EU/ml (95% CI: 12.0 EU/ml, 17.0 EU/ml) at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 months, respectively was observed. Sero-conversion among the sub-group was 100% after 6 weeks of post-vaccination and 83% after 12 months considering 4-fold rise from baseline. The efficacy of vaccine was 100 % (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%) in the first year of follow-up with minimal AEs post vaccination. Vi conjugate typhoid vaccine conferred 100% protection against typhoid fever in 1765 children 6 months to 12 years of age with high immunogenicity in a subgroup from the vaccine arm.

  7. Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.

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    Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-09-29

    In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries.

  8. Vaccinations

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    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  9. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

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    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  10. Evolution of pneumococcal infections in adult patients during a four-year period after vaccination of a pediatric population with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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    Antoni Payeras

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Although a reduction in infections due to vaccine serotypes was observed, close to half of infections in adult patients were caused by PCV-13 serotypes. Even after pediatric vaccination with PCV-13, vaccine serotypes were still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive disease, underscoring the importance of implementing current guidelines and extending vaccination to other risk groups.

  11. Ethical Challenges and Lessons Learned During the Clinical Development of a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

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    Martellet, Lionel; Sow, Samba O.; Diallo, Aldiouma; Hodgson, Abraham; Kampmann, Beate; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Tapia, Milagritos; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Ndiaye, Assane; Diarra, Bou; Ansah, Patrick Odum; Akinsola, Adebayo; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bavdekar, Ashish; Juvekar, Sanjay; Viviani, Simonetta; Enwere, Godwin C.; Marchetti, Elisa; Chaumont, Julie; Makadi, Marie-Francoise; Pallardy, Flore; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. The group A meningococcal vaccine (PsA-TT) clinical development plan included clinical trials in India and in the West African region between 2005 and 2013. During this period, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) accumulated substantial experience in the ethical conduct of research to the highest standards. Methods. Because of the public–private nature of the sponsorship of these trials and the extensive international collaboration with partners from a diverse setting of countries, the ethical review process was complex and required strategic, timely, and attentive communication to ensure the smooth review and approval for the clinical studies. Investigators and their site teams fostered strong community relationships prior to, during, and after the studies to ensure the involvement and the ownership of the research by the participating populations. As the clinical work proceeded, investigators and sponsors responded to specific questions of informed consent, pregnancy testing, healthcare, disease prevention, and posttrial access. Results. Key factors that led to success included (1) constant dialogue between partners to explore and answer all ethical questions; (2) alertness and preparedness for emerging ethical questions during the research and in the context of evolving international ethics standards; and (3) care to assure that approaches were acceptable in the diverse community contexts. Conclusions. Many of the ethical issues encountered during the PsA-TT clinical development are familiar to groups conducting field trials in different cultural settings. The successful approaches used by the MVP clinical team offer useful examples of how these problems were resolved. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN17662153 (PsA-TT-001); ISRTCN78147026 (PsA-TT-002); ISRCTN87739946 (PsA-TT-003); ISRCTN46335400 (PsA-TT-003a); ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT-004); CTRI/2009/091/000368 (PsA-TT-005); PACTR ATMR2010030001913177 (PsA-TT-006); PACTR201110000328305

  12. Engineering, conjugation, and immunogenicity assessment of Escherichia coli O121 O antigen for its potential use as a typhoid vaccine component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Michael; Kowarik, Michael; Steffen, Michael; Carranza, Paula; Corradin, Giampietro; Wacker, Michael

    2013-07-01

    State-of-the-art production technologies for conjugate vaccines are complex, multi-step processes. An alternative approach to produce glycoconjugates is based on the bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation system first described in Campylobacter jejuni. The C. jejuni N-glycosylation system has been successfully transferred into Escherichia coli, enabling in vivo production of customized recombinant glycoproteins. However, some antigenic bacterial cell surface polysaccharides, like the Vi antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, have not been reported to be accessible to the bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, hence hamper development of novel conjugate vaccines against typhoid fever. In this report, Vi-like polysaccharide structures that can be transferred by PglB were evaluated as typhoid vaccine components. A polysaccharide fulfilling these requirements was found in Escherichia coli serovar O121. Inactivation of the E. coli O121 O antigen cluster encoded gene wbqG resulted in expression of O polysaccharides reactive with antibodies raised against the Vi antigen. The structure of the recombinantly expressed mutant O polysaccharide was elucidated using a novel HPLC and mass spectrometry based method for purified undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (Und-PP) linked glycans, and the presence of epitopes also found in the Vi antigen was confirmed. The mutant O antigen structure was transferred to acceptor proteins using the bacterial N-glycosylation system, and immunogenicity of the resulting conjugates was evaluated in mice. The conjugate-induced antibodies reacted in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with E. coli O121 LPS. One animal developed a significant rise in serum immunoglobulin anti-Vi titer upon immunization.

  13. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya.

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    Deron C Burton

    Full Text Available There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance. Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator. A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose. The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000 vs first (33 per 100,000 vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-4.06. The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12-8.56 and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.54 when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study.

  14. Immune interference on conjugate vaccines by carrier proteins or co-administrated vaccines%载体蛋白及多种疫苗同时接种对结合疫苗的免疫干扰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱为

    2012-01-01

    多种多糖-蛋白结合疫苗被开发成功,用于预防b型流感嗜血杆菌、脑膜炎球菌和肺炎链球菌感染,为婴幼儿健康提供了保障.常用的载体蛋白是破伤风类毒素、白喉类毒素和白喉类毒素突变体CRM197.在临床研究中观察到,相同载体或不同载体结合疫苗同时接种,或者与DTP/HBV/IPV等疫苗同时接种时,会干扰对某些抗原的免疫应答,其中可能有多种机制在起作用.随着更多的结合疫苗有望进入婴幼儿期基础免疫程序和无细胞百日咳疫苗(aP)逐渐代替全细胞百日咳疫苗(wP),如何选择合适的或者新的载体蛋白和佐剂、谨慎设计临床研究方案和接种程序等问题日益受到关注.%Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines are developed successfully to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b,Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococus pnuemoniae infections,especially for infants.The most commonly used carrier proteins are tetanus toxoid,diphtheria toxoid,and diphtheria toxin variant CRM197.In clinical trials,immune interference has been observed when conjugate vaccines with the same or different carrier proteins were co-administrated,or the conjugate vaccines were immunized concurrently with DTP/HBV/IPV.Several mechanisms may work together.As more conjugate vaccines are expected to be included into the childhood primary immunization schedule,and whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP) is replaced by acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) gradually,the problemns,including how to choose suitable carrier proteins and adjuvants,carefully designing the clinical trial and immunization schedule,attract more people's attention.

  15. Age-dependent prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae before conjugate vaccine introduction: a prediction model based on a meta-analysis.

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    Olivier Le Polain de Waroux

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S.pneumoniae in all age groups are important to help predict the impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV into routine infant immunization, given the important indirect effect of the vaccine. Yet most carriage studies are limited to children under five years of age. We here explore the association between carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in children aged ≥5 years and in adults compared to children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies providing carriage estimates across age groups in healthy populations not previously exposed to PCV, using MEDLINE and Embase. We used Bayesian linear meta-regression models to predict the overall carriage prevalence as well as the prevalence and distribution of vaccine and nonvaccine type (VT and NVT serotypes in older age groups as a function of that in <5 y olds. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies compromising of 20,391 individuals were included in the analysis. In all studies nasopharyngeal carriage decreased with increasing age. We found a strong positive linear association between the carriage prevalence in pre-school childen (<5 y and both that in school aged children (5-17 y olds and in adults. The proportion of VT serotypes isolated from carriers was consistently lower in older age groups and on average about 73% that of children <5 y among 5-17 y olds and adults respectively. We provide a prediction model to infer the carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in 5-17 y olds and adults as a function of that in children <5 years of age. CONCLUSION: Such predictions are helpful for assessing the potential population-wide effects of vaccination programmes, e.g. via transmission models, and thus assist in the design of future pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies.

  16. Nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in American Indian households after a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use.

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    Jonathan F Mosser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young children played a major role in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, acquisition, and transmission in the era before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV use. Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era. METHODS: We investigated age-specific acquisition, household introduction, carriage clearance, and intra-household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in 300 American Indian households comprising 1,072 participants between March 2006 and March 2008. RESULTS: Pneumococcal acquisition rates were 2-6 times higher in children than adults. More household introductions of new pneumococcal strains were attributable to children <9 years than adults ≥17 years (p<0.001, and older children (2-8 years than younger children (<2 years (p<0.008. Compared to children <2 years, carriage clearance was more rapid in older children (2-4 years, HRclearance 1.53 [95% CI: 1.22, 1.91]; 5-8 years, HRclearance 1.71 [1.36, 2.15] and adults (HRclearance 1.75 [1.16, 2.64]. Exposure to serotype-specific carriage in older children (2-8 years most consistently increased the odds of subsequently acquiring that serotype for other household members. CONCLUSIONS: In this community with a high burden of pneumococcal colonization and disease and routine PCV7 use, children (particularly older children 2-8 years drive intra-household pneumococcal transmission: first, by acquiring, introducing, and harboring pneumococcus within the household, and then by transmitting acquired serotypes more efficiently than household members of other ages.

  17. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data

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    Toscano, Cristiana M.; Alencar, Gizelton P.; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T.; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R.; de Oliveira, Lucia H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. Methods This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5–13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3–23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0–91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7–44.4), respectively. Conclusion PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE. PMID:27058873

  18. Impact of pneumococcal vaccines use on invasive pneumococcal disease in Nunavik (Quebec from 1997 to 2010

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    Jean-Baptiste Le Meur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2000, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by a virulent clone of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in the Nunavik region of Quebec. A mass immunization campaign was implemented in the spring of 2002, targeting persons ≥5 years of age and using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23. At the same time, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced into the routine immunization programme of infants, with catch-up for children up to 4 years of age. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in relation to PPSV23 and PCV7 use. Study design and methods: Retrospective analysis of IPD cases identified by the Quebec public health laboratory during the period 1997–2010. Results: A total of 82 IPD cases were identified during the study period. In adults, serotype 1 incidence decreased following the 2002 PPSV23 mass campaign but breakthrough cases continued to occur. Following PCV7 use in children, there was a decrease in the incidence of vaccine-type IPD and replacement by other serotypes in adults. In children, a marked decrease in the annual incidence of serotypes included in PCV7 was observed following PCV7 introduction: 162/100,000 in 1997–2001 vs. 10/100,000 in 2004–2010 (p<0.01. Concomitantly, the incidence of IPD caused by serotypes not included in PCV7 increased from 29/100,000 to 109/100,000 (p=0.11. Conclusion: The mass immunization campaign using the PPSV23 in 2002 and the introduction of PCV7 for the routine immunization of infants induced important modifications in the epidemiology of IPD. IPD rates in Nunavik remain much higher than in the southern part of the province both in children and adults. More effective pneumococcal vaccines are needed to eliminate geographic disparities in IPD risk.

  19. Is 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) Combined With 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23) Superior to PPSV23 Alone for Reducing Incidence or Severity of Pneumonia in Older Adults? A Clin-IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Starla; Thompson, Lou Ann; McEachern, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the public health concerns, pneumonia also accounts for a significant cost to the health care system. Currently there are two leading vaccines targeted against S. pneumoniae: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Until recently the recommendation for adult pneumonia vaccination has been a single dose of PPSV23 for all adults 65 years and older. However, concerns were raised regarding the vaccine’s efficacy due to the persistent burden of pneumococcal disease in the elderly population. This paper focuses on two trials which evaluate the safety and efficacy of PCV13 in the adult population. The first study reveals improved immune response with the addition of PCV13 to PPSV23, while the second shows PCV13 was effective in the prevention of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia. The two studies observed adequate safety profiles for PCV13 in series with PPSV23 and with PCV13 compared to placebo. PMID:27376105

  20. Is 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13 Combined With 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23 Superior to PPSV23 Alone for Reducing Incidence or Severity of Pneumonia in Older Adults? A Clin-IQ

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    Starla Hayward

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the public health concerns, pneumonia also accounts for a significant cost to the health care system. Currently there are two leading vaccines targeted against Streptococcus pneumoniae: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13. Until recently, the recommendation for adult pneumonia vaccination has been a single dose of PPSV23 for all adults aged 65 years or older. However, concerns were raised regarding the vaccine’s efficacy due to the persistent burden of pneumococcal disease in the elderly population. This paper focuses on two trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of PCV13 in the adult population. The first study reveals improved immune response with the addition of PCV13 to PPSV23, while the second shows PCV13 was effective in the prevention of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia. Both studies observed adequate safety profiles for PCV13 in series with PPSV23 and with PCV13 compared to placebo.

  1. Randomized, single blind, controlled trial to evaluate the prime-boost strategy for pneumococcal vaccination in renal transplant recipients.

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    Selma Tobudic

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal diseases but may have poor response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV. It may be possible to enhance immunogenicity by priming with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPnC and boosting with PPV 1 year later. In a randomized single-blind, controlled study, adult recipients of renal transplants received either 7nPVC or PPV followed by PPV 1 year later. The vaccine response was defined as 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination values ≥1 µg/ml. The primary endpoint was vaccine response of the primed group (7vPnC/PPV compared with single PPV vaccination. Antibody concentrations for 10 serotypes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks after first vaccination, before second vaccination, and 8 weeks after second vaccination. Of 320 screened patients, 80 patients were randomized and 62 completed the study. Revaccination with PPV achieved no significant increase of immune response in the 7vPnC/PPV group compared with the single PPV recipients A response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 77.1% of patients who received 7vPnC and 93.1% of patients who received PPV (P = 0.046. After second vaccination response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 87.5% patients of 7vPnC/PPV group and 87.1% patients of PPV group (non significant p. The median number of serotypes eliciting a response was 3.5 (95% CI 2.5-4.5 in the 7vPnC/PPV group versus 5 (95% CI 3.9-6.1 in the PPV group (non-significant p. Immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccination was not enhanced by the prime-boost strategy compared with vaccination with PPV alone. Administration of a single dose of PPV should continue to be the standard of care for adult recipients of renal transplants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2007-004590-25.

  2. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

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    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV.

  3. Do Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Represent Good Value for Money in a Lower-Middle Income Country? A Cost-Utility Analysis in the Philippines.

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    Manuel Alexander Haasis

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is lacking in other previous studies.A cost-utility analysis was conducted. A Markov simulation model was constructed to examine the costs and consequences of PCV10 and PCV13 against the current scenario of no PCV vaccination for a lifetime horizon. A health system perspective was employed to explore different funding schemes, which include universal or partial vaccination coverage subsidized by the government. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in Philippine peso (Php per QALY gained (1 USD = 44.20 Php. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty.With universal vaccination at a cost per dose of Php 624 for PCV10 and Php 700 for PCV13, both PCVs are cost-effective compared to no vaccination given the ceiling threshold of Php 120,000 per QALY gained, yielding ICERs of Php 68,182 and Php 54,510 for PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. Partial vaccination of 25% of the birth cohort resulted in significantly higher ICER values (Php 112,640 for PCV10 and Php 84,654 for PCV13 due to loss of herd protection. The budget impact analysis reveals that universal vaccination would cost Php 3.87 billion to 4.34 billion per annual, or 1.6 to 1.8 times the budget of the current national vaccination program.The inclusion of PCV in the national immunization program is recommended. PCV13 achieved better value for money compared to PCV10. However, the affordability and sustainability of PCV implementation over the long-term should be considered by decision makers.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae oropharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and immunological properties of LPS-based conjugate vaccine composed of O-polysaccharide from pseudomonas aeruginosa IATS 10 bound to recombinant exoprotein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an improtant opportunistic pathogen that can cause infection in immunocompromised patient. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major surface antigen of P. aeruginosa, is immunogenic and elieits protective antibodies in animals. The O-polysaccharids (O-PS) from international Antigenic typing Scheme (IATS) 10, the antigenic determinant of LPS, was coupled to recombinant exoprotein A (rPA) through adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) mediated by carbodiimide condensation reaction. Mice were immunized with the conjugate emulsifield with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-T) and freund's adjuvants. The conjiugate emulsified with MPL-T adjuvant elicited the highest level of IgG and IgM followed by freuns's adjuvant. IgG titers using both MPL-T and freund's adjuvants were recorded to be higher than IgM titers after the second post of the immunization. Immunization of mice with the prepared conjugates emulsified with MPL-T and freund's adjvaided provide high level of protection (100%) against ten times the LD50 of homologous strain of P. aeruginsoa. the elicited high IgG level and the in vivo protection test results provided good evidences for the possible protection of the conjugate aginst subsequent infection with the pathogen. These findings will enable us to use it as protective vaccine candidate (authors).

  6. 新型肺炎链球菌疫苗研究进展%Advances in the research of new pneumococcal vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江红; 陈兵

    2009-01-01

    肺炎链球菌是肺炎、脑膜炎、败血症、中耳炎和鼻窦炎的主要致病菌.目前针对肺炎链球菌疾病的预防主要是以多糖为基础的23价多糖疫苗和7价多糖蛋白结合疫苗,但因其有血清型的限制,应用有很大的局限性.因此以肺炎链球菌表面毒力因子或蛋白为基础的、无血清型限制的肺炎链球菌蛋白疫苗将成为新型肺炎链球菌疫苗发展的方向,此文综述了肺炎链球菌蛋白疫苗的研究进展.%Streptococcus prteumoniae is a major pathogen for community-acquired pneumonia,meningitis,septicemia,otitis media,and sinusitis.The licensed polysaceharide-based 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) only elicit protective antibodies against the infection caused by serotypes that are included in the vaccines.To broaden the protection,the use of pneumococcal serotype-indepondent protein vaccines based on surface protein components will be a feasible and preferable alternative.In this review,advances in the research of pneumococcal protein vaccines are discussed.

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S;

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children

  8. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

  9. Salivary antibody levels in adolescents in response to a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate booster vaccination nine years after priming : systemically induced local immunity and saliva as potential surveillance tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, Susanne P; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Bogaert, Debby; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In several countries large-scale immunization of children and young adults with Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines has induced long-standing herd protection. Salivary antibodies may play an important role in mucosal protection against meningococcal acquisition and carria

  10. The first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine reactivates memory B cells: evidence for extensive clonal selection, intraclonal affinity maturation, and multiple isotype switches to IgA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Ditzel, H J;

    1999-01-01

    The Ab response of a healthy adult to the first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugate vaccine was studied at the level of Ig gene usage by circulating Ab-secreting cells. Forty-one IgA and 17 IgG mRNA sequences were obtained. The major part...

  11. Vacinas meningocócicas conjugadas: eficácia e novas combinações Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: efficacy and new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi

    2006-07-01

    quadrivalente meningocócica conjugada representa, enfim, a real possibilidade de uma proteção mais abrangente contra a doença meningocócica, restando ainda a necessidade de se desenvolver uma vacina eficaz contra o meningococo B.OBJECTIVE: Meningococcal disease continues to be a serious public health concern, being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, particularly in Brazil. In addition to discussing recent changes in the global epidemiology of meningococcal disease, we also analyze the development and impact of new conjugate vaccines on the prevention of meningococcal disease, with emphasis on the different immunization strategies implemented with these vaccines. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE databases were searched from 1996 to 2006, with emphasis on review articles, clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Information was also sought on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Brazilian Ministry of Health and Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado de São Paulo websites. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Five serogroups (A, B, C, W135 and Y are responsible for virtually all cases of the disease worldwide, with marked regional and temporal differences. The new meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines (MCC offer unmistakable advantages over polysaccharide vaccines. MCC vaccines generate a more efficient and long-lasting antibody response, inducing immunologic memory and reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage. The immediate results of introducing these vaccines into immunization programs have been encouraging, with a dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals (herd immunity. However, concerns have arisen regarding the long-term effectiveness of these vaccines, especially for infants vaccinated in the routine schedule. CONCLUSIONS: The reported waning of efficacy more than 1 year after routine infant immunization supports alternative schedules incorporating a

  12. Efficacy of pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV in young Latin American children: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel W Tregnaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and acute otitis media (AOM is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ≥ 40 µg/ml; other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ≥2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n = 10,295; control, n = 10,201, per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p = 0.002 against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6% against World Health Organization-defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1% against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7% against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28-30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD (PHiD-CV, n = 10,211; control, n = 10,140 and AOM (n = 3,010 and 2,979, respectively. Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: -1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p = 0.032 against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86

  13. A phase II, randomized study on an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine administered to infants in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Hodgson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC antibody titres > or = 1:8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres > or = 1:8 or SBA-MenC titres > or = 1:8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively. The administration of 10 microg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 microg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3 after primary vaccination which was more

  14. Pharmacoeconomic aspects related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: preliminary analysis of the data from the ASL of Viterbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dari Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen of considerable importance to public health because it causes morbidity and mortality on the world population. It has more than 90 serotypes with different epidemiological characteristics and pathogenicity. Some categories of the population are particularly vulnerable to infection. The Regional Plan for the Prevention of Lazio for vaccination, based on the national plan for the prevention for vaccination involves the active offer of vaccination no 13-valent PCV, with a target of at least 90% in children 24 months of age.OBJECTIVE: To begin to assess the real economic impact of disease attributable to Pneumococcus, starting from the analysis of hospital discharge records (SDO of the Viterbo's ASL.METHODS: The model is structured follows the observational approach of 33 months, from January 2012 to September 2014, selecting the SDO with a principal diagnosis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae diseases and those with a principal diagnosis of respiratory diseases without etiological diagnosis, which, with good approximation, it can be considered responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae 40%.RESULTS: From the preliminary analysis of the data, evaluating only patients diagnosed due to Pneumococcus, is known as the only pediatric cases hospitalized are between 0 and 1 year. Therefore one might assume that vaccination disbursed to the child population with 13-valent PCV, has ensured effective protection to persons of the age group 2-18 years.CONCLUSIONS: The importance of this study is the observation conducted on an ASL, (similar in size and catchment area to many Italian realty of the vaccination coverage effects, as provided by PRPV Lazio Region, on hospitalizations by Pneumococcus. The study offers a moment of reflection for decision makers, as it would be interesting to conduct pharmacoeconomic’s analysis in the presence of vaccination strategies extended to adults, especially for those at risk

  15. One-step multiplex PCR assay for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroups/types covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz Coskun-Ari

    Full Text Available The life-threatening illnesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae have been declined significantly after the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Continuous monitoring of the vaccine serogroups/types is necessary to follow the changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Recently, the sequential multiplex PCR approach, which uses several different sets of reactions, has been commonly adopted for determining capsular serogroups/types of S. pneumoniae isolates. In our study, we focused on development of a one-step multiplex PCR assay detecting all 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A/B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F serogroups/types targeted by PCV13. The content of multiplex PCR mix and the cycling conditions were optimized in a manner that allowed rapid and accurate serotyping of a pneumococcal isolate by performing only a single amplification reaction. In our study of 182 clinical isolates, the one-step multiplex PCR assay exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that its utilization can significantly reduce the use of traditional antiserum method requiring expensive reagents.

  16. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  17. Early Changes in the Serotype Distribution of Invasive Pneumococcal Isolates from Children after the Introduction of Extended-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Korea, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Young; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ahn, Young Min; Eun, Byung Wook; Oh, Sung Hee; Cha, Sung-Ho; Cho, Hye-Kyung; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Kwang Nam; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Taekjin; Kim, Hwang Min; Lee, Kun Song; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Young Mi; Oh, Chi Eun; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Young Youn; Lee, Jina; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Park, Ok; Park, Young-Joon; Kim, Eun Seong; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to measure early changes in the serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from children with invasive disease during the 3-year period following the introduction of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in Korea. From January 2011 to December 2013 at 25 hospitals located throughout Korea, pneumococci were isolated among children who had invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Serotypes were determined using the Quellung reaction, and the change in serotype distribution was analyzed. Seventy-five cases of IPD were included. Eighty percent of patients were aged 3-59 months, and 32% had a comorbidity that increased the risk of pneumococcal infection. The most common serotypes were 19A (32.0%), 10A (8.0%), and 15C (6.7%). The PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F, and 6A) accounted for 14.7% of the total isolates and the PCV13 minus PCV7 types (1, 3, 5, 7F and 19A) accounted for 32.0% of the total isolates. Serotype 19A was the only serotype in the PCV13 minus PCV7 group. The proportion of serotype 19A showed decreasing tendency from 37.5% in 2011 to 22.2% in 2013 (P = 0.309), while the proportion of non-PCV13 types showed increasing tendency from 45.8% in 2011 to 72.2% in 2013 (P = 0.108). Shortly after the introduction of extended-valent PCVs in Korea, serotype 19A continued to be the most common serotype causing IPD in children. Subsequently, the proportion of 19A decreased, and non-vaccine serotypes emerged as an important cause of IPD. The impact of extended-valent vaccines must be continuously monitored. PMID:27366006

  18. The data management of a phase III efficacy trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and related satellite studies conducted in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanvictores Diozele Hazel M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large phase III placebo-controlled, randomized efficacy trial of an investigational 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia in children less than 2 years of age was conducted in the Philippines from July 2000 to December 2004. Clinical data from 12,194 children who were given either study vaccine or placebo was collected from birth up to two years of age for the occurrence of radiologically proven pneumonia as the primary endpoint, and for clinical pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease as the secondary endpoints. Several tertiary endpoints were also explored. Along the core trial, several satellite studies on herd immunity, cost-effectiveness of the study vaccine, acute otitis media, and wheezing were conducted. Results We describe here in detail how the relevant clinical records were managed and how quality control procedures were implemented to ensure that valid data were obtained respectively for the core trial and for the satellite studies. We discuss how the task was achieved, what the challenges were and what might have been done differently. Conclusions There were several factors that made the task of data management doable and efficient. First, a pre-trial data management system was available. Secondly, local committed statisticians, programmers and support staff were available and partly familiar to clinical trials. Thirdly, the personnel had undergone training during trial and grew with the task they were supposed to do. Thus the knowledge needed to develop and operate clinical data system was fully transferred to local staff. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62323832

  19. Reactogenicity and tolerability of a non-adjuvanted 11-valent diphtheria-tetanus toxoid pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugpo, Juanita; Lucero, Marilla; Williams, Gail; Lechago, Marites; Nillos, Leilani; Tallo, Veronica; Nohynek, Hanna

    2009-05-01

    In a phase three randomized, double-blind, saline-placebo controlled study conducted in Bohol, Philippines, we assessed the reactogenicity of an 11-valent PCV (11PCV) when given simultaneously with EPI vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age in a subset of 252 and 126 children who were followed-up by passive and active surveillance, respectively. In passive surveillance (parents' observation), redness was observed in 14.4% vs. 11.8%, swelling in 8% vs. 3.9%, induration in 13.6% vs. 8.6%, and pain in 54.4% vs. 47.2% of 11PCV and placebo infants, respectively, after the first dose of the vaccine. Redness at injection site was significantly more common with 11PCV than placebo infants after the third dose (13.6% vs. 3.2%, p=0.005). Crying (53.6% vs. 48%), irritability (48% vs. 46.4%), and fever (22.4% vs. 19.6%) were commonly observed in 11PCV and placebo infants, respectively, after the first dose. Loss of appetite was significantly more common among 11PCV (12%) than placebo (4.7%) infants but only after the first dose of the vaccine (P=0.04). The number of reactions decreased in both groups with subsequent doses. The non-adjuvanted 11PCV vaccine was found to be well-tolerated among Filipino infants. PMID:18977267

  20. Comparison of a Classical Phagocytosis Assay and a Flow Cytometry Assay for Assessment of the Phagocytic Capacity of Sera from Adults Vaccinated with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Wouter T. M.; Väkeväinen-Anttila, Merja; Käyhty, Helena; Nahm, Moon; Bakker, N.; Verhoef, Jan; Snippe, Harm; Verheul, André F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Antibody- and complement-mediated phagocytosis is the main defense mechanism against Streptococcus pneumoniae. A standardized, easy to perform phagocytosis assay for pneumococci would be a great asset for the evaluation of the potential efficacy of (experimental) pneumococcal vaccines. Such an assay could replace the laborious phagocytosis assay of viable pneumococci (classical killing assay). Therefore, a newly developed phagocytosis assay based on flow cytometry (flow assay) was compared wi...

  1. Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Helen; Andrews, Nick; Borrow, Ray; Trotter, Caroline; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines were licensed in the United Kingdom more than 10 years ago based on correlates of protection that had previously been established for serogroup C-containing polysaccharide vaccines by using the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay. These correlates of protection were subsequently validated against postlicensure estimates of observed vaccine effectiveness up to 7 to 9 months after the administration of the MCC vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was, however, shown to fall significantly more than 1 year after the administration of a 3-dose course in infancy. Despite this finding, the marked impact on serogroup C disease has been sustained, with the lowest recorded incidence (0.02 case per 100,000 population) in the 2008-2009 epidemiological year, mainly due to the indirect herd immunity effect of the vaccine in reducing carriage. Updated estimates of vaccine effectiveness through 30 June 2009 confirmed high short-term protection after vaccination in infancy, at 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91% to 99%), falling to 68% (95% CI, -63% to 90%) more than a year after vaccination. The observed vaccine effectiveness more than 12 months postvaccination was consistent with measured declining SBA levels, but confidence intervals were imprecise; vaccine effectiveness estimates were consistent with SBA titers of 1:4 or 1:8 as correlates of long-term protection after a primary course in infants. Modeling suggested that protection against carriage persists for at least 3 years and predicted the stabilization of serogroup C disease at low levels (fewer than 50 cases per year) up to 2015-2016.

  2. Studies on preparation and immunogenicity of 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines%13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗的制备及免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明华; 石继春; 曹欣; 任涛; 唐秀丽; 韩菲; 王婷婷; 胡鹏; 张美香

    2013-01-01

    目的 制备13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,并初步研究其免疫原性.方法 将通过偶联方法制成的13种单价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,配制成含或不含铝佐剂的13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗.用制备的2种疫苗分别免疫猕猴和家兔,以ELISA法检测免疫动物的血清抗多糖抗体水平.结果 制备的2种疫苗的各项指标均达到质控标准.末次免疫后,含或不含铝佐剂疫苗免疫猕猴的平均血清抗各型多糖抗体阳转率分别为98.08%和94.23%;含或不含铝佐剂疫苗免疫家兔的平均血清抗各型多糖抗体阳转率分别为95.38%和96.92%.结论 成功研制了13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,含或不含铝佐剂疫苗在猕猴和家兔中均具有免疫原性.%Objective To prepare 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and study their immunogenicity preliminarily.Methods 13 monovalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines were prepared by coupling method.13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines with or without aluminium adjuvant were prepared by mixing 13 monovalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines.Macaques and rabbits were immunized with both kinds of prepared vaccines,and levels of serum antibodies to polysaccharide were detected by ELISA.Results All the indexes of two kinds of prepared vaccines met the standard of quality control.After the last immunization,average seroconversion rates in macaques immunized with 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with or without aluminium adjuvant were 98.08% and 94.23%,respectively; average seroconversion rates in rabbits immunized with 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with or without aluminium adjuvant were 95.38% and 96.92%,respectively.Conclusions 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are successfully prepared.No matter whether the vaccines contain adjuvant or not,they have

  3. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meiring

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for

  4. Direct Comparison of Immunogenicity Induced by 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine around the 11-Month Booster in Dutch Infants.

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    Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10, a 10- and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV are available, but only the 10-valent vaccine is now being used for the children in the Netherlands. As the vaccines differ in number of serotypes, antigen concentration, and carrier proteins this study was designed to directly compare quantity and quality of the antibody responses induced by PCV10 and PCV13 before and after the 11-month booster.Dutch infants (n = 132 were immunized with either PCV10 or PCV13 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB at the age of 2, 3, 4 and 11 months. Blood samples were collected pre-booster and post-booster at one week and one month post-booster for quantitative and qualitative immunogenicity against 13 pneumococcal serotypes, as well as quantitative immunogenicity against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We compared immunogenicity induced by PCV13 and PCV10 for their ten shared serotypes.One month post-booster, pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs for the PCV13 group were higher compared with the PCV10 group for six serotypes, although avidity was lower. Serotype 19F showed the most distinct difference in IgG and, in contrast to other serotypes, its avidity was higher in the PCV13 group. One week post-booster, opsonophagocytosis for serotype 19F did not differ significantly between the PCV10- and the PCV13 group.Both PCV10 and PCV13 were immunogenic and induced a booster response. Compared to the PCV10 group, the PCV13 group showed higher levels for serotype 19F GMCs and avidity, pre- as well as post-booster, although opsonophagocytosis did not differ significantly between groups. In our study, avidity is not correlated to opsonophagocytotic activity (OPA and correlations between IgG and OPA differ per serotype. Therefore, besides assays to determine IgG GMCs, assays to detect opsonophagocytotic activity, i.e., the actual killing of the pneumococcus, are important for PCV evaluation. How

  5. Novel Pneumococcal Serotypes 6C and 6D: Anomaly or Harbinger

    OpenAIRE

    McEllistrem, M. Catherine; Nahm, Moon H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of serotypes 6C and 6D, the former of which expanded in the 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine era, illustrates a previously unrecognized limitation of conjugate vaccines: the expansion of unrecognized serotypes could erode the efficacy of a serotype-specific vaccine.

  6. Direct, indirect and total effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in children in Navarra, Spain, 2001 to 2014: cohort and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Marcela; Barricarte, Aurelio; Torroba, Luis; Herranz, Mercedes; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Gil, Francisco; Bernaola, Enrique; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the direct, indirect and total effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. A population-based cohort study followed children aged between 2.5 and 59 months between 2001 and 2014 in Navarra, Spain. IPD incidence was compared by PCV status and period. All cases diagnosed from July 2010 to December 2014 and eight matched controls per case were analysed to estimate the adjusted direct effect of PCV13. A total of 120,980 children were followed and 206 IPD cases were detected. Compared with unvaccinated children in the baseline period (2001-2004), overall IPD incidence in 2011-2014 (76% average PCV coverage) declined equally in vaccinated (total effect: 76%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.40) and unvaccinated children (indirect effect: 78%; HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). IPD incidence from non-PCV13 serotypes increased among vaccinated children (HR: 2.84; 95% CI: 1.02-7.88). The direct effect of one or more doses of PCV13 against vaccine serotypes was 95% (odds ratio: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.55). PCV13 was highly effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD. The results suggest substantial and similar population-level vaccine benefits in vaccinated and unvaccinated children through strong total and indirect effects.

  7. Decrease in Hospitalizations for Pneumonia in Children under Five Years of Age in an Indian Reservation in Panama after the Introduction of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Nieto Guevara; Carlos Daza; Rebecca Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of Heptavalent-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) in Panama on indigenous children younger than 5 years old, based on clinical pneumonia cases. This study demonstrates a significant 41.2% reduction in hospitalizations and 38.6% reduction in referrals for pneumonia following the introduction of PCV7. Burden of disease from pneumonia appears reduced in the ≤12-month- and 13-to-24-month-old groups.

  8. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  9. Evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and IgG avidity assays using a protein A-peroxidase conjugate for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. IgG levels and avidity to B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) were determined using anti-bovine IgG-HRPO or protein A-HRPO conjugates. Similar levels of IgG anti-S-LPS were found with GI using both conjugates. Lower IgG levels were detected with GII, GIII, and GIV using protein A-HRPO. Both conjugates showed high performance in discriminating GI from GIII, with high sensitivity (Se; 97.6%) and specificity (Sp; 97.1%). Protein A-HRPO was better in distinguishing GI from GIV (Se, 97.6%; Sp, 94.6%) and GI from GII (Se, 80.5%; Sp, 94.9%). Protein A-HRPO excluded a higher number of positive samples with GII and GIV. IgG avidity showed that protein A-HRPO, but not anti-IgG-HRPO, was able to distinguish nonvaccinated from vaccinated cattle, showing a higher avidity index (AI) with GI than with GII, with 78% of serum samples in GII showing an AI of abortus S-LPS antigen and protein A-HRPO conjugate for preferential detection of the IgG2 subclass was shown to be suitable for serological distinction between S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Also, antibodies generated after vaccination showed lower avidity, suggesting a role for the IgG2 subclass as an antibody of higher-affinity maturation after infection, constituting an additional tool for differentiating vaccinated from infected cattle. PMID:20147498

  10. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada, 2011-2014: Characterization of new candidate 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes 22F and 33F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Alyssa R; Adam, Heather J; Zhanel, George G

    2016-05-17

    Emerging non-PCV-13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 22F and 33F are included in a new 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. This study assessed the antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of these two emerging pneumococcal serotypes. Of the 5075 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada from 2011 to 2014, 9.8% (497/5075) were serotype 22F and 3.2% (160/5075) were serotype 33F. Despite being among the top 4 most common serotypes collected each study year, serotype 22F demonstrated ≥98% susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested except clarithromycin and few were multi-drug resistant (MDR) (0.8%, 4/497). Serotype 22F isolates were highly clonal (ST433), with two isolates showing high relatedness to MDR international clone Sweden(15A)-25 (ST63). Conversely, serotype 33F showed greater antimicrobial resistance, greater genetic diversity and a higher proportion of MDR isolates (8.8%, 14/160). The prevalence of serotype 33F increased significantly during 2011-2014 (p=0.005). PMID:27085174

  11. b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗接种反应及其处理%Adverse reactions after inoculation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and their treatment principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊永贞

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine belongs to category Ⅱ vaccine in China.Safety of Hib vaccine is good,and incidence rate of adverse reactions after Hib vaccination is low.Normal reactions after Hib vaccination include local redness,swelling and pain,and mild fever,etc.These symptoms can disappear spontaneously without treatment.Abnormal reactions after Hib vaccination include local blisters and suppuration,systemic allergic rashes and purpura,gastrointestinal reactions,and emotional abnormality,etc.These abnormal reactions can be recovered well after proper treatment.%b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus in fluenzae type b,Hib)疫苗在中国属于二类疫苗,其安全性良好,接种反应发生率低.Hib疫苗接种后的一般反应包括局部红肿、疼痛,低热等,无需处理可自愈.Hib疫苗接种后的异常反应包括局部水泡和化脓、全身过敏性皮疹和紫癜、消化道反应、情绪异常等,这些异常反应经对症治疗可得到恢复.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan.

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    Shu-ling Hoshi

    Full Text Available Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13 are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV-23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV-13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV-23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV-23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥ 100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot.We performed economic evaluations to (1 evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV-23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2 investigate the efficiency of PCV-13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1 current PPSV-23 strategy, (2 65 to 80 (as "65-80 PPSV-23 strategy", and (3 65 and older (as "≥ 65 PPSV-23 strategy". We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥ 8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥ 110 for PPSV-23 and ¥ 10,776 (US$98 for PCV-13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%.Compared to current PPSV-23 strategy, 65-80 PPSV-23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs of ≥ 65 PPSV-23 strategy was ¥ 5,025,000 (US$45,682 per QALY gained. PCV-13 inclusion into the list for

  13. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV–23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV–13) are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV–23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV–13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV–23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV–23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot. Methods We performed economic evaluations to (1) evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV–23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2) investigate the efficiency of PCV–13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1) current PPSV–23 strategy, (2) 65 to 80 (as “65–80 PPSV–23 strategy”), and (3) 65 and older (as “≥65 PPSV–23 strategy”). We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY) and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥110) for PPSV–23 and ¥10,776 (US$98) for PCV–13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%. Results Compared to current PPSV–23 strategy, 65–80 PPSV–23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of ≥65 PPSV–23 strategy was ¥5,025,000 (US$45

  14. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice.

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    Md Abu Sayeed

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a severe watery diarrhea. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS.Here we describe a conjugate vaccine for cholera prepared via squaric acid chemistry from the OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba strain PIC018 and a recombinant heavy chain fragment of tetanus toxin (OSP:rTTHc. We assessed a range of vaccine doses based on the OSP content of the vaccine (10-50 μg, vaccine compositions varying by molar loading ratio of OSP to rTTHc (3:1, 5:1, 10:1, effect of an adjuvant, and route of immunization.Immunized mice developed prominent anti-OSP and anti-TT serum IgG responses, as well as vibriocidal antibody and memory B cell responses following intramuscular or intradermal vaccination. Mice did not develop anti-squarate responses. Intestinal lamina proprial IgA responses targeting OSP occurred following intradermal vaccination. In general, we found comparable immune responses in mice immunized with these variations, although memory B cell and vibriocidal responses were blunted in mice receiving the highest dose of vaccine (50 μg. We found no appreciable change in immune responses when the conjugate vaccine was administered in the presence or absence of immunoadjuvant alum. Administration of OSP:rTTHc resulted in 55% protective efficacy in a mouse survival cholera challenge model.We report development of an Inaba OSP:rTTHc conjugate vaccine that induces memory responses and protection against cholera in mice. Development of an effective cholera conjugate vaccine that induces high level and long-term immune responses against OSP would be beneficial, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  15. Carrier priming effect of CRM197 is related to an enhanced B and T cell activation in meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccination. Immunological comparison between CRM197 and diphtheria toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecetta, S; Tontini, M; Faenzi, E; Cioncada, R; Proietti, D; Seubert, A; Nuti, S; Berti, F; Romano, M R

    2016-04-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are composed of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) of a pathogenic bacteria covalently linked to carrier proteins. Pre-exposure to the carrier is known to influence the efficacy of the glycoconjugate, by inducing enhanced or suppressed anti-CPS response. Following our previous work on the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and formaldehyde-treated diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carriers for meningococcal A (MenA) conjugates in mouse model, we further investigated the role of the carrier on the immunological response to glycoconjugate vaccines. We previously showed that high dosage DT priming could result in carrier-induced epitopic suppression (CIES), an event that did not occur for CRM197 priming, and we observed that anti-DT IgGs could cross-react with DT based conjugates in vitro. Here, we confirmed the cross-reactivity of anti-carrier IgGs with DT conjugates in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed the splenocytes of animals primed with the carrier and subsequently immunized with the MenA conjugate. Pre-exposure to the carrier protein, both CRM197 and DT, resulted in increased carrier-specific plasma and memory B cell response. However, only for CRM197 priming an enhanced carbohydrate-specific plasma cell response was observed. Analysis of circulating IgGs confirmed these observations. Memory to the CPS resulted to be non-influenced by carrier priming. Analysis of T helper response showed an enhancement effect for CRM197 priming, while DT priming resulted in constrained T cell activation. Stimulation with CRM197, which does not require formaldehyde detoxification, of splenocytes from animal immunized with DT suggested that the formaldehyde treatment used to produce DT might be the cause of limited presentation of the antigen to the T cells. We concluded that the dominant carrier-specific B cell response in case of limited T cell recruitment might explain the previously observed CIES phenomenon in case of DT priming.

  16. Carrier priming effect of CRM197 is related to an enhanced B and T cell activation in meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccination. Immunological comparison between CRM197 and diphtheria toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecetta, S; Tontini, M; Faenzi, E; Cioncada, R; Proietti, D; Seubert, A; Nuti, S; Berti, F; Romano, M R

    2016-04-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are composed of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) of a pathogenic bacteria covalently linked to carrier proteins. Pre-exposure to the carrier is known to influence the efficacy of the glycoconjugate, by inducing enhanced or suppressed anti-CPS response. Following our previous work on the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and formaldehyde-treated diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carriers for meningococcal A (MenA) conjugates in mouse model, we further investigated the role of the carrier on the immunological response to glycoconjugate vaccines. We previously showed that high dosage DT priming could result in carrier-induced epitopic suppression (CIES), an event that did not occur for CRM197 priming, and we observed that anti-DT IgGs could cross-react with DT based conjugates in vitro. Here, we confirmed the cross-reactivity of anti-carrier IgGs with DT conjugates in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed the splenocytes of animals primed with the carrier and subsequently immunized with the MenA conjugate. Pre-exposure to the carrier protein, both CRM197 and DT, resulted in increased carrier-specific plasma and memory B cell response. However, only for CRM197 priming an enhanced carbohydrate-specific plasma cell response was observed. Analysis of circulating IgGs confirmed these observations. Memory to the CPS resulted to be non-influenced by carrier priming. Analysis of T helper response showed an enhancement effect for CRM197 priming, while DT priming resulted in constrained T cell activation. Stimulation with CRM197, which does not require formaldehyde detoxification, of splenocytes from animal immunized with DT suggested that the formaldehyde treatment used to produce DT might be the cause of limited presentation of the antigen to the T cells. We concluded that the dominant carrier-specific B cell response in case of limited T cell recruitment might explain the previously observed CIES phenomenon in case of DT priming. PMID:27015733

  17. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  18. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Fully Liquid Vaccine Containing Five-Component Pertussis-Diphtheria-Tetanus-Inactivated Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccines Administered at Two, Four, Six and 18 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gold

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada] were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada].

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Fully Liquid Vaccine Containing Five-Component Pertussis-Diphtheria-Tetanus-Inactivated Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccines Administered at Two, Four, Six and 18 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Gold; Luis Barreto; Santiago Ferro; John Thippawong; Roland Guasparini; William Meekison; Margaret Russell; Elaine Mills; Dana Harrison; Pierre Lavigne

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada]) were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada]).METHODS: Infants we...

  20. 冻干b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗的初步研究%Primary study on a freeze-dried Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 佟巍; 李绍军; 郝雅男; 张现臣; 刘建凯; 尹珊珊; 高正伦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prepare a freeze-dried Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine and evaluate its safety and stability.Methods The vaccine was freezedried by using 2.5% lactose as stabilizer.The safety was evaluated in terms of pyrogen,abnormal toxicity,toxicity reverse of tetanus toxoid,and allergenicity.The stability of vaccine was determined by an accelerated stability test at 37 ℃ for 28 days.Immunogenicity was detected by a routine ELISA.Results The safety analysis showed that the vaccine met requirements.The increase of body temperature was <0.6 ℃ in 3 rabbits after immunization.All guinea pigs and mice survived the 7-day observation period and gained weight after test.All indicators were qualified after storing the vaccine at 37 ℃ for 28 days.The contents of polysaccharide and high molecular weight conjugate were 12-15 μg/dose and 82%-86%,respectively.Seroconversion rate was above 95% in the immunized mice.Conclusions The freeze-dried Hib conjugate vaccine is safe and stable.The study lays the base for evaluating protective effect and determining validity period of the vaccine.%目的 制备冻干b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophius in fluenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗,并对其安全性和稳定性进行研究.方法 用2.5%乳糖为稳定剂对疫苗进行冻干.对冻干疫苗从热原、异常毒性、破伤风类毒素毒性逆转和过敏原性4个方面进行安全性评价.将疫苗于37℃放置28 d,观察其稳定性,并检测其免疫原性.结果 制备的冻干Hib结合疫苗各项安全性指标均符合要求.3只家兔免疫后体温升高均低于0.6℃.豚鼠和小鼠免疫后在7d观察期内全部健存,且在试验结束后体重均增加.疫苗在37℃放置28 d,各项检测指标均合格,多糖含量为12~15μg/剂,高分子结合物含量为82%~86%.免疫小鼠的抗体阳转率≥95%.结论 冻干Hib结合疫苗是安全的且稳定性良好,为评价疫苗的保护效果及确定效期奠定了基础.

  1. 冻干b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗稳定性研究%Study on stability of a freeze-dried Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军; 李新国

    2011-01-01

    目的 对以乳糖作为稳定剂的b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗冻干剂型进行稳定性研究.方法 选取3批冻干Hib结合疫苗,分别于2~8℃保存42个月,20~25℃保存7个月,37℃保存5周.并于考察期内对疫苗进行外观检查、检测回收率(KD <0.2)、游离多糖含量、水分和小鼠效力试验,观察其是否发生降解.结果 在考察期内,冻干疫苗小鼠效力试验阳转率均为100%,外观检查均符合规定,回收率(KD<0.2)均≥68%,游离多糖均≤18%,水分均≤3.0%.各项指标均达到中国药典要求.结论 冻干疫苗于2~8℃保存42个月,20~25℃保存7个月,37℃保存5周质量稳定.%Objective To research the stability of a freeze-dried Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)conjugate vaccine using lactose as a stabilizer.Methods Three batches of the freeze-dried Hib conjugate vaccine were selected to be stored at 2-8 ℃ for 42 months,20-25 ℃ for 7 months and 37 ℃ for 5 weeks,respectively.Tests for appearance,recovery rate of polysaccharide (KD < 0.2),free polysaccharide content,moisture content and mouse potency test were performed during observation to see whether degradation of the vaccine occurred.Results The seroconversion rate in mouse potency test was 100%,the appearance of vaccine was fit for the standard,recovery rate of polysaccharide (KD <0.2) was≥68%,free polysaccharide content≤ 18%,moisture content ≤3.0% for all three batches of the freeze-dried vaccine during observation.All the indexes of freeze-dried vaccine reach the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopeia.Conclusion The freeze-dried Hib conjugate vaccine has stable quality when stored at 2-8℃ for 42 months,20-25℃ for 7 months and 37℃ for 5 weeks.

  2. Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Picazo, Juan; Dueñas, Joaquin; Ramirez, Antonio; Perez, Andres-Ricardo; Padilla, Emma; Herrero, Susana; Gallegos, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Balseiro, Cesar; Mendez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible r...

  3. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE 13-VALENT PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINE: EMERGING DATA FROM INVASIVE PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASE, PNEUMONIA, ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA AND NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Reinert, Ralf; Taysi, Bulent

    2012-01-01

    A new WHO position paper has been published recently stressing the high priority of the inclusion of PCVs in childhood immunization programs worldwide. Planning for national use of pneumococcal vaccines should take besides other factors the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in different age groups into consideration. In addition to the serotypes included in PCV7, PCV13 contains serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A and this vaccine provides the broadest serotype coverage of PCVs globally. In...

  5. Preparation and immunogenicity-evaluation of typhoid O-specific polysaccharides bio-conjugate vaccines%生物法合成伤寒O-糖蛋白结合疫苗及其免疫原性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭哲慧; 潘超; 孙鹏; 冯尔玲; 吴军; 朱力; 彭清忠; 王恒樑

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever caused bySalmonella Typhi is still a major public health problem in developing coun-tries. In this study, we constructed a genetically modifiedSalmonella Typhi strain expressing O-specific polysaccha-rides (OPS) antigen conjugated to a carrier, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A(rEPA N29). The conju-gates (OPS-rEPA N29) were further purified and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results of ELISA showed that the conjugates evoked higher titers of IgG than OPS, suggesting that rEPAN29 increased immunogenicity of OPS significantly as a carrier. Moreover, three injections with 3-week interval evoked slightly higher titers of IgG than three injections with 2-week interval. However, injection of excess conjugates could not evoke higher titers of IgG against lipid polysaccharide (LPS). In summary, our study provides a new strategy for preparing polysaccha-rides-protein conjugate vaccines as well as similar bio-conjugate vaccines of other Gram-negative pathogens.%伤寒由伤寒沙门氏菌(Salmonella Typhi)引发,至今在发展中国家仍是备受关注的重要公共卫生问题.文章通过敲除伤寒菌脂多糖合成途径中O-抗原连接酶基因,转入含脑膜炎奈瑟球菌(Neisseria meningitidis)蛋白糖基化途径中糖基转移酶的表达载体,以及改构的重组铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas Aeruginosa)外毒素A(rEPAN29)的表达载体,使细胞内能够诱导合成以伤寒O特异性多糖(O-specific polysaccharides, OPS)为目标抗原、以rEPAN29为载体蛋白的伤寒OPS-rEPAN29糖蛋白复合物,并对纯化所得复合物进行了免疫原性评价.ELISA测定血清抗体滴度表明,rEPA N29作为载体蛋白能有效增加糖链的免疫原性,糖蛋白比单独的多糖能诱导产生更好的免疫应答;3次免疫、间隔3周比间隔2周IgG滴度稍有提高;而免疫过量的糖蛋白,抗O-多糖的血清抗体效价并无提升.文章为生物法制备多糖-蛋白结合疫苗提供了新思路,理论

  6. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  7. Immune Effect of a Booster with Domestic Haemophilus influenzae Type b PRP-TT Conjugate Vaccine%国产b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗PRP-TT加强免疫效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚南; 乔瑞洁; 李红; 刘佳; 王浩; 史晓玲; 叶强; 谢贵林

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价国产b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗PRP-TT的加强免疫效果.方法 分别用安儿宝和呵儿贝两种Hib结合疫苗,对在广西柳州市常住儿童进行3、4、5月龄3针免疫,1年后,进行第4剂加强免疫.分别于3针免疫1年后和加强免疫1个月后采血,分离血清,采用ELISA和体外杀菌实验(Serum bactericidal assay,SBA)分别检测免疫前后血清IsG抗体浓度和加强免疫后SBA抗体滴度.结果 安儿宝和呵儿贝疫苗3针免疫1年后,血清IgG抗体几何平均数浓度(Geometric mean concentrations,GMCs)分别为3.17 μg/ml和3.00 μg/ml,二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);其中,IgG抗体浓度在1.00μg/ml以上的血清所占的比例分别为79%(62/78)和76%(115/152),二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).加强免疫后1个月,两种疫苗免疫血清中IgG抗体GMCs分别为71.33μg/ml和65.35 μg/ml,二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);IgG抗体浓度均能100%达1.00 μg/ml以上.两种疫苗加强免疫后的血清IgG抗体浓度与各自加强免疫前比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).两种疫苗免疫后血清IgG抗体浓度和SBA抗体滴度均具有相关性(r值分别为0.696和0.689,P<0.05).结论3针免疫1年后,两种疫苗免疫血清中IgG抗体仍保持较高的水平,第4剂加强免疫后,抗体水平迅速显著升高,100%达1.00μg/ml以上,且具有有效的体外杀菌功能.%Objective To evaluate the immune effect of a booster with domestic Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) PRP-TT conjugate vaccine. Methods The infants resided in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were inoculated with two kinds of PRP-TT conjugate vaccine (Anerbao and Heerbei) respectively, for 3 times at ages of 3, 4 and 5 months, and boosted with the same kind of vaccine 12 months later. The serum samples were collected 12 month after the 3rd dose and one month after the booster, and determined for IgG titers by ELISA and serum

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  9. Use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among adults%23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗和13价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗在成年人中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朗; 陈磊; 林纪胜; 高强; 王见冬; 王新立; 蔡芳

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing serious diseases such as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis in people of all ages, especially in young children and the eldly worldwide.These diseases can be prevented by pneumococcal vaccines.In countries where pneumococcal vaccines have been introduced in national immunization program, the incidence of pneumococcal diseases and the carriage of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes decreased dramatically in children, and indirect herd protection was developed among unvaccinated people.The utilization of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are discussed in this article.%肺炎链球菌是引起全球不同年龄人群,尤其是幼儿和老年人肺炎、败血症和脑膜炎等严重疾病的重要病原菌,由肺炎链球菌导致的这些疾病可以通过疫苗进行预防.在将肺炎链球菌疫苗纳入国家免疫计划的国家,儿童肺炎链球菌病的发病率以及疫苗型肺炎链球菌的携带率大大降低,且可在未免疫人群中产生间接保护作用.此文对23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗和1 3价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗在成年人中的应用进行探讨.

  10. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David; Shelton, Chasity M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine...

  11. Oral delivery of probiotic expressing M cell homing peptide conjugated BmpB vaccine encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Li, Hui-Shan; Kang, Sang-Kee; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2014-11-01

    Oral administration of live probiotics as antigen delivery vectors is a promising approach in vaccine development. However, the low survival of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract limits this approach. Therefore, the aim of this study was the encapsulation of probiotic expressing vaccine into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (MCs) for efficient oral vaccine delivery. Here, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum 25 (LP25) expressing M cell homing peptide fused BmpB protein was used as a model probiotic. The viability of LP25 in ACA MCs was more than 65% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0) and 75% in simulated small intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2) up to 2h. Encapsulated LP25 was completely released from ACA MCs in SIF within 12h. When stored at room temperature (RT) or 4°C, the viability of LP25 in ACA MCs was higher than free LP25. Interestingly, the viability of LP25 in ACA MCs at 4°C for 5weeks was above 58%, whereas viability of free LP25 stored at RT up to 5weeks was zero. After 4weeks from the first immunization, LP25-M-BmpB-loaded ACA MCs induced a stronger BmpB-specific IgG and IgA production in mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that encapsulation of probiotic by ACA MCs is a promising delivery system for oral administration of probiotic expressing vaccine.

  12. Comparative Opsonic and Protective Activities of Staphylococcus aureus Conjugate Vaccines Containing Native or Deacetylated Staphylococcal Poly-N-Acetyl-β-(1-6)-Glucosamine

    OpenAIRE

    Maira-Litrán, Tomás; Kropec, Andrea; Goldmann, Donald A.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis both synthesize the surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetyl-β-(1-6)-glucosamine (PNAG), which is produced in vitro with a high level (>90%) of the amino groups substituted by acetate. Here, we examined the role of the acetate substituents of PNAG in generating opsonic and protective antibodies. PNAG and a deacetylated form of the antigen (dPNAG; 15% acetylation) were conjugated to the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid (DT) and used to immunize...

  13. The efficacy and safety of a nicotine conjugate vaccine (NicVAX® or placebo co-administered with varenicline (Champix® for smoking cessation: study protocol of a phase IIb, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogsteder Philippe HJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential new treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This immunization will elicit the immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. The resulting antibody-antigen is too large to cross the blood–brain barrier and is therefore postulated to attenuate the rewarding effect of nicotine by preventing the latter from reaching its receptors in the brain and causing the release of dopamine. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a phase IIb, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the nicotine vaccine NicVAX® co-administered with varenicline (Champix® and intensive counseling as an aid in smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Methods/design Two centers will include a total of 600 smokers who are motivated to quit smoking. At week −2 these smokers will be randomized, in a 1:1 ratio, to either 6 injections of NicVAX® or placebo, both co-administered with 12-weeks of varenicline treatment, starting at week 0. The target quit day will be set after 7 days of varenicline treatment at week 1. Smokers will be followed up for 54 weeks. The primary outcome is defined as biochemically validated prolonged smoking abstinence from week 9 to 52. Secondary outcomes include safety, immunogenicity, smoking abstinence from week 37 to 52, abstinence from week 9 to 24, abstinence in the subset of subjects with the highest antibody response, and lapse/relapse rate. Discussion This is the first study to assess the efficacy of a nicotine conjugate vaccine in combination with an evidence-based smoking cessation pharmacotherapy (varenicline to quit smoking. Although NicVAX® is primarily designed as an aid to smoking cessation, our study is designed to explore its potential to maintain

  14. Research of universal influenza virus vaccine conjugated human papillomavirus 16 LI as a vector%以人乳头瘤病毒16 L1为载体的流感通用疫苗初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊; 李志奎; 王希良; 罗德炎; 颜艳; 陈中伟; 花艳红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To construct a universal influenza virus vaccine Baemid containing M2 extracellular domain(M2e) of influenza virus which conjugated human papillomavirus(HPV)16 L1 as a vector and expressed the protein in insect baeulovirus system. Methods HPV16 L1 gene was amplified by PCR with the primers contained M2e gene. The conjugated genes were inserted into pFast HTA vector to recombine in DHI0Bac. The recombinant baemid was transfected into sf9 insect cells by liposome to produce baculovirus contained M2e-HPVI6 L1. Protein was determined by SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence and electronmicroseope. Results The universal influenza virus vaccine Bacmid containing M2e of influenza virus which conjugated HPV16 L1 as a vector was successfully constructed. The recombinant protein wasexpressed in insect cells. Conclusions The recombinant protein was expressed in insect cells in the form of virus-like particles through the baculovirus system,which was a base of the universal influenza virus vaccine development.%目的 构建以人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)16 L1为载体的甲型流感病毒M2基因胞外区(M2e)通用疫苗杆粒,利用昆虫细胞杆状病毒表达系统,进行初步的蛋白表达.方法 利用PCR技术将甲型流感病毒M2e基因序列与HPVl6 L1相连.经酶切、酶联将融合基因插入pFastBacHTA载体,在DH10Bac细胞中进行同源重组,经测序鉴定后构建M2e-HPV16 L1杆粒,脂质体转染sf9昆虫细胞,收获并扩增含有M2e-HPV16 L1的杆状病毒,经扩增后获得高效价的重组杆状病毒,用SDS-PAGE、免疫荧光法和电镜检测目的蛋白的表达.结果 构建了以HPV16 L1为载体的M2e通用疫苗杆粒,通过转染sf9昆虫细胞得到初步M2e-HPV16 L1融合蛋白表达.结论 成功构建了HPV16 L1与甲型流感病毒M2e融合蛋白的病毒样颗粒,为流感通用疫苗的研制奠定了基础.

  15. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  16. Synthesis of an Aminooxy Derivative of the Tetrasaccharide Repeating Unit of Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 Polysaccharide for a PS A1 Conjugate Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samir; Nishat, Sharmeen; Andreana, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    A highly efficient and stereocontrolled synthesis of an aminooxy derivative of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of a rhamnose-rich polysaccharide isolated from the cell envelop of bovine mastitis Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 is reported for the first time. The synthesis was accomplished utilizing a stereoselective and convergent [2 + 2] glycosylation strategy inclusive of a disaccharide Schmidt donor and an inclusive rhamnose disaccharide acceptor. The synthetic aminooxy tetrasaccharide was conjugated to T-cell stimulating immunogen PS A1 from Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285/NCTC 9343 via a physiologically stable oxime linkage to furnish the first semisynthetic bacterial-based immunogen construct targeting S. dysgalactiae 2023. The synthetic tetrasaccharide was assembled in 19 steps with a ∼5.0% overall yield. PMID:27149417

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine%b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗的安全性及免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凤基; 李丽; 张国辉; 张政; 王朝云; 杨立清; 艾星; 白云骅; 芦强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine manufactured by Novartis International AG.Methods A total of 320 healthy infants at ages of 2 ~ 5 months were randomly divided into trial and control groups according to a ratio of 1 ∶ 1.The infants in trial group were injectedi.m.with three doses of Hib conjugate vaccine manufactured by Novartis,while those in control group with an imported Hib conjugate vaccine,each at an interval of one month.Local and systemic adverse reactions were observed 30 min,6 h,24 h,48 h and 72 h after each dose.Adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) were collected 4 ~ 28 d after each dose.Hib-PRP antibody levels in sera were determined before the first dose and 28 d after the last dose by ELISA respectively,based on which the immunogenicity of vaccine was evaluated.Results The total local adverse reaction rates were 12.67% in trial groups and 14.69% in control group,which showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).The local adverse reaction rate in trial group after the first dose was significantly lower,while those after the second and third doses were significantly higher,than those in control group.The total systemic adverse reaction rates were 19.33% in trial group and 22.38% in control group,which showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).The systemic adverse reaction rates after each dose showed no significant difference in trial and control groups (P > 0.05).The proportions of subjects with Hib-PRP antibody levels of not less than 1.0 μg/ml were 97.33% and 95.80% in trial and control groups respectively,which showed no significant difference(P > 0.05).However,both the proportions of subjects with Hib-PRP antibody level of not less than 0.15 μg/ml in two groups were 100%.The Hib-PRP antibody levels in trial and control groups were (3.82 ± 39.76) and (5.22 ± 43.22) μg/ml in trial and control groups respectively.Conclusion No

  18. 不同部位接种b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗不良反应比较%The adverse reactions of the haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine injected at different parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文璇; 张桂辉; 王馨; 吴婕翎; 姚晓敏

    2013-01-01

      目的 探讨不同部位接种b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗( haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine,Act-Hib)不良反应情况。方法 将500例预防接种Act-Hib的2~8月龄婴幼儿随机分为实验组与对照组,每组各250例,分别于大腿前外侧肌和上臂三角肌进行疫苗接种。比较两组婴幼儿接种后局部及全身反应情况。结果 实验组婴幼儿局部反应程度明显轻于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 婴幼儿预防接种Act-Hib,在大腿前外侧肌注射接种局部反应程度明显轻于在上臂三角肌注射。%Objective To investigate the adverse reactions of the haemophilus influenza Type B vaccine(Act-Hib).Methods 500 infants aged 2-8 months were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups in equal number: The infants in the former group received vaccination by injecting(Act-Hib)in anterolateral thigh and those in the control in the upper arm deltoid muscle. The adverse reactions in the two groups were observed and compared.Results The incidence of local response in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The incidence of adverse reaction by injecting Act-Hib in the anterolateral thigh is lower than that in the upper arm deltoid muscles for the infants aged 2-8 months undergoing vaccination of Act-Hib.

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  20. The pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein and its application in conjugate vaccine%肺炎球菌PsaA抗原及其在结合疫苗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊小英; 薛红刚; 郭蓉; 胡菁; 卢佳丽; 朱越雄

    2011-01-01

    pneumococcal surface adhesin A(PsaA) protein,discuss its application as a protein carrier in conjugates vaccine. Methods The gene encoding for the PsaA protein was amplified from the genomic DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae using PCR. The PCR product was then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a and the recombinant was transformed into host cell E. coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of the recombinant protein(rPsaA) was induced by IPTG and purifled by using DEAE anion-exchange chromatography. The rPsaA was successfully conjugated with group A meningococcal polysaccharide(GAMP). The mice were immunized subcutaneously with the conjugate and the immune responses against GAMP and PsaA were detected by ELISA. Results The recombinant PsaA was expressed as a 37 × 103 soluble protein without His-Tag. The rPsaA was successfully conjugated with GAMP. In addition to the immune response against PsaA, The antibody response against GAMP was significant improved in the mice immunized with conjugate vaccine in comparison with those immunized with GAMP alone. Conclusion The recombinant protein PsaA without His-Tag was obtained and conjugated with GAMP. The strong antibody responses against PsaA and CAMP were obtained in the immunized mice at the same time which may provide the protection against pneumonia and meningitis simultaneously.

  1. Survey on the Immunization Status of Category B Vaccine among Children Aged 1 to 2 Years in China%中国1~2岁儿童第二类疫苗接种现况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑景山; 曹玲生; 王华庆; 曹雷; 郭世成; 阿克忠; 王雷; 余文周; 袁平; 姜柯羽; 张国民

    2012-01-01

    , haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine, oral rotavirus attenuated live vaccine, influenza vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were 46.93%, 45.31%, 23.67%, 17.47and 9.91% respectively ;and the proportion vaccinated by those surrogate national EPI vaccines, such as hepatitis B vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, acellular pertussis-diphtheria and tetanus combined vaccine, measles-mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine, meningococcal group A & C conjugate vaccine, Japanese encephalitis inactivated vaccine and hepatitis A inactivated vaccine were 0.70%, 0.53%, 7.67%, 2.26%, 5.70%, 2.34%, 11.66% respectively. The rate of children vaccinated by category B vaccines are higher in developed areas of China than the developing areas. For the category B vaccines which needs multiple doses, the completion of whole coverage are low. Conclusion t is necessary to strengthen standardize management for category B vaccine.

  2. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  3. 不同剂量伤寒Vi 多糖蛋白结合疫苗在小鼠体内诱导的抗体水平分析%Anal ysis of antibody lve el in mou se model induced by diff erent immunization doses of typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月萍; 罗树权; 冯宜扬; 冯琪蓉; 金鑫; 周晖国; 周海飞; 谢贵林; 谭小梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗免疫效果及不同剂量伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗在小鼠体内诱导的抗体水平,以确定合适的免疫剂量。方法将150只清洁级NIH雌性小鼠随机分为5组,分别为A组(06.25μg 结合疫苗组)、B组(1.250μg结合疫苗组)、C组(2.500μg结合疫苗组)、D组(2.500μg多糖组)及阴性组(10 mmol/L PBS),每组30只;另领取10只为空白对照(不接种)。 A、B、C、D 组及阴性组小鼠经腹股沟皮下注射,剂量0.1 mL/只,每隔2周免疫1次,共免疫3次,每次免疫后第7天采血。采用ELISA检测小鼠血清抗体效价,同时对不同剂量伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗在小鼠体内诱导的抗体效价进行分析比较。结果与D组相比,A 、B、C 三组诱导的抗体水平与之均有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组与B组、A组与C组之间的抗体水平也具有统计学意义(P<0.05),而B组与C组之间的抗体水平无统计学意义(P>0.05)。说明与多糖疫苗相比,伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗能够诱导更高的抗体水平,且具有明显的剂次加强效应。同时证明1.250μg的伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗可诱导与25.00μg伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗相同的抗体水平。结论伤寒Vi多糖蛋白结合疫苗的两种免疫剂量在小鼠体内可诱导相同的抗体水平,在选择接种剂量时,可致免疫应答的无统计学意义的低剂量可能是较为经济和安全的选择。%Objective To study immunological potency of typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine and analyze antibody level in the mouse model induced by different immunization doses of typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine, on which a suitable immunization dose could be set up.Methods A total of 150 NIH female mice ( in clean level) were randomly devided into five groups including--group A (0.625μg conjugate vaccine), group B (1.250μg conjugate vaccine), group C

  4. Should Pneumococcal Vaccines Eliminate Nasopharyngeal Colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry S; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen. For more than 100 years, there have been vaccine efforts to prevent pneumococcal infection. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have significantly reduced invasive disease. However, these vaccines have changed pneumococcal ecology within the human nasopharynx. We suggest that elimination of the pneumococcus from the human nasopharynx can have consequences that should be considered as the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines is developed. PMID:27222469

  5. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in paediatric patients after the introduction of 13-valent conjugate vaccine in a nationwide surveillance study conducted in Japan in 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Takao; Ito, Yutaka; Chang, Bin; Suga, Shigeru; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal infection in children is a major public health problem worldwide, including in Japan. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) was licensed for use in Japan in 2010 followed by PCV13 in 2013. This report includes the results of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in paediatric patients from January 2012 to December 2014. We collected 343 isolates from 337 IPD patients and 286 isolates from 278 non-IPD patients. Of the IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 24F, and 15A. The prevalence of non-PCV13 serotype isolates increased significantly from 2012 to 2014 (51.6-71.4%, p=0.004). Serotypes 19A, 15A and 35B were highly non-susceptible to penicillin, and the rates of non-susceptible isolates from IPD patients to penicillin and cefotaxime significantly declined during the study period (p=0.029 and p=0.013, respectively). The non-susceptible rate to meropenem increased, particularly for serotype 15A. The IPD isolates comprised clonal complex (CC) 3111 (93.8% was serotype 19A) followed by CC2572 (81.5% was serotype 24F) and CC63 (97.1% was serotype 15A). CC3111, CC63 and CC156 (33.3% was serotype 23A, 28.6% was serotype 6B, and 14.3% was serotype 19A) were highly non-susceptible to penicillin. Of the non-IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 15A, and 3. In conclusion, the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 resulted in increasing non-PCV13 serotypes and clones, including antimicrobial resistant serotypes 15A and CC63 (Sweden(15A)-25 clone). PMID:26602268

  6. Epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7f carried by children in Portugal from 1996-2010 before introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia T Almeida

    Full Text Available Among the over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae described, serotypes 1, 5, and 7F account for a significant proportion of invasive disease worldwide and are now covered by the most recent 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. The epidemiology of these serotypes in carriage remains poorly studied because they are rarely detected. We aimed to gain insights into the epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7F carried by children in Portugal before PCV10 and PCV13 became widely used. Isolates obtained in cross-sectional studies carried out over a 15-year period (1996-2010 were retrospectively pooled and characterized. Of 5,123 pneumococci obtained, 70 were associated with serotypes 1 (n = 21, 5 (n = 7, and 7F (n = 42. The highest prevalence detected was 3.3% for serotype 1 in 2006, 1% for serotype 5 in 2009, and 3.3% for serotype 7F in 2006; Serotype 1 was associated with PMEN international clones Sweden(1-28(ST306 and Sweden(1-40(ST304; serotype 5 was associated with Colombia(5-19(ST289; and serotype 7F was associated with Netherlands(7F-39(ST191. All these isolates were fully susceptible. Most carriers of serotypes 1 (86%, 5 (86%, and 7F (91% were older than two years but a significant association with older age was only observed for serotype 7F (p = 0.006. Evidence for cross-transmission was obtained. In conclusion, we were able to detect and characterize the rarely carried serotypes 1, 5, and 7F among healthy children in Portugal. These data will constitute an important baseline for upcoming surveillance studies aimed to establish the impact of novel PCVs targeting these serotypes in carriage.

  7. 吸附无细胞百白破、灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性%A surveillance of safety of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine containing a polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦基; 钱晓华; 王春艳; 施雪华; 区志莲; 鲁依力

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察吸附无细胞百白破、灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗(Diphtheria-tetanusacellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine containing a polyribosyl-ribitolphosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate,DTacP-IPV//PRP ~T)的不良反应发生情况,以评价其安全性.方法 采用知情自愿原则,在虹口区4个街道选择100名出生60 ~ 74 d符合检测要求的婴儿,分别于2、3、4月龄接种五联疫苗,并进行4次现场和3次电话访视,记录不良反应的发生情况.结果 接种五联疫苗后,不良反应发生率前3位为轻度异常哭闹(25.8%)、轻度触痛(23.8%)和轻度食欲下降(23.2%),随着接种剂次增加,局部发红、肿胀的严重程度升高,而呕吐、嗜睡、食欲下降、易激惹的严重程度下降.结论 五联疫苗具有良好的安全性,严重不良反应的发生率较低.受主观影响较大的不良反应报告偏多,在日后的接种工作中需注意后续剂次接种后局部不良反应的发生情况,以减轻局部症状.

  8. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Canadian North from 1999 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Helferty, Melissa; Rotondo, Jenny L.; Martin, Irene; Desai, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The International Circumpolar Surveillance network is a population-based surveillance system that collects data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Northern Canada. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first introduced in some regions of Northern Canada in 2002, followed by 10-valent (2009) and 13-valent (PCV-13) vaccines (2010). A 23-valent polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine was first introduced in 1988 for special populations and adults aged 65 years and older. To ...

  9. 以重组肺炎球菌表面黏附素A 为载体蛋白的流感嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗的实验研究%Evaluation of the immunogenicity and efficacy of a Hib polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine by using PsaA as carrier protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽宇; 郭蓉; 徐江红; 吴娟; 薛红刚; 范小勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prepare a conjugate vaccine by linking Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)polysaccharide to PsaA protein carrier and evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of the conjugate vaccine. Methods A recombinant protein rPsaA,expressed by using the genetic engineering technology, was used as a protein carrier to prepare conjugate vaccine together with Hib polysaccharide. Ten mice at age of 3 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine,while another 10 age-matched mice were immunized with Hib-tetanus toxoid(Hib-TT)vaccine which was produced formerly as a control. The mice treated with equal volume of PBS were set up as the negative control. The IgG antibodies in serum samples against PsaA and Hib polysaccharide were detected in two weeks after the final immunization. A suspension of Pneumococ-cus was injected into the middle ears of mice from experiment and control group. Histopathological analysis was performed to measure the clearance of bacteria in the middle ears and the severity of infection on days 3 and 7 after bacterial challenge. Results The rPsaA protein was prepared by the genetic engineering tech-nology and purified successfully with anion-exchange column. The Hib polysaccharide-PsaA protein conju-gate vaccine was prepared through a series of amide condensation reactions. The detection of IgG antibodies against PsaA protein and Hib polysaccharide in the immunized mice demonstrated that there was no signifi-cant difference with the titer of IgG against Hib polysaccharide between the mice immunized with the Hib-PsaA conjugate vaccine and those immunized with the Hib-TT vaccine. Less Pneumococcus strains were de-tected in the middle ears of mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine than those mice immunized with the Hib-TT vaccine three days after challenge. The mice from control group showed severe inflammation in the middle ears than those from experiment group. The Hib polysaccharide-PsaA protein conjugate vaccine im-proved protection against

  10. Towards Better Evaluation of Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Madhi, Shabir A; Heera, Jayvant R.; Locadiah Kuwanda; Klugman, Keith P.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children. The poor specificity of chest radiographs (CXRs) to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia may underestimate the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among children not infected with HIV (21%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-37%) increased when CXR-confirmed pneumonia was associated with serum C-reactive p...

  11. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  12. 冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗安全性评估%Safety Evaluation of Group A and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine (Freeze-dried)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹青; 罗献伟; 苏颖; 陆志坚; 王晓萍; 方大春; 潘贵霞; 张怀忠; 夏志才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of group A and group C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (freeze-dried)(MPCV-Fd/A+C) which widely used in infants and young children.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to collect 6 to 23 months of age group over 100 thousand people inoculated with 2 doses of MPCV-Fd/A+C in 5 cities of Anhui province.The interval of two doses is one month,each dose is with 0.5ml,containing group A and group C polysaccharide 10μg respectively.Observing the side effect in 30 minutes and 24,48,72 hours after vaccination.Observation ended if there was no report of any adverse events after 7 days.Observation and recording of the side reaction were conducted according to the case report form (inoculation diary cards).Results There were 100,155 people who inoculated MPCV-Fd/A+C.The analysis showed that the rate of fever was 2.57 % after inoculating the first dose within 3 days and that reduced day by day; and the systemic side effect rates of allergy,irritability,lethargy,anorexia,vomiting,diarrhea were 0.04%,0.12%,0.05%,0.06%,0.05% and 0.09% respectively; and the local side effect rates of pain,redness,swelling reaction,subcutaneous induration were 0.03 %,0.05 %,0.04%,0.02% respectively.After the second dose,all side effect rates were reduced.And 90% reaction were mild and grade 4 reaction did not occur.Conclusion The side effect rate of MPCV-Fd/A+C was mild and lower after widely used in infants and young children,it was safe.%目的 评价冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(Group A and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,Freeze-dried; MPCV-Fd/A+C),在婴幼儿中大规模使用后的安全性.方法 采用分层整群抽样,在安徽省5个市,对>10万名6~23月龄婴幼儿接种2剂MPCV-Fd/A+C,2剂间隔1个月,每剂0.5毫升(ml),含A群、C群荚膜多糖各10微克(μg).接种后进行30min即时反应观察,以及24、48、72h的随访观察,接种后第7天如

  13. 19F型肺炎球菌荚膜多糖与载体蛋白P64K结合物的制备及免疫原性%Preparation and immunogenicity of PN19F-rP64K conjugate vaccine and its evaluation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周觉非; 江山; 张雪梅; 姚静; 尹丹丹; 陈思; 杨溢尧; 代洁; 张珂; 饶海林; 李春阳

    2012-01-01

    Object: Utilize improved reductive animation (RA) method to prepare pneuraococcal polysaccharide (PN19F polysaccharide) conjugate vaccine, using recorabinant group B Meningcoccus membrane protein ( rP64K) as carrier protein. Methods; The oxidized PN19F PS was chemically bound to rP64K via a linker, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). The existence of conjugates were confirmed by HPLC, SDS-PAGE and colorimetric assays. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was evaluated in NIH mice and the sera were analyzed using indirect ELISA. Results: The conjugates induced higher level of anti-PN19F immune response than both native PN19F and Prevnar in mice. Conclusion; The new conjugation method and new carrier protein can be used in Pneumococcal polysaccharide (PN19F polysaccharide) conjugate vaccine.%目的:采用改良胺化还原法,重组B群脑膜炎球菌外膜蛋白(rP64K)作为载体蛋白,制备19F型肺炎球菌荚膜多糖(PN19F)结合物.方法:在胺化还原法的基础上,以1,6-己二酰肼(ADH)为分子臂,在碳二亚胺( EDAC)作用下衍化rP64K,蛋白衍化后再与多糖上的醛基反应,形成共轭结合.采用HPLC、电泳、免疫印迹等方法分析结合物,并将获得的结合物免疫NIH小鼠,用ELISA方法检测多糖IgG水平.结果:电泳和免疫印迹证明了结合物制备成功.动物免疫产生了高滴度的抗PN19F的抗体,并有免疫记忆发生.结论:新的结合方法和新的载体蛋白能有效提高结合效率,以本工艺制备PN19F蛋白结合疫苗是可行的.

  14. Quantitative Determination of Free Polysaccharide Content in Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine by Acid Precipitation with Sodium Deoxycholate%脱氧胆酸钠酸沉淀法定量测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗中游离多糖的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军; 李新国; 瞿明霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗中游离多糖含量新的检测方法.方法 分别对标准蛋白溶液、多糖溶液和标加衍生多糖(A H-PRP)的结合物原液进行脱氧胆酸钠(NaDC)酸沉淀处理,观察该方法 对蛋白和多糖的沉淀效果.分别采用NaDC酸沉淀法和乙醇分步沉淀法测定结合疫苗原液中的游离多糖含量.结果 不同浓度的标准蛋白溶液经NaDC酸沉淀法处理后,沉淀中蛋白的回收率在96%~ 99%之间;不同浓度的多糖溶液经NaDC酸沉淀法处理后,上清中的多糖回收率在99%~106%之间;该方法 对结合物中的游离多糖能起到很好的分离效果;两种方法 测定结合疫苗原液中的游离多糖含量差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 NaDC酸沉淀法能专一性地沉淀蛋白物质,对游离多糖无沉淀作用,该方法 具有良好的重复性和准确性,可用于测定Hib结合疫苗中的游离多糖含量.%Objective To develop a novel method for determination of free polysaccharide content in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. Methods Standard protein solution, polysaccharide solution and bulk of conjugate added with polysaccharide derivative were treated by acid precipitation with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC ) and observed for precipitation effect of protein and polysaccharide. The free polysaccharide content in bulk of conjugate vaccine was determined by acid precipitation with NaDC and fractional precipitation with ethanol respectively. Results After acid precipitation with NaDC, the recovery rates of protein in precipitate of standard protein solution at various concentrations were 96% ~ 99%, while those of polysaccharide in supernatant of polysaccharide solution were 99% ~ 106%. The free polysaccharide in conjugate was effectively separated by the developed method. The free polysaccharide contents in bulk of conjugate vaccine determined by acid

  15. 用于Hib结合疫苗生产的新型候选菌株的评价%Evaluation on a new candidate strain for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 马雷钧; 王月红; 朱为; 马相虎

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)760705株在连续传代过程中的稳定性.方法 将Hib 760705株工作种子批菌种连续传代,对第5、第8、第10代Hib培养物进行全面检测,包括培养特性(细菌培养、卫星试验)、染色镜检、生化反应,以检测第5、第8、第10代Hib的生物学特性.同时采用血清凝集试验和聚合酶链反应荚膜分型方法进行b型荚膜多糖稳定性检测.结果 Hib 760705株工作种子批培养物在连续传代过程中具有典型的细菌学特性,能够稳定地产生b型荚膜多糖.结论 Hib 760705株有明确的来源和背景,可以稳定传代,具备作为Hib结合疫苗生产用候选菌株的条件.%Objective To observe the passage stability of Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) strain 760705. Methods Hib strain 760705 was cultured for 10 passages from the working seed lot, and the subcultures of the 5th, 8th and 10th passages were detected for biological charactristics comprehensively,including cultural characteristics( bacterial culture and satellite test), staining and microscopic examination,and biochemical reactions. Serological agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for capsular typing were applied to confirm the generation stability of type b capsular polysaccharide. Results The subcultures of Hib strain 760705 had typical bacteriological characteristics and capability of yielding type b capsular polysaccharide. Conclusions Hib strain 760705 has a clear origin and background and can be subcultured stably, thus suggesting that it can be a candidate strain for Hib conjugate vaccine production.

  16. 不同解吸附处理对肺炎球菌结合疫苗各型多糖含量检测结果的影响%Effect of various desorption treatments on determination result of polysaccharide content in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 石继春; 王春娥; 王珊珊; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of various desorption treatments on determination results of contents of various types of polysaccharide in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Methods Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was desorbed by trypsin and sodium hydroxide respectively using that untreated as control.In addition,13-valant pueumococcal conjugate vaccines (products 1 and 2) were desorbed by trypsin and sodium hydroxide for 10,30 and 90 s separately,and determined for contents of various types of polysaccharide by immunochemical assay system (IMMAGE 800).Results Except that of polysaccharide of type 14,all the polysaccharide contents of various types in heptavalent vaccine untreated was significantly lower than those trypsin-and sodium hydroxide-desorbed vaccine (P < 0.05).Except that of type 23F,all the polysaccharide contents of various types in heptavalent vaccine desorbed with trypsin were significantly lower than those with sodium hydroxide.After desorption with trypsin,the polysaccharide contents of type 14 in product 1 and type 1 in product 2 were lower than the 50% of those after desorption with sodium hydroxide.However,the polysaccharide contents of type 19A in products 1 and 9 decreased remarkably with the increasing time for desorption with sodium hydroxide.Conclusion It is necessary to desorb the samples before determination of various types of polysaccharide content in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.The desorption by either trypsin or sodium hydroxide impacts the determination result of polysaccharide content.%目的 探讨不同解吸附处理对肺炎球菌结合疫苗各型多糖含量检测结果的影响.方法 将七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗分别用胰蛋白酶、NaOH解吸附或未解吸附处理,十三价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(制品1和制品2)分别用胰蛋白酶、NaOH解吸附(10、30、90 s)处理,应用免疫化学分析系统(IMMAGE 800)测定各型多糖含量.结果 除14型外,未经解吸附处理的七价肺炎

  17. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  18. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants Recommend on Facebook ... cochlear implants are more likely to get bacterial meningitis than children without cochlear implants. In addition, some ...

  19. Evaluation of Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and IgG Avidity Assays Using a Protein A-Peroxidase Conjugate for Serological Distinction between Brucella abortus S19-Vaccinated and -Infected Cows ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuaba, Ana C. A. M.; Deise A O Silva; Mineo, José R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegati...

  20. Should Pneumococcal Vaccines Eliminate Nasopharyngeal Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Larry S.; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen. For more than 100 years, there have been vaccine efforts to prevent pneumococcal infection. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have significantly reduced invasive disease. However, these vaccines have changed pneumococcal ecology within the human nasopharynx. We suggest that elimination of the pneumococcus from the human nasopharynx can have consequences that should be considered as the next generation of pneumococcal va...

  1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Hak, Eelko; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; Schilder, Anne G M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a very common early infancy and childhood disease. The marginal benefits of antibiotics on AOM, the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and the huge estimated direct and indirect annual costs associated with otitis media (OM) have prompt

  2. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, Alexandre C.; Venekamp, Roderick P.; Boonacker, Chantal W. B.; Hak, Eelko; Schilder, Anne G. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Damoiseaux, Roger A. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a very common respiratory infection in early infancy and childhood. The marginal benefits of antibiotics for AOM in low-risk populations in general, the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the huge estimated direct and indirect annual

  3. 测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗游离多糖的脱氧胆酸钠沉淀法的建立%Establishment of a sodium deoxycholate precipitation method for determination of the free polysaccharide in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈坚; 梁芳; 方曼莉; 王伟; 赵菲琼; 马相虎

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立测定b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus in fluenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗游离多糖的脱氧胆酸钠(sodium deoxycholate,DOC)沉淀法.方法 在一定的酸性条件下,用1%DOC沉淀分离Hib结合疫苗中的结合多糖和游离多糖,测定上清和沉淀的多糖含量,并对该法进行验证.结果 DOC沉淀法的标准曲线具有可靠的线性,决定系数>0.999.该法的准确性和精密度良好,多糖加样回收率为103%~108%,相对标准偏差均<10%.结论 建立的DOC沉淀法可用于Hib结合疫苗中的游离多糖测定.%Objective To establish a sodium deoxycholate precipitation method for determination of the free polysaccharide in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine.Methods The conjugated and the free polysaccharides were separated using 1 % sodium deoxycholate (DOC) under certain conditions.The contents of free polysaccharide in supernatant and precipitate were detected.The DOC precipitation method was validated.Results The standard curve of the DOC precipitation method had good linearity and the coefficient of determination was >0.999.The DOC precipitation method had good accuracy and precision.Recoveries and relative standard deviations of the establish method were 103%-108% and <10%,respectively.Conclusion The established DOC precipitation method can be used to detect the free polysaccharide in Hib conjugate vaccine.

  4. 肺炎疫苗与免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的作用%Role of pneumonia vaccines and immunomodulators in prevention of lower respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封辰叶; 康健

    2013-01-01

    关于下呼吸道感染的预防,近年来的研究大多集中于肺炎疫苗和免疫调节剂的使用上,且大多数研究肯定了上述2种药物的预防作用.目前肺炎疫苗主要有2种可获得的疫苗广泛应用于临床:23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和7价肺炎球菌多糖蛋白结合疫苗.肺炎疫苗所带来的消减医疗费的经济学效益已经被多个临床研究肯定.肺炎疫苗在临床的应用主要集中在以下几个方面:老年人、慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)、艾滋病毒感染者、儿童以及抗生素耐药性的影响.免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的应用主要集中在对COPD的急性加重期及反复呼吸道感染上,并且被多项研究证实其积极作用.其中应用于COPD的免疫调节剂主要包括:泛福舒、AM3、卡介菌多糖核酸、注射用母牛分枝杆菌、草分枝杆菌F.U.36注射液、匹多莫德和必思添.泛福舒预防COPD急性加重的作用得到了数项较大规模的多中心临床研究的证实,正是基于这些研究成果,GOLD推荐免疫调节剂作为COPD的重要辅助治疗.%The recent studies about prevention of lower respiratory tract infections focus on the use of the pneumonia vaccine and immunomodulator,and most studies have confirmed the preventive effect of the two drugs.There are two available pneumonia vaccines widely used in clinic:23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine.The medical expenses mitigation of pneumonia vaccine has been affirmed by multiple clinical studies.Pneumonia vaccine is mainly used in the following areas:elderly,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,HIV infection,children as well as antibiotic resistance.The preventive effects of immunomodulators on the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections mainly concentrate on acute exacerbation of COPD and recurrent respiratory tract infections,and a number of studies have confirmed its positive role

  5. Bacterial Load of Pneumococcal Serotypes Correlates with Their Prevalence and Multiple Serotypes Is Associated with Acute Respiratory Infections among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel; Michio Yasunami; Hien Anh Thi Nguyen; Motoi Suzuki; Thu Huong Vu; Ai Thi Thuy Nguyen; Duc Anh Dang; Lay-Myint Yoshida; Koya Ariyoshi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among pneumococcal serotypes, some serotypes are more prevalent in the nasopharynx than others; determining factors for higher prevalence remain to be fully explored. As non-vaccine serotypes have emerged after the introduction of 7-valent conjugate vaccines, study of serotype specific epidemiology is in need. When two or more serotypes co-colonize, they evolve rapidly to defend host's immune responses; however, a clear association of co-colonization with a clinical outcome is lac...

  6. Vaccination for the control of childhood bacterial pneumonia - Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Otczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia.  The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and developing countries have shown a dramatic reduction in the burden of pneumonia and invasive disease in children.  However, the greatest threat facing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness is serotype replacement.  The current vaccines provide serotype-specific, antibody–mediated protection against only a few of the 90+ capsule serotypes.  Therefore, there has been a focus in recent years to rapidly advance technologies that will result in broader disease coverage and more affordable vaccines that can be used in developing countries.  The next generation of pneumococcal vaccines have advanced to clinical trials.

  7. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  8. Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  9. CASE REPORT OF CEREBRAL ATROPHY INDUCED BY HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA TYPE B CONJUGATE VACCINE%b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗致脑萎缩病例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁富; 廖红英

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对接种某种b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗后发生脑萎缩的个案进行分析,结合该个案提出对避免预防接种异常反应工作提出建议.[方法]个案分析.[结果]患儿的脑萎缩是接种疫苗后发生抽搐、发热、意识障碍等症状产生的后遗症.[结论]预防接种工作人员在接种疫苗时须加强安全意识,避免异常反应的发生.%[Objective] To analyze the cases with brain atrophy induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, combined with the case put forward to avoid abnormal reaction to the work of vaccination recommendations. [Methods] Case report analysis was taken. [RssultS] Children with brain atrophy is the occurrence of seizures after vaccination, fever, disturbance of consciousness and olher symptoms resulting sequela. [Conclusion] Vaccination of staff should be vaccinated to enhance safety awareness and prevent the occurrence of abnormal reaction.

  10. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Adi Essam; Almehdar, Hussein A; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5-10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method) and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method). Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy. PMID:26904695

  11. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Essam Zarei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5–10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method. Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy.

  12. Infants aged 12 months can mount adequate serotype-specific IgG responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Balloch, Anne; Licciardi, Paul V.; Russell, Fiona M.; Edward K Mulholland; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study examining serotype-specific IgG responses following immunization with the polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax® in infants aged 12 months in the absence of prior pneumococcal conjugate vaccine priming.

  13. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  14. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  15. [Approaches and problems in vaccine development against leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil; Bağirova, Melahat; Cakir Koç, Rabia; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Elçıçek, Serhat; Ateş, Sezen Canım; Karaca, Tuğçe Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem of the world and Turkey. Recently there has been increasing interest in vaccine studies among strategies for control of leishmaniasis. Recently the increase of interest in vaccine studies among leishmaniasis control strategies makes the subject more up to date. So the aim of this review is to present information about recent vaccine studies, problems and new strategies for vaccine development studies. There are 3 generations of vaccine against leishmaniasis. First-generation vaccines are killed or live attenuated parasites; second-generation vaccines are recombinant or native antigens and live genetically modified parasites (knock out and suicidal cassettes), third generation vaccines are DNA vaccines. Also vector salivary proteins, dendritic cells and non-pathogenic L. tarentolae have been used as vaccine candidates. However there is still no effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. Since polymer conjugates considerably increase immunogenicity, polymer based vaccine studies have gained importance in recent years. However, there has not been such a study for an antileishmanial vaccine yet. LPG, surface antigen of Leishmania promastigotes, and polymer conjugates may be promising in antileishmanial vaccine studies so we are carrying out a TUBITAK Project on this subject which has been given the number, 1085170SBAG-4007. PMID:20597059

  16. Towards a sustainable, quality and affordable Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for every child in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that can prevent meningitis and pneumonia caused by Hib disease. Hib vaccine is recommended for all children under 5 years. Despite the availability of safe and effective Hib vaccines since early 1987, Gambia was t

  17. [Haemophilus influenzae type b in Italy--after thirty years of vaccination may we lower our guard?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Elisa; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) is responsible for meningitis, systemic infections and acute respiratory illness, especially in children. The use of the conjugate vaccines against Hib reduced the incidence of the disease worldwide. In Italy, after the decrease resulted from vaccination, the disease may reappear due to the reduction in vaccination coverage, the presence of infections in adults and vaccine failures. PMID:26722830

  18. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  19. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  20. Review of meningococcal vaccines with updates on immunization in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlanie, Yorgo C; Hammadi, Moza M; Ghanem, Soha T; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and global life-threatening disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) account for the majority of meningococcal disease worldwide. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines were introduced several decades ago and have led to the decline in the burden of disease. However, polysaccharide vaccines have several limitations, including poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers, short-lived protection, lack of immunologic memory, negligible impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, and presence of hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses. The chemical conjugation of plain polysaccharide vaccines has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines include the quadrivalent vaccines (MenACWY-DT, MenACWY-CRM, and MenACWY-TT) as well as the monovalent A and C vaccines. These conjugate vaccines were shown to elicit strong immune response in adults. This review addresses the various aspects of meningococcal disease, the limitations posed by polysaccharide vaccines, the different conjugate vaccines with their immunogenicity and reactogenicity in adults, and the current recommendations in adults. PMID:24500529

  1. Effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for preschool-age children with chronic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  3. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. (paper)

  4. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

  5. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed.

  6. 杭州市儿童接种b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗影响因素的调查分析%Influencing Factors of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine Vaccination in Children in Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 许二萍; 王骏; 刘仕俊; 车鑫仁; 杜渐; 张小平

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨影响杭州市儿童接种b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae Type b,Hib)多糖结合疫苗(Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine)(Hib疫苗)的因素,提出促进儿童接种Hib疫苗的策略.方法 采用多级抽样方法,对杭州市4个区(县)458名儿童家长开展接种Hib疫苗影响因素的问卷调查.结果 458名儿童Hib疫苗接种率为55.68%.将是否接种Hib疫苗进行单因素分析,户籍为常住儿童[比值比(Odds Ratio,OR)=0.634,95%可信区间(Confidence Interval,CI):0.437 ~ 0.918,P=0.016]、参加医疗保险(OR=0.580,95%CI:0.393 ~0.856,P=0.006)、母亲文化程度高(OR =0.631,95%CI:0.435~0.915,P=0.015)、家庭人均年收入高(OR=0.484,95% CI:0.305 ~0.768,P=0.002)、收到接种Hib疫苗的告知(OR =0.196,95% CI:0.156 ~0.244,P<0.001)、知晓Hib可引起多种疾病(OR =0.055,95% CI:0.031~0.097,P<0.001)、知晓Hib疫苗(OR=0.031,95% CI:0.018 ~0.052,P<0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的促进因素,而Hib疫苗价格高(OR=1.980,95%CI:1.311~2.994,P=0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的阻碍因素.在单因素分析的基础上,进行非条件逻辑斯谛回归分析,户籍为常住儿童(OR =0.512,95%CI:0.3 ~0.876,P=0.015)、收到接种Hib疫苗告知(OR =0.218,95%CI:0.094 ~0.505,P<0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的促进因素,而Hib疫苗价格高(OR=1.403,95% CI:1.116~1.894,P=0.036)是接种Hib疫苗的阻碍因素.结论 影响杭州市儿童接种Hib疫苗的因素主要有户籍、家长是否收到接种Hib疫苗的告知、Hib疫苗的价格等.

  7. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  8. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  9. Implications of plant glycans in the development of innovative vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Plant glycans play a central role in vaccinology: they can serve as adjuvants and/or delivery vehicles or backbones for the synthesis of conjugated vaccines. In addition, genetic engineering is leading to the development of platforms for the production of novel polysaccharides in plant cells, an approach with relevant implications for the design of new types of vaccines. This review contains an updated outlook on this topic and provides key perspectives including a discussion on how the molecular pharming field can be linked to the production of innovative glycan-based and conjugate vaccines. PMID:26890067

  10. Implications of plant glycans in the development of innovative vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Plant glycans play a central role in vaccinology: they can serve as adjuvants and/or delivery vehicles or backbones for the synthesis of conjugated vaccines. In addition, genetic engineering is leading to the development of platforms for the production of novel polysaccharides in plant cells, an approach with relevant implications for the design of new types of vaccines. This review contains an updated outlook on this topic and provides key perspectives including a discussion on how the molecular pharming field can be linked to the production of innovative glycan-based and conjugate vaccines.

  11. Study on Safety and Immunogenicity of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine (Polyribosylribitol Phosphate-Cross Reacting Material 197)%b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(磷酸多核糖基核糖醇-白喉毒素突变体197)的安全性和免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉良; 张建立; 陈玉国; 马景臣; 郝志勇; 王志国; 张志勇; 刘金凤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety,immunogenicity and booster effect of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-cross reacting material 197,PRP-CRM197) against Hib for Chinese children,Methods The Hib PRP-CRM197 was evaluated in three trials.The first (phase Ⅰ) safety study were conducted in two Firstly,20 toddlers aged 16-20 months were enrolled and received one dose of PRP-CRM197 vaccine; 15 days later,20 infants aged 2-4 months were enrolled and received 3 doses of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with 1 months interval.Safety data only were collected up to 30 days post each dose of vaccination.The second trial,a phase Ⅲ study,primary immunization enrolled randomly 916 subjects who were the age of 2-4 months to receive either PRP-CRM197 (N=611) or PRP-T (tetanus toxoid) vaccine as control group (N=305) administered three doses with one month interval.In a third (phase Ⅲ)trial,booster immunization,the subjects received a booster dose of vaccine for toddlers (12 to 18 months of age)after completed 3 doses.In the phase Ⅲ studies,safety and immunogenicity data were collected.The immunogenicity was measured via anti-PRP enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay.Results The safety study of phase Ⅰ found that the PRP-CRM197 was well tolerated in both age groups (infants and toddlers).The trial of phase Ⅲ for three-dose primary immunization schedule and booster dose demonstrated the safety of PRP-CRM197 are similar to that of PRP-T.All subjects achieved short-term seroprotective anti-PRP antibody levels (≥ 0.15μg/ml) following primary immunization with two kind of vaccines; 99% and 97% of subjects achieved long-term (≥ 1.0μg/ml) seroprotection in the PRP-CRM197 and PRP-T vaccine groups respectively,one month after completion of the primary vaccination series.All subjects receiving booster mmunization among trial group and control group got short-term and long-term seroprotective antibody.Administration of PRP-CRM197

  12. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Different Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgani, N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of meningitis in young children leading to death and other neurological sequelae. The disease leaves 15 to 35% of the survivors with permanent disabilities, such as, mental retardation or deafness. Despite the availability of new and more powerful antibiotics children with Hib meningitis still suffer from high mortality or morbidity. The emergence of multiresistant Hib strains causes increasing difficulties in selecting proper antibiotics for the treatment. Since 1970, the capsular polysaccharide polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP in H. influenzae b has been the target for vaccine development. The first Hib polysaccharide vaccine licensed in 1985, proved immunogenic in human adults, but failed to elicit an immune response in children under 2 years of age who were at greatest risk of developing the invasive Hib infection. These factors led to one of the most exciting advances in pediatrics, the development of Hib conjugate vaccines. Unlike most other vaccines for preventing a particular disease which are generally similar for all types, the specific characteristics of the available Hib conjugate vaccines licensed vary from each other in structure and immunological properties. In this review the immunogenicity and efficacy of Hib vaccines including a PRP vaccine; b Conjugate vaccines; and c Combination vaccines is evaluated.

  13. Determination of polysaccharide content in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detector%高效阴离子交换色谱-脉冲安培法测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗的多糖含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鹏飞; 唐静; 李亚南; 李茂光; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) content in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine by high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD).Methods The PRP in test samples of Hib conjugate vaccine or isolated free polysaccharide was hydrolyzed with 0.3 mol/L sodium hydroxide at room temperature in oscillation for (16 ± 8) h,then separated by CarboPac(@) PA-10 anion exchange column,eluted by sodium hydroxide/sodium acetate gradient elution,detected by pulsed amperometric detector,and calculated according to the peak area of test samples.The samples were tested for 2 times,and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of test results was calculated.Meanwhile,the PRP content in test sample or free PRP content of the same batch of vaccine were determined by orcinol method in the appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume Ⅲ,2010 edition),and the result was compared with that by HPAEC-PAD.Results The RSD between 2 test results of the same sample was not more than 4.6%.The total PRP contents in samples S01~S03 determined by HPAEC-PAD were 105%,104% and 106%,while the free PRP contents were 126%,109% and 115% of those by orcinol method,respectively.Conclusion HPAEC-PAD method showed high sensitivity,reproducibility and separation effectiveness for PRP content in Hib conjugate vaccine,by which the samples needed no derivation,and multiple components were determined at the same time,therefore may be used as an alternative method of traditional orcinol method for deter-mination of PRP content in Hib conjugate vaccine.%目的 采用高效阴离子交换色谱-脉冲安培检测法(high performance anion exchange chromatography withpulsed amperometric detector,HPAEC-PAD)测定b型流感嗜血杆菌(haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗的多聚磷酸核糖基核糖醇(polyribosylribitol phosphate,PRP)多糖含量.方法 用终浓度为0.3N的NaOH溶液将待测疫苗中的PRP多糖

  14. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Padmanaban; S Ramakrishnan

    2003-08-01

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying excitation energies. The latter feature, especially when the chromophores are fluorescent, like in MEHPPV, makes these systems particularly interesting from the photophysics point of view. Segmented MEHPPV- samples, where x represents the mole fraction of conjugated segments, were prepared by a novel approach that utilizes a suitable precursor wherein selective elimination of one of the two eliminatable groups is affected; the uneliminated units serve as conjugation truncations. Control of the composition x of the precursor therefore permits one to prepare segmented MEHPPV- samples with varying levels of conjugation (elimination). Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we have seen that even in single isolated polymer chains, energy migration from the shorter (higher energy) chromophores to longer (lower energy) ones occurs – the extent of which depends on the level of conjugation. Further, by varying the solvent composition, it is seen that the extent of energy transfer and the formation of poorly emissive inter-chromophore excitons are greatly enhanced with increasing amounts of non-solvent. A typical S-shaped curve represents the variation of emission yields as a function of composition suggestive of a cooperative collapse of the polymer coil, reminiscent of conformational transitions seen in biological macromolecules.

  15. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  16. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  17. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  18. Meningococcal meningitis: vaccination outbreak response and epidemiological changes in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    The main approach to controlling epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt has been reactive vaccination campaigns with serogroup A polysaccharide vaccine once the outbreak reached an incidence threshold. Early reactive vaccination is effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. A recent paper in International Health has shown that earlier reactive vaccination campaigns may be even more effective than increasing the coverage area of vaccination. Monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine programs have recently been launched to prevent transmission in endemic areas in the African meningitis belt. Conjugate vaccines can induce immunological memory and have impact on pharyngeal carriage. However, reactive vaccination still has a role to play taking into account the dynamic changes in the epidemiology of meningitis in this area. PMID:25878213

  19. Evaluation of safety of haemophilus influenza type b(Hib) conjugate vaccine in postmarketing based on the immunization information management system%基于预防接种信息管理系统的b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗上市后安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志国; 马福宝; 张晋琳; 于静; 康国栋; 高君

    2015-01-01

    合疫苗具有良好的安全性,但需关注预防接种后过敏性休克、喉头水肿等急性过敏性反应的发生.%Objective To analyze the occurrence feature of adverse events following immunization (AEFI)of Hib conjugate vaccine(HibCV) and to evaluate the safety of HibCV in postmarketing.Methods 2008-2013 HibCV AEFI data were collected through national AEFI information management system,which were downloaded in March 18,2014.The demographic information and inoculation quantity of HibCV were from Immunization information management system in Jiangsu province.The incidence rate and 95% CI value of AEFI,common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction following immunization of HibCV were calculated.The differences in the incidence rate of common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction among sex,months of age,and number of injections were compared by means of x2 tests.Results A total of 6.16 million doses of vaccine were administered in Jiangsu province during 2008-2013,and 4 718 vaccinees reported having adverse event,for a rate of 76.60/100 000(95% CI:74.42/100 000-78.79/100 000).The incidence rate of common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction was 71.10/100 000(95%CI:68.99/100 000-73.20/100 000)and 5.16/100 000(95% CI:4.60/100 000-5.73/100 000),respectively.The main symptoms of common vaccine reactions were fever,swelling,indurations and gastrointestinal reactions.The incidence rates of them were 40.54/100 000,35.09/100 000,12.94/100 000 and 0.36/100 000 in turn.The main symptoms of rare vaccine reactions were anaphylactic rashes and angioedema,the incidence rates of which were 4.77/100 000 and 0.15/100 000 respectively.91.39% (4 002/4 379) of common vaccine reactions and 88.36% (281/318) of rare vaccine reactions happened within 1 d after vaccination.Anaphylactic shock (3 cases) and laryngeal edema (1 case) all happened within 1 d after vaccination.The incidence rate of common vaccine reactions among boys (79.72/100 000,2 641/3 313

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of the acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus,inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine):a meta-analysis%吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思思; 王栋芳; 钟朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine in comparison with commercially available DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus conjugate and IPV monovalent vaccine. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on DTaP-IPV/Hib were retrieved by searching interna-tional and national databases. The pooled mean difference and relative risk and 95% CI were assessed by meta analysis with RevMan 5.0 software. Results Totally 6 studies were included for the final analysis. The seroprotection/seroconversion level of the Anti-PT (RR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.14, 0.48) in combination vaccine was higher. The antibody titer levels of Anti-PT (WMD=21.11, 95%CI:9.36, 32.86), Anti-polio type1 (WMD=59.15, 95%CI:2.81, 115.48), Anti-polio type 3 (WMD=169.82, 95%CI:75.33, 264.30) were higher respectively. But the antibody titer level of Anti-PRP (WMD=-3.58, 95%CI:-5.52,-1.64) in the com-bination vaccine group was lower. Redness (RR=0.82, 95%CI:0.72, 0.93) and Tenderness (RR=0.45, 95%CI:0.30, 0.65) were lower in the combination vaccine. Swelling (RR=2.03, 95%CI:1.02, 4.01) was more common in the patients given the combina-tion vaccine. Conclusions This study supports the conclusion that the DTaP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine is equivalent to the separate injections based on similar antibody responses to the vaccine antigens, effectiveness and safety after primary doses.%目的:评价吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合()DTaP-IPV/Hib)五联疫苗与吸附无细胞百白破联合(DTaP)疫苗、b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Hib)疫苗、灭活脊髓灰质炎(IPV)疫苗的免疫原性和安全性。方法检索国内外发表的有关DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗与DTaP、Hib、IPV疫苗的随机对照试验(RCTs)文献,采用meta分析方法,利用RevMan 5.0软件评价DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性。结果最终纳入6篇英

  1. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen

  2. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L.; Lee, C.-J

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  3. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  4. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  5. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  6. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  7. Immunological Evaluation of Recent MUC1 Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Kamal Hossain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrantly glycosylated mucin 1 (MUC1 is a recognized tumor-specific antigen on epithelial cell tumors. A wide variety of MUC1 glycopeptide anti-cancer vaccines have been formulated by many research groups. Some researchers have used MUC1 alone as an immunogen whereas other groups used different antigenic carrier proteins such as bovine serum albumin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin for conjugation with MUC1 glycopeptide. A variety of adjuvants have been used with MUC1 glycopeptides to improve their immunogenicity. Fully synthetic multicomponent vaccines have been synthesized by incorporating different T helper cell epitopes and Toll-like receptor agonists. Some vaccine formulations utilized liposomes or nanoparticles as vaccine delivery systems. In this review, we discuss the immunological evaluation of different conjugate or synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide vaccines in different tumor or mouse models that have been published since 2012.

  8. Recent advances in the molecular design of synthetic vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H.

    2015-12-01

    Vaccines have typically been prepared using whole organisms. These are normally either attenuated bacteria or viruses that are live but have been altered to reduce their virulence, or pathogens that have been inactivated and effectively killed through exposure to heat or formaldehyde. However, using whole organisms to elicit an immune response introduces the potential for infections arising from a reversion to a virulent form in live pathogens, unproductive reactions to vaccine components or batch-to-batch variability. Synthetic vaccines, in which a molecular antigen is conjugated to a carrier protein, offer the opportunity to circumvent these problems. This Perspective will highlight the progress that has been achieved in developing synthetic vaccines using a variety of molecular antigens. In particular, the different approaches used to develop conjugate vaccines using peptide/proteins, carbohydrates and other small molecule haptens as antigens are compared.

  9. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  10. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  11. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  12. Assessing vaccine data recording in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio de Oliveira Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vaccines represent an important advancement for improving the general health of a population. The effective recording of vaccine data is a factor for the definition of its supply chain. This study investigated vaccine data recording relatively to data collected from vaccination rooms and data obtained from a government-developed Internet platform. Methods: The monthly recorded total number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine doses administered in a medium-sized city of the Southeast region of Brazil was collected for the period January/2006 through December/2010 from two sources: City level (directly from vaccination rooms, the study "gold standard", and Federal level (from an Internet platform developed by the country government. Data from these sources were compared using descriptive statistics and the Percentage error. Results: The data values made available by the Internet platform differed from those obtained from the vaccination rooms, with a Percentage error relatively to the actual values in the range [-0.48; 0.39]. Concordant values were observed only in one among the sixty analyzed months (1.66%. Conclusions: A frequent and large difference between the number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine doses administered in the two levels was detected.

  13. 肺炎球菌表面蛋白A的原核表达及其作为多糖结合疫苗载体的可行性%Prokaryotic Expression of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) and Its Feasibility as a Carrier of Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启明; 唐玉龙; 张学峰; 靳玉琴; 马智静; 张靖

    2011-01-01

    目的 原核表达肺炎球菌表面蛋白A(Pneumococcal surface protein A,PspA),并探讨其作为多糖结合疫苗候选载体的可行性.方法 合成PspA基因,定向克隆至pET-30a(+)载体,构建重组表达质粒pET-30a-rPspA,转化E.coli Star( DE3)菌株,IPTG诱导表达.表达产物经Ni离子亲和层析纯化后,经Western blot鉴定.取破伤风类毒素(Tetanus toxoid,TT)及纯化的rPspA,分别与A群脑膜炎球菌多糖(Group A meningococcal capsular polysaccharide,GAMP)通过溴化氰活化法进行偶联,获得rPspA-GAMP与TT-GAMP多糖蛋白结合物,对其进行纯化及检定.多糖结合物分别以滴鼻和肌肉注射途径免疫BALB/c小鼠,评价其诱发的体液免疫和黏膜免疫水平.结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切及测序鉴定构建正确;表达产物主要以可溶形式存在,表达量约占菌体总蛋白的20%,经纯化后纯度可达90%,可与His单抗特异性结合;肌肉注射途径显示,两种蛋白载体的结合物均能诱发较高水平的体液免疫,不同载体间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);滴鼻途径显示,载体蛋白rPspA的结合物刺激产生sIgA的能力优于传统载体TT,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 原核表达并纯化了rPspA,其具有新型多糖蛋白载体的潜力,也可作为黏膜投递型多糖结合疫苗的候选载体.%Objective To express pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in prokaryotic cells and investigate its feasibility as a carrier of polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Methods PspA was synthesized and cloned into vector pET-30a( + ). The constructed recombinant plasmid pET-30a-rPspA was transformed to E. Coli Star (DE3) and induced with IPTG. The expressed product was purified by nickel ion affinity chromatography and identified by Western blot. Tetanus toxoid (TT) and purified recombinant PspA (rPspA) were conjugated with group A meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (GAMP) by activation with cyanogen bromide respectively, and the obtained

  14. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  15. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  16. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  17. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  18. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  19. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  20. [HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  1. A、C群脑膜炎球菌-b型流感嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗免疫学效果观察%Immune effect of a meningococcal groups A&C/Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚南; 梁丽; 李艳萍; 叶强

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察A、C群脑膜炎球菌-b型流感嗜血杆菌(Meningococcal group A&C/Haemophilus influenzae type b,ACHib)多糖结合疫苗的免疫原性.方法 采用开放、完全随机、盲态观察的方法,将l 800名观察对象分为临床试验组和对照组,每组各900名,两组又按3个年龄段分为3~5、6~11和12~71月龄组.试验组仅经上臂三角肌肌内注射试验疫苗(ACHib多糖结合疫苗),对照组分别经左右上臂同时注射两种对照疫苗(A、C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗和Hib结合疫苗).3~5月龄组免疫3针,每针间隔1个月;6~ 11月龄组免疫2针,每针间隔1个月;12 ~ 71月龄组免疫1针.分别于免疫前、全程免疫后30~ 35 d采集静脉血,分离血清,采用功能性抗体杀菌力法检测A、C群脑膜炎球菌血清杀菌抗体滴度,间接ELISA法检测Hib抗体水平,并计算抗体阳转率及抗体增长倍数.结果 免疫后,3个年龄段的试验组与对照组血清A、C群脑膜炎球抗体和Hib抗体阳转率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).3个年龄段试验组与对照组易感和非易感人群A、C群脑膜炎球菌抗体滴度差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05),而试验组Hib抗体水平低于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论 ACHib多糖结合疫苗具有良好的免疫原性,可作为上述3种病原菌的预防制剂推广使用.%Objective To observe the immune effect of meningococcal groups A&C/Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (ACHib). Methods An open, random and blind trial was performed. A total of 1 800 children were divided into trial and control groups, 900 for each, which were further divided into three subgroups according to the age (3 ~ 5, 6 ~ 11 and 12 ~ 71 months). The children in trial group were injected i.m. with ACHib vaccine in deltoid of upper arm, while those in control group with two control vaccines, i.e. meningococcal group A&C conjugate vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b

  2. Bacterially produced recombinant influenza vaccines based on virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jegerlehner

    Full Text Available Although current influenza vaccines are effective in general, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to improve vaccine production timelines, capacities and immunogenicity. Herein, we describe the development of an influenza vaccine technology which enables recombinant production of highly efficient influenza vaccines in bacterial expression systems. The globular head domain of influenza hemagglutinin, comprising most of the protein's neutralizing epitopes, was expressed in E. coli and covalently conjugated to bacteriophage-derived virus-like particles produced independently in E.coli. Conjugate influenza vaccines produced this way were used to immunize mice and found to elicit immune sera with high antibody titers specific for the native influenza hemagglutinin protein and high hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Moreover vaccination with these vaccines induced full protection against lethal challenges with homologous and highly drifted influenza strains.

  3. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  4. Hacking into the granuloma: could antibody antibiotic conjugates be developed for TB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Alternatives to small molecule or vaccine approaches to treating tuberculosis are rarely discussed. Attacking Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the granuloma represents a challenge. It is proposed that the conjugation of small molecules onto a monoclonal antibody that recognizes macrophage or lymphocytes cell surface receptors, might be a way to target the bacteria in the granuloma. This antibody drug conjugate approach is currently being used in 2 FDA approved targeted cancer therapies. The pros and cons of this proposal for further research are discussed.

  5. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shey Wiysonge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.

  6. Qualidade conjugal: mapeando conceitos

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Mosmann; Adriana Wagner; Terezinha Féres-Carneiro

    2006-01-01

    Apesar da ampla utilização do conceito de qualidade conjugal, identifica-se falta de clareza conceitual acerca das variáveis que o compõem. Esse artigo apresenta revisão da literatura na área com o objetivo de mapear o conceito de qualidade conjugal. Foram analisadas sete principais teorias sobre o tema: Troca Social, Comportamental, Apego, Teoria da Crise, Interacionismo Simbólico. Pelos postulados propostos nas diferentes teorias, podem-se identificar três grupos de variáveis fundamentais n...

  7. Continued control of pneumococcal disease in the UK - the impact of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Gladstone, R.A.; Jefferies, J. M.; Faust, S. N.; Clarke, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were first introduced for routine use in the USA in 2000, although the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced into the UK's routine childhood immunization programme until September 2006. After its introduction, a marked decrease in the incidence of pneumococcal disease was observed, both...

  8. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  9. Status of paratyphoid fever vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura B; Simon, Raphael; MacLennan, Calman A; Tennant, Sharon M; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) A and B cause enteric fever in humans. Of the paratyphoid group, S. Paratyphi A is the most common serovar. In 2000, there were an estimated 5.4 million cases of S. Paratyphi A worldwide. More recently paratyphoid fever has accounted for an increasing fraction of all cases of enteric fever. Although vaccines for typhoid fever have been developed and in use for decades, vaccines for paratyphoid fever have not yet been licensed. Several S. Paratyphi A vaccines, however, are in development and based on either whole cell live-attenuated strains or repeating units of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (O:2) conjugated to different protein carriers. An O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A conjugated to tetanus toxoid (O:2-TT), for example, has been determined to be safe and immunogenic after one dose in Phase I and Phase II trials. Two other conjugated vaccine candidates linked to diphtheria toxin and a live-attenuated oral vaccine candidate are currently in preclinical development. As promising vaccine candidates are advanced along the development pipeline, an adequate supply of vaccines will need to be ensured to meet growing demand, particularly in the most affected countries.

  10. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pneumococcal Conjugate 7-value Vaccine in China%七价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗预防肺炎链球菌性疾病的成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符一男; 刘国恩; 朱琳; 马爱霞

    2013-01-01

      目的:对七价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗预防肺炎链球菌性疾病开展药物经济学分析.方法:构建Markov模型,结合北京、广州、深圳和武汉的成本数据和台湾健保局的流行病学数据,对将PCV7纳入国家免疫规划方案进行5年的模拟.结果:成本效果分析得出,免疫规划方案实施5年内,可避免11793人死亡、获得42265.49QALYs,并节约成本1574.7元/每人.与不实施免疫规划方案相比较,实施规划为绝对优势方案.结论:将PCV7纳入国家免疫规划方案具有成本效果,并且随着接种率的提高,该方案将产生更大的净效益.%Objective: To carry out the cost-effectiveness analysis of Pneumococcal Conjugate 7-value Vaccine providing. Methods:Building the Markov model to imitate this programme’s cost and outcome in 5 years through using cost data from Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Wuhan’s hospital and epidemiological data which are get from Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Results: This programme would avoid 11 793 people death, reduce the cost of 1574.7 yuan per person and reduce gain 42 265.49 QALYs in 4 cities. Conclusion: Engaging the PCV7 in the National Immunization Programme has the absolute advantage with the cost-effectiveness programme. Besides this programme will bring more net benefits as the increase of the vaccine rates.

  12. Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1996-02-20

    This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 16 figs.

  13. DNA-cell conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  14. Conjugation in "Escherichia coli"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phornphisutthimas, Somkiat; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is a genetic transfer that involves cell-to-cell between donor and recipient cells. With the current method used to teach students in genetic courses at the undergraduate level, the transconjugants are identified using bacterial physiology and/or antibiotic resistance. Using physiology, however, is difficult for both…

  15. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  16. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  17. Immune responses to HBsAg conjugated to protein D of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiudong Su

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B vaccine that contains an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces apoptotic death of Hepa 1-6 cells. Difficult-to-degrade chemical additives in vaccines effectively enhance vaccine immunogenicity, but also affect the host tissue. Identification of bio-molecules that are readily degraded and compatible in vivo as an adjuvant is important for vaccine research. The hapten-carrier effect suggests that stimulation of helper T (Th cells by carrier adjuvants is feasible. Protein D (PD of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae covalently conjugated to some polysaccharide vaccines has been confirmed to convert T-cell independent (TI antigens into T-cell dependent (TD antigens, and elicit strong T-cell responses ultimately. Herein, we would substitube PD for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in Hepatitis B vaccine.Truncated PD (amino acids 20-364 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and DEAE chromatography. After evaluation of antigenicity by western blotting, PD was covalently conjugated to yeast-derived recombinant HBsAg by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Intramuscular immunization with the conjugate induced higher level of HBsAg-specific antibody than did HBsAg alone (p < 0.05, and was comparable to commercial Hepatitis B vaccine. During the surveillance period (days 35-105, anti-HBs titers were hold high. Moreover, the conjugated vaccine enhanced Th1 immune responses, while Th2 responses were also activated and induced an antibody response, as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and IgG1/IgG2a ratio assays.Recombinant truncated PD covalently conjugated to HBsAg antigen enhanced the immunogenicity of the antigen in mice simultaneously by humoral and cellular immune response, which would facilitate therapeutic hepatitis B vaccines.

  18. 某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗免疫原性及安全性观察%Study on the safety and immunogenicity of a new home-made vaccine of freeze-dried group A/C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昕; 崔雪莲; 黎明强; 李艳萍; 马波; 袁琳

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗接种婴幼儿的安全性和免疫原性。方法采用随机、盲法、对照的方法,选择900名6~23月龄健康儿童,其中6~11月龄300人,12~23月龄600人,每个年龄组按1∶1比例随机分到试验组和对照组。实验组接种某新上市疫苗,对照组接种罗益(无锡)生物制药有限公司生产的同类疫苗。每人接种2剂疫苗,间隔1个月,评价试验组和对照组疫苗免疫后不良反应发生率、抗体阳转率及抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)。结果免疫后两个年龄段A、C群抗体阳转(4倍增长)率均>95%,试验组与对照组的阳转率差异无统计学意义。12~23月龄接种1剂、2剂疫苗后抗体阳转率差异无统计学意义;6~11月龄段,试验组A群抗体水平高于对照组;两个年龄段试验组的C群抗体水平均低于对照组,但均处于较高水平(>1∶128)。实验组与对照组全身及局部不良反应率差异无统计学意义,未观察到与试验疫苗相关的严重不良事件。结论某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在6~23月龄的儿童中具有良好安全性和免疫原性。%Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a new home-made vaccine of freeze-dried group A/C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate (MCV-A/C) in infants. Methods The double-blind, randomized, parallel controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the adverse reaction, the positive conversion rate and GMT of antibodies. The participants included 300 of 6-11 months and 600 of 12-23 months old children, who were randomly allocated to the trial group and control group by age at 1:1 ratio. Each participant was injected with 2 doses of the new brand (in the trial group) or old brand (in the control group) of the vaccine at an interval of 1 month. Results The positive conversion rates of antibodies to A, C antigens

  19. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS The most common side effects are fainting, dizziness, nausea, headache, and skin reactions at the site where the shot was given. WHAT ELSE TO THINK ABOUT The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV ...

  20. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  1. Evaluation of safety of meningococcal group AC bivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in children aged 5-24 months old%A、C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在5~24月龄儿童中接种安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海; 王锦瑜; 谈晔; 吕海英; 王曼; 蔡乾春; 张瀚中

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of meningococcal group AC bivalent polysacchande conjugate vaccine among children aged 5-24 months old.Methods From July 2011 to June 2012,a total of 34 411 children aged 5-24 month-old who voluntarily vaccinated meningococcal group AC bivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Zhongshan city were included.The adverse effects within 72 hours were recorded and analyzed.Results 34 411 children were recruited,including 18 708 boys (54.36%),whose mean age were (11.4 ± 3.9) months old.Within 72 hours,the incidence rates of local adverse effects were 0.76% (261/34 411) for erythema,0.57% (197/34 411) for sclerosis,0.56% (191/34 411) for swelling,0.42% (143/34 411) for pain,0.15% (53/34 411) for pruritus,and 0.15% (50/34 411) for rash on the injection site.The overall incidence rate of local adverse effects was 1.61% (554/34 411;95% CI:1.48%-1.74%).The incidence rates of systemic adverse effects were 0.98% (312/34 411) for fever,0.48% (164/34 411) for anorexia,0.31% (108/34 411) for diarrhea,0.29% (100/34 411) for malaise,0.20% (70/34 411) for nausea and vomiting,and 0.08% (26/34 411) for headache.The overall incidence rate of systemic adverse effects was 1.64% (565/34 411; 95% CI:1.51%-1.78%).25 children (0.07%) had hyperpyrexia (> 39 ℃),and the time of duration lasted less than 48 hours.16 children (0.05%) had symptoms of cold,such as cough and catarrh.No accident and other serious events were reported.The incidence rate of systemic adverse effects among boys was 1.79% (334/18 708),which was higher than that of girls (1.47%,231/15 703),the difference showed statistical significance (x2 =5.22,P < 0.01).The incidence rate of systemic adverse effects among children aged 5-12 month-old was 1.78% (411/23 113),which was higher than that among children aged 13-24 month-old (1.36%,154/11 298),the difference showed statistical significance (x2 =8.10,P < 0.01).The incidence rate of

  2. [Pneumococcal vaccination in obstructive lung diseases -- what can we expect?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Lode, H; de Roux, A; Zielen, S

    2005-03-01

    Many countries' guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for patients suffering from obstructive airway disease. This paper reviews the literature as to immunogenicity and safety of this immunization. There is no evidence for a negative effect of pneumococcal vaccination on these patients. Only a few data exist on the preventive impact of pneumococcal vaccination as to exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases. Existing studies mostly took up this question as a side aspect. The effect in children and adults appears limited. On the other hand, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents life-threatening invasive infections in children younger than 5 years, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine protects healthy adults against bacteriaemic pneumonia. Thus, pneumococcal vaccination of patients suffering from obstructive airway disease is recommendable.

  3. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for GBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. Intrapartum antibiotic strategies have reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS in a number of countries but have had no impact on late onset GBS infection (LOD). In low/middle income settings, the disease burden remains uncertain although in several countries of Southern Africa appears comparable to or higher than that of high-income countries. As disease may be rapidly fulminating cases can be missed before appropriate samples are obtained and this may lead to underestimation of the true burden. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth as well as the deficiencies in IAP strategies and absence of a solution for preventing LOD, it is clear that administration of a suitable vaccine in pregnancy could provide a better solution in all settings; it should also be cost effective. The current leading vaccine candidates are CPS-protein conjugate vaccines but protein-based vaccines are also in development and one has recently commenced clinical trials. PMID:26988258

  4. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  5. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  6. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  7. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.; Bijker, M.S.; Weterings, J.J.; Tanke, H.J.; Adema, G.J.; Hall, T. van; Drijfhout, J.W.; Melief, C.J.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Marel, G.A. van der; Filippov, D.V.; Burg, S.H. van der; Ossendorp, F.

    2007-01-01

    Covalent conjugation of Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides strongly improves antigen presentation in vitro and T lymphocyte priming in vivo. These molecularly well defined TLR-L-peptide conjugates, constitute an attractive vaccination modality, sharing the peptide ant

  8. A novel chemistry for conjugating pneumococcal polysaccharides to Luminex microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Sonela A; Jain, Neil; Chirmule, Narendra; Esser, Mark T

    2006-02-20

    Here we describe a novel method to conjugate pneumococcal polysaccharides (PnPS) to Luminex microspheres for use in serological assays. 4-(4,6-dimethoxy[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium (DMTMM) modification of PnPS and conjugation to carboxyl functional groups on Luminex microspheres (COOH-DMTMM method) was shown to be a reproducible chemistry that efficiently conjugated PnPS to Luminex microspheres without affecting the antigenicity of a broad set of PnPS. The COOH-DMTMM method was compared to three other methods for robustness, reproducibility and effect on PnPS antigenicity in a multiplexed assay format. The other methods examined included adsorption of the unmodified PnPS to Luminex microspheres, oxidation of the PnPS to conjugate them to amino-modified microspheres using carbodiimide chemistry and poly-l-lysine modification of the PnPS before conjugating to carboxy Luminex microspheres using carbodiimide chemistry. Of the four methods, the COOH-DMTMM chemistry was shown to be a robust methodology, producing stable PnPS coupled microspheres with a 4-log dynamic range and low cross-reactivity when used in a PnPS-specific IgG serology assay. This novel chemistry should be useful for developing serological assays to measure antibodies to polysaccharides for use in vaccine and epidemiology studies. PMID:16448665

  9. Contribution of vaccines to our understanding of pneumococcal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Klugman, Keith P.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and is also the leading infectious cause of death in adults. The most important cause of pneumonia is the Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus. It has thus become the leading vaccine-preventable cause of death and is a successful and diverse human pathogen. The development of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines has made possible the prevention of pneumococcal disea...

  10. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Dönüs; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2010-04-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are highly versatile nano-structured materials that can potentially find applications in various areas such as optoelectronics, photonics, bio-imaging, bio-sensing and nanomedicine. Their straightforward synthesis in desired sizes and properties, biocompatibility and non-toxicity make these materials highly attractive for the aforementioned applications. This feature article reviews the recent developments in the synthesis, characterization, properties and application of these exciting nanostructured materials.

  11. Anti- (conjugate) linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2016-03-01

    This is an introduction to antilinear operators. In following Wigner the terminus antilinear is used as it is standard in Physics. Mathematicians prefer to say conjugate linear. By restricting to finite-dimensional complex-linear spaces, the exposition becomes elementary in the functional analytic sense. Nevertheless it shows the amazing differences to the linear case. Basics of antilinearity is explained in sects. 2, 3, 4, 7 and in sect. 1.2: Spectrum, canonical Hermitian form, antilinear rank one and two operators, the Hermitian adjoint, classification of antilinear normal operators, (skew) conjugations, involutions, and acq-lines, the antilinear counterparts of 1-parameter operator groups. Applications include the representation of the Lagrangian Grassmannian by conjugations, its covering by acq-lines. As well as results on equivalence relations. After remembering elementary Tomita-Takesaki theory, antilinear maps, associated to a vector of a two-partite quantum system, are defined. By allowing to write modular objects as twisted products of pairs of them, they open some new ways to express EPR and teleportation tasks. The appendix presents a look onto the rich structure of antilinear operator spaces.

  12. Theory of Digitized Conjugate Surface and Solution to Conjugate Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lai-yuan; Liao Dao-xun; Yi Chuan-yun

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of designing and processing digitized surfaces, the method to spreading digitized surface has been proposed. The key technique is to solve the problem of digitized conjugate surface. In the paper, the digitized conjugate surface was theoretically investigated, and the solution of conjugate surface based on digitized surface was also studied. The digitized conjugate surface theory was then proposed, and applied to build the model of solving conjugate surface based on digitized surface. A corresponding algorithm was developed. This paper applies the software Conjugater-1.0 that is developed by ourselves to compute the digitized conjugate surfaces of the drum-tooth surface. This study provides theoretical and technical bases for analyzing engagement of digitized surface, simulation and numerical processing technique.

  13. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  14. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally,......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted.......The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally...

  15. Why we need a vaccine for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerquetti, Marina; Giufrè, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is increasingly recognized as emerging pathogen. The routine immunization of infants with conjugated vaccines against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has greatly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease; however a marked change in the predominant invasive serotype from Hib to NTHi has occurred. Localized infections where the role of H. influenzae is important, such as otitis media in children and acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, are almost exclusively associated with NTHi isolates. The implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has resulted in changes in frequency of nasopharynx colonizing pathogens with an increase of NTHi, although this data is yet under debate. An effective vaccine against NTHi is not currently available. The major challenge in developing a successful vaccine is the intrinsic heterogeneity of NTHi. H. influenzae protein D is used as carrier protein in the licensed 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Synflorix, GlaxoSmithKline), but no robust evidences for protective efficacy against NTHi otitis have been until now obtained. Several other vaccine candidates are under investigations and we hope that significant advancements in vaccine development will be achieved in the next future. Genome-based vaccine strategy might provide an additional useful tool for discovering further vaccine antigens.

  16. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  17. Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Salemi, Simonetta; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries. PMID:26606466

  18. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  19. 肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗不同免疫程序的免疫学效果Meta分析%The Meta-Analysis of Immunological Effects of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine Following Different Immunization Schedules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 唐学雯; 郭静; 陈雅萍; 沈灵智

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,PPCV)按照不同免疫程序接种后的免疫学效果.方法 电子检索National Center for Biotechnology Information(NCBI,《美国国家医学图书馆数据库》)、《考克兰(Cochrane)协作网图书馆》、《中国生物医学文献数据库》、《中国期刊全文数据库》、《万方全文数据库》等数据库,将有关接种PPCV免疫学效果的研究纳入分析.使用综述管理(RevMan)5.1软件进行统计分析,按照不同免疫程序接种完成最后1剂PPCV后的抗体水平[抗体浓度≥0.35微克/毫升(μg/ml)判定为阳性],计算抗体阳转率(Antibody Positive Rate,APR)的率差(Rate Different,RD).结果 共纳入6篇文献,均为随机对照试验.2剂基础免疫(2 Primary Doses,2p)程序与3剂基础免疫(3 Primary Doses,3p)程序之间APR的合并RD是-0.08[95%可信区间(Confidence Interval,CI):-0.10~-0.05].2剂基础免疫+1剂加强免疫(2Primary Doses +1 Booster Dose,2p +1)与3剂基础免疫+l剂加强免疫(3 Primary Doses+1 Booster Dose,3p +1)程序之间APR合并的RD是-0.02(95% CI:-0.03~-0.01).结论 3p免疫程序免疫学效果优于2p免疫程序,2p+1和3p+1免疫程序的免疫学效果并无明显差异.

  20. Maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Y Lee

    Full Text Available Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs, these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients. We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1 the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2 the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose, all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L-1151 L per month for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L-124 L per month across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose, added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L-187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L-13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm³/dose had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects

  1. Immunization status of extra EPI Vaccines and its influencing factors among children aged 1-6 years in Chongqing%重庆市农村和城市1~6岁儿童二类疫苗接种率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋莹; 尹慧; 史宇晖; 袁雁飞; 曹望楠; 曾庆奇; 常春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To learn about the immunization status of extra expanded program of immunization (EPI) Vaccines among rural children aged 1 -6 years old in a county of Chongqing,and explore the influencing factors.Method 600 children aged 1 -6 years from 10 villages of one rural district and 374 from 7 communities of one urban district were cho-sen as the subjects.χ2 test was used to compare the difference of the immunization rate of extra EPI Vaccines between rural and urban children,and logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors. Results The immunization rate of extra EPI Vaccines among rural children and urban children were 46.8%and 63.1%respectively (χ2 =624.4,P<0.01 ).For all of the 6 vaccines,the immunization rates of urban children were higher than that of rural children (P<0.01). The biggest difference in the rates between urban and rural children was found in Rotavirus Vaccine and Varicella Zoster Vaccine, 28.5% and 26.7% higher in urban children,and the smallest difference was found in 7 valented Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine,2.7% higher in urban children.Multivariate analysis results showed that gender,illness in the past 6 month, methods of delivery,doctors’skills and waiting time were the main influencing factors of immunization rate of extra EPI Vaccines among rural children. Conclusion The immunization rate of extra EPI Vaccines in rural children is much lower than in urban children.And the most important influencing factors are the health status of children and the provision of health service.%目的了解重庆市某县农村1~6岁儿童二类疫苗接种率并探索其影响因素。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法抽取重庆市1个县600名和1个区374名1~6岁儿童作为研究对象,用χ2检验比较农村和城市儿童二类疫苗接种率的差别,并用Logistic作影响因素分析。结果农村和城市儿童至少接种过1种二类疫苗的比例分别为46.8%和63.1%(χ2=624.4,P<0.01

  2. Tresyl-Based Conjugation of Protein Antigen to Lipid Nanoparticles Increases Antigen Immunogencity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R.; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122

  3. Tresyl-based conjugation of protein antigen to lipid nanoparticles increases antigen immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anekant; Yan, Weili; Miller, Keith R; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G; Mumper, Russell J

    2010-11-30

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the engineering of NPs with protein-conjugated-surfactant at their surface. In order to increase the immunogenicity of a protein antigen, Brij 78 was functionalized by tresyl chloride and then further reacted with the primary amine of the model proteins ovalbumin (OVA) or horseradish peroxide (HRP). The reaction yielded Brij 78-OVA and Brij 78-HRP conjugates which were then used directly to form NP-OVA or NP-HRP using a one-step warm oil-in-water microemulsion precursor method with emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and Brij 78 and the Brij 78-OVA or Brij 78-HRP conjugate as surfactants. Similarly, Brij 700 was conjugated to HIV p24 antigen to yield Brij 700-p24 conjugate. The utility of these NPs for enhancing the immune responses to protein-based vaccines was evaluated in vivo using ovalbumin (OVA) as model protein and p24 as a relevant HIV antigen. In separate in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with NP-OVA and NP-p24 formulations along with several control formulations. These results suggested that with multiple antigens, covalent attachment of the antigen to the NP significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses. This facile covalent conjugation and incorporation method may be utilized to further incorporate other protein antigens, even multiple antigens, into an enhanced vaccine delivery system. PMID:20837122

  4. Comparison of the adverse reactions of theStreptococcus pneumoniae vaccine injected at the different sites%不同部位接种肺炎链球菌疫苗的不良反应比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 陈丽青; 陆燕; 刘萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察两种不同部位接种7价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗(PCV7)的不良反应发生情况。方法:将2013年1月-2013年6月莘庄社区卫生服务中心自愿接种PCV7的婴幼儿3171人按接种部位分为股外侧肌组(1645人)和上臂三角肌组(1526人),比较两组不良反应发生率。结果:3171人中不良反应发生率为9.8%(312/3171),上臂三角肌组为10.9%(167/1526),股外侧肌组为8.8%(145/1645),两组不良反应率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组不良反应发生率在第1、2针时无差异,但在第3、4针次时差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组均以第1剂时的不良反应发生率最高。结论:股外侧肌可作为PCV7接种的首选注射部位。%Objective:To observe the occurrences of the adverse reactions of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PVC7) at the two different immunization parts.Methods:From Jan. to June 2013, 3 171infants were inoculated with PVC7 voluntarily in Xinzhuang Community Health Service Center, and were divided into a lateral femoral muscle group (1 645 infants) and an upper arm deltoid one (1 526 ones) according to the immunization sites and the occurrence rates of the adverse reactions in the two groups were compared.Results:The incidence of the adverse reactions was 9.8 % (312/3 171) in 3171 infants, 10.9% (167/1 526) happened in the upper arm deltoid group, 8.8% (145/1 645) in the lateral femoral muscle one, and the difference had the statistical signiifcance (χ2=4.05,P<0.05). There was no difference of the adverse reactions in the ifrst and second injections in the two groups, but the difference in the third and forth injections had the statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). The highest incidence of the adverse reactions was the ifrst injection in the two groups. Conclusion:The lateral femoral muscle can be ifrstly selected as an immunization site of PCV7.

  5. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  6. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  7. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  8. [Invasive pneumococcal disease in two non-vaccinated pediatric cases: pleural empyema and bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Uzun Kenan, Bahriye; Sayed Oskovi, Hülya; Nar Ötgün, Selin

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and 65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections and

  9. [Pneumococcal vaccination for children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrich, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococci are the leading bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are effective and safe in young children. Their introduction led to significant reductions of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, otitis media and antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal infections. Beyond these effects in the vaccinated age groups, there is a reduction in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and therefore in transmission. This in turn led to marked reductions in IPD and pneumonia in non-vaccinated age groups, particularly elderly adults as evidence of herd protection. Recently it was shown that the 13-valent PCV13 is effective and safe in adults leading to the age-independent recommendation of PCV13 in all persons with risk factors. PMID:27268445

  10. [Pneumococcal vaccines: different types and their use in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, M

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for a large number of invasive infections and upper respiratory tract infections in infants, elderly and patients with high complication risk. Currently, two types of vaccine are available on the Belgian market. In the context of pharmaceutical care, it is important for pharmacists to know their specific characteristics and differences. In this article we try to explain these and to motivate their use in different patient populations. The 23-valent vaccine is different from the 13-valent vaccine, not only in number of serotypes, but also in its presentation as respectively polysaccharide- and conjugated vaccine which affects the immunogenicity. Moreover, their indication and use are also different. Finally we take a closer look at the specific use in infants and children at risk at one hand, and vaccination of eldery and adults with increased risk for severe pneumococcal infection on the other hand. PMID:23638606

  11. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  12. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  13. Delivery of vaccine peptides by rapid conjugation to baculovirus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; Baird, Margaret; Ward, Vernon K

    2008-05-12

    Baculoviruses deliver strong activation signals to dendritic cells and can promote potent immune responses. These properties can be harnessed to use baculovirus as an adjuvant and carrier particle for immunogenic peptides. In this study we use a chemical linker to couple peptides to the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Intranasal delivery of baculovirus coupled with immunogenic peptides to mice elicited antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibody. Furthermore, antigen-specific IgA was detected in the lung, and an IFN-gamma response was observed upon re-stimulation with antigen. We show that chemical coupling enables the rapid modification of AcMNPV, allowing multiple epitopes to be delivered simultaneously on a self-adjuvanting carrier particle. PMID:18417258

  14. Dihydroazulene-buckminsterfullerene conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santella, Marco; Mazzanti, Virginia; Jevric, Martyn;

    2012-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has recently attracted interest as a molecular switch for molecular electronics. In this field, Buckminsterfullerene, C(60), has been shown to be a useful anchoring group for adhering a molecular wire to an electrode. Here we have...... combined the two units with the overall aim to elucidate how C(60) influences the DHA-VHF switching events. Efficient synthetic protocols for making covalently linked DHA-C(60) conjugates were developed, using Prato, Sonogashira, Hay, and Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reactions. These syntheses provide as well...... a variety of potentially useful DHA and C(60) building blocks for acetylenic scaffolding. The two units were separated by bridges of various lengths, such as oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE2 and OPE3) wires. The distance of separation was found to influence strongly the light-induced ring-opening reaction...

  15. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  16. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  18. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  19. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  20. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  1. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  2. Star-Shaped Conjugated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Detert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review deals with the preparation and the properties of star-shaped conjugated compounds. Three, four or six conjugated arms are attached to cross-conjugated cores, which consist of single atoms (B, C+, N, benzene or azine rings or polycyclic ring systems, as for example triphenylene or tristriazolotriazine. Many of these shape-persistent [n]star compounds tend to π-stacking and self-organization, and exhibit interesting properties in materials science: Linear and non-linear optics, electrical conductivity, electroluminescence, formation of liquid crystalline phases, etc.

  3. Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Brueggemann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the United States (US in 2000 and has significantly reduced invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the incidence of nonvaccine serotype invasive disease, particularly due to serotype 19A, has increased. The serotype 19A increase can be explained in part by expansion of a genotype that has been circulating in the US prior to vaccine implementation (and other countries since at least 1990, but also by the emergence of a novel "vaccine escape recombinant" pneumococcal strain. This strain has a genotype that previously was only associated with vaccine serotype 4, but now expresses a nonvaccine serotype 19A capsule. Based on prior evidence for capsular switching by recombination at the capsular locus, the genetic event that resulted in this novel serotype/genotype combination might be identifiable from the DNA sequence of individual pneumococcal strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the putative recombinational event(s at the capsular locus that resulted in the change from a vaccine to a nonvaccine capsular type. Sequencing the capsular locus flanking regions of 51 vaccine escape (progeny, recipient, and putative donor pneumococci revealed a 39 kb recombinational fragment, which included the capsular locus, flanking regions, and two adjacent penicillin-binding proteins, and thus resulted in a capsular switch and penicillin nonsusceptibility in a single genetic event. Since 2003, 37 such vaccine escape strains have been detected, some of which had evolved further. Furthermore, two new types of serotype 19A vaccine escape strains emerged in 2005. To our knowledge, this is the first time a single recombinational event has been documented in vivo that resulted in both a change of serotype and penicillin nonsusceptibility. Vaccine escape by genetic recombination at the capsular locus has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term.

  4. Conjugation of alginate to a synthetic peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes as an induction for protective immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjaha, Ali; Owlia, Parviz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Shafieeardestani, Mehdi

    2014-12-20

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide, particularly in hospitalized patients with immunosuppressed conditions and cystic fibrosis (CF). Excessive use of antibiotics means that there is currently resistance among bacterial infections to many drugs. Vaccination is a strategy that can reduce mortality and morbidity rates in infections such as those caused by P. aeruginosa. Alginate has a critical role in such infections and affects pathogenicity of the bacterium. In this work, the bioinformatics approach was used to design and synthesis a carrier peptide (ERRANAVRDVLVNEY), derived from OMP F P. aeruginosa. This peptide contained both B- and T-cell epitopes based on prediction models. Conjugation of alginate to carrier peptide was performed and then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results of this study on mice showed that the conjugate elicited anti-alginate-IgG that were not detected after immunization with naive alginate. The effect of the antibodies to alginate conjugate was evaluated as highly opsonic and showed moderate to high-level killing activity against two mucoid strains. IgG1 was also dominant among IgG subclasses. Mice vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine survived lethal challenges (2 ×LD 50). Furthermore, using an acute pneumonia model of infection in mice, determined that levels of P. aeruginosa in mice were significantly reduced in the vaccinated group. Thus, tests confirmed ability of this conjugate to elicit protective and opsonophagocytic antibodies that candidate our vaccine for further studies. PMID:25449544

  5. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7–36), 19 days (IQR 8–36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3–46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes. PMID:27152612

  6. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  7. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  8. Hacking into the granuloma: could antibody antibiotic conjugates be developed for TB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Alternatives to small molecule or vaccine approaches to treating tuberculosis are rarely discussed. Attacking Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the granuloma represents a challenge. It is proposed that the conjugation of small molecules onto a monoclonal antibody that recognizes macrophage or lymphocytes cell surface receptors, might be a way to target the bacteria in the granuloma. This antibody drug conjugate approach is currently being used in 2 FDA approved targeted cancer therapies. The pros and cons of this proposal for further research are discussed. PMID:25287628

  9. Study on Safety and Immunogenicity of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine (Polyribosylribitol Phosphate-Cross Reacting Material 197) among the Children Aged 13-59 Months%b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(磷酸多核糖基核糖醇-白喉毒素突变体197)在13~59月龄儿童中的安全性和免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉国; 李军; 刘金凤; 孟华伟; 谢艳华; 李秀华; 朱永贵; 马景臣; 赵玉良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-cross reacting material 197,PRP-CRM197)among the toddlers and young children from13 months to 59 months.Methods 728 children from 13 to 59 months which were divided into two groups randomly.The trial group (N=365)were administered one dose of the PRP-CRM197 by intramuscular injection,the control group (N=363)were administered one dose of the PRP-T (tetanus toxoid).Both the local and systemic adverse reactions were observed during the first 7 days after vaccination.The Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFIs) and any medicine used were reported within 30 days after vaccination.Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 30 days after the vaccination.Levels of antibody to PRP (Anti-PRP) were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbant assay (EIISA).Results 99% and 100% of subjects receiving PRP-CRM197 and PRP-T achieved Short term (≥ 0.15μg/ml) and long-term (≥ 1.0μg/ml) seroprotective Anti-PRP levels respectively,were Both formulations had similar safety profiles.Conclusion One dose of PRP-CRM197 has good tolerance and the immunogenicity which is similar to one dose of PRP-T,which provide seroprotective antibody titres against Hib infection to 99% subjects.PRP-CRM197 is suitable for routine immunization against Haemophilus Influenzae Type b disease for children among the age of 13-59 months.Clinical Trial Registration State Food and Drug Administration Approval Number:2008 L03160.%目的 评价b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine,Hib)[磷酸多核糖基核糖醇-白喉毒素突变体197(Polyribosylribitol Phosphate-Cross Reacting Material 197,PRP-CRM197)]在13~59月龄儿童中使用的安全性和免疫原性.方法 选择728名13~59月龄儿童,按1∶1的比例随机分配到试验组(365人)和对照组(363人),分

  10. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  11. Pneumococcal transmission and disease in silico: a microsimulation model of the indirect effects of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Nurhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5-10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90% coverage of vaccination and moderate (50% vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the

  12. Modelling the impact of vaccination on curtailing Haemophilus influenzae serotype 'a'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konini, Angjelina; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2015-12-21

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen transmitted via direct contacts with an infectious individual. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of Hia, and the disease is treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis. With ongoing efforts for the development of an anti-Hia protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine, we sought to investigate the effect of vaccination on curtailing Hia infection. We present the first stochastic model of Hia transmission and control dynamics, and parameterize it using available estimates in the literature. Since both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity wane with time, model simulations show three important results. First, vaccination of only newborns cannot eliminate the pathogen from the population, even when a booster program is implemented with a high coverage. Second, achieving and maintaining a sufficiently high level of herd immunity for pathogen elimination requires vaccination of susceptible individuals in addition to a high vaccination coverage of newborns. Third, for a low vaccination rate of susceptible individuals, a high coverage of booster dose may be needed to raise the level of herd immunity for Hia eradication. Our findings highlight the importance of vaccination and timely boosting of the individual׳s immunity within the expected duration of vaccine-induced protection against Hia. When an anti-Hia vaccine becomes available, enhanced surveillance of Hia incidence and herd immunity could help determine vaccination rates and timelines for booster doses necessary to eliminate Hia from affected populations.

  13. Use of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to evaluate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir A Madhi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children. The poor specificity of chest radiographs (CXRs to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia may underestimate the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among children not infected with HIV (21%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-37% increased when CXR-confirmed pneumonia was associated with serum C-reactive protein of 120 mg/l (12 mg/dl or more and procalcitonin of 5.0 ng/ml or more (64%; 95% confidence interval, 23%-83%. Similar results were observed in children infected with HIV. CONCLUSION: C-reactive protein and procalcitonin improve the specificity of CXR to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia and may be useful for the future evaluation of the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia.

  14. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  15. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  16. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  17. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  18. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  19. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  20. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...