WorldWideScience

Sample records for 7-mev energy range

  1. Ranging energy optimization for robust sensor positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Leus, G.; Neirynck, D.; Shu, F.; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    We address ranging energy optimization for an unsynchronized localization system, which features robust sensor positioning, in the sense that specific accuracy requirements are fulfilled within a prescribed service area. Optimization problems related to the ranging energy of a sensor and beacons are

  2. Electret dosemeter response to electrons with energy of 3 Mev, 7 Mev, 11 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results obtained when electret ionization chambers are irradiated with electron of 3, 7, 11 Mev, from 12 mevatron accelerators using a external cop of polyethylene and nylon are presented. (C.G.C.)

  3. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  4. A novel method to determine the FOCAL energy range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Zhang; Xiangzhao Wang; Weijie Shi

    2005-01-01

    Determination of the energy range is an important precondition of focus calibration using alignment procedure (FOCAL) test. A new method to determine the energy range of FOCAL off-lined is presented in this paper. Independent of the lithographic tool, the method is time-saving and effective. The influences of some process factors, e.g. resist thickness, post exposure bake (PEB) temperature, PEB time and development time, on the energy range of FOCAL are analyzed.

  5. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  6. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  7. VARIABLE RANGE ENERGY EFFICIENT LOCATION AIDED ROUTING FOR MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita N. Joshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a temporary, infrastructure-less and distributed network having mobile nodes. MANET has limited resources like bandwidth and energy. Due to limited battery power nodes die out early and affect the network lifetime. To make network energy efficient, we have modified position based Location Aided Routing (LAR1 for energy conservation in MANET. The proposed protocol is known as Variable Range Energy aware Location Aided Routing (ELAR1-VAR. The proposed scheme controls the transmission power of a node according to the distance between the nodes. It also includes energy information on route request packet and selects the energy efficient path to route data packets. The comparative analysis of proposed scheme and LAR1 is done by using the QualNet simulator. ELAR1-VAR protocol improves the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption by 20% for dense and mobile network while maintaining the packet delivery ratio above 90%.

  8. The low-energy ion range in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L D; Kamwanna, T; Brown, I G

    2009-08-21

    In fundamental studies of low-energy ion irradiation effects on DNA, calculation of the low-energy ion range, an important basic physical parameter, is often necessary. However, up to now a unified model and approach for range calculation is still lacking, and reported data are quite divergent and thus unreliable. Here we describe an approach for calculation of the ion range, using a simplified mean-pseudoatom model of the DNA target. Based on ion stopping theory, for the case of low-energy (cube-root energy dependence of the stopping (E(1/3)). Calculation formulas of the ion range in DNA are obtained and presented to unify the relevant calculations. The upper limits of the ion energy as a function of the atomic number of the bombarding ion species are proposed for the low-energy case to hold. Comparison of the results of this approach with the results of some widely used computer simulation codes and with results reported by other groups indicates that the approach described here provides convincing and dependable results. PMID:19652287

  9. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitationenergies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connectionlinks the non-interacting Kohn-Sham electronic system to the physicalinteracting system by progressively switching on theelectron-electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting aone-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-statedensity constant. The interactions are introduced in arange-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range,and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached,as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where theinteractions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction.Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H2molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potentialat the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb'sLegendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron-electroninteractions increases, the excitation energies, ...

  10. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object.

  11. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Ferreira, R. A. S.; André, P. S.; Stauber, Tobias; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems.

  12. Phantom energy mediates a long-range repulsive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Luca

    2004-10-29

    Scalar field models with nonstandard kinetic terms have been proposed in the context of k inflation, of Born-Infeld Lagrangians, of phantom energy and, more in general, of low-energy string theory. In general, scalar fields are expected to couple to matter inducing a new interaction. In this Letter I derive the cosmological perturbation equations and the Yukawa correction to gravity for such general models. I find three interesting results: first, when the field behaves as phantom energy (equation of state less than -1), then the coupling strength is negative, inducing a long-range repulsive force; second, the dark-energy field might cluster on astrophysical scales; third, applying the formalism to a Brans-Dicke theory with a general kinetic term it is shown that its Newtonian effects depend on a single parameter that generalizes the Brans-Dicke constant.

  13. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  14. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  15. Sampling the low-energy range of EEDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Dominik A.; Franck, Christian M.

    2011-10-01

    Electron swarms are investigated by the classical Pulsed Townsend Method in mixtures of N2/CO2 with controlled traces of SF6. The electron swarms are released from a back- illuminated photocathode by 1.5 ns FWHM laser pulses and drift in the homogeneous field of Rogowski electrodes. From an analysis of displacement currents the coefficient of electron attachment to gas molecules η is obtained. The pronounced s-wave attachment of SF6 acts on the electron swarm energy distribution (EEDF) by reducing the number of electrons in the energy range below 0.2 eV. It will be investigated if, vice versa, the observed η can be used as a measure for the EEDF in the range below 0.2 eV. The effect of the N2/CO2 mixing ratio on η will be measured and put in relation to the difference between N2 and CO2 concerning their elastic and inelastic cross sections. The goal is to provide data about that range of the EEDF which are not accessible by optical emission spectroscopy or by Langmuir probes.

  16. Cross-Section Measurements in the Fast Neutron Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plompen, Arjan

    2006-04-01

    Generation IV focuses research for advanced nuclear reactors on six concepts. Three of these concepts, the lead, gas and sodium fast reactors (LFR, GFR and SFR) have fast neutron spectra, whereas a fourth, the super-critical water reactor (SCWR), can be configured to have a fast spectrum. Such fast neutron spectra are essential to meet the sustainability objective of GenIV. Nuclear data requirements for GenIV concepts will therefore emphasize the energy region from about 1 keV to 10 MeV. Here, the potential is illustrated of the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility and the Van de Graaff laboratory at IRMM to measure the relevant nuclear data in this energy range: the total, capture, fission and inelastic-scattering cross sections. In particular, measurement results will be shown for lead and bismuth inelastic scattering for which the need was recently expressed in a quantitative way by Aliberti et al. for Accelerator Driven Systems. Even without completion of the quantitative assessment of the data needs for GenIV concepts at ANL it is clear that this particular effort is of relevance to LFR system studies.

  17. Scaling relations, virial theorem and energy densities for long-range and short-range density functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, Julien; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    International audience Decomposition of the Coulomb electron- electron interaction into a long-range and a short-range part is described within the framework of density functional theory, deriving some scaling relations and the corresponding virial theorem. We study the behavior of the local density approximation in the high-density limit for the long-range and the short-range functionals by carrying out a detailed analysis of the correlation energy of a uniform electron gas interacting vi...

  18. Long range forecasting of the demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case study using Aoki method for forecasting the following magnitudes as a function of time: 1) annual energy generation; 2) annual peak demand; 3) seasonal variation of peak demand and 4) seasonal load duration curves. (HP)

  19. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  20. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  1. GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE CASCADE RANGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes of the Cascade Range form a 1200-km-long belt from northern California to southwest British Columbia and lie above the subduction zone formed as the Juan de Fuca plate is consumed beneath North America. Volcanoes throughout this belt may have been active during Quaternary time, and many have erupted within Holocene time. Thermal springs are few and inconspicuous. Surface expression of hydrothermal systems possibly is masked by infiltration of abundant rainwater and snowmelt. Several geologic and geophysical features suggest that the Oregon and California parts of the Cascades are characterized by moderate east-west crustal extension, tectonic regime conducive to relatively widespread volcanism and to the formation of normal fault zones of potentially high permeability. Refs.

  2. Computation and measurement of differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopping power formula of Bethe is discussed and is used to compute differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in air, argon, aluminium and copper. A single radioactive source containing three active elements is used in experiments to measure the differential ranges in these materials. Finally a range-energy relationship for the alpha particles in air is deduced. (author)

  3. Composite charged particle detectors with logarithmic energy response for large dynamic range energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.M.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.A.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Sangster, T.C.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Harmon, A.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Dacal, A. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Webb, M.L. (Dynamics Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have developed an array of detectors to identify charged particles produced in heavy ion reactions. The array, which consists of eight individual detector modules and a forward hodoscope, subtends a solid angle of 0.58{pi} and covers 62% of the reaction plane in laboratory coordinates. Each of the eight identical modules has an active area which extends 13{sup 0} above and below the array plane with additional limited coverage between 13{sup 0} and 26{sup 0}. Each module measures the position, energy and velocity of charged particles over a dynamic range which extends from minium ionizing protons with energies up to 200 MeV to highly ionizing fission fragments with Coulomb-like energies. Position and time-of-flight are measured with low pressure multiwire proprotional counters (MWPC). Total energies for heavier ions are obtained from large ion chambers. Energy and position measurements for more energetic lighter ions which pass through the ion chambers are made with segmented phoswich arrays. The forward angle hodoscope is a 34-element array of phoswich detectors mounted symmetrically around the beam axis. These detectors are sensitive to beam velocity particles (E/A > 10-40 MeV/A) and capable of elemental resolution from protons to Z = 23. (orig.).

  4. Theoretical aspects of energy range relations, stopping power and energy straggling of protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W.

    2007-07-01

    The Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA=AE0p provides a connection between the initial energy E0 of a proton and the range RCSDA in a medium, if the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) is assumed. The rule results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation; its integration also yields information on the residual energy E(z) or dE(z)/dz of a proton at position z. A relativistic extension of the generalized Langevin equation leads to the formula RCSDA=A(E0+E02/2Mc2)p. Since the initial energy E0 of therapeutic protons satisfies E0≪2Mc2, relativistic contributions can be treated as correction terms. Besides this phenomenological aspect, a complete integration of Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) is presented, which provides the determination of RCSDA, E(z), dE(z)/dz and works without any empirical parameters. The results of these different methods are compared with Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). Since the energy transfer from proton to the environmental atomic electrons regarded in the CSDA-framework has to account for local fluctuations, an analysis of the Gaussian convolution and the Landau-Vavilov distribution function is performed on the basis of quantum-statistical mechanics. The Landau tail can be described as a Hermite polynomial correction of a Gaussian convolution.

  5. Transcript of the proceedings of the first Albuquerque informal range/energy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An informal workshop was held to discuss aspects of the calculation of range and energy deposition distributions which are of interest in ion implantation experiments. Topics covered include: problems encountered in using published range and energy deposition tabulations; some limitations in the solutions of range/energy transport equations; the effect of the scattering cross section on straggle; Monte Carlo calculations of ranges and straggling; damage studies in aluminum; simulation of heavy-ion irradiation of gold using MARLOWE; and MARLOWE calculations of range distribution parameters - dependence on input data and calculational model

  6. Long-Range Plasmon Assisted Energy Transfer Between Two Fluorescent Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, D; Carminati, R; De Wilde, Y; Krachmalnicoff, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmon assisted energy transfer between two fluorophores located at distances up to $7\\; \\mu$m on the top of a thin silver film. Thanks to the strong confinement and large propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons, the range of the energy transfer is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the values reported in the literature so far. The parameters driving the energy transfer range are thoroughly characterized and are in very good agreement with theoretically expected values. This work shows the potential of plasmonic structures for efficient long-range energy transfer and opens rich perspectives for the study of collective emission phenomena.

  7. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework...... combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from...... biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  8. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaton, Yann; Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] and relies on a long-range interacting wavefunction instead of the non-interacting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hyb...

  9. Pair creation energy and Fano factor of silicon in the energy range of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pair creation energy and the Fano factor of silicon are examined experimentally in the energy range of soft X-rays. Both quantities are shown to be a function of the energy of the absorbed radiation and of the detector temperature. For the pair creation energy our experimental data are in accordance with theory. The observed behaviour of the Fano factor cannot be explained by existing models. (orig.)

  10. Ranging energy optimization for robust sensor positioning based on semidefinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Leus, G.; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Sensor positioning is an important task of location-aware wireless sensor networks. In most sensor positioning systems, sensors and beacons need to emit ranging signals to each other. Sensor ranging energy should be low to prolong system lifetime, but sufficiently high to fulfill prescribed accuracy

  11. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies three resonances are created: emitter-mediator (EM), mediator-receiver (MR) and emitter-receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the ER resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter-mediator-receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the ER resonance, then the energy flows directly fro...

  12. Mechanism of Long-Range Penetration of Low-Energy Ions in Botanic Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王宇钢; 薛建明; 王思学; 杜广华; 颜莎; 赵渭江

    2002-01-01

    We present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100keV Ar+ ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 × 10-5. The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He+ ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples.

  13. Range-separated density-functional theory for molecular excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is nowadays a method of choice to compute molecular excitation energies. However, within the usual adiabatic semi-local approximations, it is not able to describe properly Rydberg, charge-transfer or multiple excitations. Range separation of the electronic interaction allows one to mix rigorously density-functional methods at short range and wave function or Green's function methods at long range. When applied to the exchange functional, it already corrects most of these deficiencies but multiple excitations remain absent as they need a frequency-dependent kernel. In this thesis, the effects of range separation are first assessed on the excitation energies of a partially-interacting system in an analytic and numerical study in order to provide guidelines for future developments of range-separated methods for excitation energy calculations. It is then applied on the exchange and correlation TDDFT kernels in a single-determinant approximation in which the long-range part of the correlation kernel vanishes. A long-range frequency-dependent second-order correlation kernel is then derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation and added perturbatively to the range-separated TDDFT kernel in order to take into account the effects of double excitations. (author)

  14. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  15. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard;

    2013-01-01

    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse and relies on a long-range-interacting wave function instead...... expression when expanded in perturbation theory. In contrast to the usual RSDH functionals, RSDHf describes the coupling between long- and short-range correlations as an orbital-dependent contribution. Calculations on the first four noble-gas dimers show that this coupling has a significant effect...

  16. Energy Conservation in MANET Using Variable Range Location Aided Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita N. Joshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a temporary, infrastructure-less and distributed network having mobile nodes. MANET has limited resources like bandwidth and energy. Due to limited battery power nodes die out early and affect the network lifetime. To make network energy efficient, we have modified position based Location Aided Routing (LAR1 for energy conservation in MANET. The proposed protocol is known as Variable Range Energy aware Location Aided Routing (ELAR1-VAR. The proposed scheme controls the transmission power of a node according to the distance between the nodes. It also includes energy information on route request packet and selects the energy efficient path to route data packets. The comparative analysis of proposed scheme and LAR1 is done by using the QualNet simulator. ELAR1-VAR protocol improves the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption by 20% for dense and mobile network while maintaining the packet delivery ratio above 90%.

  17. Energy dependence of some neutron dosimeter sensitivities in the 1 ev up to 4 kev energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivities of DN-A-1 device and SNM-14 slow neutron counter with a combined moderator in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally determined. The IBR-30 reactor served as a neutron source, spectral distribution was performed by the time-of-flight method. The sensitivity constancy of a long counter in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally shown. The obtained sensitivity values and other data available could be used in determining energy dependencies of the device sensitivity in essential neutron energy range. It permits to evaluate their errors when using as dosimeters in radiation fields of nuclear physics installations

  18. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  19. Energy System Expectations for Nuclear in the 21. Century: A Plausible Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines a range of scenarios describing what the world's energy system might look like in the middle of the century, and what nuclear energy's most profitable role might be. The starting point is the 40 non-greenhouse-gas-mitigation scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2000). Given their international authorship and comprehensive review by governments and scientific experts, the SRES scenarios are the state of the art in long-term energy scenarios. However, they do not present the underlying energy system structures in enough detail for specific energy technology and infrastructure analyses. This paper therefore describes initial steps within INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles of the International Atomic Energy Agency) to translate the SRES results into a range of possible nuclear energy technology requirements for mid-century. The paper summarizes the four SRES scenarios that will be used in INPRO and the reasons for their selection. It provides illustrative examples of the sort of additional detail that is being developed about the overall energy system implied by each scenario, and about specific scenario features particularly relevant to nuclear energy. As recommended in SRES, the selected scenarios cover all four SRES 'story-line families'. The energy system translations being developed in INPRO are intended to indicate how energy services may be provided in mid-century and to delineate likely technology and infrastructure implications. They will indicate answers to questions like the following. The list is illustrative, not comprehensive. - What kind of nuclear power plants will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What energy forms and other products and services provided by nuclear reactors will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What would be their market shares? - How difficult will it be to site new nuclear

  20. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  1. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is essential for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems, ranging from gas-phase molecular assemblies to condensed matter and organic/inorganic interfaces. Even small errors in the correlation energy can have a large impact on the description of chemical and physical properties in the systems of interest. In this context, the development of efficient approaches for the accurate calculation of the long-range correlation energy (and hence dispersion) is the main challenge. In the last years a number of methods have been developed to augment density functional approximations via dispersion energy corrections, but most of these approaches ignore the intrinsic many-body nature of correlation effects, leading to inconsistent and sometimes even qualitatively incorrect predictions. Here we build upon the recent many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the co...

  2. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal; MABIT, Stefan Lindhard; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up to six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly ...

  3. N(+)-N long-range interaction energies and resonance charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, J. R.; Partridge, H.

    1985-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic studies of proposed space missions require atmospheric charge-transfer data. N2(+) eigenstate energies are calculated with use of the complete-active-space self-consistent-field method with an extended Gaussian basis set. The N(+)-N charge-exchange cross section, determined from these energies, agrees with merged-beam measurements. This contradicts the previous theoretical conclusion. A simple physical description of the long-range interaction is presented and should expedite future charge-transfer studies.

  4. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal;

    -effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel......This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...

  5. Finite range effective interactions and temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy has become a subject of current research interest because of its role in the studies of isoscaling analyses of Heavy Ion reactions and the formation mechanism of neutron stars particularly the properties of proto neutron stars (PNS). While the temperature dependence of the kinetic part of the nuclear symmetry energy is well understood, the temperature dependence of its interaction part is not yet known to a satisfactory extent. In the present work, we have investigated the temperature dependence of nuclear symmetry energy using some finite range effective interactions proposed in some earlier works

  6. Dynamical Analysis of Sputtering at Threshold Energy Range: Modelling of Ar+Ni(100) Collision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUNDUR Yakup; G(U)VEN(C) Ziya B; HIPPLER Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The sputtering process of Ar+Ni(100) collision systems is investigated by means of constant energy molecular dynamics simulations.The Ni(100) slab is mimicked by an embedded-atom potential,and the interaction between the projectile and the surface is modelled by using the reparametrized ZBL potential.Ni atom emission from the lattice is analysed over the range of 20-50 eV collision energy.Sputtering yield,angular and energy distributions of the scattered Ar and of the sputtered Ni atoms are calculated,and compared to the available theoretical and experimental data.

  7. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.

  8. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tort

  9. Range and energy loss rate of 118 MeV 28Si in some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, range and energy loss rate of 28Si in four dielectric track detectors viz: Makrofol-KG (MFKG), Makrofol-G (MFG), Triafol-BN (TBN) and LR-115 (cellulose nitrate) have been measured. To calculate these parameters, a curve fitting method was proved to be very useful and easier with more accuracy. (author)

  10. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic dispersion energy: the long and the short range behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Michels; L.G. Suttorp

    1972-01-01

    The long-range asymptotic expression for the multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic dispersion energy is shown to consist of contributions from electric dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, all varying as the inverse seventh power of the interatomic separ

  11. Evaluation of Silicon Neutron Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 1800 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.

    2002-09-30

    The evaluation of the neutron cross sections of the three stable isotopes of silicon in the energy range thermal to 20 MeV was performed by Hetrick et al. for ENDF/B-VI (Evaluated Nuclear Data File). Resonance parameters were obtained in the energy range thermal to 1500 keV from a SAMMY analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experimental neutron transmission data. A new measurement of the capture cross section of natural silicon in the energy range 1 to 700 keV has recently been performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. Results of this measurement were used in a SAMMY reevaluation of the resonance parameters, allowing determination of the capture width of a large number of resonances. The experimental data base is described; properties of the resonance parameters are given. For the first time the direct neutron capture component has been taken into account from the calculation by Rauscher et al. in the energy range from thermal to 1 MeV. Results of benchmark calculations are also given. The new evaluation is available in the ENDF/B-VI format.

  12. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  13. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  14. Low-Energy Parameters of Neutron-Neutron Interaction in the Effective-Range Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Babenko, V A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy parameters of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the $^{1}S_{0}$ spin-singlet state is studied in the effective-range approximation. On the basis of experimental values of the singlet parameters of neutron-proton scattering and the experimental value of the virtual-state energy for the neutron-neutron system in the $^{1}S_{0}$ state, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: $a_{nn}=-16.59(117)$fm and $r_{nn}=2.83(11)$fm. The calculated neutron-neutron scattering length $a_{nn}$ is in good agreement with one of the two well known and differing experimental values of this quantity, and the calculated effective range $r_{nn}$ is also in good agreement with present-day experimental results.

  15. Study of the elliptic flow and their energy dependence over pseudorapidity range at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of high energy heavy ion collision experiments is to create extremely hot and dense matter with partons as its fundamental components called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The various observables have been studied, both in experiments, and in model calculations, so as to unravel the properties of the dense hot matter created in the collisions. Of particular interest is the elliptic flow which is considered as one of the most important signatures of the formation of QGP as it is sensitive to the very early stage of the collision. It has its origin in the initial spatial asymmetry of the system, which is then transformed into the momentum anisotropy of the particles. In this work we have studied the transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow v2 at 25 A GeV by the AMPT model with the default and the string melting versions and then the energy dependence of elliptic flow with the pseudorapidity is studied

  16. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  17. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, JH (India)

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  18. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...... production of pigs and energy crops is a feasible strategy to benefit both the environment and animal welfare....

  19. Validating plastic scintillation detectors for photon dosimetry in the radiologic energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, Francois; Archambault, Louis; Plamondon, Mathieu [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada and Departement de radio-oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada and Departement de radio-oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); and others

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Photon dosimetry in the kilovolt (kV) energy range represents a major challenge for diagnostic and interventional radiology and superficial therapy. Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) are potentially good candidates for this task. This study proposes a simple way to obtain accurate correction factors to compensate for the response of PSDs to photon energies between 80 and 150 kVp. The performance of PSDs is also investigated to determine their potential usefulness in the diagnostic energy range. Methods: A 1-mm-diameter, 10-mm-long PSD was irradiated by a Therapax SXT 150 unit using five different beam qualities made of tube potentials ranging from 80 to 150 kVp and filtration thickness ranging from 0.8 to 0.2 mmAl + 1.0 mmCu. The light emitted by the detector was collected using an 8-m-long optical fiber and a polychromatic photodiode, which converted the scintillation photons to an electrical current. The PSD response was compared with the reference free air dose rate measured with a calibrated Farmer NE2571 ionization chamber. PSD measurements were corrected using spectra-weighted corrections, accounting for mass energy-absorption coefficient differences between the sensitive volumes of the ionization chamber and the PSD, as suggested by large cavity theory (LCT). Beam spectra were obtained from x-ray simulation software and validated experimentally using a CdTe spectrometer. Correction factors were also obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Percent depth dose (PDD) measurements were compensated for beam hardening using the LCT correction method. These PDD measurements were compared with uncorrected PSD data, PDD measurements obtained using Gafchromic films, Monte Carlo simulations, and previous data. Results: For each beam quality used, the authors observed an increase of the energy response with effective energy when no correction was applied to the PSD response. Using the LCT correction, the PSD response was almost energy independent, with

  20. Energy Aware Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Variable Range Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Nayak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile n odes that dynamically forms networks temporarily without the need for any pre-existing infrastructur e. Today, one of the main issues in MANETs is the development of energy efficient protocols due to li mited bandwidth and battery life. The nodes in MANETs operate by a battery source which has limite d energy reservoir. Power failure of a node affects the node’s ability to forward packets on behalf of others, thus reducing the network lifetime. The conventional MANET routing protocols s. a. DSR and AODV use common transmission range for transfer of data and does not consider energy statu s of nodes. This paper discusses a new energy aware routing (EAR scheme which uses variable transmissi on range. The protocol has been incorporated along with the route discovery procedure of AODV as a cas e study. Both the protocols are simulated using Network Simulator-2 and comparisons are made to ana lyze their performance based on energy consumption, network lifetime and number of alive n odes metrics for different network scenarios. The results show that EAR makes effective node energy u tilization.

  1. The energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nndanganeni, Rendani R.; Potgieter, Marius S.

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional modulation model is used to study the energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray (galactic) electrons. Drift effects are defined as the difference between modulated spectra at a given position in the heliosphere computed for the two solar magnetic polarity cycles. The process of curvature, gradient and current sheet drifts in the heliosphere, together with convection, adiabatic energy losses and diffusion have profound effects on electron modulation. However, several reports indicated that the so-called weak-scattering drifts caused an overestimation of drift effects. It is illustrated that drift effects can be reduced in two ways, explicitly and implicitly; both influence the energy range where these effects are present but the implicit approach is more subtle to recognize and understand. A new very local interstellar spectrum for electrons is used. Electrons are most suitable for this type of study because they experience far less adiabatic energy losses than protons so that they respond directly with changes of the diffusion coefficients down to very low kinetic energy, E ∼ 1 MeV. In general, taking several modulation considerations into account, drift effects for electrons at the Earth are getting increasingly larger from above ∼10 MeV, with a maximum effect around 100 MeV, then gradually subsides to become less significant above ∼10 GeV.

  2. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  3. AGN Observations in the GeV/TeV Energy Range with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MAGIC currently is the largest imaging atmospheric Cerenkov telescope world-wide. Since 2004, gamma-ray emission from several active galactic nuclei in the GeV/TeV energy range has been detected, some of which were newly discovered as very-high energy gamma-ray sources. The gamma-rays are assumed to originate from particle acceleration processes in the AGN jets. We give an overview of the AGN observed and detected by MAGIC, discuss spectral and temporal properties of these and show physics im...

  4. A geometrical approach to computing free energy landscapes from short-ranged potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda; Brenner, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Particles interacting with short-ranged potentials have attracted increasing interest, partly for their ability to model mesoscale systems such as colloids interacting via DNA or depletion. We consider the free energy landscape of such systems as the range of the potential goes to zero. In this limit, the landscape is entirely defined by geometrical manifolds, plus a single control parameter. These manifolds are fundamental objects that do not depend on the details of the interaction potential, and provide the starting point from which any quantity characterizing the system -- equilibrium or non-equilibrium -- can be computed for arbitrary potentials. To consider dynamical quantities we compute the asymptotic limit of the Fokker-Planck equation, and show that it becomes restricted to the low-dimensional manifolds connected by "sticky" boundary conditions. To illustrate our theory, we compute the low-dimensional manifolds for n<=8 identical particles, providing a complete description of the lowest-energy pa...

  5. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  6. Coupling Emitters and Silver Nanowires to Achieve Long-Range Plasmon-Mediated Fluorescence Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, Juan; Ferrand, Patrick; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    The development of quantum plasmonic circuitry requires efficient coupling between quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides. A major experimental challenge is to simultaneously maximize the surface plasmon propagation length, the coupling efficiency into the plasmonic mode, and the Purcell factor. Addressing this challenge is also the key to enabling long-range energy transfer between quantum nanoemitters. Here, we use a dual-beam scanning confocal microscope to carefully investigate the interactions between fluorescent nanoparticles and surface plasmons on single-crystalline silver nanowires. By exciting the fluorescent nanoparticles via nanowire surface plasmons, we maximize the light-matter interactions and reach coupling efficiencies up to 44% together with 24× lifetime reduction and 4.1 μm propagation lengths. This improved optical performance enables the demonstration of long-range plasmon-mediated fluorescence energy transfer between two nanoparticles separated by micrometer distance. Our results provide guidelines toward practical realizations of efficient long-range fluorescence energy transfer for integrated plasmonics and quantum nano-optics. PMID:27019008

  7. Research on simulation system with the wide range and high-precision laser energy characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke-yan; Lou, Yan; He, Jing-yi; Tong, Shou-feng; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2012-10-01

    The Hardware-in-the-loop(HWIL) simulation test is one of the important parts for the development and performance testing of semi-active laser-guided weapons. In order to obtain accurate results, the confidence level of the target environment should be provided for a high-seeker during the HWIL simulation test of semi-active laser-guided weapons, and one of the important simulation parameters is the laser energy characteristic. In this paper, based on the semi-active laser-guided weapon guidance principles, an important parameter of simulation of confidence which affects energy characteristics in performance test of HWIL simulation was analyzed. According to the principle of receiving the same energy by using HWIL simulation and in practical application, HWIL energy characteristics simulation systems with the crystal absorption structure was designed. And on this basis, the problems of optimal design of the optical system were also analyzed. The measured results show that the dynamic attenuation range of the system energy is greater than 50dB, the dynamic attenuation stability is less than 5%, and the maximum energy changing rate driven by the servo motor is greater than 20dB/s.

  8. Long-range energy transfer in self-assembled quantum dot-DNA cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Siu, Albert; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films.The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient

  9. Enhancing the Dynamic Range of Targeted Energy Transfer in Acoustics Using Several Nonlinear Membrane Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Romain; Côte, Renaud; Mattei, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and the energy range of efficiency of targeted energy transfer (TET) phenomena in acoustics, we discuss in this paper about the use of multiple nonlinear membrane absorbers in parallel. We show this way, mainly thanks to an experimental set-up with two membranes, that the different absorbers have additional effects that extend the efficiency and the possibilities of observation of TET. More precisely, we present the different behavior of the system under sinusoidal forcing and free oscillations, characterizing the phenomena for all input energies. The frequency responses are also presented, showing successive clipping of the original resonance peak of the system. A model is finally used to generalize these results to more than two NES and to simulate the case of several very similar membranes in parallel which shows how to extend the existence zone of TET.

  10. Communication: Simple and accurate uniform electron gas correlation energy for the full range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachiyo, Teepanis

    2016-07-01

    A simple correlation energy functional for the uniform electron gas is derived based on the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. It can reproduce the known correlation functional in the high-density limit, while in the mid-density range maintaining a good agreement with the near-exact correlation energy of the uniform electron gas to within 2 × 10-3 hartree. The correlation energy is a function of a density parameter rs and is of the form a * ln ( 1 + /b r s + /b rs 2 ) . The constants "a" and "b" are derived from the known correlation functional in the high-density limit. Comparisons to the Ceperley-Alder's near-exact Quantum Monte Carlo results and the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair correlation functional are also reported.

  11. Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V

    2001-01-01

    The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...

  12. Energy-dispersive phase plate for magnetic circular dichroism experiments in the X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 220 diamond phase plate was combined with an energy-dispersive absorption spectrometer to convert linearly polarized X-rays into circularly polarized photons and to detect circular magnetic X-ray dichroism (CMXD) from ferromagnetic samples. In these experiments, carried out at LURE, the energy-dispersive spectrometer was equipped with a bent Si (311) polychromator and vertically collimating slits accepting essentially a linearly polarized incident beam. The quarter-wave plate was operated in the Bragg geometry but well outside the range of quasi total reflection, with the consequence that the forward-diffracted beam was circularly polarized with a polarization rate approaching 80% over the whole energy bandpass of the polychromator. CMXD spectra of GdFe2 and GdCo2 intermetallic compounds were recorded at ca 7.2 keV near the Gd LIII absorption edge: they are essentially identical to the spectra commonly recorded with elliptically polarized X-ray photons collected out of the orbit plane of the storage ring. It is suggested that the energy-dispersive phase plate will be very useful to detect CMXD spectra with energy-dispersive spectrometers exploiting the well collimated linearly polarized emission of standard undulators installed on the storage rings of the third generation. (orig.)

  13. Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina;

    2013-01-01

    Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering and the disag......Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering...... and the disagreement between experimental and theoretical optical properties of materials in the hard x-ray and gamma-ray regimes. Here, we demonstrate that multilayer reflective optics can operate efficiently and according to classical wave physics up to photon energies of at least 384 keV. We also use particle...... transport simulations to quantitatively determine that incoherent scattering takes place in the mirrors but it does not affect the performance at the Bragg angles of operation. Our results open up new possibilities of reflective optical designs in a spectral range where only diffractive optics (crystals...

  14. Calculations of the response of shielded detectors to gamma rays at MeV-range energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Byrd

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear instruments designed to detect gamma rays at energies from 0.1 to 10 MeV respond primarily to the electrons produced by gamma-ray scattering and absorption in either the instrument itself or in the surrounding materials. Although tabulated attenuation coefficients are very useful for estimating macroscopic quantities such as bulk energy depositions, such quantities are averages over several different phenomena at the microscopic level. For detectors with active elements that are thin compared with an electron range, the competing effects of inscattering and outscattering result in complicated responses, as evidenced by the strong energy dependence of the resulting pulse-height spectra. Thus, for some applications the macroscopic averages are entirely sufficient, but for others a full microscopic analysis is needed. The author first reviews the literature on the responses of several types of detectors to gamma rays at energies below 10 MeV, and then they use a series of simple Monte Carlo calculations to illustrate the important physics issues. These simple calculations are followed by thorough studies of the energy and angle responses of two proposed instruments, including their responses to instantaneous pulses of large numbers of simultaneous incident photons.

  15. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  16. Long-range correlation studies at the SPS energies in MC model with string fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalenko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the ultrarelativistic collisions of hadrons and nuclei at different centrality and energy enable to explore the QCD phase diagram in a wide range of temperature and baryon density. Long-range correlation studies are considered as a tool, sensitive to the observation of phase transition and the critical point. In the present work, a Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions is applied to heavy and light ion collisions at the cms energy range from a few up to several hundred GeV per nucleon. The model describes the nuclear collisions at the partonic level through interaction of color dipoles and takes into account the effects of string fusion, which can be considered as an alternative to relativistic hydrodynamics way of describing the collective phenomena in heavy-ion collisions. The implementing of both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings allowed to consider the particle production at non-zero baryochemical potential. We calculated th...

  17. Photoproduction in the Energy Range 70-200 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment continues the photoproduction studies of WA4 and WA57 up to the higher energies made available by the upgrading of the West Hall. An electron beam of energy 200 GeV is used to produce tagged photons in the range 65-180 GeV; The photon beam is incident on a 60 cm liquid hydrogen target in the Omega Spectrometer. A Ring Image Cherenkov detector provides pion/kaon separation up to 150 GeV/c. The Transition Radiation Detector extends the charged pion identification to the momentum range from about 80 GeV/c upwards. The large lead/liquid scintillator calorimeter built by the WA70 collaboration and the new lead/scintillating fibre det (Plug) are used for the detection of the $\\gamma$ rays produced by the interactions of the primary photons in the hydrogen target. \\\\ \\\\ The aim is to make a survey of photoproduction reactions up to photon energies of 200 GeV. The large aperture of the Omega Spectrometer will particularly enable study of fragmentation of the photon to states of high mass, up to @C 9 G...

  18. Cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane in the intermediate-energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugohara, R. T. [Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, G. L. C. de [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, UFAM, 69100-000 Itacoatiara, AM (Brazil); Homem, M. G. P. [Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88010-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Organosilicon compounds are of current interest due to the numerous applications of these species in industries. Some of these applications require the knowledge of electron collision cross sections, which are scarce for such compounds. In this work, we report absolute values of differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane (TMS) measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range. The relative-flow technique is used to normalize our data. In addition, the independent-atom-model (IAM) and the additivity rule (AR), widely used to model electron collisions with light hydrocarbons, are also applied for e{sup -}-TMS interaction. The comparison of our measured results of cross sections and the calculated data shows good agreement, particularly near the higher-end of incident energies.

  19. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico); M.S. Student at CIMAV (Mexico); Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  20. Isomeric ratio analysis in (γ, n) and (γ, p) reactions at giant-resonance energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isomeric ratios are investigated in simple photonuclear reactions at maximum energies of the Bremsstrahlung photons of 20-40 MeV for the targets in the mass range 90-180 a.m.u. The measurement results are compared with the estimates in the framework of the statistical model of the compound nucleus de-excitation. The calculations were performed without free parameters, taking into account the character of the photonuclear reactions induced by Bremsstrahlung photons, and some details of the nuclear transitions of the residual nuclear states. Within experimental errors, the calculation results are in agreement with the experimental data

  1. Short-range stabilizing potential for computing energies and lifetimes of temporary anions with extrapolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas; Ehara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The energy of a temporary anion can be computed by adding a stabilizing potential to the molecular Hamiltonian, increasing the stabilization until the temporary state is turned into a bound state, and then further increasing the stabilization until enough bound state energies have been collected so that these can be extrapolated back to vanishing stabilization. The lifetime can be obtained from the same data, but only if the extrapolation is done through analytic continuation of the momentum as a function of the square root of a shifted stabilizing parameter. This method is known as analytic continuation of the coupling constant, and it requires—at least in principle—that the bound-state input data are computed with a short-range stabilizing potential. In the context of molecules and ab initio packages, long-range Coulomb stabilizing potentials are, however, far more convenient and have been used in the past with some success, although the error introduced by the long-rang nature of the stabilizing potential remains unknown. Here, we introduce a soft-Voronoi box potential that can serve as a short-range stabilizing potential. The difference between a Coulomb and the new stabilization is analyzed in detail for a one-dimensional model system as well as for the 2Πu resonance of CO 2- , and in both cases, the extrapolation results are compared to independently computed resonance parameters, from complex scaling for the model, and from complex absorbing potential calculations for CO 2- . It is important to emphasize that for both the model and for CO 2- , all three sets of results have, respectively, been obtained with the same electronic structure method and basis set so that the theoretical description of the continuum can be directly compared. The new soft-Voronoi-box-based extrapolation is then used to study the influence of the size of diffuse and the valence basis sets on the computed resonance parameters.

  2. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  3. EVA space suit proton and electron threshold energy measurements by XCT and range shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M.F. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11234 Anderson St., Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)]. E-mail: MFMoyers@adelphia.net; Saganti, P.B. [Space Radiation Health Project, NASA-Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States); Department of Physics and NASA-Center for Applied Radiation Research, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Nelson, G.A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11234 Anderson St., Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require more than 1000 h of extravehicular activity (EVA). Outside of the ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines and mitigation of risks requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the astronaut EVA suits at various locations. Measurements of the water equivalent thickness of both United States (US) and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scans. Selected regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a 'differential range shift' technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6 MeV electron and 155 MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was re-established. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This paper provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and the obtained results.

  4. EVA space suit proton and electron threshold energy measurements by XCT and range shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require more than 1000 h of extravehicular activity (EVA). Outside of the ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines and mitigation of risks requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the astronaut EVA suits at various locations. Measurements of the water equivalent thickness of both United States (US) and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scans. Selected regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a 'differential range shift' technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6 MeV electron and 155 MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was re-established. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This paper provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and the obtained results

  5. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    CERN Document Server

    Möhler, Christian; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient's CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV/u and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is ...

  6. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient’s CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV u-1 and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is suggested for arbitrary mixtures of human body tissues.

  7. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  8. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  9. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  10. Calorimeter for detection of hadrons in the energy range 10-100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calorimeter for hadron detection in the energy range 10-100 GeV is described. It is used at CERN in the experiment NA58 (COMPASS) designed to study the nucleon structure and charmed particle spectroscopy. The calorimeter consists of 480 modules (15 x 15 cm in cross section, interaction length 4.8) assembled in matrix 4.2 x 3 m with a central hole of 1.2 x 0.6 m. The energy resolutions of the calorimeter for hadrons (σπ) and electrons (σe) as well as coordinate resolution (σx,y) have been determined in the test beams to be (σπ(E))/E = (59.4 ± 2.9)/√E O+(7.6 ± 0.4), (σe(E))/E = (24.6 ± 0.7)/√E O+ (0.7 ± 0.4), σx,y = (14 ± 2) mm, respectively. The average ratio, characterizing the amplitude responses of the calorimeter to electrons and pions, has been measured to be e/π = 1.2 ± 0.1. The calorimeter is used to measure hadron energy and as an element of the COMPASS trigger system. The calorimeter has been working stably during the long COMPASS runs with characteristics close to those determined in the test beams. (author)

  11. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Teale, Andrew M.; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    International audience The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wave...

  12. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  13. Hadronization Scheme Dependence of Long-Range Azimuthal Harmonics in High Energy p+A Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the distortion effects of three popular final state hadronization schemes that modify the initial-state gluon azimuthal harmonic correlations in high energy p+A collisions. The three models considered are (1) LPH: local parton-hadron duality, (2) CPR: collinear parton-hadron resonance independent fragmenation, and (3) LUND: color string hadronization. Strong initial-state multi-gluon azimuthal correlations are generated using the non-abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung GLVB model, assuming a saturation scale Qsat = 2 GeV. Long-range final hadron pair elliptic and triangular harmonics are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the hadron level harmonics are strongly hadronization scheme dependent in the low pT < 3 GeV domain.

  14. Hadronization scheme dependence of long-range azimuthal harmonics in high energy p + A reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Esposito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare the distortion effects of three popular final-state hadronization schemes. We show how hadronization modifies the initial-state gluon correlations in high energy p + A collisions. The three models considered are (1 LPH: local parton–hadron duality, (2 CPR: collinear parton–hadron resonance independent fragmentation, and (3 LUND: color string hadronization. The strong initial-state azimuthal asymmetries are generated using the GLVB model for non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung, assuming a saturation scale Qsat=2 GeV. Long-range elliptic and triangular harmonics for the final hadron pairs are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the process of hadronization causes major distortions of the partonic azimuthal harmonics for transverse momenta at least up to pT=3 GeV. In particular, they appear to be greatly reduced for pT<1÷2 GeV.

  15. Hadronization scheme dependence of long-range azimuthal harmonics in high energy p + A reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angelo; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-07-01

    We compare the distortion effects of three popular final-state hadronization schemes. We show how hadronization modifies the initial-state gluon correlations in high energy p + A collisions. The three models considered are (1) LPH: local parton-hadron duality, (2) CPR: collinear parton-hadron resonance independent fragmentation, and (3) LUND: color string hadronization. The strong initial-state azimuthal asymmetries are generated using the GLVB model for non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung, assuming a saturation scale Qsat = 2 GeV. Long-range elliptic and triangular harmonics for the final hadron pairs are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the process of hadronization causes major distortions of the partonic azimuthal harmonics for transverse momenta at least up to pT = 3 GeV. In particular, they appear to be greatly reduced for pT < 1 ÷ 2 GeV.

  16. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshor, C. B.; Oakes, T. M.; Myers, E. R.; Rogers, B. J.; Currie, J. E.; Young, S. M.; Crow, J. A.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; Sobering, T. J.; Fronk, R. G.; Shultis, J. K.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation-either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)-in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  17. Energy Analysis of Aluminosilicate Zeolites with Comprehensive Ranges of Framework Topologies, Chemical Compositions, and Aluminum Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Koki; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2016-05-18

    The contents and locations of Al in the zeolite frameworks are one of the key factors determining the physicochemical properties of zeolites. Systematic evaluation of the characteristics of zeolites with a wide variety of framework topologies, a wide range of Si/Al ratios, and various locations of Al is of great significance, but very challenging due to the limitation of the realizable ranges of Al contents in zeolites as well as the limited information on the Al locations obtained from the current analytical techniques. Here, we report the systematic analysis of the energetics of aluminosilicate zeolites with 209 existing framework topologies at different Si/Al ratios using molecular mechanics. More than 43 000 initial structures were generated to give comprehensive views of the energetics of zeolites. The results coincide well with the structural knowledge obtained experimentally. It was revealed that the relation between the relative framework energies versus the Al contents varies in accordance with the topologies, suggesting that the relative stability of zeolites depends not only on the topologies, but also on the substituting contents of Al. For particular topologies with the same Al contents, in addition, comparisons between random and specific distributions of Al showed that zeolite with Al at a particular T site is energetically more stable than those with random distributions, suggesting the inherent influences of the Al locations. The contents and locations of Al in zeolites likely have a certain preference that may reflect the range of chemical compositions, the Al distributions, and consequently the physicochemical properties of realizable aluminosilicate zeolites. PMID:27097121

  18. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully-interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-f...

  19. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  20. Study of the Low-Energy Characteristics of Neutron-Neutron Scattering in the Effective-Range Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy characteristics of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the $^{1}S_{0}$ spin-singlet state is studied within the framework of the effective-range approximation. By making use of the experimental singlet neutron-proton scattering parameters and the experimental value of neutron-neutron virtual-state energy, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: $a_{...

  1. Short-range exchange-correlation energy of a uniform electron gas with modified electron-electron interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, Julien; Savin, Andreas; Flad, Heinz-Juergen

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the short-range exchange-correlation energy of the uniform electron gas with two modified electron-electron interactions. While the short-range exchange functionals are calculated analytically, coupled-cluster and Fermi hypernetted-chain calculations are carried out for the correlation energy and the results are fitted to an analytical parametrization. These data enable us to construct the local density approximation corresponding to these modified interactions.

  2. X-ray experiments for Space applications in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Vipin K; Nandi, Anuj; Palit, Sourav

    2009-01-01

    X-ray experiments in the intermediate energy range (1-50 keV) are carried out at the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), Kolkata for space application. The purpose is to carry out developmental studies of space instruments to observe energetic phenomena from compact objects (black hole and compact stars) and active stars and their testing and evaluation. The testing/evaluation setup primarily consists of an X-ray generator, various X-ray imaging masks, an X-ray imager (CMOS) and an X-ray spectrometer (Si-PIN photo-diode). The X-ray generator (Mo target) operates in 1-50 kV anode voltage, and 1-30 mA beam current. A 45 feet long shielded collimator is used to collimate the beam which leads to the detector chamber having a 30 arc-sec angular diameter. Two types of imaging masks are used - conventional Coded Aperture Masks (CAM) and Tungsten Fresnel half-period zone-plates (ZPs) having angular resolutions of a few tens of arc-sec. The Moire fringe pattern produced by the composite shadows of two ZPs is inver...

  3. Inelastic processes in K^(+)- He collisions in energy range 0.7 - 10 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Lomsadze, R A; Kezerashvili, R Ya; Mosulishvili, N O; Phaneuf, R

    2013-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation in K^(+) - He collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.7 - 10 keV. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. The increase of the excitation probability of inelastic channels with the angle of scattering is revealed. An exceptionally highly excited state of He is observed and a peculiarity for the excitation function of the resonance line is explained. The intensity ratio for the excitation of the K II \\lambda = 60.1 nm and \\lambda = 61.2 nm lines is 5:1 which indicates the high probability for excitation of the singlet resonance level $^{1}$P$_{1}$ compared to the triplet level $^{3}$P$_{1}$. The similarity of the population of the 4p state of the potassium ion and atom as well as the anomalously small values of the excitation cross sections are explained.

  4. Neutron production in the energy range 7 to 12 MeV using a gas-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-target for operation at a tandem-accelerator is described. Using the DD-reaction, an energy range of neutrons between 7 and 12 MeV can be realised. Construction and operation are described in detail. For neutron energies below 9 MeV the neutron source is almost monoenergetic; above this energy the deuteron break-up limits the monoenergetic behaviour. (author)

  5. Range effects of the Coulombic forces on structures, thermodynamic properties and potential energy landscapes: (KCl)32 and related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The caloric curve (T vs. E), heat capacity (C) (per ion), and relative rms fluctuation in the interatomic distances (δ) of the 64-atom binary cluster for three different sets of values of the (γ, B) shielding parameters (0.000, 1.000), (0.350, 5.230), and (0.500, 9.723) (see the text for details). As the range of the Coulomb part of the interaction potential becomes shorter, the energy of the most preferred structure of the cluster decreases, and the structure itself changes from rocksalt cubic, which is the native form of (KCl)32, through an amorphous, to a hollow cage type. The energy segment in which the heat capacity is negative narrows and eventually vanishes. Highlights: ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on structures of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on dynamics of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on energy landscapes. ► We explain changes in structures and dynamics through changes in energy landscapes. - Abstract: By introducing two shielding parameters into the Coulombic part of the Coulomb plus Born–Mayer potential originally developed for (KCl)n systems, we study the effects of the range of the Coulombic interactions on the structures, thermodynamic properties and the potential energy landscapes of binary ionically bonded systems as illustrated by the case of n = 32. Our calculations show that shortening of the Coulomb interaction range leads to a decrease in the energy of the most stable structure, and the structure itself changes from the rocksalt cubic to a hollow cage type. The energy range, in which the heat capacity exhibits a negative value, gradually narrows and eventually disappears. The number of stationary points on the potential energy surface increases, and their energies get spread over a larger interval. The extent of the Coulombic interaction also affects the energy difference (gap) between the most stable structure and the

  6. Universal scaling law for the condensation energy across a broad range of superconductor classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Tam, G. N.; Stewart, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals in understanding any new class of superconductors is to search for commonalities with other known superconductors. The present work investigates the superconducting condensation energy, U , in the iron based superconductors (IBSs), and compares their U with a broad range of other distinct classes of superconductor, including conventional BCS elements and compounds and the unconventional heavy fermion, S r2Ru O4 ,L i0.1ZrNCl ,κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu (NCS )2 , and optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Surprisingly, both the magnitude and Tc dependence (U ∝Tc3.4 ±0.2 ) of U are—contrary to the previously observed behavior of the specific heat discontinuity at Tc, Δ C —quite similar in the IBS and BCS materials for Tc>1.4 K. In contrast, the heavy fermion superconductors' U vs Tc are strongly (up to a factor of 100) enhanced above the IBS/BCS while the cuprate superconductors' U are strongly (factor of 8) reduced. However, scaling of U with the specific heat γ (or Δ C ) brings all the superconductors investigated onto one universal dependence upon Tc. This apparent universal scaling U / γ ∝Tc2 for all superconductor classes investigated, both weak and strong coupled and both conventional and unconventional, links together extremely disparate behaviors over almost seven orders of magnitude for U and almost three orders of magnitude for Tc. Since U has not yet been explicitly calculated beyond the weak coupling limit, the present results can help direct theoretical efforts into the medium and strong coupling regimes.

  7. Gamma Ray Buildup Factor for Finite Media in Energy Range (4-10) MeV for Al and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program based on Monte Carlo method had been designed and written in visual basic computer language and utilized for simulating the classic problem of gamma ray beam incident on finite plane slabs of absorbing materials.The source geometry adopted in this program is plane normal source. Dose buildup factor of gamma photons in the absence and presence pair production effect have been calculated in the energy range (4-10) MeV for Aluminum and Lead up to 5 mean free path thickness.Dose buildup factor in the presence of pair production is higher than dose buildup factor in the absence of pair production effect.The deviation between the values of dose buildup factor in the presence and absence pair production is increased when the energy is increased within the studied energy range because the cross section for pair production is increased within the studied energy range

  8. Finite Range Effects in Energies and Recombination Rates of Three Identical Bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate finite-range effects in systems with three identical bosons. We calculate recombination rates and bound state spectra using two different finite-range models that have been used recently to describe the physics of cold atomic gases near Feshbach resonances where the scattering length...... is large. The models are built on contact potentials which take into account finite range effects; one is a two-channel model and the other is an effective range expansion model implemented through the boundary condition on the three-body wave function when two of the particles are at the same point...... at negative scattering length for creation of a bound trimer moves to higher or lower values depending on the sign of the effective range compared to the location of the threshold for the single-parameter zero-range model. Large effective ranges, corresponding to narrow resonances, are needed for the...

  9. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-15

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  10. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  11. Development of a picture of the van der Waals interaction energy between clusters of nanometer-range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the long-range Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energy between condensed bodies is well known. However, its implementation for interacting bodies that are highly irregular and separated by distances varying from contact to micrometers has received little attention. As part of a study of collisions of irregular aerosol particles, an approach based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals interaction has been developed to compute the interaction energy between a sphere and an aggregate of spheres at all separations. In the first part of this study, the iterated sum-over-dipole interactions between pairs of approximately spherical molecular clusters are compared with the Lifshitz and Lifshitz-Hamaker interaction energies for continuum spheres of radii equal to those of the clusters' circumscribed spheres and of the same masses as the clusters. The Lifshitz energy is shown to converge to the iterated dipolar energy for quasispherical molecular clusters for sufficiently large separations, while the energy calculated by using the Lifshitz-Hamaker approach does not. Next, the interaction energies between a contacting pair of these molecular clusters and a third cluster in different relative positions are calculated first by coupling all molecules in the three-cluster system and second by ignoring the interactions between the molecules of the adhering clusters. The error calculated by this omission is shown to be very small, and is an indication of the error in computing the long-range interaction energy between a pair of interacting spheres and a third sphere as a simple sum over the Lifshitz energies between individual, condensed-matter spheres. This Lifshitz energy calculation is then combined with the short-separation, nonsingular van der Waals energy calculation of Lu, Marlow, and Arunachalam, to provide an integrated picture of the van der Waals energy from large separations to contact. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Nuclear correlation and finite interaction-range effects in high-energy $(e,e'p)$ nuclear transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Ryoichi; Shoppa, T. D.; Kohama, Akihisa; Yazaki, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is calculated for high-energy, semi-inclusive $(e,e'p)$ reactions, by accounting for all orders of Glauber multiple-scattering and by using realistic finite-range $p N$ interaction and (dynamically and statistically) correlated nuclear wave functions. The nuclear correlation effect is reduced due to the $p N$ finite-range effect. The net effect is small, and depends sensitively on details of the nuclear correlations in finite nuclei, which are poorly known at present.

  13. UV/IR Mixing In Non-Fermi Liquids: Higher-Loop Corrections In Different Energy Ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ipsita

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the Ising-nematic quantum critical point with an $m$-dimensional Fermi surface by applying a dimensional regularization scheme. We compute the contribution from two-loop and three-loop diagrams in the intermediate energy range controlled by a crossover scale. We find that for $m=2 $, the corrections continue to be one-loop exact for both the infrared and intermediate energy regimes.

  14. Investigation of single event upset subject to protons of intermediate energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Y.; Shiraishi, F. (Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy); Goka, T.; Shimano, Y. (Tsukuba Space Center, NASDA, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305 (JP)); Sekiguchi, M.; Shida, K. (Inst. for Nuclear Energy, Univ. of Tokyo, 3-2-1 Midoricho, Tanashi, Tokyo 188 (JP)); Kishida, N.; Kadotani, H. (Century Research Center Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kikuchi, T. (NEC Corp., 4035 Ikebecho, Midoriku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226 (JP)); Hoshino, N. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)); Murakami, S. (Fujitsu Labs. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)); Anayama, H.; Morio, A. (Reliability Center for Electonic Components of Japan, 3-4-13 Nihonbashi, Chuoku, Tokyo 103 (JP))

    1990-12-01

    Nuclear reaction models to reproduce p + Si nuclear reactions precisely in the incident proton energy region of below 50 MeV were investigated, and a computer code based on exciton models was developed. Si irradiation experiments in the intermediate energy region were performed to measure energy deposit by p + Si nuclear reactions, with two totally depleted Si detectors in face-to-face arrangement. Coincident signals were analyzed by a two dimensional pulse height analyzer. This method is shown to be effective in discriminating signals of contaminating particles.

  15. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussard, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.mussard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Reinhardt, Peter; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Ángyán, János G. [CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS, F-54506 Vandoevre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2015-04-21

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Szabo and Ostlund [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms range-separated RPAx-SO2 as a promising method for general chemical applications.

  16. Effective atomic number of human enamel and dentin within a photo energy range from 10 to 200 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Z and μ/p were determined regarding the total and partial photon interactions within the biological materials of human enamel and dentin, within the low photon energy range from 10 to 200 keV, which is of medical interest in terms of radiology. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated by means of WinXCOM. The Z for total and partial photon interactions in the biological materials of human enamel and dentin have been determined within a radiological low photon energy range from 10 to 200 keV. The total Z values presented a similar behavior in both the enamel and dentin. The Z values decreased 23% in the enamel and by 32% in the dentin in direct proportion to the increase energy levels. The Z for all partial processes increased slightly and in direct proportion to the increase in energy levels. The value for photoelectric interaction proved to be the highest, whereas the value for incoherent scattering was the lowest. The total Z becomes a contribution due these three partial processes at any energy level. The value of the Z is quite sensitive to the weight fractions of the elements and the applied interpolation method. Concerning the importance of Z values to medical dosimetry, it is expected that the new data regarding Z values presented here in will be useful, particularly as regards the energy range of interest. (author)

  17. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.;

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...... of the harvester should match the frequency of he ambient vibration. The first step to achieve this is to evaluate the uniformity of the fabricated harvesters and nderstand the effects of temperature on the harvesters during operation. Therefore, the uniformity of 40 energy harvesters from one wafer has been...... evaluated. Thereafter the performance of the energy harvesters operating at emperatures between -30°C to 100°C was measured....

  18. Electron inelastic interactions in bioorganic compounds in the energy range of 20 10000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Xia, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Ji, Y.; Li, F.; Huang, B.

    2005-09-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping powers (SPs) and mean free paths (MFPs) for 10 bioorganic compounds have been performed for electrons with energies lower than 10 keV, based on dielectric response theory and Penn’s statistical approximation. The exchange effect is also taken into account in the calculations. An empirical approach to obtain an optical energy loss function is presented for those organic compounds without available optical data. Using this method, the calculated values of the optical energy loss function are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparisons of SP and MFP values derived in this study with other published values are presented. Using the described model, the calculated mean ionization potentials agree well with the predictions from Bragg’s rule and the calculated SPs have also been compared with the Bethe Bloch results at an energy of 10 keV.

  19. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  20. Deformation Effect on the Center-of-Mass Correction Energy in Nuclei Ranging from Oxygen to Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-Wei; SUN Bao-Yuan; MENG Jie

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic c.m. correction energies for nuclei ranging from oxygen to calcium are systematically calculated by both spherical and axially deformed relativistic mean-field (RMF) models with the effective interaction PK1. The microscopic c.m. correction energies strongly depend on the isospin as well as deformation and deviate from the phenomenological ones. The deformation effect is discussed in detail by comparing the deformed with the spherical RMF calculation. It is found that the direct and exchange terms of the c.m. correction energies are strongly correlated with the density distribution of nuclei and are suppressed in the deformed case.

  1. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, S Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olsher, Richard H [RP-2; Devine, Robert T [RP-2

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  2. Performance analysis and experimental verification of mid-range wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...

  3. Scaling and charge ratio in the energy range 1-10 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation was to study the spectra of generation of neutral and charged pions in the upper atmosphere in order to establish the scaling behaviour of the multiple birth of particles at primary particle energies above the acceleration energies. The study of the spectrum gamma-quanta in the atmosphere and the muon spectrum at the sea level made it possible to adjust the pion generation spectrum. In experiments with emulsion chambers the spectra of gamma-quanta and electrons at different zenith angles at two levels in the atmosphere (225 and 700 gxcm-2) and the muon spectrum at the sea level were determined. The obtained data on pion birth in the atmosphere pointed to the conservation of scale and charge invariance in pion birth at nucleon energies of 1012-1014 eV

  4. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  5. Nuclear stopping for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy range: from 1-Body to 2-Body dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we are looking at the global energy dissipation achieved in heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain. We are using the large experimental dataset available in this energy range for symmetric systems recorded with the 4π array INDRA. We are looking at central collisions, i.e. collisions corresponding to the maximal overlap and thus leading to the maximal dissipation. We have extracted information concerning the stopping encountered in such collisions and have related it to the nucleon mean free path and cross section in the nuclear medium. We have found a minimal stopping around incident energy E = 30*A MeV connected to the crossover between 1-Body to 2-Body dissipation regime. For the latter, we have estimated the nucleon mean free path in the nuclear medium from the degree of stopping achieved in central collisions. The mean free path decreases from λNN ∼ 10 fm at E/A = 30 MeV to λNN = 5 fm at E/A = 100 MeV. These values are in agreement with recent theoretical findings using microscopic approaches. The large value relative to the nuclear size (λNN > R) around the Fermi energy suggests that full thermalization is not achieved in such central collisions. In-medium effects, namely Pauli blocking and high-order correlations, have also been evaluated and are found to be large in the Fermi energy range; it is clear that this energy/density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section has to be properly taken into account in any microscopic transport model used in the Fermi energy range

  6. Design of a polarised light beamline in the energy range of 30-4000 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, S M; Phase, D M; Dasannacharya, B A

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the design of a possible polarised light beamline for magnetic circular dichroism and photoemission experiments on a bending magnet source of 2.5 GeV storage ring, Indus-2. It will have an energy range of 30-4000 eV and will deliver circular as well as linearly polarised light to perform absorption and photoemission experiments covering relevant L and M edges of most of the elements. The beamline optics consists of a vertically moveable aperture for polarisation selection. It has three spherical gratings and a double crystal monochromator necessary for energy selection in low and high-energy ranges respectively. Corresponding pre- and post-mirror optics, which is common for both the monochromators is the highlight of this design. Detailed ray-tracing calculations, which were carried out to evaluate and optimise the performance of the proposed beamline, are presented in this article.

  7. Pseudopotential calculations of photoionization of atoms in the x-ray photon energy range and FEL beam monitor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pseudopotential model for calculation of atomic processes under interaction with hard x-ray photons is applied to calculation of Krypton photoionization cross sections by photons with energy in the 20–25 keV range. These cross sections, as well as the mean charge of the resulting ions calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation scheme, are in good agreement with the other theoretical calculations and with the experiment. The obtained results open the doors for new techniques in the design of gas-monitor detectors to control the intensity, coordinates and energy of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams in the hard x-ray photon energy range. First, Monte Carlo simulations of a scintillation detector application for gas-monitors have been performed. (letter)

  8. Correlation of Resonance Charge Exchange Cross-Section Data in the Low-Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, John W.

    1962-01-01

    During the course of a literature survey concerning resonance charge exchange, an unusual degree of agreement was noted between an extrapolation of the data reported by Kushnir, Palyukh, and Sena and the data reported by Ziegler. The data of Kushnir et al. are for ion-atom relative energies from 10 to 1000 ev, while the data of Ziegler are for a relative energy of about 1 ev. Extrapolation of the data of Kushnir et al. was made in accordance with Holstein's theory, 3 which is a combination of time-dependent perturbation methods and classical orbit theory. The results of this theory may be discussed in terms of a critical impact parameter b(sub c).

  9. CN molecule collisions with H+ at a wide range of astrophysical energies

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanova, Madina R.; Guster, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum-mechanical rotational excitation/de-excitation spectrum and cross sections of CN molecules during low and high-energy collisions with protons, H+. The problem is of significant importance in astrophysics of the early Universe, specifically connected with the problems of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A quantum-mechanical close-coupling method is applied in this work. The cyanide molecule (CN) is treated as a rigid rotor, i.e. the distance between the carbo...

  10. Conjugated Polymer Blend Microspheres for Efficient, Long-Range Light Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Soh; Braam, Daniel; Dao, Thang Duy; Saito, Hitoshi; Shibasaki, Kosuke; Ishii, Satoshi; Nagao, Tadaaki; Saeki, Akinori; Kuwabara, Junpei; Kanbara, Takaki; Kijima, Masashi; Lorke, Axel; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2016-05-24

    Highly luminescent π-conjugated polymeric microspheres were fabricated through self-assembly of energy-donating and energy-accepting polymers and their blends. To avoid macroscopic phase separation, the nucleation time and growth rate of each polymer in the solution were properly adjusted. Photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that efficient donor-to-acceptor energy transfer takes place inside the microspheres, revealing that two polymers are well-blended in the microspheres. Focused laser irradiation of a single microsphere excites whispering gallery modes (WGMs), where PL generated inside the sphere is confined and resonates. The wavelengths of the PL lines are finely tuned by changing the blending ratio, accompanying the systematic yellow-to-red color change. Furthermore, when several microspheres are coupled linearly, the confined PL propagates the microspheres through the contact point, and a cascade-like process converts the PL color while maintaining the WGM characteristics. The self-assembly strategy for the formation of polymeric nano- to microstructures with highly miscible polymer blends will be advantageous for optoelectronic and photonic device applications. PMID:27135760

  11. Energy Analysis of Road Accidents Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and low-cost approach for energy analysis of road accidents using images obtained using consumer-grade digital cameras and smartphones. The developed method could be used by security forces in order to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of traffic accidents. This role of the security forces is crucial to settle arguments; consequently, the remote and non-invasive collection of accident related data before the scene is modified proves to be essential. These data, taken in situ, are the basis to perform the necessary calculations, basically the energy analysis of the road accident, for the corresponding expert reports and the reconstruction of the accident itself, especially in those accidents with important damages and consequences. Therefore, the method presented in this paper provides the security forces with an accurate, three-dimensional, and scaled reconstruction of a road accident, so that it may be considered as a support tool for the energy analysis. This method has been validated and tested with a real crash scene simulated by the local police in the Academy of Public Safety of Extremadura, Spain.

  12. Remainder estimates for the Long Range Behavior of the van der Waals interaction energy

    OpenAIRE

    Anapolitanos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The van der Waals-London's law, for a collection of atoms at large separation, states that their interaction energy is pairwise attractive and decays proportionally to one over their distance to the sixth. The first rigorous result in this direction was obtained by Lieb and Thirring [LT], by proving an upper bound which confirms this law. Recently the van der Waals-London's law was proven under some assumptions by I.M. Sigal and the author [AS]. Following the strategy of [AS] and reworking th...

  13. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  14. Evaluation of 242Pu data for the incident neutron energy range 5-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models, procedures and parameters are presented for the calculation of neutron cross sections, the neutron angular distributions and the neutron energy distributions of 242Pu in the energy range 5-20 MeV. The interaction takes place through direct interaction and compound nucleus mechanism. For heavy deformed nucleus the direct interaction was treated with the coupled channel process, using the ECIS code. For the compound nucleus mechanism, a statistical treatment was used for fission, neutron elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,4n) cross section calculations, using the GNASH code. (R.P.)

  15. Neutron cross-sections for 55Mn in the energy range from 0.2 to 22 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMAN, Abul Khaer Mohammad Rezaur

    2012-01-01

    Neutron total and differential elastic scattering cross-sections for 55Mn nucleus was calculated from different global spherical optical potential (SOP) sets for different neutron energies ranging from 0.2 MeV to 22 MeV using the well known computer program SCAT-2 on an IBM PC-AT. In addition, the angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons at different neutron energies were calculated. The results were compared with those of the experimental data obtained from the EXFOR d...

  16. Renormalized energy of ground and first excited state of Fröhlich polaron in the range of weak coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Tkach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The partial summing of infinite range of diagrams for the two-phonon mass operator of polaron described by Frohlich Hamiltonian is performed using the Feynman-Pines diagram technique. The renormalized spectral parameters of ground and first excited (phonon repeat polaron state are accurately calculated for the weak electron-phonon coupling at T=0 K. It is shown that the stronger electron-phonon interaction shifts the energy of both states into low-energy region of the spectra. The ground state stays stationary and the excited one - decays at bigger coupling constant.

  17. Observation of short range three-particle correlations in e+e- annihilations at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Barão, F; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brunet, J M; Brückman, P; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buys, A; Bärring, O; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Da Silva, W; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Dönszelmann, M; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Föth, H; Fürstenau, H; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Guy, J; Guz, Yu; Górski, M; Günther, M; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Królikowski, J; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Kuznetsov, O; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; La Vaissière, C de; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; López-Fernandez, A; Lörstad, B; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martí i García, S; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Maréchal, B; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myagkov, A; Myatt, Gerald; Mönig, K; Møller, R; Müller, H; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Némécek, S; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rídky, J; Rückstuhl, W; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Stäck, H; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Sánchez, J; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van Eldik, J; Van der Velde, C; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Wehr, A; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; de Boer, Wim; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Åsman, B; Österberg, K; Überschär, B; Überschär, S

    1995-01-01

    \\def\\tpc{three-particle correlation} \\def\\twopc{two-particle correlation} Measurements are presented of short range three-particle correlations in e^+ e^- annihilations at LEP using data collected by the DELPHI detector. %The jet structure is studied using three-particle correlation functions. At small values of the four-momentum difference, strong three-particle correlations are observed for like-sign (+++ and ---) and for unlike-sign (++- and +--) pion combinations which are not a consequence of two-particle correlations. A possible explanation of the observed effects in like-sign combinations is the existence of higher order Bose-Einstein interference, which significantly changes the particle distributions in jets.

  18. Characterisation of a detector based on microchannel plates for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: grigore.moldovan@materials.ox.ac.uk; Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kirkland, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-11

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detectors for an X-ray photoelectron emission microscope (XPEEM), we have characterised a detector based on microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD camera. For XPEEM, an imaging detector is required for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. This type of detector is a standard fitment on commercial instruments and we have studied its performance in some detail in order to provide a baseline against which to evaluate future detector technologies. We present detective quantum efficiency (DQE), noise power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements of a commercial detector, in the energy range of interest, as a function of the detector bias voltage.

  19. Collision Cross Sections for O + Ar(+) Collisions in the Energy Range 0.03-500 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, A A; Balint-Kurti, G G; Palov, A P

    2016-07-14

    The interatomic potentials of the a(2)Π and b(2)Π states of the OAr(+) molecule are calculated using the relativistic complete-active space Hartree-Fock method followed by a multireference configuration interaction calculation with an aug-cc-pwCVNZ-DK basis sets where N is 4 and 5. The calculations were followed by an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An avoided crossing between the two potential energy curves is found at an internuclear separation of 5.75 bohr (3.04 Å). As the transition probability between the curves is negligible in the relative collision energy range 0.03-500 eV of interest here, collisions on the lower adiabatic a(2)Π potential may be treated without reference to the upper state. For low energies and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers, the one-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using a Numerov algorithm method to determine the phase shift. The semiclassical JWKB approximation was employed for relative energies greater than 5 eV and orbital angular quantum numbers higher than 500. Differential, integral, transport (diffusion), and viscosity cross sections for elastic collisions of oxygen atoms with argon ions are calculated for the first time for the range of relative collision energies studied. The calculated cross sections are expected to be of utility in the fields of nanotechnology and arc welding. The combination of an Ar(+)((2)P) ion and a O((3)P) atom gives rise to a total of 12 different molecular electronic states that are all coupled by spin-orbit interactions. Potential energy curves for all 12 states are computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level and scattering calculations performed. The results are compared with those obtained using just the lowest potential energy curve. PMID:26741565

  20. Collision Cross Sections for O + Ar(+) Collisions in the Energy Range 0.03-500 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, A A; Balint-Kurti, G G; Palov, A P

    2016-07-14

    The interatomic potentials of the a(2)Π and b(2)Π states of the OAr(+) molecule are calculated using the relativistic complete-active space Hartree-Fock method followed by a multireference configuration interaction calculation with an aug-cc-pwCVNZ-DK basis sets where N is 4 and 5. The calculations were followed by an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An avoided crossing between the two potential energy curves is found at an internuclear separation of 5.75 bohr (3.04 Å). As the transition probability between the curves is negligible in the relative collision energy range 0.03-500 eV of interest here, collisions on the lower adiabatic a(2)Π potential may be treated without reference to the upper state. For low energies and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers, the one-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using a Numerov algorithm method to determine the phase shift. The semiclassical JWKB approximation was employed for relative energies greater than 5 eV and orbital angular quantum numbers higher than 500. Differential, integral, transport (diffusion), and viscosity cross sections for elastic collisions of oxygen atoms with argon ions are calculated for the first time for the range of relative collision energies studied. The calculated cross sections are expected to be of utility in the fields of nanotechnology and arc welding. The combination of an Ar(+)((2)P) ion and a O((3)P) atom gives rise to a total of 12 different molecular electronic states that are all coupled by spin-orbit interactions. Potential energy curves for all 12 states are computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level and scattering calculations performed. The results are compared with those obtained using just the lowest potential energy curve.

  1. CN molecule collisions with H+ at a wide range of astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanova, Madina R

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum-mechanical rotational excitation/de-excitation spectrum and cross sections of CN molecules during low and high-energy collisions with protons, H+. The problem is of significant importance in astrophysics of the early Universe, specifically connected with the problems of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A quantum-mechanical close-coupling method is applied in this work. The cyanide molecule (CN) is treated as a rigid rotor, i.e. the distance between the carbon and nitrogen atoms is fixed at an average equilibrium value. The new results of the excitation/de-excitation cross-sections and corresponding thermal rate coefficients are compared with the results of few previous calculations performed on the basis of few approximate semiclassical frameworks. The interaction potential between CN and H+ is taken in the following form: proton induced polarization potential + proton-dipole potential + proton-quadrupole potential.

  2. Multi-mode wide range subsynchronous resonance stabilization using superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabbani, M.G.; Devotta, J.B.X.; Elangovan, S. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy to stabilize the torsional oscillations due to subsynchronous resonance (SSR) of a capacitor compensated power system through control of firing angles of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The control strategy of SMES is based on artificial neural network (ANN). The gain of the controller is generated on-line depending on the operating conditions and the type of the disturbance. The proposed method of control of SMES for power system stabilization has been tested on the IEEE first benchmark model for subsynchronous resonance studies. Dynamic simulations are performed using the non-linear system model. It has been found that the SMES unit is very effective to eliminate the slowly growing transients resulting from the unstable modes. (author)

  3. CO2. Separation, storage, use. Holistic assessment in the range of energy sector and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and CO2 usage (CCR) is illuminated in this reference book comprehensively and from different perspectives. Experts from research and industry present the CCS and CCR technology based on the scientific and technical foundations and describe the state-of-the-art. They compare energy balances for different techniques and discuss legal, economic and socio-political aspects. In scenario analyzes they demonstrate the future contribution of the technologies and present the views of the different stakeholder groups. The authors claim to inform value-free. They disclose the criteria for the assessment of individual perspectives. An important work on a current and controversial discussed technology.

  4. Optical model analysis of p + 6He scattering over a wide range of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical model analysis of proton elastic scattering from 6He has been carried out for eight sets of elastic scattering data at energies of 24.5, 25.0, 36.2, 38.3, 40.9, 41.6, 71.0 and 82.3 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The vector analyzing power and differential cross section for the elastic scattering of 6He nucleus from polarized protons at 71 MeV have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model potential. The data are, first, analyzed in terms of phenomenological potentials using the Woods-Saxon form for the real and imaginary parts supplemented by a spin-orbit potential of Thomas form. The analysis has been then performed using microscopic single folded complex potentials.

  5. Compton scattering from 12C using tagged photons in the energy range 65 - 115 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, L S; Preston, M F; Anderson, M D; Annand, J R M; Boselli, M; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Capone, J I; Feldman, G; Fissum, K G; Hansen, K; Henshaw, S S; Isaksson, L; Jebali, R; Kovash, M A; Lewis, K; Lundin, M; MacGregor, I J D; Middleton, D G; Mittelberger, D E; Murray, M; Nathan, A M; Nutbeam, S; O'Rielly, G V; Schröder, B; Seitz, B; Stave, S C; Weller, H R

    2014-01-01

    Elastic scattering of photons from 12C has been investigated using quasi-monoenergetic tagged photons with energies in the range 65 - 115 MeV at laboratory angles of 60 deg, 120 deg, and 150 deg at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. A phenomenological model was employed to provide an estimate of the sensitivity of the 12C(g,g)12C cross section to the bound-nucleon polarizabilities.

  6. DM2 results on e+e- annihilation into multihadrons in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results on the study of e+e- annihilation into π+π-π+π-, π+π-π0π0, π+π-π0, π+π-π+π-π0, K+K-π+π- and Ks0K±π-+ in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range. Data have been collected with the DM2 detector at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring, and refer to about 2 pb-1 integrated luminosity

  7. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Ziegler, James F.

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u‑1 to 450 MeV u‑1 or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  8. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D; Ziegler, James F

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u(-1) to 450 MeV u(-1) or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  9. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Ziegler, James F.

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u-1 to 450 MeV u-1 or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  10. Experimental Characterization of System Parameters for Ranging in IEEE 802.15.4a using Energy Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Geiger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4a standard for impulse radio ultrawide band (IR-UWB communication systems defines a ranging scheme which relies on the measurement of the round-trip propagation time of electromagnetic pulses. Accuracy is strongly dependent on the estimation of the timeof-arrival (TOA of the pulse that is spread in time due to multipath propagation. The major concern therefore is the proper detection of the leading edge. In this work, the ranging capabilities of the standard are analyzed for an energy detector receiver. Emphasis is put on the influence of transmitter and receiver parameters, which are evaluated for a set of measured scenarios. It is shown that sub-meter ranging accuracy can be achieved with fixed parameter settings.

  11. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    The STAR Collaboration at RHIC presents a systematic study of high transverse momentum charged di-hadron correlations at small azimuthal pair separation {Delta}{phi}, in d+Au and central Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Significant correlated yield for pairs with large longitudinal separation {Delta}{eta} is observed in central Au+Au, in contrast to d+Au collisions. The associated yield distribution in {Delta}{eta} x {delta}{phi} can be decomposed into a narrow jet-like peak at small angular separation which has a similar shape to that found in d+Au collisions, and a component which is narrow in {Delta}{phi} and depends only weakly on {Delta}{eta}, the 'ridge'. Using two systematically independent analyses, finite ridge yield is found to persist for trigger p{sub t} > 6 GeV/c, indicating that it is correlated with jet production. The transverse momentum spectrum of hadrons comprising the ridge is found to be similar to that of bulk particle production in the measured range (2 < p{sub t} < 4 GeV/c).

  12. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd − |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21–60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC–DC converter. The converter is 11%–56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO.

  13. Changes of the cosmic-ray mass composition in the 10 14-10 16 eV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernlöhr, K.; Hofmann, W.; Leffers, G.; Matheis, V.; Panter, M.; Zink, R.

    1998-04-01

    Data taken with ten Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) detectors and the HEGRA air-shower array on La Palma, Canary Islands, have been analysed to investigate changes of the cosmic overlineray mass composition at the 'knee' of the cosmic-ray flux spectrum near 10 15 eV energy. The analysis is based on the angular distributions of particles in air showers. HEGRA data provided the shower size, direction, and core position and CRT data the particle track information. It is shown that the angular distribution of muons in air showers is sensitive to the composition over a wide range of shower sizes and, thus, primary cosmic-ray energies with little systematic uncertainties. Results can be easily expressed in terms of of primary cosmic rays. In the lower part of the energy range covered, we have considerable overlap with direct composition measurements by the JACEE collaboration and find compatible results in the observed rise of . Above about 10 15 eV energy we find no or at most a slow further rise of . Simple cosmic-ray composition models are presented which are fully consistent with our results as well as the JACEE flux and composition measurements and the flux measurements of the Tibet ASγ collaboration. Minimal three-parameter composition models defined by the same power-law slope of all elements below the knee and a common change in slope at a fixed rigidity are inconsistent with these data.

  14. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  15. Characterisation of a counting imaging detector for electron detection in the energy range 10-20 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, G., E-mail: grigore.moldovan@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Sikharulidze, I. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kirkland, A.I. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Abrahams, J.P. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-21

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detector for X-ray photoelectron emission microscopes (XPEEM) and related methods, we have characterised the imaging performance of a counting Medipix 2 readout chip bump bonded to a Silicon diode array sensor and directly exposed to electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Noise Power Spectra (NPS) are presented, demonstrating very good performance for the case of electrons with an energy of 20 keV. Significant reductions in DQE are observed for electrons with energy of 15 keV and less, down to levels of 20% for electrons of 10 keV.

  16. The 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd elastic scattering in a wide energy range for gamma-process studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ornelas, A; Mohr, P; Galaviz, D; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Máté, Z; Rauscher, T; Somorjai, E; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    Alpha elastic scattering angular distributions of the 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd reaction were measured at three energies around the Coulomb barrier to provide a sensitive test for the alpha + nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Furthermore, the new high precision angular distributions, together with the data available from the literature were used to study the energy dependence of the locally optimized {\\alpha}+nucleus optical potential in a wide energy region ranging from E_Lab = 27.0 MeV down to 16.1 MeV. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of alpha-induced reaction cross sections and thus, for the calculation of stellar reaction rates used for the astrophysical gamma process. Therefore, statistical model predictions using as input the optical potentials discussed in the present work are compared to the available 106Cd + alpha cross section data.

  17. DEIMOS: A beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350–2500 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohresser, P., E-mail: philippe.ohresser@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Stanescu, S.; Deschamps, F.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Lagarde, B.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Marteau, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Scheurer, F.; Joly, L.; Muller, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kappler, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bunau, O.; Sainctavit, Ph. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS UMR 7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-01-15

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350–2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  18. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail: sjue@lanl.gov; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  19. On the analytical representation of free energy profiles with a Morse/long-range model: Application to the water dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritzant-Martinez, Yalina; Zeng, Tao; Broom, Aron; Meiering, Elizabeth; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the analytical representation of potentials of mean force (pmf) using the Morse/long-range (MLR) potential approach. The MLR method had previously been used to represent potential energy surfaces, and we assess its validity for representing free-energies. The advantage of the approach is that the potential of mean force data only needs to be calculated in the short to medium range region of the reaction coordinate while the long range can be handled analytically. This can result in significant savings in terms of computational effort since one does not need to cover the whole range of the reaction coordinate during simulations. The water dimer with rigid monomers whose interactions are described by the commonly used TIP4P model [W. Jorgensen and J. Madura, Mol. Phys. 56, 1381 (1985)], 10.1080/00268978500103111 is used as a test case. We first calculate an "exact" pmf using direct Monte Carlo (MC) integration and term such a calculation as our gold standard (GS). Second, we compare this GS with several MLR fits to the GS to test the validity of the fitting procedure. We then obtain the water dimer pmf using metadynamics simulations in a limited range of the reaction coordinate and show how the MLR treatment allows the accurate generation of the full pmf. We finally calculate the transition state theory rate constant for the water dimer dissociation process using the GS, the GS MLR fits, and the metadynamics MLR fits. Our approach can yield a compact, smooth, and accurate analytical representation of pmf data with reduced computational cost.

  20. Short- and long-range energy strategies for Japan and the world after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, K.; Wagner, F.; Yamagata, Y.; Donné, A. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011 has caused profound effects on energy policies in Japan and worldwide. This is particularly because it occurred at the time of the growing awareness of global warming forcing measures towards decarbonised energy production, namely the use of fossil fuels has to be drastically reduced from the present level of more than 80% by 2050. A dilemma has now emerged because nuclear power, a CO2-free technology with proven large-scale energy production capability, lost confidence in many societies, especially in Japan and Germany. As a consequence, there is a world-wide effort now to expand renewable energies (REs), specifically photo-voltaic (PV) and wind power. However, the authors conjecture that PV and wind power can provide only up to a 40% share of the electricity production as long as sufficient storage is not available. Beyond this level, the technological (high grid power) and economic problems (large surplus production) grow. This is the result of the analysis of the growing use of REs in the electricity systems for Germany and Japan. The key element to overcome this situation is to develop suitable energy storage technologies. This is particularly necessary when electricity will become the main energy source because also transportation, process heat and heating, will be supplied by it. Facing the difficulty in replacing all fossil fuels in all countries with different technology standards, a rapid development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) might also be necessary. Therefore, for the short-range strategy up to 2050, all meaningful options have to be developed. For the long-range strategy beyond 2050, new energy sources (such as thermonuclear fusion, solar fuels and nuclear power—if inherently safe concepts will gain credibility of societies again), and large-scale energy storage systems based on novel concepts (such as large-capacity batteries and hydrogen) is required. It is acknowledged

  1. Short- and long-range energy strategies for Japan and the world after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011 has caused profound effects on energy policies in Japan and worldwide. This is particularly because it occurred at the time of the growing awareness of global warming forcing measures towards decarbonised energy production, namely the use of fossil fuels has to be drastically reduced from the present level of more than 80% by 2050. A dilemma has now emerged because nuclear power, a CO2-free technology with proven large-scale energy production capability, lost confidence in many societies, especially in Japan and Germany. As a consequence, there is a world-wide effort now to expand renewable energies (REs), specifically photo-voltaic (PV) and wind power. However, the authors conjecture that PV and wind power can provide only up to a 40% share of the electricity production as long as sufficient storage is not available. Beyond this level, the technological (high grid power) and economic problems (large surplus production) grow. This is the result of the analysis of the growing use of REs in the electricity systems for Germany and Japan. The key element to overcome this situation is to develop suitable energy storage technologies. This is particularly necessary when electricity will become the main energy source because also transportation, process heat and heating, will be supplied by it. Facing the difficulty in replacing all fossil fuels in all countries with different technology standards, a rapid development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) might also be necessary. Therefore, for the short-range strategy up to 2050, all meaningful options have to be developed. For the long-range strategy beyond 2050, new energy sources (such as thermonuclear fusion, solar fuels and nuclear power—if inherently safe concepts will gain credibility of societies again), and large-scale energy storage systems based on novel concepts (such as large-capacity batteries and hydrogen) is required. It is acknowledged

  2. Measurement of Fission Cross-Sections for Neutrons of Energies in the Range 40-500 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of the fission cross-section of U233, U234 , U236, Np237, Pu239 and Pu241 at several neutron energies between 40 keV and 500 keV. Measurements in this energy range are of importance in reactor calculations especially in fast dilute systems where the neutron flux is high in the 10- 100-keV energy range. Recent measurements at this laboratory of the U235 fission cross-section gave absolute values slightly lower than previous data. The present series of measurements are made relative to the new values of the U235 fission cross-section using back-to-back ionization chambers. The fissile foils were assayed by α-assay, direct weighing and coulometry. Good agreement was obtained between these assays. The fission measurements have an estimated accuracy of between 1 % and.2% and,combined with the, error on the U235 fission cross-section,give a final error of about 3% in the fission cross-sections. The present results together with those of previous measurements are given, and the corrections for fission- fragment absorption, backgrounds and scattering are discussed. (author)

  3. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, A T; Chubenko, A P; Eristavi, N A; Khaldeeva, I V; Nesterova, N M; Verbetsky, Yu G; Verbetsky, Yu.G.

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary...

  4. Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact in the energy range 10-85 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linert, Ireneusz; Lachowicz, Izabela; Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Zubek, Mariusz

    2010-09-01

    Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact excitation, that produces excited atomic and molecular fragments, has been studied using the optical excitation technique. Excited hydrogen atoms H( n), n = 4-7, have been detected by observation of the H β to H ɛ lines of the Balmer series. The diatomic CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) fragments have been identified by their A 2Δ → X 2Π r and B 2Σ + → X 2Σ + emission bands, respectively. The appearance energies for the H( n = 4), CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) have been measured to be 21.9, 14.0 and 10.6 eV, respectively. Absolute emission cross sections have been also obtained for the fragments in electron energy ranges from their respective appearance thresholds up to 85 eV. Possible fragmentation processes are discussed.

  5. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-Ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft;

    2016-01-01

    hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms, (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature, and decreased protease activity......Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing...... the proteome, metabolome, and hematologic features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma...

  6. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron–photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an “in-field” calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H⁎(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  7. Defect formation energies and homogeneity ranges of rock salt-, pyrite-, chalcopyrite- and molybdenite-type compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiechter, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, Berlin D-14109 (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Employing the generalisation of Van Vechten's cavity model, formation energies of neutral point defects in pyrites (FeS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}), chalcopyrites (II-IV-V{sub 2} and I-III-VI{sub 2}) as well as molybdenites (MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}) have been estimated. As input parameters the fundamental band gaps, work functions, electron affinities, surface energies, coordination numbers, covalent or ionic radii and unit cell parameters were used. The values calculated for tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated compounds agreed well with measured values. The data obtained can be used to calculate point defect concentrations and homogeneity ranges as a function of partial pressure and temperature. Introducing charged vacancies, the conductivity type can be predicted.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  9. The examinations of fatigue durability in the range of low cycle number of 13HMF steel used for energy pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the fatigue tests in the range of low number of cycles, for the materials used in energy pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial and after the long-term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC on the basis of the performed metallurgical studies 'the degree of depletion' of the material after operating period has been determined according to the adapted quality for criteria for structure class evaluation. (author)

  10. Flipper strokes can predict energy expenditure and locomotion costs in free-ranging northern and Antarctic fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Speakman, John R.; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flipper strokes have been proposed as proxies to estimate the energy expended by marine vertebrates while foraging at sea, but this has never been validated on free-ranging otariids (fur seals and sea lions). Our goal was to investigate how well flipper strokes correlate with energy expenditure in 33 foraging northern and Antarctic fur seals equipped with accelerometers, GPS, and time-depth recorders. We concomitantly measured field metabolic rates with the doubly-labelled water method and derived activity-specific energy expenditures using fine-scale time-activity budgets for each seal. Flipper strokes were detected while diving or surface transiting using dynamic acceleration. Despite some inter-species differences in flipper stroke dynamics or frequencies, both species of fur seals spent 3.79 ± 0.39 J/kg per stroke and had a cost of transport of ~1.6–1.9 J/kg/m while diving. Also, flipper stroke counts were good predictors of energy spent while diving (R2 = 0.76) and to a lesser extent while transiting (R2 = 0.63). However, flipper stroke count was a poor predictor overall of total energy spent during a full foraging trip (R2 = 0.50). Amplitude of flipper strokes (i.e., acceleration amplitude × number of strokes) predicted total energy expenditure (R2 = 0.63) better than flipper stroke counts, but was not as accurate as other acceleration-based proxies, i.e. Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration. PMID:27658718

  11. HESS J1427-608: an unusual hard unbroken $\\gamma-$ray spectrum in a very wide energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV $\\gamma$-ray source which is likely associated with the unidentified very-high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray source HESS J1427-608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power-law with an index of $1.85\\pm0.17$ in the energy range of $3-500$ GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427-608 at a few hundred GeV. This source shows no significant extended morphology and time variation. The broadband GeV-TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427-608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss possible nature of HESS J1427-608 according to the multi-wavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multi-wavelength data from radio to ...

  12. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadhasan786@gmail.com [ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore-560017 (India); Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: gananya04@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights: •Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. •Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. •Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. •Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. •Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.

  13. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.

  14. Search for critical point indications in long-range correlations by energy and system size scanning in string fusion approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V. N.; Vechernin, V. V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The ultrarelativistic collisions of heavy and light ions in the center-of-mass energy range from a few up to a hundred GeV per nucleon have been considered in string fusion approach. A Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been developed, which takes into account both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings, implementing the hadronic scattering through the interaction of color dipoles. It well describes the proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the partonic level without using Glauber model of nuclear collisions. All parameters are fixed using experimental data on inelastic cross section and multiplicity. In the framework of the model, we performed a beam energy and system size scan and studied the behaviour of n-n, pt-n and pt-pt long-range correlation coefficients. The detailed modeling of the event by event charged particles production allowed to provide predictions in the conditions close to the experimental ones allowing a direct comparison to the data.

  15. Long-Range Energy Transfer and Singlet-Exciton Migration in Working Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Grayson L.; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization of organic light-emitting devices for flat-panel displays and solid-state lighting makes a deep understanding of device physics more desirable than ever. Developing reliable experimental techniques to measure fundamental physical properties such as exciton diffusion lengths is a vital part of developing device physics. In this paper, we present a study of exciton diffusion and long-range energy transfer in working organic light-emitting devices, and a study of the interplay between these two tangled processes through both experimental probes and simulations. With the inclusion of multiple factors including long-range energy transfer, exciton boundary conditions, and the finite width of the exciton generation zone, we quantify exciton migration based on emission characteristics from rubrene sensing layers placed in working organic light-emitting devices. This comprehensive analysis is found to be essential to accurately measuring exciton diffusion length, and in the present case the measured singlet-exciton diffusion length in the archetype material 4' -bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl is 4.3 ±0.3 nm with a corresponding diffusivity of (2.6 ±0.3 )×10-4 cm2/s .

  16. Home on the range: workers and wildlife tread warily between astronomical underground flows of energy and live shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a 2,600 square kilometres parcel of grassland that was once home to 300 species of dinosaurs, three Canadian entities, the military, the Alberta Energy Company and a community of rare and endangered animals provide an example of peaceful co-existence. For eight months of the year the Alberta Energy Company shares the land with Canadian and British military units; all shallow wells have been placed underground so the military can hold annual live-fire exercises. Gas reservoirs exists beneath 57 square kilometres of the range lying at 1,000 metres depth at 4,540 pounds of pressure, which can be increased to 2,050 pounds. The surface of the Suffield range belongs to the federal government, the mineral rights are held by the Province of Alberta, and proghorn antelopes, apparently unconcerned, graze on the ground as if the land belonged to them. They, and the golden eagles that nest in the banks of the South Saskatchewan River appear to be surviving the activities of their two giant co-habitants relatively well

  17. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  18. Search for critical point indications in long-range correlations by energy and system size scanning in string fusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrarelativistic collisions of heavy and light ions in the center-of-mass energy range from a few up to a hundred GeV per nucleon have been considered in string fusion approach. A Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been developed, which takes into account both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings, implementing the hadronic scattering through the interaction of color dipoles. It well describes the proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the partonic level without using Glauber model of nuclear collisions. All parameters are fixed using experimental data on inelastic cross section and multiplicity. In the framework of the model, we performed a beam energy and system size scan and studied the behaviour of n-n, pt-n and pt-pt long-range correlation coefficients. The detailed modeling of the event by event charged particles production allowed to provide predictions in the conditions close to the experimental ones allowing a direct comparison to the data

  19. Stopping power of palladium for protons in the energy range 0.300–3.100 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.A., E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Sepúlveda, A.; Morales, J.R.; Rodriguez, T.; Burgos, E.; Fernández, H.

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of palladium for protons has been measured using the transmission method with an overall uncertainty of around 5% over the energy range E{sub p}=(0.300–3.100) MeV. These stopping power data are then compared to stopping power values calculated by the SRIM-2010 code and to those derived from a model based on the dielectric formalism. Subsequently, and within the framework of the modified Bethe–Bloch theory, this stopping power data were used for extracting Pd target mean excitation and ionization potential, (I = 468 ± 5 eV), and Barkas effect parameter, (b = 1.51 ± 0.06). A good agreement is found between the obtained results and values reported in literature. It is worth mentioning that these are the first reported results for protons on palladium over this energy range, which is often used in IBA applications, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)

  20. High-accuracy determination of the relative full energy peak efficiency curve of a coaxial HPGe detector in the energy range 700-1300 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the high-accuracy determination of the relative full energy peak efficiency is established. Radionuclides that emit at least two gamma-ray lines for which the relative intensity can be found (from the decay scheme) to much better than ±0.1% were used as calibration standards. Specifically, the 889 and 1120 keV lines of 46Sc, the 983 and 1312 keV lines of 48Sc, the 1173 and 1332 keV lines of 60Co, and the 702 and 871 keV lines of 94Nb were implemented. The high-accuracy calibration was taken to extend from the lowest line of 94Nb at 702 keV to the highest line of 60Co at 1332 keV. An analytical expression, based on linear least-squares fitting, was developed to describe the behavior of the relative efficiency curve in that energy range. As a result, the ability of predicting relative full energy peak efficiencies to within ±0.1% (over most of the energy range) was demonstrated. The presented method is applicable in any measurement that requires the minimum calibration bias in the determination of reaction rate ratios. Applications in neutron activation analysis (NAA) and in nuclear reactor dosimetry represent examples of such situations. (orig.)

  1. Energy dependence of some neutron detector sensitivity in the energy range from 17 keV up to 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental determination of sensitivity of neutron detectors used as dosimeters in the energy range from 17 keV to 1 MeV are presented. The measurements were performed in the EhG-2.5 accelerator. Monoenergetic neutrons were produced in the T (p, n)3He reaction at different proton energies. The detectors were placed at angles from 30 deg to 120 deg to proton beam direction. The detector sensitivity was evaluated by comparison of their values with those of the OVC-3M standard neutron counter. The obtained results could be used for determining energy dependences of sensitivities of detectors under study and for evaluating the errors of measurements of neutron doses in the radiation fields behind nuclear-physical installation shielding

  2. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  3. Two-electron R-matrix approach to calculations of potential-energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. The method is based on a two-electron R-matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is applied to a study of Rydberg states of Rb2 for internuclear separations R from 40 to 320 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 7 to 30. We report bound states associated with the low-lying 3Po resonance and with the virtual state of the rubidium atom that turn into ion-pair-like bound states in the Coulomb potential of the atomic Rydberg core. The results are compared with previous calculations based on single-electron models employing a zero-range contact-potential and short-range modele potential. Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P208/14-15989P).

  4. Differential cross section measurement of elastic scattering 12C(p,p)12C in the astrophysical range of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fulfillment of planned works on measurements of differential cross sections of elastic scattering of protons on nuclear 12C at the energy region of 350†1050 keV suggests the preparation of thin self - supporting carbon target. The self - supporting target is necessary in order to perform investigations in the total angular range. In the future last data will be used in order to determine optical potentials and scattering phases for this nuclear in the energy range of astrophysical interest. There was prepared target layer of the 12C with natural composition of carbon and of thickness of 17.4 μg/cm2. The spraying was conducted in the vacuum evaporation installation (VUP - 4) by an electron bombardment method. Carbon was sprayed on a glass plate with previously deposited of layer salt. After a heating during 12 hours at the temperature of 150 oC the film of carbon was floated from glass plate and self - supporting target has been picked up on the specially prepared target frame. In order to determine thickness of target there was used the resonance chamber, installed in the protons channel of the accelerator RAC - 2 - 1 (INP NNC RK), with the help of which there was measured energy loss of the protons beam during the passage through target, disposed in the central chamber. For this purpose there was used the reaction 27Al(p,γ)28Si with narrow resonance with ER = 992 keV and with detection of gamma-quanta with Eγ = 1779 keV. On shift of the resonance ER=992 keV in the reaction 27Al(p,γ)28Si, which takes place owing to protons energy loss in the thickness of carbon film, and using table values of brake quantities S(Ep)[MeV·cm2/g] [1], there was determined thickness of this fine film. Such the method allows to determine thicknesses of films in the interval of (10 † 100) mcg/cm2 with the accuracy of not worse than 5%. In the present work there were carried out measurements of angular distributions of cross sections of the elastic scattering 12C

  5. Report of the subpanel on long-range planning for the US High-Energy-Physics Program of the High-Energy-Physics Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US High Energy Program remains strong, but it faces vigorous competition from other regions of the world. To maintain its vitality and preeminence over the next decade it requires the following major ingredients: (1) strong exploitation of existing facilities; (2) the expeditious completion of construction projects which will expand these facilities over the next few years; (3) the construction of a substantial new facility to be ready for research by the end of the 1980's; and (4) the vigorous pursuit of a wide range of advanced accelerator R and D programs in preparation for the design and construction of a higher energy accelerator which would probably be initiated near the end of this decade. The Subpanel has considered how best to accomplish these goals under two different budgetary assumptions; namely, average yearly support levels of $440M DOE, $35M NSF, and $395M DOE, $34M NSF (FY 1982 dollars). It has also considered the impact of a yet lower support level of $360M DOE and $32M NSF. A description of facilities in high energy physics is given, and facility recommendations and long range plans are discussed. Recommendations for international collaboration are included

  6. Surface hopping outperforms secular Redfield theory when reorganization energies range from small to moderate (and nuclei are classical)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Brian R., E-mail: landrybr@gmail.com; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 S. 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We evaluate the accuracy of Tully’s surface hopping algorithm for the spin-boson model in the limit of small to moderate reorganization energy. We calculate transition rates between diabatic surfaces in the exciton basis and compare against exact results from the hierarchical equations of motion; we also compare against approximate rates from the secular Redfield equation and Ehrenfest dynamics. We show that decoherence-corrected surface hopping performs very well in this regime, agreeing with secular Redfield theory for very weak system-bath coupling and outperforming secular Redfield theory for moderate system-bath coupling. Surface hopping can also be extended beyond the Markovian limits of standard Redfield theory. Given previous work [B. R. Landry and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A513 (2012)] that establishes the accuracy of decoherence-corrected surface-hopping in the Marcus regime, this work suggests that surface hopping may well have a very wide range of applicability.

  7. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  8. Adiabatic potential energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules: Two-electron R-matrix approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tarana, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. Only diatomic molecules are considered. The method is based on a two-electron \\rmath approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is put into a test by its application to a study of Rydberg states of the hydrogen molecule for internuclear distances $R$ from 20 to 400 bohrs and energies corresponding to $n$ from 3 to 22. The results are compared with previous quantum chemical calculations (lower quantum numbers $n$) and computations based on contact potential models (higher quantum numbers $n$).

  9. Particle Production in Hadron - Nuclear Matter in the Energy Range Between 50-GeV - 150-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Braune, Kersten

    1980-01-01

    In an experiment at the CERN SPS the particle production in hadron-nucleus collisions in an energy range between 50 and 150 GeV was studied. The detector detects charged particles and separates them into two groups: fast particles, mainly produced pions, and slow particles, mainly recoil protons from the nucleus, whereby the boundary lies at a velocity v/c = 0.7. Multiplicity and angular respectively pseudo-rapidity distributions were measured. From the data analysis resulted that the slow particles are a measure for the number of collisions of the projectile in the nucleus. The properties of the fast particle were studied in dependence on . Thereby it was shown that at a description of the measured results using the variable the dependence on the projectile and on the mass number A of the target are extensively eliminated.

  10. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. By using high resolution gamma spectrometry cross-section data for the production of $^{51,48}$Cr, $^{48}$V, $^{48,47,46,44m,44g,43}$Sc and $^{43,42}$K were determined. Comparisons with the earlier published data are presented and results predicted by different theoretical codes (EMPIRE and TALYS) are included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and compared with the earlier experimental yield data. Depth distribution curves to be used for thin layer activation (TLA) are also presented.

  11. Stopping power of palladium for protons in the energy range 0.300-3.100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, P. A.; Sepúlveda, A.; Morales, J. R.; Rodriguez, T.; Burgos, E.; Fernández, H.

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of palladium for protons has been measured using the transmission method with an overall uncertainty of around 5% over the energy range Ep=(0.300-3.100) MeV. These stopping power data are then compared to stopping power values calculated by the SRIM-2010 code and to those derived from a model based on the dielectric formalism. Subsequently, and within the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory, this stopping power data were used for extracting Pd target mean excitation and ionization potential, (I = 468 ± 5 eV), and Barkas effect parameter, (b = 1.51 ± 0.06). A good agreement is found between the obtained results and values reported in literature.

  12. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Physical Therapy with Energy Healing for Improving Range of Motion in Subjects with Restricted Shoulder Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Linda Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of energy healing, Reconnective Healing (RH and Reiki, which involve light or no touch, were tested for efficacy against physical therapy (PT for increasing limited range of motion (ROM of arm elevation in the scapular plane. Participants were assigned to one of 5 groups: PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, or no treatment. Except for no treatment, participants were blinded as to grouping. Range of Motion, self-reported pain, and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed before and after a 10-minute session. On average, for PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, and no treatment, respectively, ROM increased by 12°, 20°, 26°, 0.6°, and 3° and pain score decreased by 11.5%, 10.1%, 23.9%, 15.4%, and 0%. Physical therapy, Reiki, and RH were more effective than Sham Healing for increasing ROM (PT: , ; Reiki: , ; RH: , . It is possible that this improvement was not mediated by myofascial release because the subjects’ HRV did not change, suggesting no significant increase in vagal activity. Sham treatment significantly reduced pain compared to no treatment (, and was just as effective as PT, Reiki, and RH. It is the authors’ opinion that the accompanying pain relief is a placebo effect.

  14. Polycrystalline lead iodide films produced by solution evaporation and tested in the mammography X-ray energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condeles, J. F.; Mulato, M.

    2016-02-01

    Lead iodide polycrystalline films have been deposited on corning glass substrates using solution evaporation in oven. Films 6 μm-thick were obtained with full coverage of the substrates as verified by scanning electron microscopy. Some pin-holes were observable. X-ray diffraction revealed a crystalline structure corresponding to the 4 H-PbI2 polytype formation. Polarized Raman scattering experiments indicated a lamellar structure. Anisotropy was also investigated using depolarization ratio calculations. The optical and electrical properties of the samples were investigated using photoluminescence and dark conductivity as a function of temperature, respectively. Activation energies of 0.10 up to 0.89 eV were related to two main electrical transport mechanisms. Films were also exposed to X-ray irradiation in the mammography X-ray energy range. The detector produced was also exposed to X-ray from 5 mR up to 1450 mR. A linear response was observed as a function of dose with a slope of 0.52 nA/mm2 per mR.

  15. On the complex structure of the optical spectra of a tetragonal calomel single crystal in a wide energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, V. V., E-mail: sobolev@uni.udm.ru [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation); Sobolev, V. Val. [Izhevsk State Technical University (Russian Federation); Anisimov, D. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The spectral complex of optical functions of the calomel Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} single crystal is determined in the range 0–20 eV at 300 K in unpolarized light. The spectra of the imaginary part of the permittivity ε{sub 2}(E), the bulk–Imε{sup –1} and the surface–Im(1 + ε){sup –1} electron energy losses are decomposed into elementary bands. Their main parameters, including energies and oscillator strengths of the transition bands are determined. Calculations are performed on the basis of the experimental reflectance spectrum of the crystal cleavage. Computer programs based on Kramers–Kronig relations, analytical formulas, and the advanced parameterfree method of combined Argand diagrams are used. The main features of the spectral set of optical functions and the parameters of expansion band components ε{sub 2}(E),–Imε{sup –1}, and–Im(1 + ε){sup –1} are determined.

  16. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.

  17. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  18. Modeling an aggressive energy-efficiency scenario in long-range load forecasting for electric power transmission planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improved representation of end-use energy efficiency is needed for load forecasting. • An emergent application is long-range electric power transmission planning. • A “hybrid” econometric-technology forecasting approach incorporates efficiency. • A high efficiency scenario was created for Western U.S. transmission planning. • Significant load-growth reductions from increased end-use efficiency are possible. - Abstract: Improving the representation of end-use energy efficiency, and of the effects of policies and programs to promote it, is an emergent priority for electricity load forecasting models and methods. This paper describes a “hybrid” load forecasting approach combining econometric and technological elements that is designed to meet this need, in a novel application to long-run electric power transmission planning in the western United States. A twenty-year load forecast incorporating significant increases in energy-efficiency programs and policies across multiple locations was developed in order to assess the potential of efficiency to reduce load growth and requirements for expanded transmission capacity. Load forecasting and transmission planning background is summarized, the theoretical and empirical aspects of the hybrid methodology described, and the assumptions, structure, data development, and results of the aggressive efficiency scenario are presented. The analysis shows that substantial electricity savings are possible in this scenario in most residential and commercial end-uses, and in the industrial sector, with magnitudes depending upon the specific end-use as well as upon the geographic location of the utility or other entity providing the electricity

  19. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  20. Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) Battery with Specific Energy 400 Wh/kg and Operating Temperature Range -60?C to 60?C Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sion Power is developing a rechargeable lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery with a demonstrated specific energy exceeding 350 Wh/kg and the range of operating...

  1. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  2. A low-noise wide-dynamic-range event-driven detector using SOI pixel technology for high-energy particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sumeet; Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a low-noise wide-dynamic-range pixel design for a high-energy particle detector in astronomical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) based detector is used for the detection of wide energy range of high energy particles (mainly for X-ray). The sensor has a thin layer of SOI CMOS readout circuitry and a thick layer of high-resistivity detector vertically stacked in a single chip. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. The event detection circuit consisting of a comparator and logic circuits which detect the incidence of high energy particle categorizes the incident photon it into two energy groups using an appropriate energy threshold and generate a two-bit code for an event and energy level. The code for energy level is then used for selection of the gain of the in-pixel amplifier for the detected signal, providing a function of high-dynamic-range signal measurement. The two-bit code for the event and energy level is scanned in the event scanning block and the signals from the hit pixels only are read out. The variable-gain in-pixel amplifier uses a continuous integrator and integration-time control for the variable gain. The proposed design allows the small signal detection and wide dynamic range due to the adaptive gain technique and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique of kTC noise canceling of the charge detector.

  3. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Takei, Y.; van der Kuur, J.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Boersma, D.; Bruijn, M.; Mels, W.; Ridder, M. L.; Takken, D.; van Weers, H.

    2008-04-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between 1.5 to 2.1 eV in the investigated energy range and is weakly dependent on the detector set point. A first analysis shows a count-rate capability, without considerable loss of performance, of about 500 counts per second.

  4. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gottardi, Luciano; van der Kuur, Jan; de Korte, Piet A J; Hoevers, Henk F C; Boersma, Dirk; Bruijn, Marcel; Mels, Wim; Ridder, Marcel L; Takken, Dick; van Weers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between 1.5 to 2.1 eV in the investigated energy range and is weakly dependent on the detector set point. A first analysis shows a count-rate capability, without considerable loss of performance, of about 500 counts per second.

  5. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  6. Low power BiCMOS ASIC for wide energy range X-{gamma} ray imaging and spectroscopic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe E-mail: giuseppe.bertuccio@polimi.it; Caccia, Stefano; Caroli, Ezio; Castorina, Stefano; Corradi, Andrea; D' Alesio, Gianluca; Gallina, Pietro; Sampietro, Marco

    2004-02-01

    A low-power, low noise Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), designed to read out CdTe array detectors for X-{gamma} ray imaging and spectroscopy on satellite or balloon telescopes, is presented. The chip ELBA has been realized in 0.8 {mu}m BiCMOS technology; the front-end includes preamplifier, shaper, peak stretcher, discriminator with a dynamic range from 20 keV to 2 MeV of photon energy. The reset of the preamplifier and the high time constant of the shaper are obtained with a very compact current conveyor feedback. A multichannel prototype has been realized with a digital back-end including multiplexer, decoder, double pulse detect and logic circuitry for chip testing and calibration. The measured noise level is in between 150 and 500 electrons r.m.s. corresponding to 1.5-5 keV FWHM in CdTe detectors. The total non-linearity is below {+-}1.5% and the cross-talk between two neighboring channels is about 0.7%. The circuit is powered with a single supply at +4 V with a total power consumption of 1 mW/channel.

  7. Simultaneous solution of Kompaneets equation and radiative transfer equation in the photon energy range 1-125 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative transfer equation in plane parallel geometry and Kompaneets equation is solved simultaneously to obtain theoretical spectrum of 1-125 keV photon energy range. Diffuse radiation field are calculated using time-independent radiative transfer equation in plane parallel geometry, which is developed using discrete space theory (DST) of radiative transfer in a homogeneous medium for different optical depths. We assumed free-free emission and absorption and emission due to electron gas to be operating in the medium. The three terms n, n2 and (∂n/∂xk) where n is photon phase density and xk=(hν/kTe), in Kompaneets equation and those due to free-free emission are utilized to calculate the change in the photon phase density in a hot electron gas. Two types of incident radiation are considered: (1) isotropic radiation with the modified black body radiation IMB and (2) anisotropic radiation which is angle dependent. The emergent radiation at τ=0 and reflected radiation τ=τmax are calculated by using the diffuse radiation from the medium. The emergent and reflected radiation contain the free-free emission and emission from the hot electron gas. Kompaneets equation gives the changes in photon phase densities in different types of media. Although the initial spectrum is angle dependent, the Kompaneets equation gives a spectrum which is angle independent after several Compton scattering times.

  8. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Rahbar, E-mail: rahbarali1@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, G. F. (P. G.) College, Shahjahanpur-242001 (India); Singh, D. [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-825202 (India); Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  9. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  10. Apparatus for In Situ X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies on Catalytic Systems in the Energy Range 1000 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Eerden, A.M.J. van der; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Smith, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new apparatus for in situ x-ray absoprtion fine structure measurements in the medium energy range of 1000–3500 eV has been developed. Measurements can be performed in a gaseous environment (max. pressure 1 bar) at temperatures ranging from 80 to 750 K. Pre-treatments can be performed at 5 bar and

  11. Calculation of SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 electron attachment cross sections in the energy range 0-100 meV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    1982-01-01

    Electron attachment cross sections for the processes SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 are calculated in a local theory using a model in which diatomic-like potential energy curves for the normal modes are constructed from available spectroscopic data. Thermally populated vibrational and rotational levels are included. Good agreement is found with experimental cross sections in the energy range 5-100 meV for a particular choice of potential energy curve parameters.

  12. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  13. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014.

  14. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40 MeV up to 50 MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides $^{113,110}$Sn, $^{116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109}$In and $^{115}$Cd are reported in the 37-50 MeV energy range, for production of $^{110}$Sn and $^{110g,109}$In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014.

  15. Calorimetry for dose measurement at electron accelerators in the 80-120 keV energy range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Miller, A.; Duane, S.;

    2005-01-01

    Calorimeters for dose measurement at low-energy electron accelerator energies (80-120 keV) are described. Three calorimeters with different characteristics were designed and their dose response and measurement uncertainties were characterized. The heated air between the beam exit window and the c...

  16. The Fano factor in gaseous xenon: A Monte Carlo calculation for X-rays in the 0.1 to 25 keV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculation of the Fano factor for gaseous xenon is carried out using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the absorption of X-rays in the 0.1 to 25 keV energy range. This factor is found to be energy dependent with values ranging from 0.17 to 0.32 and has sharp increases near the xenon absorption edges. An interpretation of the calculated results is made in terms of the relative importance of photoelectron and Auger/Coster-Kronig cascading electron processes. (orig.)

  17. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyu Chen; Weiguo Liu; Ying Yang; Weiqiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several onlin...

  18. Nuclear stopping for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy range : from 1-Body to 2-Body dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the stopping in heavy-ion induced reactions around the Fermi energy in central collisions. The stopping is minimal around the Fermi energy and corresponds to the crossover between the Mean-Field and the nucleonic regimes. This is attributed to the change in the energy dissipation going from 1-body (Mean-Field to 2-body (nucleonnucleon collisions dissipation. For this latter, a connection to in-medium transport properties of nuclear matter is proposed and comprehensive values of the nucleon mean free path and nucleon-nucleon cross section are extracted.

  19. Photoion mass spectrometry of five amino acids in the 6-22 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochims, Hans-Werner; Schwell, Martin; Chotin, Jean-Louis; Clemino, Monique; Dulieu, Francois; Baumgaertel, Helmut; Leach, Sydney

    2004-03-08

    A photoionization mass spectrometry study in the 6-22 eV photon energy region of five amino acids, glycine-h{sub 5} and its -d{sub 5} isotopologue, {alpha}-alanine, {beta}-alanine, {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid and {alpha}-valine, revealed VUV-induced degradation pathways of these important biological molecules. The fragmentation patterns, ionization energies and ion appearance energies are reported, many for the first time, and are compared with results of electron impact and other studies. Assignment of ion peaks and determination of fragment ion formation channels were assisted by mass spectral data on deuterated isotopologues of the three proteinaceous amino acids studied. Thermochemical data, coupled with the observed ion appearance energies, was also useful in clarifying dissociative photoionization pathways. Ion pair formation appears to occur in certain low energy dissociation processes. Isomeric interconversion between {alpha}-alanine and {beta}-alanine cations does not occur up to 20 eV excitation energy. Some astrophysical implications concerning the prospects for amino acid observation and survival in the interstellar medium and in meteorites are briefly discussed.

  20. Extensive air showers generated by protons, nuclei, gamma-quanta and neutrinos at energy range 1 - 100 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Arsov, T. P.; Borisov, S. S.; Musin, F. I.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Mirzafatikhov, R. M.; Kasparov, G. M.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Platonov, G. F.

    2003-07-01

    Basic science: nuclear physics, physics of elementary particles and connected with them astrophysics and cosmology, has studied the structure of matter on micro and macro scales. Gamma-astronomy and neutrino-astronomy, are unique experimental possibilities to search for high-energy cosmic ray sources (1012 - 1014 eV). Evidence has already been obtained of metagalactic sources exceeding by 106 - 1012 times the power of gamma-quanta galactic sources. This data puts into doubt the assumption about the galactic origin of the observed very high energy cosmic radiation. The energy spectrum of the majority of known gamma-sources with energy 1012 - 1014 eV is harder than the proton and cosmic ray nuclei spectrum. The problem of observing extensive air showers generated by neutrinos is connected with the extremely small effective cross-section of inelastic collisions of neutrinos with nuclei. However, two facts allow a search for showers generated by neutrinos. The hadron cascade with primary energy of more than 1012 eV leaves the ground to atmosphere from depth of ~ 300 g/cm2 without essential loss of total energy in the hadron cascade. The Cherenkov radiation in the atmosphere from such hadron cascades will be observed at distances from the telescope of 7.5 km over an area more than 7 . 105 m2. This partially compensates for the small cross-section of inelastic neutrino collisions. RFBR, FNP, GNTP

  1. Energy Dependence of Elliptic Flow over a Large Pseudorapidity Range in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2005-04-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of the energy dependence of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Data taken at collision energies of √(sNN)=19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are shown over a wide range in pseudorapidity. These results, when plotted as a function of η'=|η|-ybeam, scale with approximate linearity throughout η', implying no sharp changes in the dynamics of particle production as a function of pseudorapidity or increasing beam energy.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of dd reaction parameters study at ultra-low energy range using plasma hall accelerator and deuterized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of the application Monte Carlo method to analyze data from the interaction of deuteron beams with metallic targets saturated with deuterium. The SRIM software was used to generate energy spectrum of ions passing the target. These spectra were used to calculate the neutron yields from dd reactions in energy range 7–12 keV of incident deuteron beams. The calculated outputs were compared with the experimental data for the determination of the electron screening potential for dd reactions. The calculations were performed using two different values of the beam energy spread (FWHM) equal 1% and 16%. It was shown that plasma beams with a relatively high spread (16%) were almost as good a tool as the traditional accelerator with mono-energy beam related to the study of the reaction within an ultra-low energy region. (author)

  3. Yakutsk array radio emission registration results in the energy range of 3*10^16-5*10^18 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, I; Petrov, Z; Kozlov, V; Pravdin, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the set of measurements of ultra-high energy air shower radio emission at frequency 32 MHz in period of 2008-2012. The showers are selected by geomagnetic and azimuth angles and then by the energy in three intervals: 3*10^16 3*10^17 eV, 3*10^17 6*10^17 eV and 6*10^17 5*10^18 eV. In each energy interval average lateral distribution function using mathematically averaged data from antennas with di?fferent directions are plotted. In the paper, using experimental data the dependence of radio signal averaged amplitude from geomagnetic angle, the shower axis distance and the energy are determined. Depth of maximum of cosmic ray showers Xmax for the given energy range is evaluated. The evaluation is made according QGSJET model calculations and average lateral distribution function shape.

  4. Fusion and in-complete fusion studies in 16O + 181Ta system in the energy range ∼ 4.7 - 6.2 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, to understand the complete and incomplete fusion reaction dynamics, the excitation function studies have been done for several reactions induced by 16O7+ ions on 181Ta target in the energy range ∼ 4.7 - 6.2 MeV/A, using gamma-ray spectrometry

  5. Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption coefficients of H-, C-, N- and O-based samples of biological interest in the energy range 200–1500 keV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Manjunathaguru; T K Umesh

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we provide polynomial coefficients and a semi-empirical relation using which one can derive photon mass energy absorption coefficient of any H-, C-, N-, O-based sample of biological interest containing any other elements in the atomic number range 2–40 and energy range 200–1500 keV. More interestingly, it has been observed in the present work that in this energy range, both the mass attenuation coefficients and the mass energy absorption coefficients for such samples vary only with respect to energy. Hence it was possible to represent the photon interaction properties of such samples by a mean value of these coefficients. By an independent study of the variation of the mean mass attenuation coefficient as well as mass energy absorption coefficient with energy, two simple semi-empirical relations for the photon mass energy absorption coefficients and one relation for the mass attenuation coefficient have been obtained in the energy range 200–1500 keV. It is felt that these semi-empirical relations can be very handy and convenient in biomedical and other applications. One possible significant conclusion based on the results of the present work is that in the energy region 200–1500 keV, the photon interaction characteristics of any H-, C-, N-, O-based sample of biological interest which may or may not contain any other elements in the atomic number range 2–40 can be represented by a sample-independent (single) but energy-dependent mass attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient.

  6. Determination of inelastic interaction cross sections of pions and nucleons with iron nuclei in the energy range of 0. 5-5. 0 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, V.V.; Garyaka, A.P.; Gevorkyan, S.R.

    1984-10-01

    Cross sections of inelastic interactions of cosmic pions, protons and neutrons with iron nuclei have been measured directly in the energy range 0.5-5.0 TeV. Values sigmasub(pFe)sup(in) and sigmasub(nFe)sup(in) coincide in the whole investigated energy range. The ratio sigmasub(pFe)sup(in)/sigmasub(..pi..Fe)sup(in) is independent from energy in the range from several dozens GeV up to several TeV and it coincides with conclusions of the Glauber theory. The obtained experimental data on inelastic cross sections of pion- and nucleon-nuclear interactions agree with the energy dependence sigmasup(in) for pions and protons calculated by the multiple scattering theory. Elementary pp- and ..pi..--cross sections of inelastic interaction which agree with present accelerating data are identified on the base of the Glauber theory from the experimental determined values sigmasub(pFe)sup(in) and sigmasub(..pi..Fe)sup(in). Dependences of sigmasub(pp)sup(in) and sigmasub(..pi..p)sup(in) on energy are calculated in this case.

  7. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and that the thermocouple junction makes good thermal contact with the aluminum block. If the test...,” Publication 705-1988 and Amendment 2—1993. (See 10 CFR 430.22) 1.6Normal nonoperating temperature means the... range shall be installed with the back directly against, or as near as possible to, a vertical...

  9. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yeow, John T.W., E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10–200 keV and 1–20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  10. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  11. Accurate transport simulation of electron tracks in the energy range 1 keV-4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V. E-mail: vincent.cobut@chim.u-cergy.fr; Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P

    2004-01-01

    Multipurpose electron transport simulation codes are widely used in the fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. Broadly based on multiple scattering theories and continuous energy loss stopping powers with some mechanism taking straggling into account, they give reliable answers to many problems. However they may be unsuitable in some specific situations. In fact, many of them are not able to accurately describe particle transport through very thin slabs and/or in high atomic number materials, or also when knowledge of high-resolution depth dose distributions is required. To circumvent these deficiencies, we developed a Monte Carlo code simulating each interaction along electron tracks. Gas phase elastic cross sections are corrected to take into account solid state effects. Inelastic interactions are described within the framework of the Martinez et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 2955] theory intended to deal with energy deposition in both condensed insulators and conductors. The model described in this paper is validated for some materials as aluminium and silicon, encountered in spectrometric and dosimetric devices. Comparisons with experimental, theoretical and other simulation results are made for angular distributions and energy spectra of transmitted electrons through slabs of different thicknesses and for depth energy distributions in semi-infinite media. These comparisons are quite satisfactory.

  12. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  13. The forward particle production in the energy range of 1 PeV as seen with the Tibet hybrid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    We are now operating the 500 m2 Yangbajing air-shower core (YAC-II) array near the center of the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) to observe cosmic-ray chemical composition at the knee energy region since February 2011. The first step of YAC, called YAC-I, containing 16 detector units, was operated from May, 2009 to February, 2010. In this paper, we used the YAC-I and Tibet-III coincident data set obtained from May, 2009 through January, 2010 to present the electromagnetic spectrum of air shower cores at around 1015 eV energy region. The effective live time is calculated as 100.5 days. We would like to report the comparison of our experimental data with MC model prediction in this paper.

  14. Elastic Nd scattering at intermediate energies as a tool for probing the short-range deuteron structure

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhalev, M A

    2007-01-01

    A calculation of the deuteron polarization observables $A^d_y$, $A_{yy}$, $A_{xx}$, $A_{xz}$ and the differential cross-section for elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering at incident deuteron energies 270 and 880 MeV in lab is presented. A comparison of the calculations with two different deuteron wave-functions derived from the Bonn-CD $NN$-potential model and the dressed bag quark model is carried out. A model-independent approach, based on an optical potential framework, is used in which a nucleon-nucleon $T$-matrix is assumed to be local and taken on the energy shell, but still depends on the internal nucleon momentum in a deuteron.

  15. Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

    2001-06-01

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

  16. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  17. Studies on the attenuation coefficients of some egyptian materials In the energy range 81-1332.5 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients for different types of soil, sand and some building material samples at Inshas site in Egypt were investigated. The measurements were performed using gamma rays spectrometer consists of hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The attenuation coefficients values were determined at the y-rays energies 81.0, 276.4, 302.8, 356.0 and 383.9 KeV of l33Ba, 661.7 KeV of 137Cs and 1173.4 and 1332.5 KeV of 60Co. The tested samples were dried, sieved to different particle sizes. The effect of cement to sand ratio on the attenuation coefficient values was studied. The results obtained showed that there was no specific relation between the mass attenuation coefficients and samples densities, but there was exponential decay relation between the mass attenuation coefficients and the gamma rays energy. There were variations of the values of the mass attenuation coefficients with the γ-rays energy. The obtained values for mass attenuation coefficients were compared with other values in different countries. These values agreed with some values and differed with others, because there are differences in the elemental components of each sample

  18. Guided-ion beam measurements of Ar+ + Ar symmetric charge-transfer cross sections at ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 300 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guided-ion beam (GIB) measurements of the Ar+ + Ar symmetric charge-transfer (SCT) system are presented for ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 300 eV. Two methods are applied to distinguish primary and secondary ions: (i) based on isotopic-labeling, (ii) based on significant laboratory velocity differences. The absolute cross sections measured with these methods are in excellent agreement at energies above 1 eV. The experimental results are compared with semi-classical calculations performed with various published Ar2+ potentials. The calculations including spin-orbit effects lie within 10% of the isotope-selected and attenuation measurements at all investigated ion energies. The present results lie significantly above the simple Rapp and Francis model. Important errors in the latter approach are pointed out and a correct one-electron model is proposed. First measurements of the differential cross section at 0.5 eV collision energy are briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  19. A simulation study of microwave field effects on a 3D orthorhombic lattice of rotating dipoles: short-range potential energy variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2016-05-01

    Variation of the short-range potential energy of interaction of nearest dipoles in a three-dimensional (3D) orthorhombic lattice exposed to microwave electric fields is studied by means of the Langevin dynamics simulations. The global increase of the mean potential energy is typical for all the frequencies and intensities at lower temperatures, whereas separate potential energy peaks or peak chains are observed at intermediate temperatures. A simple statistical model proposed to account for the temperature dependence of the field intensity for potential energy peaks suggests the concerted collective rotation of the dipoles. The temperature dependence of the peak frequency is explained using a combination of the one-dimensional Kramers and the resonant activation theories applied to the field-driven collective rotation, with the nearly degenerate angular coordinates of the dipoles being used as a single effective coordinate.

  20. Neutron-rich rare isotope production from projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Vonta, N; Loveland, W D; Kwon, Y K; Tshoo, K; Jeong, S C; Veselsky, M; Bonasera, A; Botvina, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities of producing neutron-rich nuclides in projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon expected from low-energy facilities. We report our efforts to theoretically describe the reaction mechanism of projectile fission following a multinucleon transfer collision at this energy range. Our calculations are mainly based on a two-step approach: the dynamical stage of the collision is described with either the phenomenological Deep-Inelastic Transfer model (DIT), or with the microscopic Constrained Molecular Dynamics model (CoMD). The deexcitation/fission of the hot heavy projectile fragments is performed with the Statistical Mul- tifragmentation Model (SMM). We compared our model calculations with our previous experimental projectile-fission data of 238U (20 MeV/nucleon)+208Pb and 197Au (20 MeV/nucleon)+197Au and found an overall reasonable agreement. Our study suggests that projectile fission following periph- eral heavy-ion collisions at this energy range of...

  1. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  2. Underwater Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  3. An experimental study of a non-eutectic mixture of KNO3 and NaNO3 with a melting range for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy storage is a key technology for reduced cost solar thermal power generation. This high-temperature application requires storage operation above 100 °C. Possible options are sensible, latent and thermochemical heat storages. A combination of sensible and latent heat storage seems a promising option for thermal energy storage with an increased specific heat capacity. Salt mixtures with a melting range as opposed to a melting point combine the effects of both latent and sensible heat storage. These provide the possibility of utilizing not only latent but in addition sensible heat during the melting and solidification process. The present paper focuses on a binary mixture of 30 wt.% potassium nitrate (KNO3) and 70 wt.% sodium nitrate (NaNO3). The measurement systems include a differential scanning calorimeter, a melting point apparatus, a custom-built adiabatic calorimeter and a lab-scale storage unit. The sample masses ranged from about 20 mg to 156 kg. Tests with the lab-scale storage unit indicate that salt mixtures with a melting range may be successfully utilized in large-scale applications. -- Highlights: • Enhanced capacities are possible by using anhydrous salt mixtures in the melting range. • As a suitable binary salt mixture was sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate identified. • A distribution of the enthalpy of fusion within the melting range was determined. • Cyclic stabilities of the selected salt mixture were measured. • The effect of dimension on the cyclic stability was examined in various test rigs

  4. Observations of the scatter-free solar-flare electrons in the energy range 20-1000 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Fisk, L. A.; Lin, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of the scatter-free electron events from solar active region McMath No. 8905 are presented. The measurements were made on Explorer 33 satellite. The data show that more than 80% of the electrons from these events undergo no or little scattering and that these electrons travel only approximately 1.5 a.u. between the sun and the earth. The duration of these events cannot be accounted fully by velocity dispersion alone. It is suggested that these electrons could be continuously injected into interplanetary medium for a time interval of approximately 2 to 3 minutes. Energy spectra of these electrons are discussed.

  5. An Efficiency-Optimized Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Extended Power Range for Energy Storage Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel extended-single-phase shift (ESPS control strategy of isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converters (IBDCs which are a promising alternative as a power electronic interface in microgrids with an additional function of galvanic isolation. Based on the mathematical models of ESPS control under steady-state conditions, detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of IBDC under ESPS control are presented. Compared with conventional single-phase-shift (CSPS control, ESPS control can greatly improve the efficiency of IBDCs in microgrids through decreasing current stress and backflow power considerably over a wide input and output voltage range under light and medium loads. In addition, ESPS control only needs to adjust one single phase-shift angel to control transmission power, thus it retains implementation simplicity in comparison with dual-phase-shift (DPS control for microgrid applications. Furthermore, an efficiency-optimized modulation scheme based on ESPS and CSPS control is developed in the whole power range of IBDC for power distribution in microgrids. A 10 kW IBDC prototype is constructed and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, showing that the proposed strategy can enhance the overall efficiency up to 30%.

  6. Latitude variation of recurrent MeV-energy proton flux enhancements in the heliocentric radial range 11 to 20 AU and possible correlation with solar coronal hole dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Recurrent low energy (not less than 0.5 MeV) proton flux enhancements, reliable indicators of corotating plasma interaction regions in interplanetary space, have been observed on the Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft in the heliographic latitude range 2 deg S to 23 deg N and the heliocentric radial range 11 to 20 AU. After a period of rather high correlation between fluxes at different latitudes in early 1983, distinct differences develop. The evolution of the fluxes appears to be related to the temporal and latitudinal dynamics of solar coronal holes, suggesting that information about the latitudinal structure of solar wind stream sources propagates to these distances.

  7. Study on absolute sensitivity of X-ray electron-optical converter in the energy range of 7-20 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute spectral sensitivity of X-ray electron-optical converter (XREOC) with the beryllium window and a microchannel plate as a converting and amplifying element for the 7-20 keV X-ray range, was measured. Measurements were performed in the VEhPP-3M storage ring synchrotron radiation channel. It is shown that in the energy range indicated the ratio of photon number in the blue spectrum region at the XREOC outlet to the number of X-ray quanta at the inlet grows from 1200 up to 2200 photons per a quantum. Sensitivity change over the XREOC operating field is investigated

  8. Measurement of attenuation cross-sections of some fatty acids in the energy range 122–1330 keV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GAIKWAD D K; PAWAR P P

    2016-07-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients $(\\mu m)$ have been measured for undecylic acid (C$_{11}$H$_{22}$O$_2$), lauric acid (C$_{12}$H$_{24}$O$_2$), tridecylic acid (C$_{13}$H$_{26}$O$_2$), myristic acid (C$_{14}$H$_{28}$O$_2$), pentadecylic acid (C$_{15}$H$_{30}$O$_2$) andpalmitic acid (C$_{16}$H$_{32}$O$_2$) using $^{57}$Co, $^{133}$Ba, $^{137}$Cs, $^{60}$Co and $^{22}$Na emitted γ radiation with energies 122, 356,511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV, respectively. The accurate values of the effective atomic number (Zeff), atomic cross-section $(\\sigma t,)$, electronic cross-section $(\\sigma e)$ and the effective electron density (Neff) have great significance in radiation protection and dosimetry. These quantities were obtained by utilizing experimentally measured values of mass attenuation coefficients $(\\mu m)$. A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector with 8.2% (at 662 keV) resolution was used for detecting of attenuated γ -photons. The variation in Zeff and Neff of fatty acids with energy is discussed. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement within 2% deviation.

  9. Fermi Bubble as a Source of Cosmic Rays in the Energy Range > 10E15 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, K S; Dogiel, V A; Ko, C M; Ip, W H; Wang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Fermi-LAT has recently discovered two giant gamma-ray-bubbles which extend in the North and South of the Galactic center with diameter and height of the order of $H\\sim 10$ kpc. We suggest that periodic star capture processes by the galactic supermassive black hole, Sgr A$^*$, with a capture rate $\\tau_{cap}^{-1}\\sim 3\\times 10^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$ and energy release $W\\sim 3\\times 10^{52}$ erg per capture can produce hot plasma injecting into the Galactic halo at a wind velocity $u\\sim 10^8$ cm/s. The periodic injection of hot plasma can produce a series of shocks. Energetic protons in the Bubble are re-accelerated when they interact with these shocks. We show that for energy larger than $E > 10^{15}$ eV, acceleration process can be better described by the stochastic second order Fermi acceleration. We propose that hadronic CRs within the "knee" of the observed CR spectrum are produced by Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) distributed in the Galactic disk. Re-acceleration of these particles in the Fermi Bubble pr...

  10. Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzoeva, I. K., E-mail: colombo2006@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

  11. Experimental SF6/-//SF6 and Cl/-//CFC13 electron-attachment cross sections in the energy range 0-200 meV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental cross sections for the electron-attachment processes for SF6(-)/SF6 and Cl(-)/CFl3 are reported in the energy range 0-200 meV by normalizing each attachment line shape to measurement of a thermal rate coefficient. When the same ion states are detected, good agreement is found between present values, for which a monoenergetic electron source is used, and swarm-unfolded results. The present data constitute a new limit for cross sections reported at high resolution at the lowest electron energy.

  12. To calculating the gamma radiation interaction coefficients by an interpolation method in the 0.02-2 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpolation formula earlier used for determining linear coefficients of gamma radiation attenuation in a substance is applied for determining mass coefficients of attenuation without regard for coherent scattering and mass coefficients of interaction due to incoherent scattering on bound electrons as well as mass coefficients of energy absorption. It is concluded that approximation error for 0.02-2 MeV energy range doesn't exceed 1.5 % except for several points for which the difference constitutes 2.5-3 %

  13. Study of the process $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ in the energy range $\\sqrt{s} <2$ GeV with the SND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achasov, M N; Barnyakov, A Yu; Beloborodov, K I; Berdyugin, A V; Berkaev, D E; Bogdanchikov, A G; Botov, A A; Dimova, T V; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kardapoltsev, L V; Kharlamov, A G; Koop, I A; Korol, A A; Kovrizhin, D P; Koshuba, S V; Kupich, A S; Lysenko, A P; Melnikova, N A; Martin, K A; Pakhtusova, E V; Obrazovsky, A E; Perevedentsev, E A; Rogovsky, Yu A; Serednyakov, S I; Silagadze, Z K; Shatunov, Yu M; Shatunov, P Yu; Shtol, D A; Skrinsky, A N; Surin, I K; Tikhonov, Yu A; Usov, Yu V; Vasiljev, A V; Zemlyansky, I M

    2016-01-01

    The process $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ is studied in the energy range $1.45-2.00$ GeV using data with an integrated luminosity of 33 pb$^{-1}$ accumulated by the SND detector at the $e^+e^-$ collider VEPP-2000. The $e^+e^-\\to\\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ cross section is measured for the first time. The cross section has a threshold near 1.75 GeV. Its value is about 2 nb in the energy range $1.8-2.0$ GeV. The dominant intermediate state for the process $e^+e^- \\to \\omega\\eta\\pi^0$ is found to be $\\omega a_0(980)$.

  14. Lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers at high mountain altitude produced by different primary particles in wide energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, A

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles precisely by. protons, Helium, Iron, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium, Silicon and gamma quanta in wide energy range at high mountain observation level of Chacaltaya cosmic ray station. The simulations are divided generally in two energy ranges 10GeV-10 TeV and 10 TeV-10 PeV. One large detector has been used for simulations, the aim being to reduce the statistical fluctuations of the obtained characteristics. The shape of the obtained lateral distributions of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers is discussed and the scientific potential for solution of different problems as well.

  15. Positron total cross sections for collisions with O2, H2O and CH4 in energy range from 30 to 3000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections (TCSs) for the scattering of positrons by molecules O2, H2O and CH4 in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into considerationthe overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is firstly employed for the TCS calculation of positron-molecule scattering. TCSs are quantitatively compared with those obtained in experiments and other theorieswherever available, and good agreement is obtained in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified complex optical model potential is completely suitable for the TCS calculations of the positron-molecule scattering.

  16. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Liming

    2009-04-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons. PMID:19138526

  17. Neutron elastic scattering cross-sections measurement on carbon and fluorine in epithermal energy range using PEREN platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) based on Th/U cycle is one of the new generation concepts for nuclear energy production. A typical MSR is a graphite-moderated core with liquid fuel (7LiF +ThF4 + UF4). Many numerical studies based on Monte-Carlo codes are currently carried out but the validity of these numerical result relies on the precise knowledge of neutron cross sections used such as elastic scattering on carbon (σC), fluorine (σF) and lithium 7 (σLi). The goal of this work is to obtain σC and σF between 1 eV and 100 keV. Such measurements have been performed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC) de Grenoble on the experimental platform PEREN using slowing-down time spectrometers (C and CF2) associated to a pulsed neutron generator (GENEPI). Capture rates are obtained for reference materials (Au, Ag, Mo and In) using YAP scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier. Very precise simulations (MCNP code) of the experimental setup have been performed and comparison with experiments has led to the determination of σC and σF with accuracies of 1% and 2% respectively. These results show a small discrepancy to evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). Measures of total cross-sections σC and σF at higher energy (200 - 600 keV) were also carried out at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux using a transmission method. Mono-energetic neutrons were produced by protons accelerated by a Van de Graaff accelerator on a LiF target and transmitted neutrons are counted in a proportional hydrogen gaseous detector. Discrepancies of 5% and 9% for σC and σF respectively with ENDF have been shown. (author)

  18. Experimental investigation of the 19F( n, α)16N reaction excitation function in the neutron energy range of 4 to 7.35 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, I. P.; Khryachkov, V. A.; Ivanova, T. A.; Kuz'minov, B. D.; Semenova, N. N.; Sergachev, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of neutrons with light nuclei study is of interest for understanding nuclear-reaction mechanisms. Fluorine nuclei are worth particular attention because they are abundant in the core of the promising molten-salt reactors and can noticeably affect the chain reaction kinetics. In this work we have experimentally investigated the 19F( n, α)16N reaction cross-section at neutron energies ranging from 4 to 7.35 MeV.

  19. Toward the completion of measurement of absorption spectra of 20 amino acids and 5 bases of nuclear acids over wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption spectra of biomolecules over wide energy range are very important to study their radiation effects in terms of the optical approximation proposed by Platzman. Using synchrotron radiation we accumulated absorption spectra of amino acids and bases of nuclear acids. Now we will be able to complete the measurement for all 20 amino acids and all 5 bases of nuclear acids within one year. Here we report mainly about basic techniques to obtain precise data. (author)

  20. Curves for the response of a Ge(Li) detector to gamma rays in the energy range up to 11 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Ratyński, W.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1967-01-01

    The response function of a Ge(Li) coaxial detector with a sensitive volume of 17 cm3 for gamma rays of energies ranging from 2.23 to 10.83 MeV has been determined. The measurements were carried out with an experimental set-up using the neutron beam from the DR 3 reactor ar Risö and the (n, γ) re...

  1. Au, Bi, Co and Nb cross-section measured by quasimonoenergetic neutrons from p + 7Li reaction in the energy range of 18-36 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerle, M.; Bém, P.; Novák, J.; Šimečková, E.; Štefánik, M.

    2016-09-01

    Au, Bi, Co and Nb samples were irradiated several times with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons from p + 7Li reaction in the energy range of 18-36 MeV. The activities of the samples were measured with the HPGe detector and the reaction rates were calculated. The cross-sections were extracted using the SAND-II method with the reference cross-sections from the EAF-2010 database. The uncertainties of the final results are discussed.

  2. High resolution spectrometer for extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the 6 keV to 15 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, U.

    2016-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission-crystal spectrometer has been developed with high crystal resolving power in the 6 keV-15 keV energy range and sufficient sensitivity to record single-shot spectra from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Titan laser and other comparable or more energetic lasers. The spectrometer capabilities were tested by recording the W L transitions from a laboratory source and the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum through a Cu foil.

  3. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanping, E-mail: yx2132@cumc.columbia.edu; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n){sup 3}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the {sup 9}Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  4. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  5. Electron stopping power and mean free path in organic compounds over the energy range of 20-10,000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Feng; Huang, Boda; Ji, Yanju

    2004-07-01

    An empirical method to obtain optical energy loss functions is presented for a large number of organic compounds, for which optical data are not available, on the basis of structure feature analysis of the existed optical energy loss functions for certain organic compounds. The optical energy loss functions obtained by using this method are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the Penn's statistical model, a set of systematic expressions have been given for the calculation of the stopping powers and mean free paths of electrons penetrating into the organic compounds in the energy range of E⩽10 keV. Detailed comparison of the calculated data with other theoretical results is presented. The stopping powers and mean free paths for a group of important polymers, without available optical data, have been calculated. In the calculations, three different cases have been considered, i.e. exchange correction not being considered, Ashley exchange correction being involved, and Born-Ochkur exchange correction being included. The results indicate that for these compounds the calculated stopping powers agree well with those obtained by using Bethe-Bloch theory at high-energy limit E=10 keV, as expected for a stopping power theory that should be converged to Bethe-Bloch theory at high energies.

  6. Electron stopping power and inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

    2006-07-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA. PMID:16733724

  7. Performance of an air-cooled steam condenser for a waste-to-energy plant over its whole operating range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Performance of ACSC are strongly affected by environmental conditions. → A mathematical model was developed for predicting performance of ACSC. → The relation between the air temperature and the maximum heat rate was achieved. -- Abstract: In this work the behaviour of an air-cooled steam condenser (ACSC), installed in a waste-to-energy heat recovery plant, has been analysed under various environmental conditions. The analysis has been carried out by using a mathematical model developed by the authors. For an ACSC, the bottom heat sink is represented by the environmental air, hence the fluctuations of the environmental air temperature undoubtedly affect the performance of the device. Because of the constancy of the temperature on the condensing steam side, the mathematical model is based on the direct application of LMTD (log-mean temperature difference) method. It provides the relation between the air temperature and the volumetric air flow rate, and the main cycle operating parameters. An analysis of the on-site electrical demand has been also performed, which shows that a net benefit is achievable by increasing the air-cooled steam condenser units from six to eight.

  8. A balloon-borne instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-8000 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, W. S.; Baker, R.; Boclet, D.; Brown, S.; Cline, T.; Costlow, H.; Durouchoux, P.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Hameury, J. M.

    1983-04-01

    The Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. The instrument is configured for a particular balloon flight with either of two sets of high purity germanium detectors. In one configuration, the instrument uses an array of three coaxial detectors (effective volume equal to or approximately 230 cubic cm) inside an NaI (T1) shield and collimator (field of view equal to or approximately 16 deg FWHM) and operates in the 80 to 8000 keV energy range. In the other configuration, three planar detectors (effective area equal to or approximately square cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (field of view equal to or approximately 5 deg x 10 deg FWHM) are optimized for the 20 to 200 keV energy range. In a typical one day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is less than or approximately .0008 ph/cm/s square (coaxial array: 80 to 2000 keV) and less than or approximately .0003 ph/square cm/s (planar array: 50 to 150 keV).

  9. Real-time measurement of low-energy-range neutron spectra on board the space shuttle STS-89 (S/MM-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a real-time, Bonner Ball-type (neutron energy range is from thermal to 15 MeV) neutron spectral measurement system (Bonner Ball Neutron Detector (BBND)) for use on board the International Space Station (ISS). From measurements taken inside STS-89 (S/MM-8), we successfully distinguished neutrons from protons and other particles in a mixed radiation field; a task hitherto considered difficult. Although the experimental period was short, only 3.5 days (January 24-27, 1998), we were able to obtain energy spectral data and the Earth's neutron dose-equivalent map for the ISS orbital conditions (altitude 400 km, orbit inclination angle 51.6 deg.). A method for calculating the neutron energy spectrum and compensating for the particle interaction with the sensors is also described in detail

  10. Interface free-energy exponent in the one-dimensional Ising spin glass with long-range interactions in both the droplet and broken replica symmetry regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, T.; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-08-01

    The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems.

  11. Recoil proton polarization of neutral pion photoproduction from proton in the energy range between 400 MeV and 1142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γp → π0p were measured at a C.M. angle of 1000 for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 1300 for energies from 400 MeV to 1142 MeV. One photon decayed from a π0-meson and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization scatterers were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the Comparison between the present data and the asymmetry data given by the polarized target, the contribution of the invariant amplitudes A3 can be estimated to be small at 1000. (author)

  12. Interface free-energy exponent in the one-dimensional Ising spin glass with long-range interactions in both the droplet and broken replica symmetry regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, T; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2016-08-01

    The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems. PMID:27627255

  13. Real-time measurement of low-energy-range neutron spectra on board the space shuttle STS-89 (S/MM-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Goka, T; Koga, K; Iwai, S; Uehara, T; Sato, O; Takagi, S

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a real-time, Bonner Ball-type (neutron energy range is from thermal to 15 MeV) neutron spectral measurement system (Bonner Ball Neutron Detector (BBND)) for use on board the International Space Station (ISS). From measurements taken inside STS-89 (S/MM-8), we successfully distinguished neutrons from protons and other particles in a mixed radiation field; a task hitherto considered difficult. Although the experimental period was short, only 3.5 days (January 24-27, 1998), we were able to obtain energy spectral data and the Earth's neutron dose-equivalent map for the ISS orbital conditions (altitude 400 km, orbit inclination angle 51.6 degrees). A method for calculating the neutron energy spectrum and compensating for the particle interaction with the sensors is also described in detail.

  14. On the differentiability of depth distribution function of deposited energy, momentum and ion range--a reply to Dr L. G. Glazov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹林

    2002-01-01

    Based on the translational invariance of a medium, a new theorem has been proposed and proved rigorously: the depth distributions of the deposited energy, momentum and ion range must be infinitely differentiable functions in amorphous or polycrystalline infinite targets by ion bombardment, if these functions exist. The origin of the "discontinuity",derived by Dr Glazov in 1995 in J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7 6365, has been analysed in detail. For the power cross section, neglecting electronic stopping, the linear transport equations determining the depth distribution functions of the deposited energy and momentum (by taking the threshold energy into account) have been solved asymptotically. An important formula derived by Dr Glazov has been confirmed and generalized. The results agree with the new theorem.

  15. Development of a 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter to measure the 3He(n,p)T cross section in the intermediate energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter has been developed for measuring the neutron energy range from thermal to 3 MeV. Great effort was concentrated on improving the detector design to optimize light production and collection to improve the energy resolution which is primarily controlled by photon statistics. The detectors were tested using a 238Pu alpha-particle source, a thermal neutron beam from the NBS reactor, and the white-neutron spectrum from the NBS linac. The detector measures an energy resolution of 17 % (FWHM) for the 3He(n,p)T reaction at 2.0 MeV which is sufficient for cross section measurement. (author)

  16. Development of a 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter to measure the 3He(n,p)T cross section in the intermediate energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter has been developed for measuring the neutron energy range from thermal to 3 MeV. Great effort was concentrated on improving the detector design to optimize light production and collection to improve the energy resolution which is primarily controlled by photon statistics. The detectors were tested using a 238Pu alpha-particle source, a thermal neutron beam from the NBS reactor, and the white-neutron spectrum from the NBS linac. The detector measures an energy resolution of 17% (FWHM) for the 3He(n,p)T reaction at 2.0 MeV which is sufficient for cross section measurement. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. Calculation of energy deposited and stopping range through deuterium ignition beam and dynamical studies on the energy gain in D-3He mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinimotlagh, S. N.; Jahedi, M.; Kianafraz, S.; Ghaderi, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    The fast ignition approach to ICF consists in first compressing the fuel to high density by a suitable driver and then creating the hot spot required for ignition by means of a second external pulse. If the ignition beam is composed of deuterons, an additional energy is delivered to the target with increased energy gain. Therefore ,in this innovative suggestion ,we consider deuterium  beams for fast ignition in D+3He mixture and solve the dynamical  balance equations under the available  physi...

  18. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  19. Evaluation of the relative effectiveness of LiF-based TL detectors for electron radiotherapy beams over the energy range 6-20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahajowski, D.; Gora, E.; Rozwadowska-Bogusz, B.; Lesiak, J.; Polak, B.; Kabat, D.; Zawadzki, P. [Centre of Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow Branch, Garncarska 11, 31-115 Krakow (Poland); Waligorski, M.P.R. [Centre of Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow Branch, Garncarska 11, 31-115 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: z5waligo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2008-02-15

    We have performed systematic measurements of the efficiency, C{sub E}=/, of MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and LiB (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Mn,Si) thermoluminescence (TL) detectors exposed to electron radiotherapy beams of nominal energy 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV relative to Co-60 or 6 MV photon beams ( is the average TL output of a batch of detectors exposed to a given dose of photon beam radiation or to a beam of electrons of energy E). The TL detectors were sintered pellets of 4.5 mm diameter and ca. 0.8 mm thickness. Detectors were exposed in water to 2 Gy at respective energy-dependent depths d{sub max} applied in clinical dosimetry. The obtained results were re-calculated versus mean electron energy in the beam at depths d{sub max}. We found that, for clinical purposes, both types of TL detectors show no energy dependence: presented as average values over the investigated energy range, for MTS-N detectors =1.07{+-}1.1% and for LiB =1.03{+-}1.7%. Thus, while no correction is required for dose values estimated by LiB TLDs, the under-response of MTS-N detectors exposed to a beam of electrons has to be corrected by about 7%. At mean energy of electrons in therapeutic electron beams below about 5 MeV a decline in the response of both types of TL detectors is observed.

  20. R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

  1. A Correlation Potential Method for Electron Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules over Energy Range 10 ~ 5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng; SUN Jin-Feng; ZHU Zun-Lue; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering on several molecules (NH3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2, O2, and C2H4) over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The difference between the bonded atom and the free one in states is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in a molecule is considered. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV. It is shown that the correlated calculations are much closer to the available experimental data than the uncorrelated ones at lower energies, especially below 500 eV. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  2. Phase-resolved energy spectra of the Crab Pulsar in the range of 50-400 GeV measured with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Jogler, T; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Gimenez, I Puerto; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vankov, H; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Hirotani, K

    2011-01-01

    We use 73 h of stereoscopic data taken with the MAGIC telescopes to investigate the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission of the Crab Pulsar. Our data show a highly significant pulsed signal in the energy range from 50 to 400 GeV, in both the main pulse (P1) and interpulse (P2) phase regions. We provide the widest spectra to date of the VHE components of both peaks, extending down to the energy range of satellite-borne observatories. The improved precision and background rejection of the stereoscopic technique leads to relatively low systematic uncertainties and allows us to cross-check the correctness of each spectral point of the pulsar by comparison with the corresponding (strong and well-known) Crab Nebula flux. The spectra of both P1 and P2 are compatible with power laws of photon indices 4.0\\pm0.8 (P1) and 3.42\\pm0.26 (P2), respectively, and the ratio P1/P2 between the pulses is 0.54\\pm 0.12. The VHE emission can be understood as an additional component produced by inverse Compton scattering of seco...

  3. High accuracy experimental determination of copper and zinc mass attenuation coefficients in the 100 eV to 30 keV photon energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.

  4. Interactions of protons with furan molecules studied by collision-induced emission spectroscopy at the incident energy range of 50-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Pranszke, Boguslaw

    2016-08-01

    Investigations of the ion-molecule reactions provide insight into many fields ranging from the stellar wind interaction with interstellar media, up to medicine and industrial applications. Besides the applications, the understanding of these processes is itself a problem of fundamental importance. Thus, interactions of protons with the gas-phase furan molecules have been investigated for the first time in the energy range of 50-1000 eV exploiting collision-induced emission spectroscopy. Recorded spectra reveal emission of the atomic H β to H θ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and the molecular bands of vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments created in the A2 Δ and B2Σ- electronic states. The measurements of the emission yields of the excited fragments by recording their intensities at different projectile energies have been performed. The highest yields have been observed for production of hydrogen atoms which intensities rapidly decreased with increasing principal quantum number n . From the H ( n = 4-7) intensity ratios depopulation factors of hydrogen excited states have been determined at each impact energy and possible collisional mechanisms leading to enhanced production of the hydrogen atoms have been suggested. We compare and discuss our results with improved data set of proton collisions with tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules, the hydrogenated derivatives of furan.

  5. A novel flat-response x-ray detector in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel flat-response x-ray detector has been developed for the measurement of radiation flux from a hohlraum. In order to obtain a flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, it is found that both the cathode and the filter of the detector can be made of gold. A further improvement on the compound filter can then largely relax the requirement of the calibration x-ray beam. The calibration of the detector, which is carried out on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Institute of High Energy Physics, shows that the detector has a desired flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, with a response flatness smaller than 13%. The detector has been successfully applied in the hohlraum experiment on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The radiation temperatures inferred from the detector agree well with those from the diagnostic instrument Dante installed at the same azimuth angle from the hohlraum axis, demonstrating the feasibility of the detector.

  6. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  7. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  8. High-energy sub-nanosecond optical pulse generation with a semiconductor laser diode for pulsed TOF laser ranging utilizing the single photon detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huikari, Jaakko; Avrutin, Eugene; Ryvkin, Boris; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Bulk and quantum well laser diodes with a large equivalent spot size of d a /Γ a ≈ 3 µm and stripe width/cavity length of 30 µm/3 mm were realized and tested. They achieved a pulse energy and pulse length of the order of ~1 nJ and ~100 ps, respectively, with a peak pulse current of 6-8 A and a current pulse width of 1 ns. The 2D characteristics of the optical output power versus wavelength and time were also analyzed with a monochromator/streak camera set-up. The far-field characteristics were studied with respect to the time-homogeneity and energy distribution. The feasibility of a laser diode with a large equivalent spot size in single photon detection based laser ranging was demonstrated to a non-cooperative target at a distance of a few tens of meters.

  9. Differential cross sections for γγ->panti p in the C.M. energy range from 2.0 to 3.1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exclusive production of proton-antiproton pairs by two photon scattering at c.m. energies between 2.0 GeV and 3.1 GeV has been measured with the TASSO detector at the e+e- storage ring PETRA. The angular distribution is flat within the accepted c.m. angular range vertical strokecosTHETAsup(*)vertical strokeγγ)xB(etasub(c)->panti p)<0.32 keV (95% c.l.) is found. (orig.)

  10. Facilities and techniques for x-ray diagnostic calibration in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a pioneer in the field of x-ray diagnostic calibration for more than 20 years. We have built steady state x-ray sources capable of supplying fluorescent lines of high spectral purity in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range, and these sources have been used in the calibration of x-ray detectors, mirrors, crystals, filters, and film. This paper discusses our calibration philosophy and techniques, and describes some of our x-ray sources. Examples of actual calibration data are presented as well

  11. R-matrix analysis of the 241Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range thermal to 300 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a description of the analysis of the 241Pu neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the multilevel-multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The resonance parameters were obtained in the energy range 0 to 300 eV. The table of the resonance parameters is given with some statistical properties of the parameters. Tabulated and graphical comparison between the experimental data and the calculated cross sections are given. The results are available in ENDF/B-V format and will be proposed for the evaluated data library JEF2 and ENDF/B-VI. 28 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Measurements of the reaction e+e- → μ+μ- at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2--7.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the cross section for the muon-pair-annihilation reaction e+e- → μ+μ-, relative to Bhabha scattering at 40, are reported at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2--7.4 GeV. These measurements provide a fundamental test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for timelike values of the invariant four-momentum transfer q2 as high as 54.8 (GeV/c)2, which in this reaction is carried by the photon propagator. The results are in agreement with predictions of QED

  13. The energy-spectrum of light primaries in the range from 10^{16.6} to 10^{18.2} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Schoo, S; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

    2013-01-01

    Data of the Grande extension of the KASCADE experiment allows us to study extensive air showers induced by primary cosmic rays with energies above 10^{16} eV. The energy of an event is estimated in terms of the number of charged particles (Nch ) and the number of muons (N{\\mu} ) measured at an altitude of 110 m a.s.l. While a combination of the two numbers is used for the energy, the ratio defines the primary mass (group). The spectrum of the combined light and medium mass components, recently measured with KASCADE-Grande, was found to be compatible with both a single power-law and a broken power-law in the energy range between 10^{16.3} and 10^{18} eV. In this contribution we will present the investigation of possible structures in the spectrum of light primaries with increased statistics both from a larger data set including more recent measurements and by using a larger fiducial area than in the previous study. With the better statistical accuracy and with optimized selection criteria for enhancing light p...

  14. Coherent Bremsstrahlung, Coherent Pair Production, Birefringence and Polarimetry in the 20-170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, U; Uggerhøj, Erik; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) and coherent pair production (CPP) based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20-170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed these phenomena as well as their polarization dependence to be evaluated under conditions where single-photon cross-sections could be measured. This proved very important as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active theoretical debate and development. The theoretical approach used in this paper predicts both the cross sections and polarization observables very well for the experimental conditions investigated, indicating that the understanding of CB and CPP is reliable up to energies of 170 GeV. A birefringence effect in CPP was studied and it was demonstrated this enabled new technologies for high energy photon beam optics, such as polarimeters (for both linear and circular polarization) and phase plates. We also present new results regarding the features of coherent high energy photon emis...

  15. Mechanisms of Franck-Condon breakdown over a broad energy range in the valence photoionization of N{sub 2} and CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Dominguez, J.A. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States); Hardy, David; Das, Aloke; Poliakoff, E.D. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Aguilar, Alex [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lucchese, Robert R., E-mail: lucchese@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured the vibrational branching ratios for the photoionization of N{sub 2} and CO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We computed the corresponding branching ratios for the X and B ion states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The logarithmic derivative of the cross section was used in the comparison. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-Franck-Condon effects were seen due to Cooper minima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cooper minima were related to Cohen-Fano interference effects. -- Abstract: The molecular photoionization of N{sub 2} leading to the 3{sigma}{sub g}{sup -1}, 2{sigma}{sub u}{sup -1} ion states and CO leading to the valence isoelectronic 5{sigma}{sup -1}, 4{sigma}{sup -1} ion states has been studied using both theory and experiment. Vibrational branching ratios have been obtained in the 15-200 eV photoelectron energy range. The analysis of the branching ratios for these processes shows a breakdown in the Franck-Condon approximation in the range of energies studied. Some of the deviations at lower energies are well documented as due to shape resonances, and in such cases we found good agreement between the present work and previous experimental and theoretical investigations of these photoionization channels. For both N{sub 2} and CO ionization, we also found that the partial wave cross sections have an interference pattern similar to a Young-type interference, which are related to molecular Cooper minima. Such features were also seen to induce non-Franck-Condon effects in the vibrational branching ratios at higher energies. The comparison of theory and experiment was facilitated by the introduction of an electronic factor (F) that is the logarithmic derivative of the cross section with respect to bond length and which could be directly related to the branching ratios.

  16. Electron-transfer reactions of fast Xe/sup n/+ ions with Xe in the energy range 15 keV to 1.6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-transfer cross sections for the reactions of Xe/sup n/+ (n = 1--4) with Xe atoms have been determined as a function of projectile-ion kinetic energy in the range 15 keV--1.6 MeV. For Xe/sup n/+ (n = 2, 3, 4), cross sections for sequential transfer of two or more electrons in single-ion--atom collisions have been obtained. These cross sections decrease with increasing number of electrons transferred. The observed insensitivity of cross sections to projectile kinetic energy in the range investigated follows the condition that the linear velocity of the ion is less than the orbital velocity of a valence electron in the slow-moving target atom. Attenuation cross sections for reactions of Xe/sup n/+ (n = 2, 3, 4) follow approximately a Z2/sub direct-sum/ charge dependence. A simple classical model based on Coulomb forces yields cross sections with a reasonable fit to the experimental data

  17. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  18. Modelling Bending Wave Transmission across Coupled Plate Systems Comprising Periodic Ribbed Plates in the Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Ranges Using Forms of Statistical Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bending wave transmission across systems of coupled plates which incorporate periodic ribbed plates is considered using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA in the low- and mid-frequency ranges and Advanced SEA (ASEA in the high-frequency range. This paper investigates the crossover from prediction with SEA to ASEA through comparison with Finite Element Methods. Results from L-junctions confirm that this crossover occurs near the frequency band containing the fundamental bending mode of the individual bays on the ribbed plate when ribs are parallel to the junction line. Below this frequency band, SEA models treating each periodic ribbed plate as a single subsystem were shown to be appropriate. Above this frequency band, large reductions occur in the vibration level when propagation takes place across successive bays on ribbed plates when the ribs are parallel to the junction. This is due to spatial filtering; hence it is necessary to use ASEA which can incorporate indirect coupling associated with this transmission mechanism. A system of three coupled plates was also modelled which introduced flanking transmission. The results show that a wide frequency range can be covered by using both SEA and ASEA for systems of coupled plates where some or all of the plates are periodic ribbed plates.

  19. High accuracy measurement of the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction cross-section in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range

    CERN Multimedia

    The analysis of the neutron flux of n_TOF (in EAR1) revealed an anomaly in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range. While the flux extracted on the basis of the $^{6}$Li(n,t)$^{4}$He and $^{10}$B(n,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Li reactions mostly agreed with each other and with the results of FLUKA simulations of the neutron beam, the one based on the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction was found to be systematically lower, independently of the detection system used. A possible explanation is that the $^{235}$U(n,f) crosssection in that energy region, where in principle should be known with an uncertainty of 1%, may be systematically overestimated. Such a finding, which has a negligible influence on thermal reactors, would be important for future fast critical or subcritical reactors. Furthermore, its interest is more general, since the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction is often used at that energy to determine the neutron flux, or as reference in measurements of fission cross section of other actinides. We propose to perform a high-accuracy, high-r...

  20. Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 TeV to 1015 eV observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called “YAC-I” has been successfully carried out in 2009–2010 together with Tibet-III air-shower array. YAC-II has also been operated from 2011. Preliminary results of YAC-I and performance of YAC-II are presented in this paper. The primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from50 TeV to 1015 eV derived from YAC-I data based on QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 are reported. The obtained P+He spectrum is smoothly connected with directobservation data below 100 TeV and also with our previously reported results at higher energies within statistical error s. Based on these results and the sharp kneeof all-particle energy spectrum observed by our experiment, the possible origin of the sharp knee is discussed. See the published papers.

  1. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 1015–1018 eV derived from the Yakutsk array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourov A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A spectrum of cosmic rays within energy range 1015 − 3 × 1017 eV was derived from the data of the small Cherenkov setup, which is a part of the Yakutsk complex EAS array. In this, work a new series of observation is covered. These observations lasted from 2000 till 2010 and resulted in increased number of registered events within interval 1016–1018 eV, which in turn made it possible to reproduce cosmic ray spectrum in this energy domain with better precision. A sign of a thin structure is observed in the shape of the spectrum. It could be related to the escape of heavy nuclei from our Galaxy. Cosmic ray mass composition was obtained for the energy region 1016–1018 eV. A joint analysis of spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays was performed. Obtained results are considered in the context of theoretical computations that were performed with the use of hypothesis of galactic and meta-galactic origin of cosmic rays.

  3. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145 1330 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunathaguru, V.; Umesh, T. K.

    2006-09-01

    A semi-empirical relation which can be used to determine the total attenuation cross sections of samples containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1332 keV has been derived based on the total attenuation cross sections of several sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The cross sections have been measured by performing transmission experiments in a narrow beam good geometry set-up by employing a high-resolution hyperpure germanium detector at seven energies of biological importance such as 145.4 keV, 279.2 keV, 514 keV, 661.6 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173.2 keV and 1332.1 keV. The semi-empirical relation can reproduce the experimental values within 1-2%. The total attenuation cross sections of five elements carbon, aluminium, titanium, copper and zirconium measured in the same experimental set-up at the energies mentioned above have been used in a new matrix method to evaluate the effective atomic numbers and the effective electron densities of samples such as cholesterol, fatty acids, sugars and amino acids containing H, C, N and O atoms from their effective atomic cross sections. The effective atomic cross sections are the total attenuation cross sections divided by the total number of atoms of all types in a particular sample. Further, a quantity called the effective atomic weight was defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a sample to the total number of atoms of all types in it. The variation of the effective atomic number was systematically studied with respect to the effective atomic weight and a new semi-empirical relation for Zeff has been evolved. It is felt that this relation can be very useful to determine the effective atomic number of any sample having H, C, N and O atoms in the energy range 145-1332 keV irrespective of its chemical structure.

  4. A study of proton breakup from exotic nuclei through various reaction mechanisms in 40 A - 80 AMeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the single proton breakup from weakly bound exotic nuclei due to several reaction mechanisms separately and their total and the interference effects, in order to clarify quantitatively which mechanism would dominate the measured observables. We have considered: first, the recoil effect of the core-target Coulomb potential which we distinguish from the direct proton-target Coulomb potential, and secondly the nuclear breakup, which consists of stripping and diffraction. Thus, we have calculated the absolute values of breakup cross sections and parallel momentum distributions (LMD) for 8B and 17F projectiles on a light and a heavy target in a range of intermediate incident energies (40 A-80 A MeV) for each reaction mechanism. Furthermore the interference among the two Coulomb effects and nuclear diffraction has been studied in detail. The calculation of the direct and recoil Coulomb effects separately and of their interference is the new and most relevant aspect of this work. (authors)

  5. Measurement of the total photoabsorption cross section on a proton in the energy range 600-1500 MeV at the GRAAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalini, O. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Bellini, V. [Universita di Catania (Italy); Bocquet, J. P.; Calvat, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3 (France); D' Angelo, A. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Didelez, J.-P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Ghio, F.; Girolami, B. [INFN Sezione di Roma I (Italy); Guidal, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Giusa, A. [Universita di Catania (Italy); Hourany, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Ignatov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kunne, R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Lapik, A. M.; Sandri, P. Levi [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lleres, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3 (France); Moricciani, D. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Mushkarenkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); and others

    2008-01-15

    The total photoabsorption cross section on a free proton was measured at the GRAAL facility in the energy range E{sub {gamma}} = 600-1500 MeV. The large-aperture LAGRAN{gamma}E detector and a liquid hydrogen target were used in the experiment performed with a back-scattered Compton gamma beam. To improve the accuracy, two alternative methods were employed. First, a subtraction method of using empty-target measurements allowed the cross section {sigma}{sub tot} to be evaluated directly because of a low level of the electromagnetic background. Second, an algorithm for evaluating {sigma}{sub tot} on the basis of summing the dominating partial cross sections was developed. Experimental results obtained for {sigma}{sub tot} by the two methods are compared with existing data.

  6. Studies of hot B subdwarfs. Part 2: Energy distributions of three bright sdB/sdOB stars in the 950-5500 angstrom range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemael, F.; Holberg, J. B.; Veilleux, S.; Lamontagne, R.; Fontaine, G.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer observations of the subdwarf B or OB stars HD 205805, UV 1758+36 and Feige 66 are presented. All three objects display the H I Layman series in absorption. These observations are combined with low dispersion IUE spectrophotometry and with Stroemgren photometry to construct virtually complete energy distributions, which extend over the range 950-5500 angstroms. Effective temperatures based on model atmosphere calculations for high gravity, hydrogen rich stars are determined. Our analyses yield T Sub e 28,200 + or - 1300 K for HD 205805, T sub e 31, 800 + or - 1100 K for UV 1758+36, and T sub e 35,700 + or - 1500 K for Feige 66. The importance of far ultraviolet observations below L sub alpha in reducing the uncertainties associated with the interstellar extinction and the degradation of the IUE sensitivity is emphasized.

  7. Measurements of the reaction e+e- → γγ at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2--7.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the cross section for the pair-annihilation reaction e+e- → γγ at angles close to 90degree, relative to Bhabha scattering at 4degree, are reported at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2--7.4 GeV. These measurements provide a fundamental test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for spacelike values of the invariant four-momentum transfer q2 as high at -40 (GeV/c)2, which in this reaction is carried by the lepton propagator. A principal feature of the detection apparatus is the use of large NaI(Tl) total-absorption spectrometers. The results are in agreement with the predictions of QED

  8. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in {approximately} 10 GeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p{sup 2})/{sigma}{sub tot}, which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p{sup 2} d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{Omega} = C exp ({minus}Bp{sup 2}), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section {rho} = f/{sigma}{sub tot} is also described by exponential A{sub 0} exp ({minus}A{sub 1p}{sup 2}), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies {ge} 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and {ge} 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei.

  9. Fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran molecules by H(+), C(+), and O(+) collisions at the incident energy range of 25-1000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J; Pranszke, Bogusław

    2015-01-29

    We have studied fragmentation processes of the gas-phase tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules in collisions with the H(+), C(+), and O(+) cations. The collision energies have been varied between 25 and 1000 eV and thus covered a velocity range from 10 to 440 km/s. The following excited neutral fragments of THF have been observed: the atomic hydrogen H(n), n = 4-9, carbon atoms in the 2p3s (1)P1, 2p4p (1)D2, and 2p4p (3)P states and vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments in the A(2)Δ and B(2)Σ(-) states. Fragmentation yields of these excited fragments have been measured as functions of the projectile energy (velocity). Our results show that the fragmentation mechanism depends on the projectile cations and is dominated by electron transfer from tetrahydrofuran molecules to cations. It has been additionally hypothesized that in the C(+)+THF collisions a [C-C4H8O](+) complex is formed prior to dissociation. The possible reaction channels involved in fragmentation of THF under the H(+), C(+), and O(+) cations impact are also discussed. PMID:25565161

  10. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L.

    2006-10-01

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si (Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3keV (˜50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  11. Energy ranges and pitch angles of outer radiation belt electrons depleted by an intense dayside hydrogen band EMIC wave event on February 23, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Posch, J. L.; Huang, C. L.; Kanekal, S. G.; Fok, M. C. H.; Rodger, C. J.; Smith, C. W.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Although most studies of the effect of EMIC waves on relativistic electrons have focused on wave events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of an intense, long-duration hydrogen band EMIC wave event on February 23, 2014 that was stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise and subsequent sharp increases in solar wind pressure. Large-amplitude linearly polarized hydrogen band EMIC waves (up to 25 nT p-p) that included triggered emissions appeared for over 4 hours at both Van Allen Probes while these spacecraft were outside the plasmapause, in a region with densities ~5-20 cm-3, as they passed near apogee from late morning through local noon. Observations of radiation belt electrons by the REPT and MagEIS instruments on these spacecraft showed that these waves caused significant depletions of more field-aligned electrons at ultrarelativistic energies from 5.2 MeV down to ~2 MeV, and some depletions at energies down to below 1 MeV as well.

  12. Inelastic processes in Na$^{+}-$Ne, Ar and Ne$^{+},$ Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions in energy range $0.5-14$ keV

    CERN Document Server

    Lomsadze, R A; Kezerashvili, R Ya

    2015-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization and excitation in Na$% ^{+}-$Ne and Na$^{+}-$Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range $% 0.5-10$ keV using a refined version of a capacitor method, and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental set-up. Ionization cross sections for Ne$^{+}-$Na and Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions are measured at the energies of $2-14$ keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na$^{+}-$Ne and Ne$^{+}-$Na collisi...

  13. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  14. Accurate Prediction of Essential Fundamental Properties for Semiconductors Used in Solar-Energy Conversion Devices from Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2016-01-05

    An essential issue in developing new semiconductors for photovoltaics devices is to design materials with appropriate fundamental parameters related to the light absorption, photogenerated exciton dissociation and charge carrier diffusion. These phenomena are governed by intrinsic properties of the semiconductor like the bandgap, the dielectric constant, the charge carrier effective masses, and the exciton binding energy. We present here the results of a systematic theoretical study on the fundamental properties of a series of selected semiconductors widely used in inorganic photovoltaic and dye-sensitized solar cells such as Si, Ge, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, and GaAs. These intrinsic properties were computed in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) along with the standard PBE and the range-separated hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation functionals. Our calculations clearly show that the computed values using HSE06 reproduce with high accuracy the experimental data. The evaluation and accurate prediction of these key properties using HSE06 open nice perspectives for in silico design of new suitable candidate materials for solar energy conversion applications.

  15. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the "gateway states" for molecules with this orientation. PMID:26395707

  16. Towards the study of 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis energy range in LUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Izabela

    2016-04-01

    The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis began a few minutes after the Big Bang, when the Universe was sufficiently cold to allow deuterium nuclei to survive photo-disintegration. The total amount of deuterium produced in the Universe during the first minutes depends on the cosmological parameters (like the energy density in baryons, Ω bh 2, and the effective neutrino number, Neff ) and on the nuclear cross sections of the relevant reactions. The main source of uncertainty in the deuterium estimation comes from the 2H(p, γ)3He cross section. Measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies obtained by the Planck satellite are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the minimal ΛCDM cosmological model, significantly reducing the uncertainty on its parameters. The Planck data allows to indirectly deduce with very high precision the abundances of primodial nuclides, such as the primodial deuterium fraction 2H/H = (2.65 ± 0.07) .10-5 (68% C.L.). The astrophysical observations in damped Lyman-a systems at high redshifts provide a second high accuracy measurement of the primodial abundance of deuterium 2H/H = (2.53 ± 0.04) · 10-5 (68% C.L.). The present experimental status on the astrophysical S-factor of the 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the BBN energy range, gives a systematic uncertainties of 9%. Also the difference between ab-initio calculations and experimental values of S12 is at the level of 10%. In order to clarify the actual scenario, a measurement of 2H(p, γ)3He cross section with a precision of a few percent in the 70-400 keV energy range is planned at LUNA in 2016. A feasibility test of the measurement has been performed in October 2014, giving the preliminary results on the cross section. The experimental setup for the test and final measurement campaign will be presented.

  17. Experimental determination of sensitivity of DN-A-1 dosimeter and 6LiJ(Eu) scintillation detector in sphere polyethylene moderators in the 30 keV neutron energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DH-A-1 dosimeter and 6LiJ(Eu) detector, located in the center of polyethylene spheres with various diameters, were calibrated by means of neutrons with the energy of about 30 keV. The data on the detectors responses enable one to determine the shape of responses as a function of neutron energy more definitely at the energy range from some keV to some tens of keV. For DN-A-1 dosimeter response at neutrons and at neutrons in the energy range of about 30 keV the agreement is better than the uncertainties of measurements (about 20%)

  18. Full Monte Carlo and measurement-based overall performance assessment of improved clinical implementation of eMC algorithm with emphasis on lower energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Jarkko; Kapanen, Mika; Hyödynmaa, Simo

    2016-06-01

    New version 13.6.23 of the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm in Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system has a model for 4MeV electron beam and some general improvements for dose calculation. This study provides the first overall accuracy assessment of this algorithm against full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for electron beams from 4MeV to 16MeV with most emphasis on the lower energy range. Beams in a homogeneous water phantom and clinical treatment plans were investigated including measurements in the water phantom. Two different material sets were used with full MC: (1) the one applied in the eMC algorithm and (2) the one included in the Eclipse™ for other algorithms. The results of clinical treatment plans were also compared to those of the older eMC version 11.0.31. In the water phantom the dose differences against the full MC were mostly less than 3% with distance-to-agreement (DTA) values within 2mm. Larger discrepancies were obtained in build-up regions, at depths near the maximum electron ranges and with small apertures. For the clinical treatment plans the overall dose differences were mostly within 3% or 2mm with the first material set. Larger differences were observed for a large 4MeV beam entering curved patient surface with extended SSD and also in regions of large dose gradients. Still the DTA values were within 3mm. The discrepancies between the eMC and the full MC were generally larger for the second material set. The version 11.0.31 performed always inferiorly, when compared to the 13.6.23. PMID:27189311

  19. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price. PMID:22425189

  20. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  1. Measurement of the cross-section of the process e+e- → π+π- at the CMD-2 detector in the 370-520 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections of the process e+e- → π+π- have been measured in the c.m. energy range 370-520 MeV. The systematic error of measurements is 0.7%. The electromagnetic radius of pion is calculated in the vector dominant model by means of all CMD-2 detector data about pion form factor. The cross section of muon production is measured in the energy range of this experiment

  2. Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; 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Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; 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McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; 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Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron (${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ or $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 nb$^{-1}$, were collected at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order ($v_2$) and third-order ($v_3$) anisotropy harmonics of ${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ and $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$ particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb event...

  3. Developing a Compton Polarimeter to Measure Polarization of Hard X-Rays in the 50-300 keV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Legere, J S; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead, to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern fo...

  4. Proposed experiments to detect keV range sterile neutrinos using energy-momentum reconstruction of beta decay or K-capture events

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos in the keV mass range may constitute the galactic dark matter. Various proposed direct detection and laboratory searches are reviewed. The most promising method in the near future is complete energy-momentum reconstruction of individual beta-decay or K-capture events, using atoms suspended in a magneto-optical trap. A survey of suitable isotopes is presented, together with the measurement precision required in a typical experimental configuration. It is concluded that among the most promising are the K-capture isotopes 131Cs, which requires measurement of an X-ray and several Auger electrons in addition to the atomic recoil, and 7Be which has only a single decay product but needs development work to achieve a trapped source. A number of background effects are discussed. It is concluded that sterile neutrinos with masses down to the 5-10 keV region would be detectable, together with relative couplings down to the level 10-10-10-11 in a 1-2 year running time.

  5. Differential cross section measurement of the elastic neutron-deuteron-scattering in the energy range 2.5-30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential cross-section of the elastic D(n, n)D scattering has been measured in the energy range 2.5-30 MeV. A pulsed 'white' neutron beam from deuterons (Esub(d) approx. equal to 48 MeV) on natural uranium was collimated by bulk metal shielding in a approx. equal to 60 m long vacuum tube in the THETAsub(LAB) = O0-direction. The collimated neutrons were scattered from a partially and a totally deuterated scintillator. The mixed scatterer of hydrogen, deuterium and carbon provided the absolute calibration of the (n, d)-cross-section by the well-known (n, p)-cross-section. The scattered neutrons were detected by two detectors at 14 laboratory angles. Five parameters for each event were measured in coincidence, so that background reduction could be done. Additional contributions from multiple-scattering were determined by Monte-Carlo calculations. Twenty angular distributions were obtained with uncertainties between 2 and 6%. Some significant deviations from older measurements and from exact 3-body-calculations were found. Much importance was attached to the determination of the properties of the neutron-detectors, especially of the so-called 'black-detector'. (orig.)

  6. Prompt emission from GRB 150915A in the GeV energy range detected at ground by the New-Tupi detector

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Nepomuceno, A A; Kopenkin, V; Sinzi, T

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014, a new detector (New-Tupi) consisting of four plastic scintillators ($150 \\times 75 \\times 5 cm^3$) placed in pairs and located in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has been used for the search of transient solar events and photomuons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). On September 15, 2015, at 21:18:24 UT, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) triggered and located GRB 150915A (trigger 655721). The GRB light curve shows a weak complex structure of long duration $T_{90}=164.7 \\pm 49.7 $ sec, and a fluence in the 15-150 keV band of $8.0 \\pm 1.8 \\times 10^{-7}erg/cm^2$. GRB 150915A was fortuitously located in the field of view of the New-Tupi detector, and a search for prompt emission in the GeV energy range is presented here. The analysis was made using the "scaler" or "single-particle" technique. The New-Tupi detector registered a muon excess peak of 6.1s duration with a signal significance $6.9\\sigma$, the signal was within the T90 duration of the Swift BAT GRB, with an estimated fluence $4.8 \\times 10^...

  7. The dynamic range of LZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in multi-tonne time-projection chambers, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined to accommodate the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines

  8. Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon interaction: Studies of some biological molecules in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic......, linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA, eff) and Z(PI, eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy...

  9. Back to the range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    It is now over 100 years since the ''discovery'' of the livestock-supporting properties of the vegetation on what had been considered worthless, unclaimed land. And the 1.2 billion acres of range in the United States--more than half of the country's land mass--is currently being discovered all over again--this time to be a major, underutilized resource in the struggle to erase the world's food deficits and, at the same time, conserve energy and other resources. Agronomists and range scientists are developing energy data which suggest that, if consumer habits and tastes and the habits and practices to which the industry is geared are adaptable, beef can continue to provide the major portion of U.S. protein needs without draining grain supplies from the hungry abroad. The key to their strategy is obtaining greater productivity from the range. This generally appears to offer the advantage of reducing man-made energy inputs per pound of beef sharply below those required by the alternative: grain feeding. The strategy may entail changes, however, in the whole beef system--from the preferred slaughter size of an animal to the preferred marbling pattern in a roast. Such changes may be dictated by costs.

  10. Neutron Total Cross Sections of 235U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average 235U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV

  11. NEUTRON TOTAL CROSS SECTIONS OF 235U FROM TRANSMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN THE ENERGY RANGE 2 keV to 300 keV AND STATISTICAL MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.

    2000-05-22

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample. The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al. in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and {alpha} data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  12. Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    2000-05-01

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  13. Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy. PMID:22856055

  14. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  15. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles and Square Speed of Sound Parameter in p-p or p-p-bar Collisions over an Energy Range from 0.053 to 7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton (p-p) or proton-antiproton (p-p-bar collisions over an energy range from 0.053 to 7 TeV are studied by using the four-component Landau hydrodynamic model. The results calculated by the model are in agreement with the experimental data of the UA5, PHOBOS, UA1, P238, CDF, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations which present orderly from low to high energies. According to the distribution widths of different components, the values and some features of square speed of sound parameter cs2 for “participant” and “spectator” quark components are obtained. It is shown that the speed of sound for “participant” quark components agrees approximately with that for “spectator” quark components in the error ranges. The present work is useful for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions in the related energy range

  16. Determination of the cross section for inelastic interaction of pions and nucleons with iron nuclei in the energy range 0. 5--5. 0 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, V.V.; Garyaka, A.P.; Gevorkyan, S.R.; Kazaryan, S.S.; Karagezyan, G.V.; Keropyan, M.I.; Mamidzhanyan, E.A.; Martirosov, R.M.; Oganesyan, A.G.; Ter-Antonyan, S.V.

    1984-10-01

    Direct measurements of the cross sections for inelastic interaction of pions, protons, and neutrons with iron nuclei have been made in the energy interval 0.5--5.0 TeV. The dependence of sigma/sup in/ on energy is obtained. The results are compared with data obtained in accelerators and also with the conclusions of the multiple scattering theory.

  17. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of helium and lithium isotopes at energy range up to 160 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton elastic scattering data on 4,6,8He and 6,7,9,11Li nuclei at energies below 160 MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential (OP) is taken microscopically, with few and limited fitting parameters, using the single folding model for the real part and high-energy approximation (HEA) for the imaginary one. Clear dependencies of the volume integrals on energy and rms (root-mean-square) radii are obtained from the results. The calculated differential and the reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In general, this OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have a systematic behavior with incident energy and matter radii, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with stable and exotic light nuclei at energies up to 160 MeV/nucleon. (authors)

  18. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of helium and lithium isotopes at energy range up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag M. Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The proton elastic scattering data on 4,6,8 He and 6,7,9,11Li nuclei at energies below 160 MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential (OP is taken microscopically, with few and limited fitting parameters, using the single folding model for the real part and high-energy approximation (HEA for the imaginary one. Clear dependencies of the volume integrals on energy and rms radii are obtained from the results. The calculated differential and the reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In general, this OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have a systematic behavior with incident energy and matter radii, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with stable and exotic light nuclei at energies up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

  19. Energy dependence of incomplete fusion processes in the 16O+181Ta system: Measurement and analysis of forward-recoil-range distributions at Elab≤7 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the energy dependence of incomplete fusion processes, the recoil range distributions for the reactions 181Ta(16O,xn), 181Ta(16O,pxn), 181Ta(16O,αn), 181Ta(16O,α2n), 181Ta(16O,α3n), and 181Ta(16O,2α3n) have been measured at ≅81-, 90-, and 96 MeV beam energies. The disentanglement of the complete and incomplete fusion processes have been done in terms of full and partial linear momentum transfer from the projectile to the target nucleus. The measurements have been done using recoil catcher technique. The experimentally measured forward recoil range distributions have been interpreted in terms of breakup fusion model. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that incomplete fusion processes have significant contribution at energies as low as ≅5 MeV/nucleon and their contribution is found to increase with energy.

  20. Measurement of the total spectrum of electrons and positrons in the energy range of 300–1500 GeV in the PAMELA experiment with the aid of a sampling calorimeter and a neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on the use of a sampling calorimeter was developed for measuring the total energy spectrum of electrons and positrons from high-energy cosmic rays in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. This made it possible to extend the range of energies accessible to measurements by the magnetic system of the PAMELA spectrometer. Themethod involves a procedure for selecting electrons on the basis of features of a secondary-particle shower in the calorimeter. The results obtained by measuring the total spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range of 300–1500 GeV by the method in question are presented on the basis of data accumulated over a period spanning 2006 and 2013

  1. VUV photophysics and dissociative photoionization of pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole in the 7-18 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwell, Martin [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS-UMR 7583, Universite Paris 7 and 12, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France)], E-mail: schwell@lisa.univ-paris12.fr; Jochims, Hans-Werner; Baumgaertel, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Freien Universitaet Berlin, Takustr. 3, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Leach, Sydney [Laboratoire d' Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique (LERMA), CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules-Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)], E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr

    2008-11-03

    Photoionization mass spectrometry is used to study ionization processes and fragmentation pathways of four prebiotic species, pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole, in the 7-18 eV photon energy region, with synchrotron radiation as excitation source. These molecules are possible precursors of the nucleic acid bases that occur in DNA and RNA. Ionization energies and ion appearance energies are reported. They are compared with electron impact and other studies and are discussed in terms of the electronic and nuclear structures of these species and their cations. The ion appearance energies, in conjunction with thermochemical data, were used to propose dissociative photoionization pathways, principally involving loss of HCN molecules in each of the four species. Astrophysical implications of the results concern the prospects for observation and survival of these molecules in the interstellar medium, in comets and in meteorites. Suggestions are made concerning suitable sites for radioastronomical searches for these purines and pyrimidines.

  2. X-ray Performance Evaluation of the Dexela CMOS APS X-ray Detector Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation in the Mammographic Energy Range

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, A. C.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Rigon, L.; Tromba, G.; Dreossi, D.; Sodini, N.; Liaparinos, P. F.; Naday, S.; Gunn, S.; McArthur, A.; Speller, R.D.; Olivo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Digital detectors based on complementary metaloxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work is focused on the X-ray performance evaluation of a novel CMOS APS detector in low energy medical imaging applications using monochromatic synchrotron radiation (i.e., 17–35 keV), which also allows studying how the performance varies with energy. The CMOS sensor was coupled to a Thallium-activated structured ces...

  3. Optical observation of energy loss distribution and practical range of positrons from a 18F water solution in a water-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy loss distribution of β+ particles is closely related to their maximum penetration depth distribution and annihilation point distribution. The latter is of practical importance for positron emission tomography. Experimental data related to the energy loss distribution are important for comprehensive validation of physics and simulation models of β+ interactions. In this paper the authors present a new experimental approach that allows them to visually observe the β+ energy loss distribution of a solution of nuclear medicine radioisotopes in a plastic scintillator using an optical camera. The authors also report a set of the first experimental results. A water solution of 18F was localized in a small hole in a plastic scintillator (BC430). Optical imaging of the scintillator yielded visual images of the energy loss distribution with a submillimeter resolution. The radial dependence in the energy distribution was quantitatively measured by analysis of the images, and exponential fitting parameters were obtained. The authors observed that the results of Monte Carlo simulation with EGS5 (version 1.0.2) and GEANT4 (version 4.9.01.p01) were consistent with those obtained experimentally. The results of the Monte Carlo simulation indicated that for a linear scale, the energy loss distribution in the scintillator was approximately the same as that in water, and the relative shape of the energy loss distribution was close to those of the maximum penetration depth distribution and annihilation point distribution. This paper also presents discussions about the further possibilities of this optical imaging approach. Thus, optical observation of the β+ energy loss distribution in a scintillator is a promising technique for visual and quantitative experimental studies of β+ emission from a solution of radioisotopes that are used in nuclear medicine.

  4. 7Be (n ,α )4He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M.; Musumarra, A.; Cosentino, L.; Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Mengoni, A.; Dressler, R.; Schumann, D.; Käppeler, F.; Colonna, N.; Finocchiaro, P.; Ayranov, M.; Damone, L.; Kivel, N.; Aberle, O.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barros, S.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cristallo, S.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lerendegui, J.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Pappalardo, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Piscopo, M.; Plompen, A.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vollaire, J.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The energy-dependent cross section of the 7Be (n ,α )4He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of 7Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure 7Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si -7Be -Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  5. Gamma ray production cross sections in proton induced reactions on natural Mg, Si and Fe targets over the proton energy range 30 up to 66 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia-Chérif, W; Kiener, J; Tatischeff, V; Lawrie, E; Lawrie, J J; Belhout, A; Benhabiles, H; Bucher, T D; Chafa, A; Damache, S; Debabi, M; Deloncle, I; Easton, J L; Hamadache, C; Hammache, F; Jones, P; Kheswa, B V; Khumalo, N; Lamula, T; Majola, S T H; Negi, D; Ndayishimye, J; Noncolela, S P; Moussa, D; Nchodu, R; Papka, P; de Sereville, N; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Shirinda, O; Wiedeking, M; Wyngaardt, S

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray excitation functions have been measured for 30, 42, 54 and 66 MeV proton beams accelerated onto C + O (Mylar), Mg, Si, and Fe targets of astrophysical interest at the separate-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS in Somerset West (Cape Town, South Africa). A large solid angle, high energy resolution detection system of the Eurogam type was used to record Gamma-ray energy spectra. Derived preliminary results of Gamma-ray line production cross sections for the Mg, Si and Fe target nuclei are reported and discussed. The current cross section data for known, intense Gamma-ray lines from these nuclei consistently extend to higher proton energies previous experimental data measured up to Ep ~ 25 MeV at the Orsay and Washington tandem accelerators. Data for new Gamma-ray lines observed for the first time in this work are also reported.

  6. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, without second quantization: The Lamb shift and long-range Casimir-Polder van der Waals forces near boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a previously formulated theory of quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, we give a general method for computing the Lamb shift and related Casimir-Polder energies for a quantum system in the vicinity of perfectly conducting boundaries. Our results are exact and easily extendable to a full covariant relativistic form. As a particular example we apply the method to an atom near an infinite conducting plane, and we recover the standard QED results (which are known only in the dipole approximation) in a simple and straightforward manner. This is accomplished in the context of the new theory which is not second quantized and contains no vacuum fluctuations. (author)

  7. Energy transfers and spectral eddy viscosity in large-eddy simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence: Comparison of dynamic Smagorinsky and multiscale models over a range of discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.J.R.; Wells, G.N.; Wray, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Energy transfers within large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) grids are studied. The spectral eddy viscosity for conventional dynamic Smagorinsky and variational multiscale LES methods are compared with DNS results. Both models underestimate the DNS results for a very coa

  8. Production of plutonium tracers in Np-237 nuclear reactions with He-3-ions in the energy range from 26 to 60 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, J; Dendooven, P; Gromova, EA; Jakovlev, VA; Trzaska, WH

    1998-01-01

    Cross-sections for the reaction Np-237 + He-3 --> Pu-236,Pu-237,Pu-238 at He-3 bombarding energies from 26 to 60 MeV were measured. Thick-target yields, based on the measured and previously known cross-sections were constructed. The results are discussed and compared with Ether reactions leading to

  9. Proposed changes to generating capacity 1980-1989 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1980 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The changes in generating capacity projected for 1980 to 1989 are summarized. Tabulated data provide summaries to the information on projected generating unit construction, retirements, and changes, in several different categories and groupings. The new generating units to be completed by the end of 1989 total 699, representing 259,490 megawatts. This total includes 10 wind power and one fuel cell installations totaling 48.5 MW to be completed by the end of 1989. There are 321 units totaling 13,222 MW to be retired. There are capacity changes due to upratings and deratings. Summary data are presented for: total requirement for electric energy generation for 1985; hydroelectric energy production for 1985; nuclear energy production for 1985; geothermal and other energy production for 1985; approximate non-fossil generation for 1985; range of fossil energy requirements for 1985; actual fossil energy sources 1974 to 1979; estimated range of fossil fuel requirements for 1985; coal capacity available in 1985; and computation of fuel use in 1985. Power plant capacity factors are presented. Extensive data on proposed generating capacity changes by individual units in the 9 Regional Electric Reliability Councils are presented.

  10. Lunar Laser Ranging Science

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J G; Turyshev, S G; Ratcliff, J T; Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides science results: gravitational physics and ephemeris information from the orbit, lunar science from rotation and solid-body tides, and Earth science. Sensitive tests of gravitational physics include the Equivalence Principle, limits on the time variation of the gravitational constant G, and geodetic precession. The equivalence principle test is used for an accurate determination of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter \\beta. Lunar ephemerides are a product of the LLR analysis used by current and future spacecraft missions. The analysis is sensitive to astronomical parameters such as orbit, masses and obliquity. The dissipation-caused semimajor axis rate is 37.9 mm/yr and the associated acceleration in orbital longitude is -25.7 ''/cent^2, dominated by tides on Earth with a 1% lunar contribution. Lunar rotational variation has sensitivity to interior structure, physical properties, and energy dissipation. The second-degree lunar Love numbers are de...

  11. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  12. The Dynamic Range of LZ

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in such a detector, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined by the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines. S2 signals induced by alpha particles from radon decay will saturate one or more channels of the top PMT array but techniques are being dev...

  13. Excitation function of 59 Co (n, 2n) 58 Co process in the energy range 13.9-14.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to measure the neutron cross sections for the 59 Co (n, 2n) 58 Co reaction around the 14 MeV energy region. Neutron activation cross section for almost all the nuclei, mostly in the medium energy region e.g., 7 to 20 MeV are reported in literature. Neutron cross section data around 14 MeV is of immense importance for the design of D + T fusion reactors. The accuracy of the cross section data at this energy region is a requirement for correct prediction of reactor parameters e.g., tritium breeding, nuclear heating, induced activity, etc. In order to perform the experiment, the Co-sample sandwiched in Ni foils was irradiated employing the J-25 Neutron Generator at the AERE, Savar, Dhaka. After irradiation, the counting was done by the activation technique using a high resolution Hp Ge gamma ray spectrometer. The gamma ray spectra was analyzed in a Canberra series-40 Multi-channel Analyzer. Calculations for cross sections were done at four different energies e.g., 13.870 MeV, 14.09 MeV, 14.483 MeV and 14.656 MeV. It was observed that the cross section data of the present work agrees well with JENDL-2 and other theoretical data. However, the ENDF/B-Vχ data is higher than the present values by about 11.60 to 14.27%. 1 fig., 17 refs., 2 tables (author)

  14. Description of the scaled moments for the nondiffractive pp and pp- interactions in the cms energy range 10-900 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose a multiplicity distribution obtained by means of a geometrical model in the impact parameter representation. A remarkably good agreement is obtained between the model and experiments in respect of the second, third, fourth and fifth scaled moments at cms energies between 10-900 GeV for the full phase space. The authors predict the multiplicity distribution for √ = 1.8 TeV. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  15. Effective atomic number and electron density of amino acids within the energy range of 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2016-08-01

    Photon attenuation coefficient calculation methods have been widely used to accurately study the properties of amino acids such as n-acetyl-L-tryptophan, n-acetyl-L-tyrosine, D-tryptophan, n-acetyl-L-glutamic acid, D-phenylalanine, and D-threonine. In this study, mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these amino acids for 0.122-, 0.356-, 0.511-, 0.662-, 0.884-, 1.170, 1.275-, 1.330-MeV photons are determined using the radio-nuclides Co57, Ba133, Cs137, Na22, Mn54, and Co60. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The calculated attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine total atomic cross sections (σt), molar extinction coefficients (ε), electronic cross sections (σe), effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on the XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in a good agreement (error<5%). The variations of μm, σt, ε, σe, Zeff, and Neff with energy are shown graphically. The values of μm, σt, ε, σe are higher at lower energies, and they decrease sharply as energy increases; by contrast, Zeff and Neff were found to be almost constant.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of X-ray spectrum with human tissue, in the energies range of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper is an approach to an increasingly complete knowledge about the nature of the processes that occur during a simple examination of radiological diagnosis; know as X-rays are produced and how they will put their energy into the tissue of patients when they are subjected to an examination of radiological diagnosis. First, using the MCNP code an X-rays tube was simulated, where electrons are emitted from a filament (cathode) which travel a certain distance with a certain kinetic energy and then be stopped suddenly in the tungsten target. The X-rays emitted as a result of this interaction, are previously filtered through the inherent filter of Pyrex glass and then by a thin aluminum foil before quantification as an X-rays spectrum. 6 spectra (for 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 KeV) were obtained. Second, using the Penelope code was simulated the interaction of the X-rays spectrum, obtained in the first part with human tissue, putting as simile of human tissue water phantoms of different thicknesses. As final result: dose of energy deposited (in 2 and 3-dimensional) and reflected, absorbed and transmitted photons spectra. (Author)

  17. Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Antier, S; Ferrando, P

    2015-01-01

    X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the ...

  18. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Shivalinge [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Krishnaveni, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Gowda, Ramakrishna [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)]. E-mail: ramakrishnagowda@yahoo.com

    2005-10-15

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  19. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  20. Calculations of photo-induced X-ray production cross-sections in the energy range 1-150 keV and average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd and Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Madeira, T. I.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we calculate the K-, L- and M-shells X-ray production, and X-ray fluorescence cross-sections after photo-induced ionization, for Zn, Cd, and Hg, and for incident photon energy range from 1 to 150 keV. For this purpose, the corresponding average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd, and Hg as well as the photoionization cross-sections were calculated using the Dirac-Fock method. Subshell fluorescence, intrashell and intershell yields are obtained consistently from radiative and radiationless transitions calculated in the exact same method. A comprehensive account of the relations between the X-ray production, X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and the photoionization cross-sections and these yields is presented. Comparisons are made with results from other authors. The obtained values for the photoionization cross-sections are in good agreement with the widely used data of Scofield in the studied energy range. However our results for the X-ray fluorescence cross sections seem to favor some data relatively to others. The energy dependence of the average fluorescence yields is discussed, in particular, the reliability of extrapolated data for lighter elements from measurements and calculations in heavier elements above the inner shell absorption edges is questioned. Tabulated data on photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections are presented for the incident photon energy range 1-150 keV in steps of 1 keV.

  1. Energy dependence and systematics of level-density parameters in nuclei of mass number in the range of A = 20–60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Existing direct and indirect experimental data on level densities in excited nuclei of mass and charge number in the ranges of A = 20–60 and Z = 11–27, respectively, were compiled and analyzed. Contradictions between values extracted from the results of measurements performed by different methods were revealed. Consistent input data were selected, and a systematics of level-density parameters was created on this basis within the generalized model of superfluid nuclei. The effect of the first discrete vibrational levels on extracted parameters was studied.

  2. Comment on "Communication: Simple and accurate uniform electron gas correlation energy for the full range of densities" [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Karasiev, Valentin V

    2016-01-01

    A simple expression for the uniform electron gas (UEG) correlation energy, recently presented in Ref. [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)], deviates from the reference quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) data at large r_s. We propose to define one of the parameters from a requirement to match the large-rs QMC data. Functional with the new parameter provides much better agreement with the QMC data at large r_s without deterioration of the functional quality at small and intermediate r_s.

  3. Energy Dependence of Directed Flow over a Wide Range of Pseudorapidity in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-07-01

    We report on measurements of directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at energies of sNN=19.6, 62.4, 130 and 200 GeV as measured by the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These results are particularly valuable because of the extensive, continuous pseudorapidity coverage of the PHOBOS detector. There is no significant indication of structure near midrapidity and the data surprisingly exhibit extended longitudinal scaling similar to that seen for elliptic flow and charged particle pseudorapidity density.

  4. Cross-section measurements for (n, 2n) reactions on stannum isotopes in the neutron energy range of 13.5 to 14.6 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Zhong-Sheng; YAN Dong; MA Jun; DU Xiao-Fang; GUAN Qiu-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sections for (n, 2n) reactions have been measured on stannum isotopes at the neutron energies of 13.5 to 14.6 MeV using the activation technique. Data are reported for the following reactions:112Sn(n, 2n)111Sn, 118Sn(n, 2n)117Sn and 124Sn(n, 2n)123mSn. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb(n, 2n)92mNb or 27Al(n, α)24Na. The results of present work were compared with data published previously.

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233U and 243Am in the energy range 0.5 Mev En 20 MeV @ n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, F; Milazzo, P M; Calviani, M; Colonna, N; Mastinu, P; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Álvarez, H; Álvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapiço, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; González-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mengoni, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vazl, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides have been recently measured at the neutron time of flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the frame of a research project involving isotopes relevant for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technologies. Fission fragments are detected by a gas counter with good discrimination between nuclear fission products and background events. Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 233U and 243Am were determined relative to 235U. The present paper reports the results obtained at neutron energies between 0.5 and 20 MeV.

  6. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Bhutadia, Harshad [Government Engineering College, Patan 384265, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad JH-826004 (India); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  7. A quantized frequency reference in the short-ranged gravity potential and its application for dark matter and dark energy searches

    CERN Document Server

    Jenke, T; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Schmidt, U; Saul, H; Abele, H

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for the observation of the Higgs spin-0-boson as a manifestation of a scalar field provides the missing corner stone for the standard model of particles (SM). However, the SM fails to explain the non-visible but gravitationally active part of the universe. Its nature is unknown but the confirmation of a scalar Higgs is giving a boost to scalar-field-theories. So far gravity experiments and observations performed at different distances find no deviation from Newton's gravity law. Therefore dark energy must possess a screening mechanism which suppresses the scalar-mediated fifth force. Our line of attack is a novel gravity experiment with neutrons based on a quantum interference technique. The spectroscopic measurement of quantum states on resonances with an external coupling makes this a powerful search for dark matter and dark energy contributions in the universe. Quantum states in the gravity potential are intimately related to other scalar field or spin-0-bosons if they exist. If the reason is ...

  8. Measurement of backscattered x-ray spectra at the water surface in the energy range 60 kV to 120 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kiyoshi; Koyama, Masaki

    2002-04-01

    Backscattered x-ray spectra at the water surface have been measured by using a small silicon diode detector. The measurements have been made at tube voltages 60 kV to 120 kV (HVL 2.4-6.1 mm Al) and field sizes 5 x 5 cm2 to 30 x 30 cm2. The measured spectra are corrected for detector distortion and for the angular dependence of detector efficiency. The obtained backscattered spectrum has a lower mean energy and a narrower shape than the primary spectrum. The ratio of the mean energy of the backscattered spectrum to that of the primary spectrum is between 0.83 and 0.94. The ratio of the spectrum width at 10% of the continuous spectrum maximum is between 0.65 and 0.78. The change of spectral shape due to the field size is slight. In the high-voltage spectra, the peak due to the Compton scattering of tungsten Kalpha x-rays is observed. The backscatter factors (BSFs) calculated from the obtained spectra show a satisfactory agreement with other studies. The difference between the BSF defined as the ratio of air kerma and the BSF defined as the ratio of water kerma is also calculated; the maximum difference is 0.43%. The empirical equation showing the relation between the two BSFs is presented. PMID:11996064

  9. Study of the Dynamics in a Linac Booster for Proton Therapy in the 30-62 MeV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Vittorio G; De Martinis, Carlo; Giove, Dario; Lanzone, S; Masullo, Maria R; Mauri, Marco; Rainò, Antonio; Variale, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Recent results in accelerator physics have shown the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. These two evidences have suggested the idea to study and design a linac booster able to increase the initial proton energy up to the values required for the treatment of tumors, like the ocular ones. Among the challenges in such a project one of the main ones is related to meet the requirement of having sufficient mean current for therapy from a given injection current coming from the cyclotron. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project in order to optimize the transmittance and to minimize the duty-cycle. In this frame we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3GHz linac with a new approach to the cavities used in a SCL (Side Coupled Linac) structure.

  10. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons measured on an airplane over a wide range of altitude and latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, P; Clem, J M; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    Crews of high-altitude aircraft are exposed to radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude airplane. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer. Its detector responses were calculated for energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.5.d with improved nuclear models and including the effects of the airplane structure. New calculations of GCR-induced particle spectra in the atmosphere were used to correct for spectrometer counts produced by protons, pions and light nuclear ions. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the deconvolution code MAXED 3.1. The results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cut-off agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra.

  11. Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pravina P.; Bichile, Govind K.

    2013-11-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as Glycine (C2H5NO2), DL-Alanine (C3H7NO2), Proline (C5H9NO2), L-Leucine (C6H13NO2 ), L-Arginine (C6H14N4O2) and L-Arginine Monohydrochloride (C6H15ClN4O2), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 10.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities are in good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error.

  12. Study of the process $e^+ e^- \\to K\\overline{K}$ in the center-of-mass energy range 1004--1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at $e^+ e^-$ VEPP-2000 collider

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, E A

    2016-01-01

    The $e^+ e^- \\to K^0_{S}K^0_{L}$ and $e^+ e^- \\to K^{-}K^{+}$ cross sections have been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004--1060 MeV for 25 energy points with about 2$\\div$3\\% systematic uncertainties. The analysis is based on 5.5 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 $e^+ e^-$ collider. The measured cross section is approximated according to Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of $\\phi, \\omega, \\rho$-like amplitudes and their excitations, and $\\phi(1020)$ meson parameters have been obtained.

  13. Electromagnetic energy absorption potential and microwave heating capacity of SiC thin films in the 1-16 GHz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the electromagnetic (EM) absorption potential and microwave heating capacity of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC:H) in the 1-16 GHz frequency domain. a-SiC:H thin films with typical thickness of 1 μm were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on [1 0 0] undoped silicon substrates, and exhibit a deep EM absorption - up to 96% of the total EM energy irradiation - which is systematically converted into heat. Two-wavelength pyrometer tests show that temperatures exceeding 2000 K can be reached in a very short time, less than 100 s exposure to microwaves, showing a promising potential for specific microwave heating applications.

  14. Measurements of thermal- and slow-neutron dose distributions in ordinary concrete shield using a reactor neutron beam of different energy ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahid, R.M.; Makarious, A.S.; El-Kolaly, M.A.; Afifi, Y.A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental studies on the distribution and attenuation of thermal and slow neutron doses in ordinary concrete shield have been carried-out. A collimated beam of reactor neutrons emitted from one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor was used. Measurements were performed using, a direct beam, cadmium filtered beam and boron carbide filtered beam. The neutron doses were measured using thermolumin-escent Li/sub 2/B/sub 4/O/sub 7/ detectors. The measured data have been analyzed and a group of attenuation curves were given for beams of reactor neutrons of different energy. These curves show that cadmium and boron carbide filters tend to decrease the neutron doses specially at the beginning of penetration. The data were transformed to that which would be obtained using neutron sources of different geometries.

  15. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by photons of stopping radiation in the maximum energy range 0,8 - 1,8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in Al - Ta interval, induced by stopping radiation phtons of maximum energies between 0,8 and 1.8 GeV is studied. Nd and Sm thin targets and Al, Ti, Co, Zr, Nb, Ag, In and Ta thick targets were used, considering all peculiarities inherent to absorption of fission fragments in the target. The samples were exposed into the 2.5 GeV Electron Synchrotron in Bonn Univerity. The fission fragment tracks were registered in foil type detectors using mica muscovite for Sm and Nd, CR-39 for Al and Ti and makrofol for Co, Zr; Nb, Ag, In, Nd and Ta. The track length and track depth angle distributions were measured for determining fission efficiencies. The fission cross sections and nuclear fissionable of the studied elements were evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of {sup 233}U in the energy range 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P.M.; Abbondanno, U.; Fujii, K.; Moreau, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Calviani, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Legnaro (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Meaze, M.H.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Mastinu, P.; Gramegna, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A. [CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alvarez, H.; Cano-Ott, D.; Duran, I.; Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Paradela, C. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Guerrero, C.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain); Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J. [Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, Campus Nord, Karlsruhe (Germany); Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M.T. [Technische Univ. Wien, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Univ., Wien (Austria); Baumann, P.; David, S.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IReS, Strasbourg (France); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M. [Charles Univ., Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Capote, R. [NAPC/Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Univ. de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal)] [and others

    2011-01-15

    The neutron-induced fission cross-section of {sup 233}U has been measured at the CERN n-TOF facility relative to the standard fission cross-section of {sup 235}U between 0.5 and 20MeV. The experiment was performed with a fast ionization chamber for the detection of the fission fragments and to discriminate against {alpha} -particles from the natural radioactivity of the samples. The high instantaneous flux and the low background of the n-TOF facility result in data with uncertainties of {approx} 3%, which were found in good agreement with previous experiments. The high quality of the present results allows to improve the evaluation of the {sup 233}U (n,f) cross-section and, consequently, the design of energy systems based on the Th/U cycle. (orig.)

  17. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  18. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  19. McSUB, a Monte Carlo Library for neutron transport in two different media for the neutron energy range 0.1-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Library McSUB is a package of easy-to-use subroutines and functions treating neutron transport in two different kind of media by Monte Carlo calculations. The first medium, D0, contains deuterium and natural carbon while the second medium, D1, contains hydrogen and natural carbon. In the neutron energy interval 0.1-20 MeV eight different kinds of interactions are considered: Elastic and (n,2n) interactions with deuterium, elastic interactions with hydrogen and elastic and inelastic interactions with natural carbon. The inelastic interaction with carbon are subdivided into four different interaction classes, one for each excited state of the recoiled carbon nucleus. The neutron cross sections and Legendre coefficients (expressing differential cross sections) have been supplied by NEA Data Bank in France. (author)

  20. Measurement of the $\\mathbf{e^+e^-\\to K^+K^-}$ cross section in the energy range $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{s}=1.05-2.0}$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Achasov, M N; Barnyakov, A Yu; Barnyakov, M Yu; Beloborodov, K I; Berdyugin, A V; Berkaev, D E; Bogdanchikov, A G; Botov, A A; Buzykaev, A R; Dimova, T V; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kardapoltsev, L V; Kharlamov, A G; Kononov, S A; Koop, I A; Korol, A A; Koshuba, S V; Kovrizhin, D P; Kravchenko, E A; Kupich, A S; Lysenko, A P; Martin, K A; Obrazovsky, A E; Onuchin, A P; Otboyev, A V; Pakhtusova, E V; Perevedentsev, E A; Rogovsky, Yu A; Serednyakov, S I; Shatunov, Yu M; Shatunov, P Yu; Shtol, D A; Silagadze, Z K; Skrinsky, A N; Surin, I K; Tikhonov, Yu A; Usov, Yu V; Vasiljev, A V; Zemlyansky, I M

    2016-01-01

    The $e^+e^-\\to K^+K^-$ cross section is measured in the center-of-mass energy range $1.05-2.00$ GeV at the SND detector. The measurement is based on data with an integrated luminosity of 35 pb$^{-1}$ collected at the VEPP-2000 $e^+e^-$-collider. The obtained results are consistent with the previous most accurate data obtained in the BABAR experiment and have a comparable accuracy.

  1. Linear and mass attenuation coefficient for CdTe compound of X-rays from 10 to 100 keV energy range in different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Full Potential Linear Muffin Tin Orbitals method within the density functional theory has been utilized to calculate structural and electronic properties of the CdTe compound. We have checked that the CdTe has two phase-transitions from zinc-blend to cinnabar and from cinnabar to rocksalt. We have found that the rigidity, the energy and the nature of the gap change according to the phase change, so we can predict that a CdTe detector may have different behaviors in different phase conditions. In order to investigate this behavior change, the linear and the mass attenuation coefficients of X-ray in rocksalt, zinc-blend and cinnabar structures are calculated from 10 keV to100 keV, using the XCOM data. We have found that when CdTe undergoes a phase transition from zinc-blend to cinnabar, its linear attenuation coefficient decreases down to a value of about 100 times smaller than its initial one, and when it undergoes a transition from cinnabar to rocksalt it increases up to a value about 90 times larger than its initial one

  2. High-resolution beamline 9.3.2 in the energy range 30 endash 1500 eV at the Advanced Light Source: Design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was designed for high resolution spectroscopy with the capability for delivering circularly polarized light in the soft x-ray energy region using three gratings. The monochromator is a fixed included-angle spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and was originally used at SSRL as a prototype for later insertion-device-based monochromators for the ALS. For operation at the ALS, the toroidal pre-mirror used at SSRL was replaced by a horizontally focusing and a vertically focusing mirror in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained by inserting a water-cooled movable aperture in front of the vertically focusing mirror to allow selecting the beam either above or below the horizontal plane. To maintain a stable beam intensity through the entrance slit, the photocurrent signals from the upper and lower jaws of the entrance slit are utilized to set a feedback loop with the vertically deflecting mirror piezoelectric drive. The beamline end station has a movable platform that accommodates two experimental chambers enabling the synchrotron radiation to be directed to either one of the two experimental chambers without breaking the vacuum. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. First INTEGRAL observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst : spectral behavior in the 20 - 650 keV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission, and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability, and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low energy component (up to ~ 200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons ($kT_0$ ~ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400-600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law co...

  4. FIRST INTEGRAL OBSERVATIONS OF V404 CYGNI DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST: SPECTRAL BEHAVIOR IN THE 20–650 KeV ENERGY RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth [Université Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ∼200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT{sub 0} ∼ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400–600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −4} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum.

  5. Photoionisation of Cl+ from the 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0 and the 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0 states in the energy range 19 - 28 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2016-10-01

    Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states; 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0, and 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 - 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions are also found in the spectra.

  6. Evaluation of conversion coefficients relating air-kerma to H*(10) using primary and transmitted x-ray spectra in the diagnostic radiology energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; Mariano, L; Tomal, A; Costa, P R

    2016-03-01

    According to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), the relationship between effective dose and incident air-kerma is complex and depends on the attenuation of x-rays in the body. Therefore, it is not practical to use this quantity for shielding design purposes. This correlation is adopted in practical situations by using conversion coefficients calculated using validated mathematical models by the ICRU. The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is a quantity adopted by the IAEA for monitoring external exposure. Dose constraint levels are established in terms of H*(10), while the radiation levels in radiometric surveys are calculated by means of the measurements of air-kerma with ion chambers. The resulting measurements are converted into ambient dose equivalents by conversion factors. In the present work, an experimental study of the relationship between the air-kerma and the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent was conducted using different experimental scenarios. This study was done by measuring the primary x-ray spectra and x-ray spectra transmitted through materials used in dedicated chest radiographic facilities, using a CdTe detector. The air-kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients were calculated from these measured spectra. The resulting values of the quantity ambient dose equivalent using these conversion coefficients are more realistic than those available in the literature, because they consider the real energy distribution of primary and transmitted x-ray beams. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national and international radiation protection standards is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient may not be adequate for deriving the ambient dose equivalent. PMID:26835613

  7. First INTEGRAL Observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 Outburst: Spectral Behavior in the 20-650 keV Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ˜200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT0 ˜ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400-600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10-4 ph cm-2 s-1 (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic, and Poland with the participation of Russia and USA.

  8. Investigation of mechanisms of production of argon, krypton and xenon isotopes formed in heavy targets by protons with an energy ranging from 0.15 to 24 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As experimental results of the investigation of interactions between high-energy protons and nucleus generally lead to the distinction between four types of reaction mechanisms (spallation, fission, fragmentation and isotope production), this research thesis reports the study of this mechanisms by using the so-called 'thick target - thick collector' experiment and by studying the production of various isotopes of rare gases (argon, krypton, xenon). These isotopes are produced by using platinum, gold, bismuth and thorium targets bombarded by protons with an energy ranging from 0.15 to 24 GeV. The author presents the experimental methods (target preparation and irradiation, rare gas analysis system), reports the analysis of thick target - thick-collector experiments (vector-based representation, path determination, path-curve energy, corrections of experimental data, excitation energy of the intermediate nucleus), presents the experimental results, and discusses their interpretation (two-stage model of high energy nuclear reactions, isotopes produced by spallation and by fission, isotopes produced by deep spallation, representations of mechanisms of fragmentation and deep spallation)

  9. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  10. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  11. Gain ranging amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gain ranging amplifier system is provided for use in the acquisition of data. Voltage offset compensation is utilized to correct errors in the gain ranging amplifier system caused by thermal drift and temperature dependent voltage offsets, both of which are associated with amplifiers in the gain ranging amplifier system

  12. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  13. The bending of the proton plus helium flux in primary cosmic rays measured by the ARGO-YBJ experiment in the energy range from 20 TeV to 5 PeV

    CERN Document Server

    Montini, P

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of proton plus helium and all-particle energy spectra in the range $20\\,$ TeV to $5 \\,$PeV and $80 \\,$TeV to $5 \\,$PeV respectively are presented. Data taken by the ARGO-YBJ detector in the 2010 year have been analyzed. The ARGO-YBJ experiment (Tibet, P. R. China) has been taking data for more than five years by means of a full-coverage array of RPC detectors. The discrimination between showers produced by light and heavy primaries has been performed by looking at the lateral particle density close to the core region. A Bayesian unfolding technique was therefore applied to the measured quantities in order to evaluate the cosmic ray energy spectrum. The proton plus helium spectrum clearly shows a bending at about $1 \\,$PeV, while the all-particle spectrum is consistent with previous observations.

  14. Study of the process $e^+ e^- \\to K^0_{S}K^0_{L}$ in the center-of-mass energy range 1004--1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 $e^+ e^-$ collider

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, E A

    2016-01-01

    The $e^+ e^- \\to K^0_{S}K^0_{L}$ cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004--1060 MeV at 25 energy points using $6.1 \\times 10^5$ events with $K^0_{S}\\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb$^{-1}$ of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 $e^+ e^-$ collider. To obtain $\\phi(1020)$ meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the $\\rho, \\omega, \\phi$-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to K^0_{S}K^0_{L}$ cross section with a 1.8\\% systematic uncertainty.

  15. Excitation function of squared speed-of-sound extracted from (net-)proton rapidity spectra in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Li-Na; Sun, Yan; Sun, Zhu; Lacey, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of the rapidity distributions of protons and net-protons (protons minus antiprotons) emitted in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, measured by a few collaborations at the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS), super proton synchrotron (SPS), and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are described by a revised Landau hydrodynamic model. The values of squared speed-of-sound parameter $c^2_s$ are then extracted from the rapidity distribution widths of (net-)protons. The excitation function of $c^2_s$ of the interacting system in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC is obtained to show a local minimum or softest point in the equation of state (EoS) at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=8.8$ GeV which confirms our previous result.

  16. Study of the process e+e- → KS0 KL0 in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Korobov, A. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Senchenko, A. I.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV at 25 energy points using 6.1 ×105 events with KS0 →π+π- decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb-1 of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. To obtain ϕ (1020) meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the ρ , ω , ϕ-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section with a 1.8% systematic uncertainty.

  17. Study of the process e+e- → KS0 KL0 in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Korobov, A. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Senchenko, A. I.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV at 25 energy points using 6.1 ×105 events with KS0 →π+π- decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb-1 of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. To obtain ϕ (1020) meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the ρ, ω, ϕ-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section with a 1.8% systematic uncertainty.

  18. Study of {sup nat}Mg(d,d{sub 0}) reaction at detector angles between 90° and 170°, for the energy range E{sub d,lab}=1660–1990 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patronis, N., E-mail: npatronis@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Aslanoglou, X. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Axiotis, M. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Georgiadou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Lagoyannis, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Misaelides, P. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paneta, V. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    In the present work, the study of the {sup nat}Mg(d,d{sub 0}) is presented for the energy range E{sub d,lab} = 1660–1990 keV (in steps of 5 keV), for detector angles between 90° and 170°. Elastic scattering data for two forward angles (55° and 70°) were also obtained. In order to validate the obtained experimental results a thick Mg sample with Au evaporated on top was fabricated and benchmarking measurements were performed at various deuteron beam energies. The results of the present work are complementary to the recently published {sup 24}Mg(d,p{sub 0,1,2}) reaction cross section data, thus facilitating the simultaneous depth profiling study of magnesium by both the d-NRA and EBS techniques.

  19. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  20. Preparation for B4C/Mo2C multilayer deposition of alternate multilayer gratings with high efficiency in the 0.5-2.5 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Delmotte, Franck; Bridou, Françoise; Lagarde, Bruno; Mercere, Pascal; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Polack, François

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a study of B4C/Mo2C multilayers mirrors with the aim of using it in the achievement of Alternate MultiLayer (AML) grating. Such component allows a high efficiency in the 500-2500 eV energy range for the DEIMOS beamline. Multilayers were deposited on silicon substrate. They are characterized by reflectometry under grazing incidence. Numerical adjustments were performed with a model of two layers in the period without any interfacial. A prototype of AML grating was fabricated and characterized. The efficiency of the first order of diffraction was worth 15% at 1700 eV.

  1. The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M

    2008-01-01

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV using 5.5 times 10^7 events collected in the period from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located at 4300 m above sea level (atmospheric depth of 606 g/cm^2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We performed extensive Monte Carlo calculations and discuss the model dependences involved in the final result assuming interaction models of QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1 and primary composition models of heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) ones. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. The detector simulation was also made to improve the accuracy of determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under v...

  2. Cosmic-ray isotopic composition of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si nuclei in the energy range 50-200 MeV per nucleon measured by the Voyager spacecraft during the solar minimum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, A.; Ferrando, P.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic composition of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si cosmic ray nuclei has been measured in the energy range 50-200 MeV per nucleon using data collected by the High-Energy Telescope of the cosmic-ray subsystem experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. These data were collected during the period of minimum solar activity in 1986-1988 at an average distance of 27 AU with an effective solar modulation that was much less than at the Earth. The isotope analysis, based on the energy loss - total energy method, has a mass resolution of 0.2 amu for carbon and 0.4 amu at silicon. We find a (C-13)/(C-12) ratio slightly lower and a (O-18)/(O-16) ratio slightly enhanced over their solar system value. We also observe the previously reported enhancement of the (Ne-22)/(Ne-20) ratio relative to solar at the cosmic-ray source but only a weak, if any, enhancement of the (Mg-25)/(Mg-24), (Mg-26)/(Mg 24), and (Si-30)/(Si-28) ratios.

  3. Theoretical Study of Secondary Electron Yield in Energy Range of 10 ~ 30 keV%10~30 keV二次电子发射系数的表达式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爱根; 王祖松; 刘战辉; 詹煜; 吴红艳

    2013-01-01

    Here we addressed the theoretical subject of the secondary electron emission,in the energy range of 10 ~30keY.First,the formulae of the maximum second electron yield (δm),and the average number of secondary electrons released per primary electron with fairly high incident energy (δPE) were derived,respectively.Next,a general expression of δ in terms of the variables,including δm,atomic number,atomic weight,material density,back-scattering coefficient (γ),back-scattering coefficient at high energy (η),parameter A,energy exponent (n),and the incident energy of primary electron,was obtained,on the basis of the influence of δm and δPE on the secondary electron yield at high energy (δ).The parameter A and energy exponent n,in the energy range of 10 ~ 30 keV for some emitters of interest,were modeled and calculated with the software package ESTAR.The experimentally measured and calculated results of δ with the general formula were compared.The comparison result shows that when it comes to the secondary electron emission in the energy range of 10~ 30 keV,the newly-developed general formula of δ works fairly well for metals,semi-metals and element semiconductors.%根据二次电子发射的主要物理过程和特性,推导出最大二次电子发射系数(δm)的表达式.还推导出平均每个高能原电子发射的二次电子数(δPE)的表达式.根据δPE、δm和高能二次电子发射系数(δ)之间的关系,推导出以δm、原子序数、原子质量数、物质密度、背散射系数、高能背散射系数、参数A、能量幂次(n)和原电子入射能量为变量δ的通式.用ESTR程序计算出一些材料的10~ 30 keV能量范围内的参数A和n.用该通式计算出δ并与相应的实验值进行了比较,结果表明,成功地推导出金属、半金属和元素半导体10~ 30 keV的δ通式.

  4. Laser Range Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Bahuguna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design aspects of laser range finders and proximity sensors being developed at IRDE for different applications. The principle used in most of the laser range finders is pulse echo or time-of-flight measurement. Optical triangulation is used in proximity sensors while techniques like phase detection and interferometry are employed in instruments for surveying and motion controllers where high accuracy is desired. Most of the laser range finders are designed for ranging non-cooperative targets.

  5. The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.

  6. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...

  8. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  9. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  10. Energy-saving and privacy-preserving range query in wireless sensor networks%无线传感器网络中节能与隐私保护范围查询

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 朱江豪; 贾宗璞; 闫玺玺

    2016-01-01

    For the requirement of high privacy-preserving and energy-saving in wireless sensor networks,this paper proposed a secure range query algorithm with low power consumption called EPRN(energy-saving and privacy-preserving range query in wire-less sensor networks).EPRN separated query process form transmission process,which could avoid all nodes sending their whole data to storage nodes or sink,greatly reduced the traffic in the process of network transmission and prolonged the network lifes-pan,at the same time,it proceed sensory data and query range with the technologies of data encryption and prefix membership verification ,which could ensure the security of data.Analyses and simulation results show that EPRN has the lower power con-sumption on the premise of protecting data privacy.%针对无线传感器网络中范围查询高隐私性与低能耗的要求,提出了一种节能的安全范围查询处理算法EPRN。EPRN对数据查询过程与上传过程进行分离,避免了所有节点将自身感知数据传输至存储节点或基站,大大降低了网络传输过程通信量,延长了网络寿命。运用前缀成员验证、数据加密等技术对感知数据以及查询范围进行处理,从而达到隐私保护的目的。理论分析和仿真实验显示,EPRN 在保证数据隐私性的同时具有更好的节能性。

  11. H.E.S.S. Limits on Linelike Dark Matter Signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV Energy Range Close to the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Liu, R.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Öttl, S.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    A search for dark matter linelike signals iss performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Center by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis iss developed to improve the sensitivity to linelike signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% C.L. the presence of a 130 GeV line (at l =-1.5 ° , b =0 ° and for a dark matter profile centered at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps significantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. results. No significant excess associated with dark matter annihilations was found in the energy range of 100 GeV to 2 TeV and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux and the velocity weighted annihilation cross section are derived adopting an Einasto dark matter halo profile. Expected limits for present and future large statistics H.E.S.S. observations are also given.

  12. H.E.S.S. limits on line-like dark matter signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV energy range close to the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, H; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Andersson, T; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ata\\", A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, 18 A; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J -P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Leser, E; Liu, R; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Öttl, S; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Vuillaume, H J Völk T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    A search for dark matter line-like signals was performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Centre by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis was developed to improve the sensitivity to line-like signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% CL the presence of a 130 GeV line (at $l = -1.5^{\\circ}, b = 0^{\\circ}$ and for a dark matter profile centred at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps signi?cantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. results. No significant excess associated with dark matter annihilations was found in the energy range 100 GeV to 2 TeV and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux and the velocity weighted annihilation cross-section are derived adopting an Einasto dark matter halo profile. Expected limits for present and future large stat...

  13. The study in the primary energy range 10^{16} - 10^{17} eV with the Muon Tracking Detector in the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Łuczak, P; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2013-01-01

    The KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector enables with high accuracy the measurement of directions of EAS muons with energy above 0.8 GeV and up to 700 m distance from the shower centre. Reconstructed muon tracks are used to investigate muon pseudorapidity (eta) distributions. These distributions are nearly identical to the pseudorapidity distributions of their parent mesons produced in hadronic interactions. Comparison of the eta distributions from measured and simulated showers can be used to test the quality of the high energy hadronic interaction models. In this context a comparison of the QGSJet-II-2 and QGSJet-II-4 model will be shown. The pseudorapidity distributions reflect the longitudinal development of EAS and, as such, are sensitive to the mass of the cosmic rays primary particles. With various parameters of the eta distribution, obtained from the MTD data, it is possible to calculate the mean logarithmic mass of CRs. The results of the analysis in the primary energy range 10^{16} eV - 10^{17} eV...

  14. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  17. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  18. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  19. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65 MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides $^{159}$Dy, $^{157}$Dy, $^{155}$Dy, $^{161}$Tb, $^{160}$Tb, $^{156}$Tb, $^{155}$Tb, $^{154m2}$Tb, $^{154m1}$Tb, $^{154g}$Tb, $^{153}$Tb, $^{152}$Tb and $^{151}$Tb are reported in the 36-65 MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  20. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  1. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  2. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...... for range selection, prex selection and range median, stating that any data structure that uses S words of space needs (log n= log(Sw=n)) time to answer a query. In particular, any data structure that uses n logO(1) n space needs (log n= log log n) time to answer a query, and any data structure...

  3. Electric power supply and demand 1978--1987 for the continuous United States as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-15

    The Regional Reliability Council projections of peak demand, generating capability, and electric energy requirements for the contiguous U.S. have declined for the fourth consecutive year. On the basis of these projections, it appears that the electric utility industry believes the U.S. will experience smaller annual increases in power use than have occurred in the past. The summer peak demand growth rates of the Councils range from 3.52 percent annually, as projected by the Northeast Power Coordinating Council, to the 6.21 percent projected by the Southwest Power Pool. Subregional growth covers a wider range, from the 2.77 percent of the New York Power Pool to the 6.51 percent of the Southern Company area. Total reserve margins at the time of summer peak demands are projected to decline from an estimated 30.16 percent in 1978 to about 23.81 percent in 1987. If projected loads are not exceeded, if projected capability levels are actually attained, if fuel requirements are satisfied, and if no contingencies worse than those normally met with are experienced, electric power supply should be adequate for the next decade. However, it is possible that the projected reserve margins will not be attained, and that adequate primary energy supply (fuel and hydro) will not be available when needed. Completion of generating units and transmission facilities on schedule is made uncertain by difficulties related to financing, environmental pressures, procedural delays and some inadequacies with respect to quality control of manufactured and field-assembled components.

  4. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  5. Energy loss straggling data of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O, and 12C heavy ions in thin polymeric Formvar foil over a range of energies 0.1–0.6 MeV/u by time-of-flight spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-loss straggling of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O and 12C partially stripped heavy ions has been determined in Formvar polymeric thin foil over a continuous range of energies 0.1–0.6 MeV/u, by using a powerful method based on the combination of Heavy Ion-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HI-ERDA) technique and Time of Flight (ToF) spectrometer. The obtained energy loss straggling values have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding computed values adopting some widely used energy loss straggling formulations such as, Bohr, Bethe–Livingston and Yang formulas. The aim of such a comparison is to check the reliability and accuracy of the existing energy loss straggling formulations. The experimental results of energy loss straggling of all ions are found to be significantly greater than those predicted by the theories. These differences can be attributed to the charge exchange straggling. This effect has to be taken into account in order to explain the obtained results. - Highlights: • Measurement of energy loss straggling data of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O, and 12C heavy ions in thin polymeric Formvar foil. • The heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HIERDA) technique coupled with time of flight (ToF) spectrometer was used. • The aim of such a study is to check the reliability and accuracy of the existing energy loss straggling formulations

  6. Study of Two-Body $e^+e^- \\to B_s^{(*)}\\bar{B}_s^{(*)}$ Production in the Energy Range from 10.77 to 11.02 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Adamczyk, K; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Atmacan, H; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Aziz, T; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Ban, Y; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Behera, P; Belhorn, M; Belous, K; Berger, M; Besson, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bloomfield, T; Blyth, S; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bookwalter, C; Boulahouache, C; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Breibeck, F; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Waheed, E; Cervenkov, D; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Crnkovic, J; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, N; DiCarlo, S; Dingfelder, J; Dolezal, Z; Dossett, D; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dubey, S; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Frost, O; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Giordano, F; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Greenwald, D; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Grygier, J; Grzymkowska, O; Guo, H; Haba, J; Hamer, P; Han, Y L; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hasenbusch, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Heck, M; Hedges, M T; Heffernan, D; Heider, M; Heller, A; Higuchi, T; Himori, S; Hirose, S; Horiguchi, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hsu, C -L; Huschle, M; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Inguglia, G; Ishikawa, A; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwata, S; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Jeon, H B; Jin, Y; Joffe, D; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kakuno, H; Kaliyar, A B; Kang, J H; Kang, K H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Kato, E; Kato, Y; Katrenko, P; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Keck, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, H -J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Kleinwort, C; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Kodys, P; Koga, Y; Korpar, S; Kotchetkov, D; Kouzes, R T; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kulasiri, L; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kurihara, E; Kuroki, Y; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lai, Y -T; Lange, J S; Lee, D H; Lee, I S; Lee, S -H; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Levit, D; Lewis, P; Li, C H; Li, H; Li, J; Li, L; Li, X; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Loos, A; Louvot, R; Lubej, M; Lukin, P; Luo, T; MacNaughton, J; Masuda, M; Matsuda, T; Matvienko, D; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Mikami, Y; Miyabayashi, K; Miyachi, Y; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohanty, S; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mori, T; Morii, T; Moser, H -G; Muller, T; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, K R; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakano, T; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Nanut, T; Nath, K J; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neichi, K; Ng, C; Niebuhr, C; Niiyama, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Palka, H; Panzenbock, E; Park, C -S; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Paul, S; Peak, L S; Pedlar, T K; Peng, T; Pesantez, L; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prasanth, K; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Pulvermacher, C; Purohit, M V; Rauch, J; Reisert, B; Ribezl, E; Ritter, M; Rorie, J; Rostomyan, A; Rozanska, M; Rummel, S; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sasaki, J; Sasao, N; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schluter, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schonmeier, P; Schram, M; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seidl, R; Seino, Y; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Seong, I S; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shibuya, H; Shimizu, N; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Soloviev, Y; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Steder, M; Strube, J F; Stypula, J; Sugihara, S; Sugiyama, A; Sumihama, M; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Z; Takeichi, H; Takizawa, M; Tamponi, U; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Tenchini, F; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Trusov, V; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Uozumi, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Waheed, E; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wehle, S; White, E; Widmann, E; Wiechczynski, J; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamada, S; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yashchenko, S; Ye, H; Yelton, J; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, L; Zhilich, V; Zhukova, V; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, M; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O

    2016-01-01

    We report results on the studies of the $e^+e^-\\to B_s^{(*)}\\bar{B}_s^{(*)}$ processes. The results are based on a $121.4$ fb$^{-1}$ data sample collected with the Belle detector at the center-of-mass energy near the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ peak and $16.4$ fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at 19 energy points in the range from 10.77 to 11.02 GeV. We observe a clear $e^+e^-\\to\\Upsilon(10860)\\to B_s^{(*)}\\bar{B}_s^{(*)}$ signal, with no statistically significant signal of $e^+e^-\\to \\Upsilon(11020)\\to B_s^{(*)}\\bar{B}_s^{(*)}$. The relative production ratio of $B_s^*\\bar{B}_s^*$, $B_s\\bar{B}_s^{*}$, and $B_s\\bar{B}_s$ final states at $\\sqrt{s}=10.866$ GeV is measured to be $7:$ $0.856\\pm0.106(stat.)\\pm0.053(syst.):$ $0.645\\pm0.094(stat.)^{+0.030}_{-0.033}(syst.)$. An angular analysis of the $B_s^*\\bar{B}_s^*$ final state produced at the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ peak is also performed.

  7. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  8. LONG RANGE HEALTH PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ST. Motameni

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, health planning in Iran has been carried out in the context of short-range economic plans. Although this mechanism has helped a great deal in the achievement of certain health plans however, the said scheme has been short in meeting the health objectives on a comprehensive basis. Most often, the heath programs have lost their values to the priority and cost effectiveness of economic plans. A brief review of heath planning in the past shows that the second development plan has been devoted to the establishment of new hospitals on a scattered pattern. The development of a coordinated hospital and health center system has been accepted and partly implemented during the third plan period. In the fourth plan the whole direction has changed towards the de­velopment of private hospitals on profit making basis, and now the fifth plan calls for the regionalized hospital system. Thus, one can say that the past twenty years have been spent to the experimentation of different schemes with­out a real long-range goal. In the past decade the World Health Organization has ventured in the development of health planning principles, but most of the efforts have been devoted to the short-range planning. The long-range health planning is not only a new look to the prin­ciples of planning, but a thorough examination of the time factor in health planning.

  9. Agriculture, forest, and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  10. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark;

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries in ...

  11. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  12. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  13. A determination of the Fano factor for germanium at 77.4K from measurements of the energy resolution of a 113cm3 HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer taken over the energy range from 14 to 6129 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fano factor for germanium cooled to 77.4 K has been determined from a semiempirical analysis of the measured energy resolution of a HPGe γ-ray spectrometer of active volume 113.2 cm3. Twenty nine γ-ray energies spanning the range from 14 to 6129 keV were used in this study. The dispersion due to incomplete charge collection was assessed experimentally by making measurements over a wide range of applied bias. Plots of the peak centroid shift and the peak width squared against the reciprocal of the voltage applied to the detector, were non-linear. Both exhibited plateaus for large applied voltages. Thus, by operating in the plateau region, the Fano factor could be extracted from the variation of the observed line width as a function of energy, while the detector was known to be functioning close to the position of perfect charge collection. The value of the Fano factor obtained in this work, averaged over the energy range 14-6129 keV, was 0.112 ± 0.001. It is recommended that more, high quality, measurements be made. (author)

  14. High-dynamic-range water window ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Max; Senkbeil, Tobias; von Gundlach, Andreas R; Stuhr, Susan; Rumancev, Christoph; Besedin, Ilya; Skopintsev, Petr; Viefhaus, Jens; Rosenhahn, Axel; Vartanyants, Ivan A

    2016-01-01

    Ptychographic imaging with soft X-rays, especially in the water window energy range, suffers from limited detector dynamic range that directly influences the maximum spatial resolution achievable. High-dynamic-range data can be obtained by multiple exposures. By this approach we have increased the dynamic range of a ptychographic data set by a factor of 76 and obtained diffraction signal till the corners of the detector. The real space half period resolution was improved from 50 nm for the single exposure data to 18 nm for the high-dynamic-range data.

  15. Lunar Laser Ranging Science

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides science results: gravitational physics and ephemeris information from the orbit, lunar science from rotation and solid-body tides, and Earth science. Sensitive tests of gravitational physics include the Equivalence Principle, limits on the time variation of the gravitational constant G, and geodetic precession. The equivalence principle test is used for an accurate determination of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter \\beta. Lunar...

  16. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  17. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund;

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following problem: Given an unsorted array of n elements, and a sequence of intervals in the array, compute the median in each of the subarrays defined by the intervals. We describe a simple algorithm which needs O(nlog k + klog n) time to answer k such median queries. This improves...... where the time per query is reduced to O(log n / log log n). We also give efficient dynamic variants of both data structures, achieving O(log2 n) query time using O(nlog n) space in the comparison model and O((log n/loglog n)2) query time using O(nlog n/log log n) space in the RAM model, and show...... that in the cell-probe model, any data structure which supports updates in O(logO(1)n) time must have Ω(log n/loglog n) query time. Our approach naturally generalizes to higher-dimensional range median problems, where element positions and query ranges are multidimensional - it reduces a range median query...

  18. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  19. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  20. Finite range Droplet Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatment of nuclear masses and deformations is described which combines the Droplet Model with the folding model surface and Coulomb energy integrals. An additional exponential term, inspired by the folding model, but treated here as an independent contribution with two adjustable parameters, is included. With this term incorporated, the accuracy of the predicted masses and fission barriers was improved significantly, the ability of the Droplet Model to account for isotope shifts in charge radii was retained, and the tendency of the Droplet Model to over-predict the surface-tension squeezing of light nuclei was rectified. 20 references, 4 figures

  1. Monocular visual ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  2. Energy loss straggling data of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O, and 12C heavy ions in thin polymeric Formvar foil over a range of energies 0.1-0.6 MeV/u by time-of-flight spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmia, A.; Ammi, H.; Msimanga, M.; Dib, A.; Mammeri, S.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Hedibel, M.

    2015-02-01

    The energy-loss straggling of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O and 12C partially stripped heavy ions has been determined in Formvar polymeric thin foil over a continuous range of energies 0.1-0.6 MeV/u, by using a powerful method based on the combination of Heavy Ion-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HI-ERDA) technique and Time of Flight (ToF) spectrometer. The obtained energy loss straggling values have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding computed values adopting some widely used energy loss straggling formulations such as, Bohr, Bethe-Livingston and Yang formulas. The aim of such a comparison is to check the reliability and accuracy of the existing energy loss straggling formulations. The experimental results of energy loss straggling of all ions are found to be significantly greater than those predicted by the theories. These differences can be attributed to the charge exchange straggling. This effect has to be taken into account in order to explain the obtained results.

  3. Study of the collisional destruction of neutral hydrogen atoms in the ground state H(12S) and in the metastable state H(22S) on different rare gas targets in the 0.5 to 3.0 keV level energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total destruction cross-sections of H(22S) on rare gases and hydrogen are studied in the energy range 50 to 3000 eV, and the electron loss and electron capture cross-sections from H(12S) and H(22S) in the energy range 0.5 to 3 keV. The de-excitation cross-sections are deduced

  4. Measurements of {sup 67}Ga production cross section induced by protons on {sup nat}Zn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J.A., E-mail: javier.wachter@utem.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Correa, R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. {sup 67}Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  5. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2005-12-05

    The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

  6. Differential cross section measurements of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg reactions in the energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Fathollahi, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work measurement of differential cross sections of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al (Eγ = 844, 1014 keV) and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) nuclear reactions in the proton energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV are described and the measured values are presented. Thin Al target was prepared by evaporating a 26 μg/cm2 Al onto a 129 μg/cm2 self-supporting Ag film. The gamma-rays and backscattered protons were detected simultaneously. The gamma-rays and protons were collected by an HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to beam direction and an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°, respectively. In this experimental setup the great advantage is that differential cross sections could be independent on absolute values of the collected beam charge. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross sections was estimated to be ±9% while statistical errors were less than ±5%.

  7. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  8. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV; Misura della sezione d`urto di fotoassorbimento tra 0.5 e 2.6 GeV su nuclei ed analisi dei dati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirazita, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies.

  9. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  10. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. Inertial-range spectrum of whistler turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model of an inertial-range energy spectrum for homogeneous whistler turbulence. The theory is a generalization of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan concept of the inertial-range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. In the model the dispersion relation is used to derive scaling laws for whistler waves at highly oblique propagation with respect to the mean magnetic field. The model predicts an energy spectrum for such whistler waves with a spectral index −2.5 in the perpendicular component of the wave vector and thus provides an interpretation about recent discoveries of the second inertial-range of magnetic energy spectra at high frequencies in the solar wind.

  12. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  13. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  14. On an improved effective range formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new effective range formula is derived using a conformal mapping variable that incorporates the knowledge of the left-hand cut. Our formula is valid up to higher energies and has good convergence and extrapolation properties. As an illustration, we use the formula for a study of the S and P waves in the n-p scattering. (author)

  15. Studies of range and straggling of muons in metals by the projected range imaging (PRI) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroka, Toni; Bucci, Cesare E-mail: cesare.bucci@fis.unipr.it; De Renzi, Roberto; Guidi, Germano; Eaton, Gordon; King, Philip; Scott, Christopher

    1999-05-01

    A new {mu}SR method for directly imaging the implantation depth distribution of positive muons in metals (Projected Range Imaging: PRI) is presented and the results obtained from several experiments are reported. Strong magnetic field gradients inside a metallic film are produced by driving an electric current in it: spin polarized muons stopped in the film have Larmor precession frequencies proportional to the implantation depth. Generation of field gradients, advantages and features of the method are discussed. For muon energy in the MeV range the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and with experimental results obtained by using the conventional moderator curve method. Applications to range and straggling studies with epithermal muons are also envisaged. These future extensions will allow a better understanding of the energy loss mechanisms in the previously inaccessible very low energy range.

  16. An in-beam test study of the response of calorimeters in the ATLAS Experiment of LHC to charged pions of 3 to 350 GeV energy range; Etude en faisceau-test de la reponse des calorimetres de l'Experience ATLAS du LHC a des pions charges, d'energie comprise entre 3 et 350 Gev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiobbe Vincent [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, U.F.R de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, 34, avenue Carnot - BP 185, 63006 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    ATLAS is one of the four main experiments under way of installing within the Large Hadron Project (LHC). LHC will provide two proton beams of high luminosity (1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at peak), colliding in the center of ATLAS detector at a 14 TeV rated COM energy. The aim of this study is an in-beam test characterization of the response of calorimeters in the central part of ATLAS. The study will be focused on the response to pions as main jet components. In the beginning a short presentation of the ATLAS program of physics is given enlightening the basic theoretical and experimental aspects of the experiment. A description of the ATLAS detector is also presented. The second chapter is devoted to detailed description of the central calorimetry of ATLAS. One starts from the mechanism of signal production in calorimeters, through the electronic processing up to the reconstruction of the released energy. The third chapter deals with the processing electronics of the TileCal hadron calorimeter the installation and certification at CERN of which was in charge of Clermont-Ferrand team. The chapter 4 gives a description of the SPS beam line and of the associated instrumentation tested in-beam in 2004. The chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to the study of the response of calorimeters to high energy pions (within 20 to 350 GeV range). The pion selection is described in the chapter 5. In the eighth chapter the calorimeter response to low energy pions (up to 9 GeV) is examined. In conclusion this study has shown that the data concerning pions obtained in-beam in 2004 are usable for energies within 3 to 350 GeV. The response and the energy resolution of LAr and TileCal were measured with a satisfactory accuracy,. A systematic comparison of these results with simulations (in the configuration of in-beam test) can now be done. Should the agreement be satisfying, the modelling could be used for the study of calibration of calorimeter response for the case of works with the

  17. Subsampling in Smoothed Range Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jeff M.; Zheng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider smoothed versions of geometric range spaces, so an element of the ground set (e.g. a point) can be contained in a range with a non-binary value in $[0,1]$. Similar notions have been considered for kernels; we extend them to more general types of ranges. We then consider approximations of these range spaces through $\\varepsilon $-nets and $\\varepsilon $-samples (aka $\\varepsilon$-approximations). We characterize when size bounds for $\\varepsilon $-samples on kernels can be extended...

  18. Letter of intent to study the reactions $\\gamma p \\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}, p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0} pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}, pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 20-50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, D; Bailey, R; Ball, A; CERN. Geneva. SPS Experiments Committee

    1978-01-01

    Letter of intent to study the reactions $\\gamma p \\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}, p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0} pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}, pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 20-50 GeV

  19. Proposal to study the reactions $\\gamma$p -> p $\\pi$ $^{+}$ $\\pi$ $^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$, p $\\pi$ $^{+}$ $\\pi$ $^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ pK $^{+}$ K$^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$, pK$^{+}$ K$^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 19

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, D; Bailey, R; Ball, A H

    1978-01-01

    Proposal to study the reactions $\\gamma$p -> p $\\pi$ $^{+}$ $\\pi$ $^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$, p $\\pi$ $^{+}$ $\\pi$ $^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ pK $^{+}$ K$^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$, pK$^{+}$ K$^{-}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ $\\pi$ $^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 19

  20. Proposal to study the reaction $\\gamma p \\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}, p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0} pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}, pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 19-53 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, D; Bailey, R; Ball, A H; CERN. Geneva. SPS Experiments Committee

    1978-01-01

    Proposal to study the reaction $\\gamma p \\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}, p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0} pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}, pK^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ in the energy range E$\\gamma$ = 19-53 GeV

  1. Study of the $e^+e^- \\to D^{(*)}\\bar{D}^*$ cross section in the center of mass energy range near $D^{(*)}\\bar{D}^*$ threshold with initial state radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anipko, D; Aoki, K; Arakawa, T; Arinstein, K; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V M; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Choi, J H; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Chuvikov, A; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, M; Dowd, R; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Enari, Y; Epifanov, D A; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Gershon, T; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Gorisek, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hokuue, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Imoto, A; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Jones, M; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Kishimoto, N; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovnyi, P P; Kubota, T; Kulasiri, R; Kumar, R; Kuo, C C; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Lee, Y J; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumoto, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, D; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakagawa, T; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Ronga, F J; Root, N; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Sato, N; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Seki, T; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, Y T; Shibuya, H; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Somov, A; Soni, N; Stamen, R; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stöck, H; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takada, N; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanabe, K; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsai, Y T; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Ueno, K; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Villa, S; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Wu, C H; Xie, Q L; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, S; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Heyoung Yang; Yoshino, S; Yuan, Y; Yusa, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Zhang, J; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Ziegler, T; Zupanc, A; Zürcher, D

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the exclusive $e^+e^- \\to D^{(*)} \\bar{D}{}^*$ cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy near the $D^{(*)}\\bar{D}{}^$ threshold with initial state radiation. A partial reconstruction technique involving full reconstruction of one $D^{(*)}$ and reconstruction of the slow pion from the other $D^*$ is used to increase the efficiency and to suppress background. The analysis is based on a data sample collected with the Belle detector at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance and nearby continuum with an integrated luminosity of 547.8 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at the KEKB asymmetric energy $e^+e^-$ collider.

  2. Attempts to produce superheavy elements by fusion of /sup 48/Ca with /sup 248/Cm in the bombarding energy range of 4. 5--5. 2 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Bruechle, W.; Bruegger, M.; Dufour, J.P.; Gaggeler, H.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Lemmertz, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Poppensieker, K.; Reisdorf, W.; Schadel, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schneider, J.H.R.; Schneider, W.F.W.; Suemmerer, K.; Vermeulen, D.; Wirth, a.G.; Ghiorso, A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.; Leino, M.; Moody, K.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Welch, R.B.; Wilmarth, P.; Yashita, S.; Frink, C.; Greulich, N.; Herrmann, G.; Hickmann, U.; Hildebrand, N.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautman, N.; Fowler, M.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; von Gunten, H.R.; Dornhoefer, H.

    1985-02-04

    A search for superheavy elements was made in bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 48/Ca ions performed at projectile energies close to the interaction barrier in order to keep the excitation energy of the compound nucleus Z = 116, A = 296 as low as possible. No evidence for superheavy nuclei was obtained in a half-life region from 1 ..mu..s to 10 yr with a production cross section greater than 10/sup -34/ to 10/sup -35/ cm/sup 2/. .AE

  3. Comparison of spectra for validation of Penelope code for the energy range used in mammography; Comparacao de espectros para validacao do codigo PENELOPE para faixa de energia usada em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.A.G.; Ferreira, N.M.P.D., E-mail: malbuqueque@hotmail.co [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, E.; Ganizeu, M.D.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: marianogd@uol.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Prizio, R.; Peixoto, J.G., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The spectra simulated by the Penelope code were compared with the spectra experimentally obtained through the silicon PIN photodiode detector, and with spectra calculated by the code of IPEN, and the comparison exhibited a concordance of 93.3 %, and make them an option for study of X-ray spectroscopy in the voltage range used in mammography

  4. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  5. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  6. The 7Be(n,alpha)4He reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: measurement of the cross section in a wide energy range at n_TOF (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Cosentino, L; Maugeri, E; Heinitz, S; Mengoni, A; Dressler, R; Schumann, D; Kaeppeler, F; Colonna, N; Finocchiaro, P; Ayranov, M; Damone, L; Kivel, N

    2016-01-01

    The energy-dependent cross section of the 7Be(n,alpha)4He reaction, of interest for the so-called Cosmological Lithium Problem in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of 7Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure 7Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha-particles have been recorded in two Si-7Be-Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 60's at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence here reported clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in ...

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  8. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  9. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  10. Study of the process e+e- → p p bar in the c.m. energy range from threshold to 2 GeV with the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshin, R. R.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. Sh.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Gromov, E. M.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Khazin, B. I.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kozyrev, E. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Romanov, A. L.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Solodov, E. P.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.; Zharinov, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    Using a data sample of 7.7 pb-1 collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider we select about 2900 events of the process e+e- → p p bar and measure its cross section at 12 energy points with about 6% systematic uncertainty. From the angular distribution of produced nucleons we obtain the ratio GE /GM.

  11. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, T T; Khaldeeva, I V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large sta...

  12. The neutron cross-section functions for the reactions {sup 187}Re(n,α){sup 184}Ta, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186}Re and {sup 185}Re(n,2n){sup 184}Re in the energy range 13.08-19.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovancevic, N. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium); University of Novi Sad, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Daraban, L.; Stroh, H.; Oberstedt, S.; Hult, M.; Bonaldi, C.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.J.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Vidali, M. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, measurements of the cross-section functions for the {sup 187}Re(n,α){sup 184}Ta, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186}Re and {sup 185}Re(n,2n){sup 184}Re reactions were performed in the energy range 13.08-19.5 MeV. We applied the neutron activation technique using several wide-energy neutron beams (NAXSUN), recently developed at the JRC-IRMM. This method involves measuring the activity of the radionuclides produced in a target by the in energy overlapping neutron beams and a subsequent unfolding procedure. The present results are the first experimental data on these cross-sections for incident neutron energies between 15 and 19.5 MeV and may contribute to improving evaluations and nuclear models. (orig.)

  13. A normal paediatric amylase range.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Taylor, F.(Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America)

    1980-01-01

    A normal paediatric range of plasma alpha-amylase activity was determined using the Phadebas blue starch method. The range for children over one year was 98--405 IU/l. Plasma amylase activity increased throughout infancy. Mature levels of activity were observed in some children by age 2 months and in most of them by 9 months.

  14. PN ranging/telemetry transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    System can transmit range-indicating pseudonoise (PN) codes and simultaneously transmit auxiliary information as binary data at a rate at least on order of pseudonoise chipping rate. PN code is modulated by data stream with relatively low bit rate. Data stream with high bit rate can be transmitted in same frequency band as PN ranging code.

  15. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  16. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J. Y.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  17. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  18. Range free Localization Mechanism using Beacon node Range Level

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Sirothia; Rakesh Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for finding the position of sensor node is crucialfor many sensor network applications. Most sensor networkswhich can tolerate coarse accuracy look range free localizationmechanism as its solution. We have proposed a novel algorithmwhere beacon nodes are randomly distributed and sensor nodesestimates the beacon nodes at different levels according tosignal strength. We determine the location of sensor nodes byusing this information. We assume the communication range ofsensor and ...

  19. Calculation of neutron cross sections for 90Zr, 208Pb and 209Bi in the energy range of 0.5-25 MeV by using the optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections and differential elastic scattering cross sections for the nuclides 90Zr, 208Pb and 209Bi were calculated using different global spherical optical potential (SOP) parameter sets at neutron energies from 0.5-25 MeV. Calculated cross sections for the corresponding nuclides were compared with their experimental data obtained by the EXFOR file to select the best fit parameter sets. It is found that the parameter sets of Ferer Rapaport for 90Zr and Bechetti and Greenless for 208Pb and 209Bi are the best fitted set to obtain the experimental data of total cross sections and angular distributions of these nuclides. (author)

  20. EeRCCA:An Energy Efficient Range Based Coverage Control Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks%EeRCCA:一种能量有效的传感器网络覆盖控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 史浩山; 严国强; 胡婷婷

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at early death of border nodes and imbalance of energy load at existing coverage control algorithm RBSS in wireless sensor networks, an improved distributed energy efficient coverage control al-gorithm(EeRCCA) is proposed. EeRCCA adopts a joint strategy of multi-starting and adaptive energy competition in staring node election to reduce early death of border nodes. An adaptive back-off method based on the weight of residual energy and distances from staring node and other neighbor cooperative nodes is a-dopted to adjust the back-off time appropriately for electing the cooperative nodes. The validity of EeRCCA in different network size and node density is verified,simulation results show that EeRCCA can guarantee complete coverage and connectivity and its performance of number of working nodes and coverage ratio is approximately equal to RBSS. Compared with RBSS, EeRCCA can extend the network life significantly without additional control overheads.%针对已有算法中边界节点过早死亡和网络能耗不均问题,本文提出了一种能量有效的分布式覆盖控制算法EeRC-CA.EeRCCA采用多启动和能量自适应竞争相结合的策略,减缓边界节点过早死亡;在协同节点选举中,依据当前节点与启动节点、邻居协同节点间的距离和剩余能量的权值,合理调整避退时间,均衡网络能耗,延长网络生存周期.仿真结果表明EeRCCA可以保证完全覆盖和连通,在工作节点数目和覆盖率方面与RBSS算法基本相当,在不增加额外控制开销的条件下,可以显著延长网络生命期.

  1. High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Lagarde, Bruno; Delmotte, Franck; Krumrey, Michael; Bridou, Françoise; Thomasset, Muriel; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Polack, François

    2014-04-01

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating has been prepared by coating an ion etched lamellar grating with a B4C/Mo2C multilayer (ML) having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. Such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. This AML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology and Tests Beamline between 0.7 and 1.7 keV and at the four-crystal monochromator beamline of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II between 1.75 and 3.4 keV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27% was measured at 2.2 keV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM. Such AML gratings, paired with a matched ML mirror, constitute efficient monochromators for intermediate energy photons. They will extend the accessible energy for many applications as x-ray absorption spectroscopy or x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments.

  2. ICESat Receiver Signal Dynamic Range Assessment and Correction of Range Bias due to Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Yi, D.; Fricker, H. A.

    2005-12-01

    The laser echo pulse signals for Earth orbiting laser altimeters have a large dynamic range due to the variabilities in the Earth's surface reflectivity, scattering angles, and atmosphere conditions. The echo pulse energies received by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat mission vary over 4 orders of magnitude. Echo pulse energies measured over ice and snow surfaces are 2 to 3 times stronger than those expected, which were based on prior passive measurements and by assuming Lambertian scattering surfaces. Echo pulse energies from still water surfaces are several hundred times stronger, due to the narrow solid angle of the specular reflections. Attenuation by clouds and aerosols also cause a large and rapid variation in the received signal. As a result, many of the echo pulses exceed the linear dynamic range of the GLAS altimeter receiver and partially saturate the detector electronics. The recorded pulse waveform is distorted when the receiver is saturated, causing a significant bias in the GLAS range, surface slope, and surface reflectance measurements. We have characterized the properties of the GLAS altimetry detector beyond its linear dynamic range. We did this in the laboratory using a flight spare detector assembly and a calibrated laser diode test source. The results show the highly reproducible effects of detector saturation on the range measurements. A simple algorithm can be used to correct the range bias to within 5 cm for signals from flat ice and snow surfaces. The algorithm was tested using the GLAS measurements over Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia, where the surface elevation of the dry salt-lake had been surveyed with cm-level resolution with GPS receivers. The results show that the GLAS range measurements with the range bias correction agree with surface elevations to within 2 cm in absolute range and 3 cm in standard deviation. The algorithm is being incorporated into the GLAS data products. We are currently extending the approach

  3. 增程/插电式电动商用车制动能量回收分析%Analysis of Energy Recovery for an Extended-range/Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the structure of the hybrid braking system structure for an extended-range/plug-in electric vehicle. Then, based on the Chinese urban driving condition, the parallel mode of the air pressure brake and electric brake is simulated to indicate the useful reference for the further optimization of the hybrid braking system.%以一款增程/插电式电动商用车为研究对象,对制动系统结构进行分析。以并联式气电复合制动为例,在中国典型城市工况下对该电动商用车的制动过程进行了仿真,为制动能量回收的进一步优化提高了参考。

  4. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  5. New visualization method for high dynamic range images in low dynamic range devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hoon; Ko, Sung-Jea

    2011-10-01

    Various tone reproduction operators have been proposed to display high dynamic range images on low dynamic range (LDR) devices. The gradient domain operator is a good candidate due to its capability of reducing the dynamic range and avoiding common artifacts including halos and loss of image details. However the gradient domain operator requires high computational complexity and often introduces low-frequency artifacts such as reversal of contrast between distant image patches. In order to solve these problems we present a new gradient domain tone reproduction method which adopts an energy functional with two terms one for preserving global contrast and the other for enhancing image details. In the proposed method the LDR image is obtained by minimizing the proposed energy functional through a numerical method. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only achieve the significantly reduced computational complexity but also exhibit better visual quality as compared with conventional algorithms.

  6. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, Sabar [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, Rokiah [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  7. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  8. A measurement of the electron-hole pair creation energy and the Fano factor in silicon for 5.9 keV X-rays and their temperature dependence in the range 80-270 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the energy ω to create an electron-hole pair and its temperature dependence between 80 and 270 K has been made using a small Si p-i-n diode and 5.9 keV X-rays. A value of 3.73±0.09 eV with a gradient of -0.0131±0.0004% K-1 was found. The photo-peak dispersion D was also measured and from the values between 110 K and 235 K, the product ωF was found to be 0.441±0.005 eV. This is consistent with a constant Fano factor F of 0.118±0.004

  9. Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122–1.330 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as Glycine (C2H5NO2), DL-Alanine (C3H7NO2), Proline (C5H9NO2), L-Leucine (C6H13NO2 ), L-Arginine (C6H14N4O2) and L-Arginine Monohydrochloride (C6H15ClN4O2), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 10.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities are in good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error. - Highlights: • Compute the Mass Attenuation Coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids. • Gamma ray attenuation studies on biologically important molecules have been carried out using narrow beam good geometry set up. • The values of Mass Attenuation Coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids are in agreement with the XCOM programme. • The measured mass attenuation coefficient for some amino acids are useful in medical field. • The data is useful in radiation dosimetry and other fields

  10. Calculation of average projected range and range straggling of charged particles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the KRAL equations (Ashworth et al., 1991. J. Phys. D 24, 1376-1380), which take into account second-order energy loss moments, projected ranges and range moments of ions in mono-atomic targets were calculated. For this purpose, the set of three coupled differential equations of second order was first reduced to a set of differential equations of first order, and solved afterwards numerically, using initial values with respect to the electronic stopping power according to Montenegro et al. (1981) which are valid at non-relativistic velocities in all solid targets and are consistent with experimental data for a wide range of energies. The numerical solution of the KRAL equations was performed by applying a continuous Runge-Kutta method of seventh-eighth order and a Fehlberg Runge-Kutta method of fourth-fifth order. The results with respect to the projected ranges of Xe ions in amorphous Si are in a good agreement with measured data, and those with respect to the projected ranges and range straggling of H or B ions in amorphous Si with data calculated by the standard theories TRIM, PRAL 97 and WS (Wang and Shi, 1990. J. Phys. D 23, 1282-1289)

  11. The analyzing power Asub(y)(THETA) for 12C(n vector,nsub(0,1))12C in the neutron energy range from 6.8 to 17.3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzing power for the elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to the first excited state on 12C was measured at 21 energies from 6.8 to 17.3 MeV. The data from 8.9 to 14.9 MeV were together with very precise cross section data from the literature studied in the framework of the spherical optical model and the coupled channel formalism. The coupled channel analysis of the elastic and inelastic scattering on 12C in the framework of the rotator model yielded a good agreement between measured and calculated angular distributions. The determined quadrupole deformation parameter β2 = -0.67 agrees well with values from the literature. The existence of different qudrupole deformations for the central and spin-orbit components of the optical potential was studied. Large differences for the quadrupole deformations β2sup(c) and β2sup(so) were found at 8.9, 11.9, and 12.9 MeV. Especially at 8.9 MeV by this a great improvement of the fit to the data was reached. (orig./HSI)

  12. Neutron photoproduction in sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U using thermal neutron capture gamma-rays in the energy range 5.61 to 10.83 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalez, O L

    1998-01-01

    Neutron photoproduction studies for sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U were carried out from 5.6 to 10.8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 to 21 eV), produced by 30 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 2 MW research reactor. The samples (17.76 g of U sub 3 sub O sub 8 depleted to 0.349% in sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and 19.93 g of natural Th O sub 2) have been irradiated inside a 4 pi geometry neutron detector system sup L ong Counter sup , 520.5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (E G and G Ortec, 25 cm sup 3 , 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A methodology for unfolding the set of expe...

  13. Production of {sup 234,235}Np and {sup 236}Pu in bombardment of {sup 236}U with protons in the energy range from 17 to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, J.; Helariutta, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Gromova, E.A.; Jakovlev, V.A. [V. G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Lab. of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W.H.; Huikari, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Rinta-Antila, S. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Accelerator Lab., Dept. of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The production of {sup 235}Np and {sup 236}Pu by the reactions {sup 236}U(p, 2n){sup 235}Np and {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu using the K-130 cyclotron of the University of Jyvaeskylaewas investigated. The cross sections for the reactions were determined. Thick-target yield curves were derived based on the cross sections. The results are discussed and compared with previous data on other reactions leading to the formation of the same end products. The thick-target yield of {sup 235}Np in the {sup 236}U(p, 2n) reaction is about 50 percent higher than the yield obtained in the {sup 238}U(p, 4n) reaction leading to this nuclide at comparable particle energies. The purity of {sup 236}Pu produced in the {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}) reaction is more than ten times better than for earlier known as the purest reaction {sup 237}Np(p, 2n + pn{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu. (orig.)

  14. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma(\\gamma)$ cross-section at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 189 GeV to 202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Davenport, M; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Merle, E; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moraes, D; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Mundim, L M; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pavel, T; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinertsen, P L; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seibert, N; Sekulin, R L; Sette, G; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanitzki, M; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zumerle, G; Zupan, M

    2000-01-01

    A test of the QED process \\eeintogg(\\fot) is reported. The data analysed were collected with the DELPHI detector in 1998 and 1999 at the highest ener\\-gies achieved at LEP, reaching 202 GeV in the centre-of-mass. The total integrated luminosity amounts to 375.7 pb$^{-1}$. The differential and total cross-sections for the process $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ were measured, and found to be in agreement with the QED prediction. 95\\% Confidence Level (C.L.) lower limits on the QED cut-off parameters of $\\rm \\Lambda_+ >$ 330 GeV and $\\rm \\Lambda_{-}>$ 320 GeV were derived. A 95\\% C.L. lower bound on the mass of an excited electron of 311 $\\rm GeV/c^2$ (for $\\lambda_{\\gamma}$ =1) was obtained. s-channel virtual graviton exchange was searched for, resulting in 95\\% C.L. lower limits on the string mass scale, $\\rm M_S$: $\\rm M_S > 713 \\, GeV/c^2$ ( $\\lambda=1$) and $\\rm M_S > 691 \\,GeV/c^2$ ($\\lambda = -1$).

  15. Measurements of the 24Mg(d,p0,1,2,3,4) and natMg(d,d0) reactions cross sections in the energy range of 1.2-2 MeV for NRA and EBS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi-kheiri, H.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-04-01

    Differential cross sections of the 24Mg(d,p0,1,2,3,4) reactions were obtained in the range Ed,lab = 1.2-2 MeV and at the scattering angles of 90°, 135°, 150° and 165° using a thin Mg target having thickness of 76.7 ± 3.1 μg/cm2. The cross section values were determined with an average energy step of ∼25 keV while the detailed measurements were carried out with an energy step of ∼5 keV around the resonance peaks. Elastic scattering data for three steep backward angles (135°, 150° and 165°) were also studied for the same incident deuteron energy range and steps. The results were compared with those of the previous studies. Moreover, the validity of the measured data has been benchmarked using a thick Mg target at two deuteron beam energies of 1.7 and 2 MeV.

  16. Photoionisation of Cl$^+$ from the $3s^23p^4\\;^3P_{2,1,0}$ and the$3s^23p^4\\;^1D_2, ^1S_0$ states in the energy range 19 - 28 eV

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl$^+$ ion in its ground and the metastable states; $3s^2 3p^4\\; ^3P_{2,1,0}$, and $3s^2 3p^4\\; ^1D_2,\\; ^1S_0$, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 -- 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb {\\it R}-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series $3s^2 3p...

  17. Simple reaction structures in a ''complicated'' kinematic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy range between 500 and 1000 MeV is usually considered a ''complicated'' one for elastic proton-proton scattering in which there is no simple description. It is shown that in that energy range, for much of the angular range, two simple features of the magnitudes and relative phases of the invariant amplitudes in the planar transverse frame give a good approximation of the observed data on unpolarized cross section as well as all the various polarization measurements. The features appear to be particularly pronounced at the larger scattering angles and higher energies, thus suggesting a connection with the small distance part of the internucleon force which thus may shed light on the validity of various quark models. Similar regularities also appear in a similar energy and angular range for pion-nucleon scattering. A simple way is presented on a quark level to summarize these regularities

  18. Simple Reaction Structures in a "complicated" Kinematic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Moravcsik, Micheal J.; Goldstein, Gary R.

    The energy range between 500 and 1000 MeV is usually considered a "complicated" one for elastic proton-proton scattering in which there is no simple description. It is shown that in that energy range, for much of the angular range, two simple features of the magnitudes and relative phases of the invariant amplitudes in the planar transverse frame give a good approximation of the observed data on unpolarized cross section as well as all the various polarization measurements. The features appear to be particularly pronounced at the larger scattering angles and higher energies, thus suggesting a connection with the small distance part of the internucleon force which thus may shed light on the validity of various quark models. Similar regularities also appear in a similar energy and angular range for pion-nucleon scattering. A simple way is presented on a quark level to summarize these regularities.

  19. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  20. Long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiglmayr, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    We present an overview over theoretical models to describe adiabatic potential-energy curves, experimental excitation spectra, and electronic and nuclear dynamics in interacting Rydberg-atom pairs at large internuclear separations. The potential-energy curves and molecular wavefunctions are determined from the multipole expansion of the static Coulomb interaction which is evaluated numerically in a product basis of atomic orbitals. The convergence of this approach both in the truncation of the multipole expansion as well as in the size of the product basis is discussed, and the comparison of simulated excitation spectra is established as a useful criterium to test the convergence of the calculation. We finally discuss the dynamics of electronic and nuclear motions of pairs of Rydberg atoms, focusing on the stability of ultralong range Rydberg molecules with respect to autoionization.