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Sample records for 7-gev advanced photon

  1. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  2. The Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, S; Kandhasamy, S; Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Anders, E H; Berliner, J; Betzwieser, J; Daveloza, H P; Cahillane, C; Canete, L; Conley, C; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Kissel, J S; Izumi, K; Mendell, G; Quetschke, V; Rodruck, M; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Schwinberg, P B; Sottile, A; Wade, M; Weinstein, A J; West, M; Savage, R L

    2016-01-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitaional-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events, and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as Photon Calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of $10^{-18}$ m/$\\sqrt{\\textrm{Hz}}$ with accuracy and precision of better ...

  3. The Advanced LIGO photon calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Kandhasamy, S.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, T. D.; Anders, E. H.; Berliner, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Cahillane, C.; Canete, L.; Conley, C.; Daveloza, H. P.; De Lillo, N.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Izumi, K.; Kissel, J. S.; Mendell, G.; Quetschke, V.; Rodruck, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Schwinberg, P. B.; Sottile, A.; Wade, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; West, M.; Savage, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as photon calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO photon calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of 1 0-18m /√{Hz } with accuracy and precision of better than 1%.

  4. Advances in information optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Ari T

    2008-01-01

    This volume is the sixth in a series of books initiated in 1989 by the International Commission for Optics (ICO). These books highlight the advances and trends in the research and development of optical sciences, technologies, and applications at the time of their publication. In this age of the photon, information optics and photonics represent the key technologies to sustain our knowledge-based society. New concepts in classical and quantum-entangled light, coherent interaction with matter, and novel materials and processes have led to remarkable advances in today's information science and t

  5. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...

  6. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...

  7. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Leonardis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection.

  8. Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

  9. Advancement of photonic interconnects for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; Lehman, John A.; Morgan, Robert A.; Deruiter, John L.

    1997-07-01

    Optical interconnects have long promised significant advantages over their electrical counterparts. Specific advantages include increased bandwidths at long (ten meters or more) interconnection distances, immunity to EMI effects, negligible crosstalk, reduced size, and lower weight. Optical interconnects have been developed for, and are being used in, a range of ground based and aircraft applications, however they are only now beginning to gain acceptance in spaceborne systems. In addition to the maturity demanded from components destined for ground-based applications and the wider temperature excursions characteristic of airborne applications, spaceborne components must also be able to survive the radiation environments associated with their intended applications. The additional qualification required has resulted in delayed introduction of photonic interconnects. We describe the tradeoffs involved in implementing for the first time a spaceborne fiber optic data bus with a clock speed of 1.2 Gbps. The tradeoffs include emitter, detectors, fiber, connectors and packaging. We have selected a series of commercial grade optoelectronic devices which were then qualified for use in spaceborne environments and have developed a space quantifiable packaging scheme. We have designed and implemented the optoelectronic subsystem of the data bus and have simulated its operation. We also describe recent advances in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) for spaceborne databuses. VCSELs also offer advantages in simplicity of packaging and electronic control. We summarize available initial radiation data on these devices and project their impact on spaceborne photonic interconnects.

  10. Status of the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents general information on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and then breaks down the APS project into three categories: accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities. The accelerator systems consist of the 7 GeV APS positron storage ring and a 7 GeV positron injector. The experimental facilities include 20 undulator radiation sources and the x-ray beamline components necessary to transport their extraordinarily intense x-ray beams outside the accelerator enclosure. Also included are x-ray beamline components for 20 bending magnet radiation sources. The conventional facilities consist of the accelerator enclosures, a 35,300 m{sup 2} experimental hall to house the x-ray beamlines, an office building for the APS staff and lab/office facilities for the research groups which will construct and operate the first 40 beamlines. APS users are described, and the properties of synchrotron radiation are discussed.

  11. Proceedings of the first symposium on advanced photon research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report consists of 76 contributed papers of the First Symposium on Advanced Photon Research, which was held at Keihanna Plaza and JAERI Advanced Photon Research Center in Kyoto on November 8-9, 1999. The numbers of oral presentations including a special invited talk and poster presentations were 14 and 68, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  12. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  13. Biomedical photonics handbook therapeutics and advanced biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents recent fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers,

  14. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  15. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizek, H.M. [comp.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system`s parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler.

  16. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant Technologies Corporation, 4C Controls, Inc., and 2-Track Global, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 29... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  17. [Recent advancement of photonic-crystal-based analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Guo, Zhenpeng; Wang, Jinyi; Chen, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Photonic crystals are a type of novel materials with ordered structure, nanopores/channels and optical band gap. They have hence important applications in physics, chemistry, biological science and engineering fields. This review summarizes the recent advancement of photonic crystals in analytical chemistry applications, with focus on sensing and separating fields happening in the nearest 5 years.

  18. Advances in photonic bandgap fiber functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented...... in this thesis addresses these two fundamental properties in both hollow core photonic crystal fibers and solid photonic bandgap fibers. Transmission loss in hollow core photonic crystal fibers is dominated by light scattering at the silica surfaces inside the fiber. In the current work it has been...... experimentally demonstrated that the minimum loss wavelength is located in the spectral region around 2000 nm, where the transmission loss in these fibers is significantly lower than in conventional solid silica fibers. Additionally it has been shown that transmission loss can be lowered roughly 40...

  19. A photonics design tool for advanced CMOS nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Alloatti, Luca; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos; Ram, Rajeev Jagga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated large-scale integrated systems with several million transistors and hundreds of photonic elements. Yielding such large-scale integrated systems requires a design-for-manufacture rigor that is embodied in the 10000 to 50000 design rules that these designs must comply within advanced CMOS manufacturing. Here, we present a photonic design automation (PDA) tool which allows automatic generation of layouts without design-rule violations. Our tool is written in SKILL, the native language of the mainstream electric design automation (EDA) software, Cadence. This allows seamless integration of photonic and electronic design in a single environment. The tool leverages intuitive photonic layer definitions, allowing the designer to focus on the physical properties rather than on technology-dependent details. Removal of design-rule violations - based on Manhattan discretization, Boolean and sizing operations - occurs during data preparation from the initial photonic layers to the final mask...

  20. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip. PMID:28230090

  1. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications and Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaspro, Alberto

    2001-11-01

    Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy Foundations, Applications, and Advances Edited by Alberto Diaspro Confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy has provided researchers with unique possibilities of three-dimensional imaging of biological cells and tissues and of other structures such as semiconductor integrated circuits. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances provides clear, comprehensive coverage of basic foundations, modern applications, and groundbreaking new research developments made in this important area of microscopy. Opening with a foreword by G. J. Brakenhoff, this reference gathers the work of an international group of renowned experts in chapters that are logically divided into balanced sections covering theory, techniques, applications, and advances, featuring: In-depth discussion of applications for biology, medicine, physics, engineering, and chemistry, including industrial applications Guidance on new and emerging imaging technology, developmental trends, and fluorescent molecules Uniform organization and review-style presentation of chapters, with an introduction, historical overview, methodology, practical tips, applications, future directions, chapter summary, and bibliographical references Companion FTP site with full-color photographs The significant experience of pioneers, leaders, and emerging scientists in the field of confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances is invaluable to researchers in the biological sciences, tissue and cellular engineering, biophysics, bioengineering, physics of matter, and medicine, who use these techniques or are involved in developing new commercial instruments.

  2. Recent advances in liquid-crystal fiber optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woliński, T. R.; Siarkowska, A.; Budaszewski, D.; Chychłowski, M.; Czapla, A.; Ertman, S.; Lesiak, P.; Rutkowska, K. A.; Orzechowski, K.; Sala-Tefelska, M.; Sierakowski, M.; DÄ browski, R.; Bartosewicz, B.; Jankiewicz, B.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Mergo, P.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystals over the last two decades have been successfully used to infiltrate fiber-optic and photonic structures initially including hollow-core fibers and recently micro-structured photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). As a result photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) have been created as a new type of micro-structured fibers that benefit from a merge of "passive" PCF host structures with "active" LC guest materials and are responsible for diversity of new and uncommon spectral, propagation, and polarization properties. This combination has simultaneously boosted research activities in both fields of Liquid Crystals Photonics and Fiber Optics by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more "special" than previously thought. Simultaneously, photonic liquid crystal fibers create a new class of fiber-optic devices that utilize unique properties of the photonic crystal fibers and tunable properties of LCs. Compared to "classical" photonic crystal fibers, PLCFs can demonstrate greatly improved control over their optical properties. The paper discusses the latest advances in this field comprising PLCFs that are based on nanoparticles-doped LCs. Doping of LCs with nanoparticles has recently become a common method of improving their optical, magnetic, electrical, and physical properties. Such a combination of nanoparticles-based liquid crystals and photonic crystal fibers can be considered as a next milestone in developing a new class of fiber-based optofluidic systems.

  3. The Advanced Photon Source: Performance and results from early operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncton, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-10-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is now providing researchers with extreme-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum. All technical facilities and components are operational and have met design specifications. Fourteen research teams, occupying 20 sectors on the APS experiment hall floor, are currently installing beamline instrumentation or actively taking data. An overview is presented for the first operational years of the Advanced Photon Source. Emphasis is on the performance of accelerators and insertion devices, as well as early scientific results and future plans.

  4. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here.

  5. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  6. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  7. Advances in Photonics Design and Modeling for Nano- and Bio-photonics Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2010-01-01

    In this invited paper we focus on the discussion of two recent unique applications of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method to the design and modeling of advanced nano- and bio-photonic problems. We will first discuss the application of a traditional formulation of the FDTD...... approach to the modeling of sub-wavelength photonics structures. Next, a modified total/scattered field FDTD approach will be applied to the modeling of biophotonics applications including Optical Phase Contrast Microscope (OPCM) imaging of cells containing gold nanoparticles (NPs) as well as its potential...

  8. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a remarkable technique for recording low-level light signals with extremely high precision and picosecond-time resolution. TCSPC has developed from an intrinsically time-consuming and one-dimensional technique into a fast, multi-dimensional technique to record light signals. So this reference and text describes how advanced TCSPC techniques work and demonstrates their application to time-resolved laser scanning microscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, photon correlation experiments, and diffuse optical tomography of biological tissue. It gives practical hints about constructing suitable optical systems, choosing and using detectors, detector safety, preamplifiers, and using the control features and optimising the operating conditions of TCSPC devices. Advanced TCSPC Techniques is an indispensable tool for everyone in research and development who is confronted with the task of recording low-intensity light signals in the picosecond and nanosecond range.

  9. Recent Advances in Biosensing With Photonic Crystal Surfaces: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, B T; Zhang, M; Zhuo, Y; Kwon, L; Race, C

    2016-05-15

    Photonic crystal surfaces that are designed to function as wavelength-selective optical resonators have become a widely adopted platform for label-free biosensing, and for enhancement of the output of photon-emitting tags used throughout life science research and in vitro diagnostics. While some applications, such as analysis of drug-protein interactions, require extremely high resolution and the ability to accurately correct for measurement artifacts, others require sensitivity that is high enough for detection of disease biomarkers in serum with concentrations less than 1 pg/ml. As the analysis of cells becomes increasingly important for studying the behavior of stem cells, cancer cells, and biofilms under a variety of conditions, approaches that enable high resolution imaging of live cells without cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes are providing new tools to biologists who seek to observe individual cells over extended time periods. This paper will review several recent advances in photonic crystal biosensor detection instrumentation and device structures that are being applied towards direct detection of small molecules in the context of high throughput drug screening, photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement as utilized for high sensitivity multiplexed cancer biomarker detection, and label-free high resolution imaging of cells and individual nanoparticles as a new tool for life science research and single-molecule diagnostics.

  10. Advances in FDTD computational electrodynamics photonics and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Oskooi, Ardavan; Johnson, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    Advances in photonics and nanotechnology have the potential to revolutionize humanity s ability to communicate and compute. To pursue these advances, it is mandatory to understand and properly model interactions of light with materials such as silicon and gold at the nanoscale, i.e., the span of a few tens of atoms laid side by side. These interactions are governed by the fundamental Maxwell s equations of classical electrodynamics, supplemented by quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the current state-of-the-art in formulating and implementing computational models of these interactions. Maxwell s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, pioneered by the senior editor, whose prior Artech books in this area are among the top ten most-cited in the history of engineering. You discover the most important advances in all areas of FDTD and PSTD computational modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions. This cutting-edge resource helps you understand the latest develo...

  11. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M.A. E-mail: beno@anl.gov; Kurtz, C.; Munkholm, A.; Ruett, U.; Engbretson, M.; Jennings, G.; Linton, J.; Knapp, G.S.; Montano, P.A

    2001-07-21

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment.

  12. Information technology security at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorowicz, K. V.; McDowell, W.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of 'botnets,' phishing schemes, denial-of-service attacks, root kits, and other cyber attack schemes designed to capture a system or network creates a climate of concern for system administrators, especially for those managing accelerator and large experimental-physics facilities, as they are very public targets. This paper will describe the steps being taken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to protect the infrastructure of the overall network with emphasis on security for the APS control system.

  13. Automated tuning of the advanced photon source booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.V.

    1997-08-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 223 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of beam position monitor (BPM) reading, transfer line corrector magnets, magnet ramp timing, and empirically determined response functions, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their performance.

  14. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

  15. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  16. Automated Tuning of the Advanced Photon Source Booster Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S. G.; Carwardine, J. A.; Milton, S. V.

    1997-05-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 250 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. Ramped-magnet tracking errors can also lead to losses during the acceleration cycle. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of empirically determined response functions, transfer line corrector magnets, and beam position monitor readings, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. An automated version of this correction technique has been implemented using the feedback-based program sddscontrollaw. Further automation is used to adjust and minimize tracking errors between the five main ramped power supplies. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their! performance.

  17. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  18. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  19. Recent Advances for High-Efficiency Sources of Single Photons Based on Photonic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J. M.; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic nanowires have recently been used to tailor the spontaneous emission of embedded quantum dots, and to develop record efficiency single-photon sources. We will present recent developments in this field mainly 1) the observation of a strong inhibition of the spontaneous emission of quantum...... dots in ultrathin photonic wires 2) the control of the linear polarization of the single photons by photonic wires with an elliptical section, 3) the joint observation (unlike-cavity-based devices) of a record high efficiency and pure single photon emission process in a photonic wire single photon...

  20. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-08-24

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Injector power supplies reliability improvements at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, A.; Pasky, S.; Sereno, N.; Soliday, R.; Wang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Operational goals for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility include 97% availability and a mean time between unscheduled beam losses (faults) of 70 hours, with more than 5000 user hours of scheduled beam per year. To meet this objective, our focus has been maximizing the mean time between faults (MTBF). We have made various hardware and software improvements to better operate and monitor the injector power supply systems. These improvements have been challenging to design and implement in light of the facility operating requirements but are critical to maintaining maximum reliability and availability of beam for user operations. This paper presents actions taken as well as future plans to continue improving injector power supply hardware and software to meet APS user operation goals. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two major components. The storage ring (SR) accelerator is the primary accelerator that delivers X-ray beams to users and uses over 1,400 power supplies. The injector accelerators provide beam to the SR and use 361 different supplies. The control system ranges from the standard VME-IOC and Allen Bradley to GESPAC with additional mini-PLCs for monitoring. Injector power supplies range from {approx}30 watts DC to a ramped peak of 4.6 megawatts in 250 ms. Finally, all accelerators use pulsed supplies, and some of them deliver peak power in megawatts. In the SR, each multipole and corrector magnet is separately powered, with only the main dipole magnets on a common bus. Independent power supplies provide increased flexibility, but place additional demands on power supply reliability. The APS reliability goals are 97% availability and 70 hours mean time to unscheduled beam loss. There are 5,129 user hours scheduled per year, 1,315 hours used for machine studies, and the remaining 2,316 hours used for maintenance. The present annual operating schedule provides for three user runs (typically 10 to 12 weeks long), and three machine shutdowns (typically

  2. Mini-beam collimator applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shenglan, E-mail: sxu@anl.gov [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keefe, Lisa J.; Mulichak, Anne [IMCA CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yan Lifen; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao Jiyong [X-ray Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fischetti, Robert F. [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT, Sector 23, Advanced Photon Source) began providing mini-beam collimators to its users. These collimators contained individual, 5- or 10-{mu}m pinholes and were rapidly exchangeable, thereby allowing users to tailor the beam size to their experimental needs. The use of these collimators provided a reduction in background noise, and thus improved the signal-to-noise ratio . Recent improvements in the collimator design include construction of the device from a monolithic piece of molybdenum with multiple pinholes mounted inside . This allows users to select from various size options from within the beamline control software without the realignment that was previously necessary. In addition, a new, 20-{mu}m pinhole has been added to create a 'quad-collimator', resulting in greater flexibility for the users. The mini-beam collimator is now available at multiple crystallographic beamlines and also is a part of the first Moessbauer Microscopic system at sector 3-ID.

  3. Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Kiyokazu; Haga, Kaiichi; Harada, Kentaro; Hori, Yoichiro; Ieiri, Takao; Isagawa, Shigeru; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Toshio; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawata, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Kudo, Kikuo; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Nagahashi, Shinya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Nogami, Takashi; Obina, Takashi; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ono, Masaaki; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sato, Masayuki; Satoh, Masato; Shioya, Tatsuro; Suetake, Masaaki; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Tadano, Mikito; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takasaki, Seiji; Tanimoto, Yasunori; Tejima, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ueda, Akira; Umemori, Kensei; Xing Cheng, Wei; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, S

    2005-01-01

    The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizi...

  4. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1993-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e -, e +) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest X-ray sources in the 10-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV injector synchrotron (IS), 7-GeV storage ring (SR), and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  5. Bunch cleaning strategies and experiments at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereno, N. S.

    1999-04-15

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) design incorporated a positron accumulator ring (PAR) as part of the injector chain. In order to increase reliability and accommodate other uses of the injector, APS will run with electrons, eliminating the need for the PAR, provided another method of eliminating rf bucket pollution in the APS is found. Satellite bunches captured from an up to 30-ns-long beam from the linac need to be removed in the injector synchrotron and storage ring. The bunch cleaning method considered here relies on driving a stripline kicker with an amplitude modulated (AM) carrier signal where the carrier is at a revolution harmonic sideband corresponding to the vertical tune. The envelope waveform is phased so that all bunches except a single target bunch (eventually to be injected into the storage ring) are resonated vertically into a scraper. The kicker is designed with a large enough shunt impedance to remove satellite bunches from the injection energy of 0.4 GeV up to 1 GeV. Satellite bunch removal in the storage ring relies on the single bunch current tune shift resulting from the machine impedance. Small bunches remaining after initial preparation in the synchrotron may be removed by driving the beam vertically into a scraper using a stripline kicker operating at a sideband corresponding to the vertical tune for small current bunches. In this paper both design specifications and bunch purity measurements are reported for both the injector synchrotron and storage ring.

  6. Undulator A diagnostics at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Diagnostics of Undulator A{number_sign}2 (UA2) radiation was performed during the October 1997 mn at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The UA2 undulator is a standard 3.3-cm-period APS Undulator A, which was positioned downstream from the center of the straight section at Sector 8. The diagnostics included the angular-spectral measurements of the undulator radiation to determine the undulator radiation absolute spectral flux and the particle beam divergence. The results of the absolute spectral flux measurements are compared to the undulator spectrum calculated from measured undulator magnetic field. The particle`s energy spread was determined from spectra comparison. Previously, the authors reported the first measurements made on Undulator A at the APS. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the results of the diagnostics performed on the Sector 8 undulator at the request of the IMM-CAT staff, and to present a more general discussion of undulator radiation sources at the APS and details of their diagnostics.

  7. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  8. Tracking fs light pulses in space and time through advanced photonic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, L.; Gersen, H.; Balistreri, M.L.M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of short light pulses through advanced photonic structures like photonic crystals is influenced by the interplay of various physical mechanisms, for instance by the strong material dispersion and the low group velocity. To study the complex interplay between different mechanisms as

  9. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  10. Photonic crystals advances in design, fabrication, and characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  11. Proceedings of the fourth users meeting for the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The Fourth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on May 7--8, 1991 at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project; critical issues for APS operation; advances in synchrotron radiation applications; users perspectives, and funding perspectives. The actions taken at the 1991 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  12. Proceedings of the fourth users meeting for the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The Fourth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on May 7--8, 1991 at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project; critical issues for APS operation; advances in synchrotron radiation applications; users perspectives, and funding perspectives. The actions taken at the 1991 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  13. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.

  14. Encapsulating Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0077 Encapsulating Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications Nunzio Motta QUEENSLAND... Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4014 5c.  PROGRAM...NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT What significant findings came from this project: We demonstrated the encapsulation of luminescent quantum dots (QDs) in ZnO nanorods

  15. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  16. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  17. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  18. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  19. Proceedings of the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on October 14--15, 1992, at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, funding opportunities, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. In addition, the 15 Collaborative Access Teams that have been approved to date participated in a poster session, and several vendors displayed their wares. The actions taken at the 1992 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  20. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  1. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portmann, G.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices.

  2. Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Zbinden, Hugo; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the most sensitive instruments for light detection. In the near-infrared range, SPDs based on III-V compound semiconductor avalanche photodiodes have been extensively used during the past two decades for diverse applications due to their advantages in practicality including small size, low cost and easy operation. In the past decade, the rapid developments and increasing demands in quantum information science have served as key drivers to improve the device performance of single-photon avalanche diodes and to invent new avalanche quenching techniques. This Review aims to introduce the technology advances of InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems in the telecom wavelengths and the relevant quantum communication applications, and particularly to highlight recent emerging techniques such as high-frequency gating at GHz rates and free-running operation using negative-feedback avalanche diodes. Future perspectives of both the devices and quenching techniques are summarized.

  3. Proceedings of the third users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The Third Users Meetings for the Advanced Photon Source, held on October 12--13, 1989, at Argonne National Laboratory, brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to review the status of the facility and make plans for its use. The presentations documented in these proceedings include overviews of the project status and the user access policy; updates on several fundamental research efforts that make use of synchrotron radiation; reports on insertion-device R D and beam line design activities; cost and manpower estimates for beam line construction; and a panel discussion on strategies for developing and managing Collaborative Access Teams. The actions taken at the 1989 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  4. No Photon Left Behind: Advanced Optics at ARPA-E for Buildings and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    Key technology challenges in building efficiency and solar energy utilization require transformational optics, plasmonics and photonics technologies. We describe advanced optical technologies funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy. Buildings technologies include a passive daytime photonic cooler, infra-red computer vision mapping for energy audit, and dual-band electrochromic windows based on plasmonic absorption. Solar technologies include novel hybrid energy converters that combine high-efficiency photovoltaics with concentrating solar thermal collection and storage. Because the marginal cost of thermal energy storage is low, these systems enable generation of inexpensive and dispatchable solar energy that can be deployed when the sun doesn't shine. The solar technologies under development include nanoparticle plasmonic spectrum splitting, Rugate filter interference structures and photovoltaic cells that can operate efficiently at over 400° C.

  5. Development and design of advanced two-photon microscope used in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, M. S.; Popov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    This work represents the real steps to development and design advanced two-photon microscope by efforts of laboratory staff. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. We are presenting here module-based microscopy system which provides an opportunity to looking for new applications of this setup depending on laboratories needs using with galvo and resonant scanners.

  6. Residual stress measurement with high energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winholtz, R. A.; Haeffner, D. R.; Green, R.E.L.; Varma, R.; Hammond, D.

    2000-03-02

    Preliminary measurements with high energy x-rays from the SRI CAT 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon show great promise for the measurement of stress and strain using diffraction. Comparisons are made with neutron measurements. Measurements of strains in a 2 mm thick 304 stainless steel weld show that excellent strain and spatial resolutions are possible. With 200 {micro}m slits, strain resolutions of 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} were achieved.

  7. Advances in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Hardware and Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Marina; Garcia, Ernest V

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques remain today's most reliable modality for the assessment and quantification of myocardial perfusion. In recent years, the field has experienced tremendous progress both in terms of dedicated cameras for cardiac applications and software techniques for image reconstruction. The most recent advances in single-photon emission computed tomography hardware and software are reviewed, focusing on how these improvements have resulted in an even more powerful diagnostic tool with reduced injected radiation dose and acquisition time.

  8. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.

  9. A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandai, S.; Fishburn, M.W.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520

  10. A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandai, S.; Fishburn, M.W.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520

  11. The magnetic and diagnostics systems for the Advanced Photon Source self-amplified spontaneously emitting FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Gluskin, E; Dejus, Roger J; Hartog, P K D; Deriy, B N; Makarov, O A; Milton, S V; Moog, E R; Ogurtsov, V I; Trakhtenberg, E; Robinson, K E; Vasserman, I B; Vinokurov, N A; Xu, S

    1999-01-01

    A self-amplified spontaneously emitting (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) for the visible-to-ultraviolet spectral range is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The amplifier part of the FEL consists of twelve identical 2.7-m-long sections. Each section includes a 2.4-m-long, 33-mm-period hybrid undulator, a quadrupole lens, and a set of electron beam and radiation diagnostics equipment. The undulators will operate at a fixed magnetic gap (approx. 9.3 mm) with K=3.1. The electron beam position will be monitored using capacitive beam position monitors, YAG scintillators with imaging optics, and secondary emission detectors. The spatial distribution of the photon beam will be monitored by position sensitive detectors equipped with narrow-band filters. A high-resolution spectrograph will be used to observe the spectral distribution of the FEL radiation.

  12. Advances in Multi-Pixel Photon Counter technology: First characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G., E-mail: gbonanno@oact.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; Timpanaro, M.C. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-11

    Due to the recent advances in silicon photomultiplier technology, new types of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), also named Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) detectors have become recently available, demonstrating superior performance in terms of their most important electrical and optical parameters. This paper presents the latest characterization results of the novel Low Cross-Talk (LCT) MPPC families from Hamamatsu, where a noticeable fill-factor enhancement and cross-talk reduction is achieved. In addition, the newly adopted resin coating has been proven to yield improved photon detection capabilities in the 280–320 nm spectral range, making the new LCT MPPCs particularly suitable for emerging applications like Cherenkov Telescope Array, and Astroparticle Physics.

  13. Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Rashidinejad, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in photonic-assisted radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation (RF-AWG), with emphasis on programmable ultrabroadband microwave and millimeter-wave waveforms. The key enabling components in these techniques are programmable optical pulse shaping, frequency-to-time mapping via dispersive propagation, and high-speed photodetection. The main advantages and challenges of several different photonic RF-AWG schemes are discussed. We further review some proof-of-concept demonstrations of ultrabroadband RF-AWG applications, including high-resolution ranging and ultrabroadband non-line-of-sight channel compensation. Finally, we present recent progress toward RF-AWG with increased time aperture and time-bandwidth product.

  14. Benchmarking of Touschek Beam Lifetime Calculations for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, A.; Yang, B.

    2017-06-25

    Particle loss from Touschek scattering is one of the most significant issues faced by present and future synchrotron light source storage rings. For example, the predicted, Touschek-dominated beam lifetime for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Upgrade lattice in 48-bunch, 200-mA timing mode is only ∼ 2 h. In order to understand the reliability of the predicted lifetime, a series of measurements with various beam parameters was performed on the present APS storage ring. This paper first describes the entire process of beam lifetime measurement, then compares measured lifetime with the calculated one by applying the measured beam parameters. The results show very good agreement.

  15. Advances in the FDTD design and modeling of nano- and bio-photonics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Tuchin, Valery; Cheben, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the discussion of two recent unique applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation method to the design and modeling of advanced nano- and bio-photonic problems. The approach that is adopted here focuses on the potential of the FDTD methodology...... to the modeling of biophotonics applications including optical phase contrast microscope (OPCM) imaging of cells containing gold nanoparticles (NPs) as well as its potential application as a modality for in vivo flow cytometry configurations. The conclusion provides a justification for the selection of the two...

  16. Status of the Short-Pulse X-ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassiri, A; Berenc, T G; Borland, M; Brajuskovic, B; Bromberek, D J; Carwardine, J; Decker, G; Emery, L; Fuerst, J D; Grelick, A E; Horan, D; Kaluzny, J; Lenkszus, F; Lill, R M; Liu, J; Ma, H; Sajaev, V; Smith, T L; Stillwell, B K; Waldschmidt, G J; Wu, G; Yang, B X; Yang, Y; Zholents, A; Byrd, J M; Doolittle, L R; Huang, G; Cheng, G; Ciovati, G; Dhakal, P; Eremeev, G V; Feingold, J J; Geng, R L; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Macha, K; Mammosser, J D; Matalevich, J; Palczewski, A D; Rimmer, R A; Wang, H; Wilson, K M; Wiseman, M; Li, Z

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) Project at Argonne will include generation of short-pulse x-rays based on Zholents deflecting cavity scheme. We have chosen superconducting (SC) cavities in order to have a continuous train of crabbed bunches and flexibility of operating modes. In collaboration with Jefferson Laboratory, we are prototyping and testing a number of single-cell deflecting cavities and associated auxiliary systems with promising initial results. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we are working to develop state-of-the-art timing, synchronization, and differential rf phase stability systems that are required for SPX. Collaboration with Advanced Computations Department at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is looking into simulations of complex, multi-cavity geometries with lower- and higher-order modes waveguide dampers using ACE3P. This contribution provides the current R&D status of the SPX project.

  17. Large-scale photonic integration for advanced all-optical routing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholes, Steven C.

    Advanced InP-based photonic integrated circuits are a critical technology to manage the increasing bandwidth demands of next-generation all-optical networks. Integrating many of the discrete functions required in optical networks into a single device provides a reduction in system footprint and optical losses by eliminating the fiber coupling junctions between components. This translates directly into increased system reliability and cost savings. Although many key network components have been realized via InP-based monolithic integration over the years, truly large-scale photonic ICs have only recently emerged in the marketplace. This lag-time has been mostly due to historically low device yields. In all-optical routing applications, large-scale photonic ICs may be able to address two of the key roadblocks associated with scaling modern electronic routers to higher capacities---namely, power and size. If the functions of dynamic wavelength conversion and routing are moved to the optical layer, we can eliminate the need for power-hungry optical-to-electrical (O/E) and electrical-to-optical (E/O) data conversions at each router node. Additionally, large-scale photonic ICs could reduce the footprint of such a system by combining the similar functions of each port onto a single chip. However, robust design and manufacturing techniques that will enable high-yield production of these chips must be developed. In this work, we demonstrate a monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) chip consisting of an array of eight 40-Gbps wavelength converters and a passive arrayed-waveguide grating router that functions as the packet-forwarding switch fabric of an all-optical router. The device represents one of the most complex InP photonic ICs ever reported, with more than 200 integrated functional elements in a single chip. Single-channel 40 Gbps wavelength conversion and channel switching using 231-1 PRBS data showed a power penalty as low as 4.5 dB with less than 2 W drive power

  18. Advances in two photon scanning and scanless microscopy technologies for functional neural circuit imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Simon R; Copeland, Caroline S; Foust, Amanda J; Quicke, Peter; Schuck, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial developments in technology for imaging neural circuits, raising the prospect of large scale imaging studies of neural populations involved in information processing, with the potential to lead to step changes in our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. In this article we will review some key recent advances: improved fluorophores for single cell resolution functional neuroimaging using a two photon microscope; improved approaches to the problem of scanning active circuits; and the prospect of scanless microscopes which overcome some of the bandwidth limitations of current imaging techniques. These advances in technology for experimental neuroscience have in themselves led to technical challenges, such as the need for the development of novel signal processing and data analysis tools in order to make the most of the new experimental tools. We review recent work in some active topics, such as region of interest segmentation algorithms capable of demixing overlapping signals, and new highly accurate algorithms for calcium transient detection. These advances motivate the development of new data analysis tools capable of dealing with spatial or spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, that scale well with pattern size.

  19. Mission analysis and performance comparison for an Advanced Solar Photon Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Wurm, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The so-called "compound solar sail", also known as "Solar Photon Thruster" (SPT), is a design concept, for which the two basic functions of the solar sail, namely light collection and thrust direction, are uncoupled. In this paper, we introduce a novel SPT concept, termed the Advanced Solar Photon Thruster (ASPT), which does not suffer from the simplified assumptions that have been made for the analysis of compound solar sails in previous studies. After having presented the equations that describe the force on the ASPT and after having performed a detailed design analysis, the performance of the ASPT with respect to the conventional flat solar sail (FSS) is investigated for three interplanetary mission scenarios: an Earth-Venus rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral towards the Sun, an Earth-Mars rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral away from the Sun, and an Earth-NEA rendezvous (to near-Earth asteroid 1996FG3), where a large change in orbital eccentricity is required. The investigated solar sails have realistic near-term characteristic accelerations between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/s 2. Our results show that an SPT is not superior to the flat solar sail unless very idealistic assumptions are made.

  20. Proceedings of the second users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    The second national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory -- held March 9--10, 1988, at Argonne -- brought scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories together to review the status of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and status reports in these proceedings include the current status of the APS with respect to accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities; scientific papers on frontiers in synchrotron applications summaries of reports on workshops held by users in certain topical groups; reports in research and development activities in support of the APS at other synchrotron facilities; and noted from a discussion of APS user access policy. In addition, actions taken by the APS Users Organization and its Executive Committee are documented in this report.

  1. Measurements of nonlinear harmonic generation at the Advanced Photon Source's SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Borland, M; Dejus, Roger J; Den Hartog, P K; Erdmann, M; Fawley, W M; Freund, H P; Gluskin, E; Huang, Z; Kim, K J; Lewellen, J W; Li, Y; Lumpkin, Alex H; Milton, S V; Moog, E; Nassiri, A; Sajaev, Vadim; Wiemerslage, G; Yang, B X

    2002-01-01

    SASE saturation was recently achieved at the Advanced Photon Source's SASE FEL in the low-energy undulator test line at 530 nm and 385 nm. The electron beam microbunching becomes more and more prominent until saturation is achieved. This bunching causes nonlinear harmonic emission that extends the usefulness of a SASE system in achieving shorter FEL wavelengths for the same electron beam energy. We have investigated the intensity of the fundamental and second harmonic undulator radiation as a function of distance along the undulator line and present the experimental results and compare them to numerical simulations. In addition, we have measured the single-shot second harmonic spectra as well as the simultaneous fundamental and second harmonic spectra and present the experimental results.

  2. UV-VUV diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, P D; Benson, C; Erdmann, M; Lumpkin, Alex H; Makarov, O; Petra, M; Tieman, B; Trakhtenberg, E; Wiemerslage, G

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) uses diagnostics between undulator sections to characterize the light and the electron beam. These diagnostics enable z-dependent measurements of the exponential growth of the radiation and of the microbunching. The original diagnostics were designed for visible light. To enable measurements down to 265 nm, UV-enhanced cameras and fused-silica lenses have been installed. We have now designed a diagnostics suite that will enable us to continue measurements down to 50 nm using reflective optics and back-illuminated CCD cameras operating in vacuum. We describe the enhancements to the diagnostics for operation in the UV and VUV.

  3. Proceedings of the first users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The first national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory - held November 13-14, 1986, at Argonne - brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to exchange information on the design of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and potential participating research team (PRT) plans are documented in these proceedings. Topics covered include the current status of the project, an overview of the APS conceptual design, scientific opportunities offered by the facility for synchrotron-radiation-related research, current proposals and funding mechanisms for beam lines, and user policies. A number of participants representing universities and private industry discussed plans for the possible formation of PRTs to build and use beam lines at the APS site. The meeting also provided an opportunity for potential users to organize their efforts to support and guide the facility's development.

  4. Pulsed sextupole injection for Beijing Advanced Photon Source with ultralow emittance

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, JIAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the physical design of the pulsed sextupole injection system for Beijing Advanced Photon Source (BAPS) with an ultralow emittance. The BAPS ring lattice is designed in such a way that two options of pulsed sextupole injection are allowed, i.e., with septum and pulsed sextupole in different drift spaces or in the same drift space. We give the magnetic parameters of the injection system and the optimal condition of the optical functions for both options. In addition, we find that the pulsed sextupole induces position-dependent dispersive effect and causes non-ignorable effect on the injection efficiency in a storage ring with a relatively small acceptance, which should be well considered.

  5. Lower Emittance Lattice for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Using Reverse Bending Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Berenc, T.; Sun, Y.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is pursuing an upgrade to the storage ring to a hybrid seven-bend-achromat design [1]. The nominal design provides a natural emittance of 67 pm [2]. By adding reverse dipole fields to several quadrupoles [3, 4] we can reduce the natural emittance to 41 pm while simultaneously providing more optimal beta functions in the insertion devices and increasing the dispersion function at the chromaticity sextupole magnets. The improved emittance results from a combination of increased energy loss per turn and a change in the damping partition. At the same time, the nonlinear dynamics performance is very similar, thanks in part to increased dispersion in the sextupoles. This paper describes the properties, optimization, and performance of the new lattice.

  6. Beam Loss Simulation and Collimator System Configurations for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, A.; Borland, M.

    2017-06-25

    The proposed multi-bend achromat lattice for the Advanced Photon Source upgrade (APS-U) has a design emittance of less than 70 pm. The Touschek loss rate is high: compared with the current APS ring, which has an average beam lifetime ~ 10 h, the simulated beam lifetime for APS-U is only ~2 h when operated in the high flux mode (I=200 mA in 48 bunches). An additional consequence of the short lifetime is that injection must be more frequent, which provides another potential source of particle loss. In order to provide information for the radiation shielding system evaluation and to avoid particle loss in sensitive locations around the ring (for example, insertion device straight sections), simulations of the detailed beam loss distribution have been performed. Several possible collimation configurations have been simulated and compared.

  7. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated.

  8. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  9. Simulation of Swap-Out Reliability For The Advance Photon Source Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.

    2017-06-01

    The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice relies on the use of swap-out injection to accommodate the small dynamic acceptance, allow use of unusual insertion devices, and minimize collective effects at high single-bunch charge. This, combined with the short beam lifetime, will make injector reliability even more important than it is for top-up operation. We used historical data for the APS injector complex to obtain probability distributions for injector up-time and down-time durations. Using these distributions, we simulated several years of swap-out operation for the upgraded lattice for several operatingmodes. The results indicate that obtaining very high availability of beam in the storage ring will require improvements to injector reliability.

  10. Towards the ultimate storage ring: the lattice design for Beijing Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Gang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A storage ring-based light source, Beijing Advanced Photon Source (BAPS) is proposed to store 5-GeV low-emittance electron beam and to provide high-brilliance coherent radiation. In this paper, we report our efforts of pushing down the emittance of BAPS to approach the so-called ultimate storage ring, while fixing the circumference to about 1200 m. To help dealing with the challenge of beam dynamics associated with the intrinsic very strong nonlinearities in an ultralow-emittance ring, a combination of several progressive technologies is used in the linear optics design and nonlinear optimization, such as modified theoretical minimum emittance cell with small-aperture magnets, quasi-3rd-order achromat, theoretical analyzer based on Lie Algebra and Hamiltonian analysis, multi-objective genetic algorithm, and frequency map analysis. These technologies enable us to obtain satisfactory beam dynamics in one lattice design with natural emittance of 75 pm.

  11. Status of the advanced photon source and its accelerator control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-Windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level, using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  12. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  13. Generation of Short X-Ray Pulses Using Crab Cavities at the Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Harkay, Katherine C; Chae, Yong-Chul; Decker, Glenn; Dejus, Roger J; Emery, Louis; Guo, Weiming; Horan, Douglas; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kustom, Robert; Mills, Dennis M; Milton, Stephen; Pile, Geoffery; Sajaev, Vadim; Shastri, Sarvjit D; Waldschmidt, Geoff J; White, Marion; Yang Bing Xin; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    There is growing interest within the user community to utilize the pulsed nature of synchrotron radiation from storage ring sources. Conventional third-generation light sources can provide pulses on the order of 100 ps but typically cannot provide pulses of about 1 ps that some users now require to advance their research programs. However, it was recently proposed by A. Zholents et al. to use rf orbit deflection to generate subpicosecond X-ray pulses.* In this scheme, two crab cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam, thus exciting longitudinally correlated vertical motion of the electrons. This makes it possible to spatially separate the radiation coming from different longitudinal parts of the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse, or an asymetrically cut crystal can be used to compress the radiation in time. In this paper, we present a feasibility study of this method applied to the Advanced Photon Source. We find th...

  14. Spatially Resolved Elemental Analysis, Spectroscopy and Diffraction at the GSECARS Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Stephen R.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Rivers, Mark L.; Eng, Peter; Lefticariu, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    X-ray microprobes (XRM) coupled with high-brightness synchrotron X-ray facilities are powerful tools for environmental biogeochemistry research. One such instrument, the XRM at the Geo Soil Enviro Center for Advanced Radiation Sources Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL) was recently improved as part of a canted undulator geometry upgrade of the insertion device port, effectively doubling the available undulator beam time and extending the operating energy of the branch supporting the XRM down to the sulfur K edge (2.3 keV). Capabilities include rapid, high-resolution, elemental imaging including fluorescence microtomography, microscale X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy including sulfur K edge capability, and microscale X-ray diffraction. These capabilities are advantageous for (i) two-dimensional elemental mapping of relatively large samples at high resolution, with the dwell times typically limited only by the count times needed to obtain usable counting statistics for low concentration elements, (ii) three-dimensional imaging of internal elemental distributions in fragile hydrated specimens, such as biological tissues, avoiding the need for physical slicing, (iii) spatially resolved speciation determinations of contaminants in environmental materials, and (iv) identification of contaminant host phases. In this paper, we describe the XRM instrumentation, techniques, applications demonstrating these capabilities, and prospects for further improvements associated with the proposed upgrade of the APS.

  15. Progress on the Design of the Storage Ring Vacuum System for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, B.; Billett, B.; Brajuskovic, B.; Carter, J.; Kirkus, E.; Lale, M.; Lerch, J.; Noonan, J.; O' Neill, M.; Rocke, B.; Suthar, K.; Walters, D.; Wiemerslage, G.; Zientek, J.

    2017-06-20

    Recent work on the design of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project (APS-U) includes: revising the vacuum system design to accommodate a new lattice with reverse bend magnets, modifying the designs of vacuum chambers in the FODO sections for more intense incident synchrotron radiation power, modifying the design of rf-shielding bellows liners for better performance and reliability, modifying photon absorber designs to make better use of available space, and integrated planning of components needed in the injection, extraction and rf cavity straight sections. An overview of progress in these areas is presented.

  16. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, T. C.; Fischetti, R.; Rosenbaum, G.; Bunker, G. B.; Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT)

    2000-06-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40×200 μm (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5×10 13 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate scanner and a 1 k×1 k CCD detector optimized for small-angle applications. Future developments will include, in vacuum beam monitoring, longer camera lengths (6-8 m), and optimizations to improve first-order resolution in small-angle applications.

  17. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, T C; Rosenbaum, G; Bunker, G B

    2000-01-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40x200 mu m (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate sc...

  18. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  19. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

  20. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  1. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-08-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-), e(+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy using sphericalapplicators in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eBuge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy is standard care for locally advanced prostatecancer (stage pT3R1. Intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy offers several advantages overexternal beam radiotherapy, and several systems are now available for its delivery, using sphericalapplicators which require only limited shielding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibilityof this technique for the prostate bed.Materials & Methods: Applicators were assessed using MRI image data and cadavericdissection. In cadavers, targeted tissues, defined as a urethral section, both neurovascular bundlesections, the bladder neck and the beds of the seminal vesicles, were marked with metallic surgicalclips. Distances between clips and applicator were measured using CT. A dosimetric study of theapplication of 12 Gy at 5mm depth was performed using CT images of prostatectomized cadavers.Results: Using MRI images from 34 prostate cancer patients, we showed that the ideal applicatordiameter ranges from 45 to 70 mm. Using applicators of different sizes to encompass the prostate bedin nine cadavers, we showed that the distance between target tissues and applicator was less than 2mm for all target tissues except the upper extremity of the seminal vesicles (19 mm. Dosimetric studyshowed a good dose distribution in all target tissues in contact with the applicator, with a lowprobability of rectum and bladder complication.Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy of the prostate bed is feasible, with good coverage oftargeted tissues. Clinical study of safety and efficacy is now required.

  3. Conceptual Design of Front Ends for the Advanced Photon Source Multi-bend Achromats Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Lee, S. H.; Yang, B.; Abliz, M.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    The proposed Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade from a double-bend achromats (DBA) to multi-bend achromats (MBA) lattice with ring energy change from 7 GeV to 6 GeV and beam current from 100 mA to 200 mA poses new challenges for front ends. All front ends must be upgraded to fulfill the following requirements: 1) handle the high heat load from two insertion devices in either inline or canted configuration, 2) include a clearing magnet in the front end to deflect and dump any electrons in case the electrons escape from the storage ring during swap-out injection with the safety shutters open, 3) incorporate the next generation x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) into the front end to meet the new stringent beam stability requirements. This paper presents the evaluation of the existing APS front ends and standardizes the insertion device (ID) front ends into two types: one for the single beam and one for the canted beams. The conceptual design of high heat load front end (HHLFE) and canted undulator front end (CUFE) for APS MBA upgrade is presented.

  4. Towards the ultimate storage ring: The lattice design for Beijing Advanced Photon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gang; JIAO Yi

    2013-01-01

    A storage ring-based light source,Beijing Advanced Photon Source (BAPS),is proposed to store a 5 GeV low-emittance electron beam and to provide high-brilliance coherent radiation.In this paper,we report our efforts of pushing down the emittance of BAPS to approach the so-called ultimate storage ring,while fixing the circumference to about 1200 m.To help deal with the challenge of beam dynamics associated with the intrinsic,very strong nonlinearities in an ultralow-emittance ring,a combination of several progressive technologies is used in the linear optics design and nonlinear optimization,such as a modified theoretical minimum emittance cell with smallaperture magnets,quasi-3rd-order achromat,theoretical analyzer based on Lie Algebra and Hamiltonian analysis,multi-objective genetic algorithm and frequency map analysis.These technologies enable us to obtain satisfactory beam dynamics in one lattice design with natural emittance of 75 pm.

  5. Environmental assessment of the proposed 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of a 6- to 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source known as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were evaluated. Key elements considered include on- and off-site radiological effects; socioeconomic effects; and impacts to aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, water and air quality, cultural resources, and threatened or endangered species. Also incorporated are the effects of decisions made as a result of the preliminary design (Title I) being prepared. Mitigation plans to further reduce impacts are being developed. These plans include coordination with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and other responsible agencies to mitigate potential impacts to wetlands. This mitigation includes providing habitat of comparable ecological value to assure no net loss of wetlands. These mitigation actions would be permitted and monitored by COE. A data recovery plan to protect cultural resources has been developed and approved, pursuant to a Programmatic Agreement among the US Department of Energy, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office. Applications for National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and air emissions permits have been submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), respectively. 71 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Tagged photon facility at Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore: Possible scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M Pant

    2006-05-01

    Photoproduction of in nuclear medium with the ELSA facility at Bonn is discussed in the context of medium modification of hadronic properties. Utilization of Indus-2 at CAT, Indore for producing tagged bremsstrahlung photons and laser backscattered photons has been explored with a comparison between the two techniques for producing tagged high energy photons for the first time in the country with emphasis on the ADSS programme to have a precise information of (; ) reactions.

  7. ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozo Torres, J.M.; Kumar, P.; Lo Cascio, D.M.R.; Khanna, A.; Dumon, P.; Delbeke, D.; Baets, R.; Fournier, M.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Fulbert, L.; Zimmermann, L.; Tillack, B.; Tian, H.; Aalto, T.; O'Brien, P.; Deptuck, D.; Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Gale, D.

    2012-01-01

    ePIXfab brings silicon photonics within reach of European small and medium sized enterprises, thereby building on its track record and its integration into Europractice. To this end, ePIXfab offers affordable access to standardized active and passive silicon photonic IC and packaging technology, a p

  8. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  9. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tianhuan [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  10. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  11. Instrumentation and beam dynamics study of advanced electron-photon facility in Indiana University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tianhuan

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips' geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been speci ed. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  12. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W. P.; Knott, M. J.; Lenkszus, F. R.; Kraimer, M. R.; Daly, R. T.; Arnold, N. D.; Anderson, M. D.; Anderson, J. B.; Zieman, R. C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  13. Advances and Perspectives in Photonic Technology Research in the European Information Society Technologies Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasme, Didier; Minot, Christophe; Ohman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Ackaert, Ann; Demeester, Peter; Lagasse, Paul; Politi, Christina; O'Mahony, Mike; Saniter, Juergen; Patzak, Erwin; Rao, Sathya; Vogel, Paul

    2004-08-01

    The 5th framework programme, which the European Union launched in 1998, supported a wide range of industrial areas among which “Information Society Technologies (IST)” was one of the focus areas. The present paper presents a short overview of the research on photonic component technologies within the IST programme. It also presents the views on the future evolution of photonic component technologies for optical communications, which have emerged from a road map exercise within the thematic network OPTIMIST.

  14. High-Pressure Experimental Studies on Geo-Liquids Using Synchrotron Radiation at the Advanced Photon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Wang; Guoyin Shen

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in studying silicate, carbonate, and metallic liquids of geo-logical and geophysical importance at high pressure and temperature, using the large-volume high-pressure devices at the third-generation synchrotron facility of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These integrated high-pressure facilities now offer a unique combina-tion of experimental techniques that allow researchers to investigate structure, density, elasticity, vis-cosity, and interfacial tension of geo-liquids under high pressure, in a coordinated and systematic fashion. Experimental techniques are described, along with scientific highlights. Future developments are also discussed.

  15. Cascaded interactions between Raman induced solitons and dispersive waves in photonic crystal fibers at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, Rodislav; Mitschke, Fedor; Zhavoronkov, Nickolai

    2010-12-06

    The complex mechanism of multiple interactions between solitary and dispersive waves at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiment and numerical simulations. Injection of high power negatively chirped pulses near zero dispersion frequency results in an effective soliton fission process with multiple interactions between red shifted Raman solitons and dispersive waves. These interactions may result in relative acceleration of solitons with further collisions between them of quasi-elastic or quasi-plastic kinds. In the spectral domain these processes result in enhancement of certain wavelength regions within the spectrum or development of a new significant band at the long wavelength side of the spectrum.

  16. Comparison of hyperfractionated conformal photon with conformal mixed neutron/photon irradiation in locally advanced prostate cancer; Comparaison d`une irradiation hyperfractionnee conformationnelle par photons seuls et d`une irradiation conformationelle combinant photons et neutrons pour le traitement des tumeurs de la prostate localement avancees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, J.D.; Shamsa, F.; Maughan, R.L.; Duclos, M.; Orton, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In an attempt to improve the probability of complication-free local control for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, a series of dose-finding studies have been conducted at wayne STATE University using conformal neutron and hyperfractionated photon irradiation. In total, 96 patents with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3/T4 N0/N1 M0, and/or Gleason score {>=} 8) were treated in two prospective studies. Forty-seven patients received conformal neutron/photon (15 NGy + 18 PhGy) and 49 patients were treated in a dose-escalation study using conformal photons (25 patients/78 Gy and 24 patients/83 Gy minimum dose). The median follow-up for both studies was 20 months (range 6-36 months). There was no significant difference in the rate of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) or gastro-urinary (GU) morbidity between the two groups. However, the neutron treated patients has a significantly higher rate of moderate (14 %) and severe (12 %) hip stiffness. The rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline and 12-month negative biopsy were comparable. In conclusion, the therapeutic gain of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with photon hyperfractionation to 83 Gy appears identical to that seen with the mixed neutron-photon dose of 15 NGy + 18 PhGy. Further efforts at improving the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer should be undertaken. (author). 20 refs.

  17. Multi-Beam Interference Advances and Applications: Nano-Electronics, Photonic Crystals, Metamaterials, Subwavelength Structures, Optical Trapping, and Biomedical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Gaylord

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in recent years has greatly advanced the understanding and capabilities of multi-beam interference (MBI. With this technology it is now possible to generate a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions at the micro- and nano-scale over a large length/area/volume. These patterns may be used directly or recorded in photo-sensitive materials using multi-beam interference lithography (MBIL to accomplish subwavelength patterning. Advances in MBI and MBIL and a very wide range of applications areas including nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterials, subwavelength structures, optical trapping, and biomedical structures are reviewed and put into a unified perspective.

  18. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  19. Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Notte, Mario; Troia, Benedetto; Muciaccia, Tommaso; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2014-03-10

    Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10(-8) RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator.

  20. Recent Advances in Gas and Chemical Detection by Vernier Effect-Based Photonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Notte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10−8 RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator.

  1. From advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving: perspectives for photonics sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, Jacques; Bouyé, Clémentine

    2016-03-01

    Optics components entered in the automotive vehicle one century ago with headlamps and since then move towards even more sophisticated designs in lighting functions. Photonics sensors are just entering now in this market through driver assistance, in complement of incumbent ultrasonic and radar technologies. Gain of market shares is expected for this components with autonomous driving, that was few years ago a nice dream and whose early results exceed surprisingly expectations of roadmaps and historic OEM have quickly joined the course launched by Google Company 5 years ago. Technological components, among them CMOS camera followed by Laser Scanners, cost-effective flash LIDAR are already experimenting their first miles in real condition and new consumers in South Asia plebiscite this new way to drive cars .The issue is still for photonics companies to move from well suited technological solution to mass-production components with corresponding cost reduction. MEMS components that follow the same curve 15 years ago (with market entries in airbags, tire pressure monitoring systems…) experimented the hard pressure on price for wide market adoption. Besides price, which is a CFO issue, photonic technologies will keep in place if they can both reassure OEM CEO and let CTO and designers dream. Reassurance will be through higher level of standardization and reliability of these components whereas dream will be linked to innovative sensing application, e.g spectroscopy.

  2. Two photon fluorescence imaging of lipid membrane domains and potentials using advanced fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilin, Vasyl; Darwich, Zeinab; Richert, Ludovic; Didier, Pascal; Klymchenko, Andrey; Mély, Yves

    2013-02-01

    Biomembranes are ordered and dynamic nanoscale structures critical for cell functions. The biological functions of the membranes strongly depend on their physicochemical properties, such as electrostatics, phase state, viscosity, polarity and hydration. These properties are essential for the membrane structure and the proper folding and function of membrane proteins. To monitor these properties, fluorescence techniques and notably, two-photon microscopy appear highly suited due to their exquisite sensitivity and their capability to operate in complex biological systems, such as living cells and tissues. In this context, we have developed multiparametric environment-sensitive fluorescent probes tailored for precise location in the membrane bilayer. We notably developed probes of the 3-hydroxychromone family, characterized by an excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction, which generates two tautomeric emissive species with well-separated emission bands. As a consequence, the response of these probes to changes in their environment could be monitored through changes in the ratios of the two bands, as well as through changes in the fluorescence lifetimes. Using two-photon ratiometric imaging and FLIM, these probes were used to monitor the surface membrane potential, and were applied to detect apoptotic cells and image membrane domains.

  3. Upgrade of IMCA-CAT Bending Magnet Beamline 17-BM for Macromolecular Crystallography at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, I.; Huang, R.; Graber, T.; Meron, M.; Muir, J.L.; Lavender, W.; Battaile, K.; Mulichak, A.M.; Keefe, L.J. (UC)

    2007-05-15

    Pharmaceutical research depends on macromolecular crystallography as a tool in drug design and development. To solve the de novo three-dimensional atomic structure of a protein, it is essential to know the phases of the X-rays scattered by a protein crystal. Experimental phases can be obtained from multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiments. Dedicated to macromolecular crystallography, the IMCA-CAT bending magnet beamline at sector 17 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was upgraded to provide the energy resolution required to successfully perform synchrotron radiation-based MAD phasing of protein crystal structures. A collimating mirror was inserted into the beam path upstream of a double-crystal monochromator, thus increasing the monochromatic beam throughput in a particular bandwidth without sacrificing the energy resolution of the system. The beam is focused horizontally by a sagittally bent crystal and vertically by a cylindrically bent mirror, delivering a beam at the sample of 130 {micro}m (vertically) x 250 {micro}m (horizontally) FWHM. As a result of the upgrade, the beamline now operates with an energy range of 7.5 x 17.5 keV, delivers 8 x 10{sup +11} photons/sec at 12.398 keV at the sample, and has an energy resolution of {delta}E/E = 1.45 x 10{sup -4} at 10 keV, which is suitable for MAD experiments.

  4. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P. L.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Wang, J.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B. H.

    2007-09-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  5. Accelerated rogue waves generated by soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum formation in photonic-crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, Rodislav; Babushkin, Ihar

    2012-12-15

    Soliton fusion is a fascinating and delicate phenomenon that manifests itself in optical fibers in case of interaction between copropagating solitons with small temporal and wavelength separation. We show that the mechanism of acceleration of a trailing soliton by dispersive waves radiated from the preceding one provides necessary conditions for soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic-crystal fibers. As a result of fusion, large-intensity robust light structures arise and propagate over significant distances. In the presence of small random noise the delicate condition for the effective fusion between solitons can easily be broken, making the fusion-induced giant waves a rare statistical event. Thus oblong-shaped giant accelerated waves become excellent candidates for optical rogue waves.

  6. Status of the Development of Superconducting Undulators for Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Gluskin, E.; Emma, P.

    2017-06-01

    Development of superconducting undulator (SCU) technology continues at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The experience of building and successful operating the first short-length, 16-mm period length superconducting undulator SCU0 paved the way for a 1-m long, 18-mm period device— SCU18-1— which has been in operation since May 2015. The APS SCU team has also built and tested a 1.5-m long, 21-mm period length undulator as a part of the LCLS SCU R&D program, aimed at demonstration of SCU technology availability for free electron lasers. This undulator successfully achieved all the requirements including a phase error of 5° RMS. Our team has recently completed one more 1-m long, 18-mm period length undulator— SCU18-2— that is replacing the SCU0. We are also working on a helical SCU for the APS. The status of these projects will be presented.

  7. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. A feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Tozzi, Angelo; Castiglioni, Simona; Clerici, Elena; Reggiori, Giacomo; Lobefalo, Francesca [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano-Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland). Medical Physics Unit; Scorsetti, Marta

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To compare advanced treatment techniques with photons and protons as a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal glands metastases. Materials and Methods: Planning computer tomographic (CT) scans of 10 patients were selected. A total dose of 45 Gy in 7.5 Gy fractions was prescribed. Organs at risk (OAR) were liver and kidneys. Dose-volume metrics were defined to quantify quality of plans assessing target coverage and sparing of organs at risk. Plans for RapidArc, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), dynamic conformal arcs, 3D conformal static fields, and intensity modulated protons were compared. The main planning objective for the clinical target volume (CTV) was to cover 100% of the volume with 95% (V{sub 95%} = 100%) and to keep the maximum dose below 107% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 107%} = 0%). Planning objective for planning target volume (PTV) was V{sub 95%} > 80%. For kidneys, the general planning objective was V{sub 15Gy} < 35% and for liver V{sub 15Gy} < (liver volume-700 cm{sup 3}). Results: All techniques achieved the minimum and maximum dose objective for CTV and PTV, D{sub 5-95%} ranged from 1 Gy (protons) to 1.6 Gy (conformal static fields) on CTV. Maximal organ at risk sparing was achieved by protons. RapidArc presented the second lowest dose bath (V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose) after protons and the best conformality together with IMRT. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to adrenal glands metastases is achievable with several advanced techniques with either photons or protons. The intensity modulated approaches using either static fields, dynamic arcs or protons are superior to the other conformal solutions. For their simplicity, IMRT or RapidArc should be considered as the first option radiation treatment for those patients not eligible for proton treatment. (orig.)

  8. Paediatric Photon and Proton Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Based on Advanced Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Josefine S.

    -up and medication, and may have a considerable impact on the quality of life of the childhood cancer survivor. The major challenge in modern paediatric cancer therapy is therefore to reduce the incidence of treatment-related toxicities, while maintaining or improving the high cure-rates. In this thesis, we study...... the diagnostic information from PET. In PET imaging, the patient is administered a radioactive isotope intravenously, which adds to the diagnostic radiation dose burden of the patient. The application of PET for paediatric patients may therefore be regarded as controversial, considering the long expected overall...... of patients, we found that although radiotherapy with protons instead of photons may provide several benefits in terms of reduced irradiated volumes of healthy tissue and lower doses to organs near the tumour, these benefits cannot be taken for granted. If proton therapy requires slightly larger safety...

  9. Radiation therapy planning with photons and protons for early and advanced breast cancer: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Antony J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative radiation therapy substantially decreases local relapse and moderately reduces breast cancer mortality, but can be associated with increased late mortality due to cardiovascular morbidity and secondary malignancies. Sophistication of breast irradiation techniques, including conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy, has been shown to markedly reduce cardiac and lung irradiation. The delivery of more conformal treatment can also be achieved with particle beam therapy using protons. Protons have superior dose distributional qualities compared to photons, as dose deposition occurs in a modulated narrow zone, called the Bragg peak. As a result, further dose optimization in breast cancer treatment can be reasonably expected with protons. In this review, we outline the potential indications and benefits of breast cancer radiotherapy with protons. Comparative planning studies and preliminary clinical data are detailed and future developments are considered.

  10. All-fiber photonic devices and system for advanced optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyi; Qin, Zixiong; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Shuzhong; Kai, Guiyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Feng, Dejun; Zhao, Chunliu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Ning, Ding

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the different studies we have performed at the research level regarding the design and implementation of a photonic wavelength division multiplexing layer providing transparent transport services to client layer. Such a network requires a number of enabling factors to be accessed in order to become a reality. Among these factors are the availability of high- capacity WDM transmission systems and efficient optical routing nodes based on mature technology, etc. In this paper, based on several key build blocks we developed such as fiber lasers, flattened EDFA's, and WADM's, an all-fiber WDM system was demonstrated. A cost effective alternative to OSA was proposed.

  11. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  12. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Adam [National Security Technologies, LLC; Carlson, Carl [National Security Technologies, LLC; Young, Jason [National Security Technologies, LLC; Curtis, Alden [National Security Technologies, LLC; Jensen, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, Kyle [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yeager, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fezza, Kamel [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-07-08

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Advances in pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Azazrm, AhmadReza; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharapapagh, Esmail

    2015-01-01

    The collimator in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is an important part of the imaging chain. One of the most important collimators that used in research, preclinical study, small animal, and organ imaging is the pinhole collimator. Pinhole collimator can improve the tradeoff between sensitivity and resolution in comparison with conventional parallel-hole collimator and facilities diagnosis. However, a major problem with pinhole collimator is a small field of view (FOV). Multi-pinhole collimator has been investigated in order to increase the sensitivity and FOV with a preserved spatial resolution. The geometry of pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators is a critical factor in the image quality and plays a key role in SPECT imaging. The issue of the material and geometry for pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators have been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of SPECT imaging. On the other hand, recent developments in collimator optimization have heightened the need for appropriate reconstruction algorithms for pinhole SPECT imaging. Therefore, iterative reconstruction algorithms were introduced to minimize the undesirable effect on image quality. Current researches have focused on geometry and configuration of pinhole and multi-pinhole collimation rather than reconstruction algorithm. The lofthole and multi-lofthole collimator are samples of novel designs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review on recent researches in the pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators for SPECT imaging.

  14. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of advantages over "frame driven" recording devices for some important applications. For example we have built open face and sealed tube cross delay line detectors used for biological fluorescence lifetime imaging, observation of flare stars, orbital satellites and space debris with the GALEX satellite, and time resolved imaging of the Crab Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina substrate. The charge cloud is matched to the anode period so that it is collected on several neighboring fingers to ensure an accurate event charge centroid can be determined. Each finger of the anode is connected to a low noise charge sensitive amplifier and followed by subsequent A/D conversion of individual strip charge values and a hardware

  15. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  16. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH FAST FIBER-OPTIC BEAM LOSS MONITORS FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE STORAGE RING SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Shang, H.

    2017-06-25

    Fast fiber-optic (FFO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) installed with the first two superconducting undulators (SCUs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring have proven to be a useful diagnostic for measuring deposited charge (energy) during rapid beam loss events. The first set of FFOBLMs were installed outside the cryostat of the short SCU, a 0.33-m long device, above and below the beam centerline. The second set are mounted with the first 1.1-mlong SCU within the cryostat, on the outboard and inboard sides of the vacuum chamber. The next 1.1-m-long SCU is scheduled to replace the short SCU later in 2016 and will be fitted with FFOBLMs in a manner similar to original 1.1-m device. The FFOBLMs were employed to set timing and voltage for the abort kicker (AK) system. The AK helps to prevent quenching of the SCUs during beam dumps [1] by directing the beam away from the SC magnet windings. The AK is triggered by the Machine Protection System (MPS). In cases when the AK fails to prevent quenching, the FFOBLMs show that losses often begin before detection by the MPS.

  17. Progress on the Development of the Next Generation X-ray Beam Position Monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Yang, B.X.; Decker, G.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are ke y elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The next generat ion XBPMs for high heat load front ends (HHL FEs) have been designed to meet these requirements by utilizing Cu K-edge x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from a pair of copper absorbers and have been installed at the front ends (FEs) of the APS. Com missioning data showed a significant performance improvement over the existing photoemission-based XBPMs. While a similar design concept can be applied for the canted undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0-mrad, the lower beam power (< 10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scat tering from the diamond blades placed edge-on to the x- ray beam. A prototype of the Compton scattering XBPM system was i nstalled at 24-ID-A in May 2015. In this report, the design and test results for XRF-based XBPM and Compton scattering based XBPM are presented. Ongoing research related to the development of the next generation XBPMs on thermal contac t resistance of a joint between two solid bodies is also discussed

  18. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (cost solutions based on Compton scattering from a diamond placed edge-on to the x-ray beam. Because of the high peak power density of the x-ray beams, this diamond experiences high temperatures and has to be clamped to a water-cooled heat spreader using thermal interface materials (TIMs), which play a key role in reducing the temperature of the diamond. To evaluate temperature changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This paper presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.

  19. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. The BioCAT undulator beamline 18ID: a facility for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, R; Stepanov, S; Rosenbaum, G; Barrea, R; Black, E; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Kondrashkina, E; Kropf, A J; Wang, S; Zhang, Ke; Irving, T C; Bunker, G B

    2004-09-01

    The 18ID undulator beamline of the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL, USA, is a high-performance instrument designed for, and dedicated to, the study of partially ordered and disordered biological materials using the techniques of small-angle X-ray scattering, fiber diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The beamline and associated instrumentation are described in detail and examples of the representative experimental results are presented.

  2. Brillouin Scattering With Simultaneous X-Ray Diffraction at GSECARS, Advanced Photon Source: Toward Determination of Absolute Pressure Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, J. D.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Lakshtanov, D. L.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Shen, G.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Perrillat, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, B.

    2006-12-01

    As one of the primary goals of the Elasticity Grand Challenge initiative and a COMPRES Infrastructure Development Project, a Brillouin spectrometer has been designed and installed at a synchrotron beam line (GSECARS, Sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source). This facility allows one to simultaneously measure sound velocities (by Brillouin scattering) and density (by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements of the volume) on small single crystals at high pressure and/or temperature. One of the main motivations for this work was to perform measurements at high pressure on a variety of materials that would be useful as pressure standards for high-pressure research. It is now well known that through simultaneous velocity and density measurements at high pressure, one can solve for the pressure without resort to secondary standards such as the ruby pressure scale. Such measurements have thus far been carried out with several potential standards, such as NaCl and MgO. Single-crystal samples were loaded into diamond anvil cells along with ruby chips, and samples of standard metals such as Pt and Au. For NaCl and MgO, Brillouin spectra recording the longitudinal and transverse sound velocities, and simultaneous XRD were performed up to pressures of about 30 GPa. In addition, the velocities and density of polycrystalline B2 phase of NaCl were measured to >70 GPa. In this talk we describe this new facility and the measurements made thus far on NaCl and MgO. We further discuss the implications of our results on existing pressure scales.

  3. Advanced Photonic Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    T. Cooper, C. Lopes, M. Lindgren, International Sol‐gel conference 2015,  Kyoto , Japan,  September 2015.  Distribution A: Approved for public release...Comparison between 8‐HQL and ascorbic acid in the synthesis. For ascorbic acid, Geitner et Al.30 growth  protocol  was used since  no bipyramids were

  4. Programmable Quantum Photonic Processor Using Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    carbon nanotubes , as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. The...demonstrations, we leveraged an advanced silicon photonics foundry process (OPSIS) to integrate spectral stabilization and filtering of the pump field ...and ballistic quantum computing. Single photon sources based on atomic emitters have improved greatly over recent years -- for example, emission from

  5. Broadband photon time of flight spectroscopy: advanced spectroscopic analysis for ensuring safety and performance of pharmaceutical tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamran, Faisal; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersson-Engels, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    We report on extended spectroscopic analysis of pharmaceutical tablets performed with broadband photon time-of-flight absorption/scaring spectroscopy. Precise monitoring of absorption and scattering spectra enables cost-efficient monitoring of key safety and performance parameters of the drugs....

  6. Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Adam L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-01-21

    By leveraging advances in semiconductor microfabrication technologies, chip-integrated optical biosensors are poised to make an impact as scalable and multiplexable bioanalytical measurement tools for lab-on-a-chip applications. In particular, waveguide-based optical sensing technology appears to be exceptionally amenable to chip integration and miniaturization, and, as a result, the recent literature is replete with examples of chip-integrated waveguide sensing platforms developed to address a wide range of contemporary analytical challenges. As an overview of the most recent advances within this dynamic field, this review highlights work from the last 2-3 years in the areas of grating-coupled, interferometric, photonic crystal, and microresonator waveguide sensors. With a focus towards device integration, particular emphasis is placed on demonstrations of biosensing using these technologies within microfluidically controlled environments. In addition, examples of multiplexed detection and sensing within complex matrices--important features for real-world applicability--are given special attention.

  7. A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, L.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Maser, J.; Rodrigues, W.

    1999-11-02

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 {micro}m (v) x 0.6 {micro}m (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10{sup 9} photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 {micro}m in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (L{sub a} line) of 80 attograms/{micro}m{sup 2} for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique.

  8. Recent Advances and Open Questions in Neutrino-induced Quasi-elastic Scattering and Single Photon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.

  9. Multi-Beam Interference Advances and Applications: Nano-Electronics, Photonic Crystals, Metamaterials, Subwavelength Structures, Optical Trapping, and Biomedical Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas K. Gaylord; Guy M. Burrow

    2011-01-01

    Research in recent years has greatly advanced the understanding and capabilities of multi-beam interference (MBI). With this technology it is now possible to generate a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions at the micro- and nano-scale over a large length/area/volume. These patterns may be used directly or recorded in photo-sensitive materials using multi-beam interference lithography (MBIL) to accomplish subwavelength patterning. Advances in...

  10. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Nanowire photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Pauzauskie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of integrated electronic circuitry ranks among the most disruptive and transformative technologies of the 20th century. Even though integrated circuits are ubiquitous in modern life, both fundamental and technical constraints will eventually test the limits of Moore's law. Nanowire photonic circuitry constructed from myriad one-dimensional building blocks offers numerous opportunities for the development of next-generation optical information processors and spectroscopy. However, several challenges remain before the potential of nanowire building blocks is fully realized. We cover recent advances in nanowire synthesis, characterization, lasing, integration, and the eventual application to relevant technical and scientific questions.

  12. Integrated microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the reduction of size, weight, cost and power consumption. This article reviews the recent advances in this emerging field which is dubbed as integrated microwave photonics. Key integrated MWP technologies are reviewed and the prospective of the field is discussed.

  13. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  14. Recent advances in two-photon 3D laser lithography with self-Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Prabhakaran, Prem; Liu, Chao-Yuan; Bouriau, Michel; Gredy, Laetitia; Stephan, Olivier; Vergote, Thomas; Chaumeil, Hélène; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Chin-Te; Hsueh, Ya Hsun; Chung, Tien-Tung

    2013-09-01

    We review our recent results towards the development of a turnkey 3D laser printer, based on self-Q-switched microchip Nd:YAG lasers, with reproducible sub-100nm resolution, and with large-scale (cm) and fast-speed (cm/sec) capability at micron resolution. First of all, we report on line fabrication with 70nm lateral, and 150nm longitudinal resolutions without significant shrinking. This is due to the tight focusing with green visible wavelength, large numerical aperture, and excellent resin properties. Secondly, we report on two-photon sensitive photoacid generators that lead to efficient 3D microfabrication with epoxy SU-8 resin. Thirdly, we demonstrate high-speed microfabrication of large scale, millimeter size, scaffolds and cemtimeter height needle with high repetition rate (130Khz), and high average power (1W) amplified microchip laser. Finally we demonstrate the two-photon induced cross-linking of antibodies to determine the type of red blood cells in microfluidic channels.

  15. Multipurpose monochromator for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source x-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.; Cowan, P. L.; Montano, P. A.

    1995-02-01

    The Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) will construct x-ray beamlines at two sectors of the Advanced Photon Source facility. In most of the beamlines the first optical element will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator is a double-crystal, fixed exit scheme with a constant offset designed for ultrahigh vacuum windowless operation. In this design, the crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. Mechanical linkages are used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate water, gallium, or liquid-nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics.

  16. Operation of beam line facilities for real-time x-ray studies at Sector 7 of the advanced photon source. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Roy

    2003-09-10

    This Final Report documents the research accomplishments achieved in the first phase of operations of a new Advanced Photon Source beam line (7-ID MHATT-CAT) dedicated to real-time x-ray studies. The period covered by this report covers the establishment of a world-class facility for time-dependent x-ray studies of materials. During this period many new and innovative research programs were initiated at Sector 7 with support of this grant, most notably using a combination of ultrafast lasers and pulsed synchrotron radiation. This work initiated a new frontier of materials research: namely, the study of the dynamics of materials under extreme conditions of high intensity impulsive laser irradiation.

  17. Design and performance simulations of the bunch compressor for the Advanced Photon Source Low-Energy Undulator Test Line free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borland

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic bunch compressor was designed and commissioned to provide higher peak current for the Advanced Photon Source's Low-Energy Undulator Test Line free-electron laser [S. V. Milton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 988 (2000]. Of great concern is limiting emittance growth due to coherent synchrotron radiation. Tolerances must also be carefully evaluated to find stable operating conditions and ensure that the system can meet operational goals. Automated matching and tolerance simulations allowed consideration of numerous configurations, pinpointing those with reduced error sensitivity. Simulations indicate significant emittance growth up to 600 A peak current, for which the normalized emittance will increase from 5 to about 8.5 μm. The simulations also provide predictions of emittance variation with chicane parameters and precompressor linac phase, which we hope to verify experimentally.

  18. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  19. Advancing non-equilibrium ARPES experiments by a 9.3 eV coherent ultrafast photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilento, F., E-mail: federico.cilento@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Crepaldi, A. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Manzoni, G.; Sterzi, A. [Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Zacchigna, M. [C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Bugnon, Ph.; Berger, H. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parmigiani, F. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); International Faculty, University of Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The quest for investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of the band structure of strongly-correlated materials over their entire Brillouin zone is a primary objective. However, the actual ultrafast UV light sources are not suitable for addressing several critical questions in the field. Here we report on a novel light source generating sub-250 fs, 9.3 eV photon energy light pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate, obtained via third-harmonic generation in Xe of frequency-doubled 50 fs laser pulses at 1.55 eV. By reporting the measured band dispersion of a Cu(111) crystal and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator, we prove that this source is suitable for studying the non-equilibrium dynamics of the entire Fermi surface of several complex materials, with high signal statistics and limited space-charge effect.

  20. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J. Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J.; (IIT); (UC)

    2009-09-02

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10{sup 11} photons s{sup -1} at 1 {angstrom} wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 {mu}rad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) {delta}E/E = 1.5 x 10{sup -4} (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 {micro}m (horizontally) x 160 {micro}m (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  1. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M; Keefe, Lisa J

    2009-09-01

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10(11) photons s(-1) at 1 A wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 microrad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) deltaE/E = 1.5 x 10(-4) (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 microm (horizontally) x 160 microm (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  2. Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2015-08-07

    3D printing technology has attracted much attention due to its high potential in scientific and industrial applications. As an outstanding 3D printing technology, two-photon polymerization (TPP) microfabrication has been applied in the fields of micro/nanophotonics, micro-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, biomedical implants and microdevices. In particular, TPP microfabrication is very useful in tissue engineering and drug delivery due to its powerful fabrication capability for precise microstructures with high spatial resolution on both the microscopic and the nanometric scale. The design and fabrication of 3D hydrogels widely used in tissue engineering and drug delivery has been an important research area of TPP microfabrication. The resolution is a key parameter for 3D hydrogels to simulate the native 3D environment in which the cells reside and the drug is controlled to release with optimal temporal and spatial distribution in vitro and in vivo. The resolution of 3D hydrogels largely depends on the efficiency of TPP initiators. In this paper, we will review the widely used photoresists, the development of TPP photoinitiators, the strategies for improving the resolution and the microfabrication of 3D hydrogels.

  3. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  4. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  5. Three photons are better than two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Lauren Arcuri

    2014-11-01

    Three-photon microscopy was suggested in the 1990s, but laser technology at the time was just not up to the challenge. Lauren Ware explores how recent technology advances are bringing three-photon microscopy back into focus.

  6. Photonics: Technology project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  7. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  8. Photonics: Technology project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  9. Increase in tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities in advanced head-and-neck cancer for dose-escalated intensity-modulated photon and proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eJakobi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Presently used radio-chemotherapy regimens result in moderate local control rates for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Dose escalation (DE may be an option to improve patient outcome, but may also increase the risk of toxicities in healthy tissue. The presented treatment planning study evaluated the feasibility of two DE levels for advanced HNSCC patients, planned with either intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMXT or proton therapy (IMPT.Materials and Methods:For 45 HNSCC patients, IMXT and IMPT treatment plans were created including DE via a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB in the high-risk volume, while maintaining standard fractionation with 2 Gy per fraction in the remaining target volume. Two DE levels for the SIB were compared: 2.3 Gy and 2.6 Gy. Treatment plan evaluation included assessment of tumor control probabilities (TCP and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP.Results:An increase of approximately 10% in TCP was estimated between the DE levels. A pronounced high-dose rim surrounding the SIB volume was identified in IMXT treatment. Compared to IMPT, this extra dose slightly increased the TCP values and to a larger extent the NTCP values. For both modalities, the higher DE level led only to a small increase in NTCP values (mean differences < 2% in all models, except for the risk of aspiration, which increased on average by 8% and 6% with IMXT and IMPT, respectively, but showed a considerable patient dependence. Conclusions:Both DE levels appear applicable to patients with IMXT and IMPT since all calculated NTCP values, except for one, increased only little for the higher DE level. The estimated TCP increase is of relevant magnitude. The higher DE schedule needs to be investigated carefully in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, especially regarding toxicities caused by high local doses that lack a sound dose response description, e.g., ulcers.

  10. Use of the high-energy x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to investigate the interactions between metals and bacteria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. L.; Yun, W.

    1999-09-30

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are their chemical separation and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. In addition, the microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cell surfaces can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, the spatial distribution and chemical separation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron resolution in order to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate. Hard X-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at th needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of this technique results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper presents results of studies of the spatial distribution of naturally occurring metals and a heavy-metal contaminant (Cr) in and near hydrated bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in the early stages of biofilm development, performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 2 X-ray microscopy beamline.

  11. Use of the high-energy X-ray microprobe at the advanced photon source to investigate the interactions between metals and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, K. M.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. Lee; Yun, W.

    2000-05-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are their chemical speciation and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. In addition, the microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cell surfaces can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron resolution in order to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate. Hard X-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of this technique results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper presents results of studies of the spatial distribution of naturally occurring metals and a heavy-metal contaminant (Cr) in and near hydrated bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in the early stages of biofilm development, performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 2 X-ray microscopy beamline.

  12. X-ray micro-diffraction studies on biological samples at the BioCAT Beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, R A; Antipova, O; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Vukonich, M; Kujala, N G; Irving, T C; Orgel, J P R O

    2014-09-01

    The small source sizes of third-generation synchrotron sources are ideal for the production of microbeams for diffraction studies of crystalline and non-crystalline materials. While several such facilities have been available around the world for some time now, few have been optimized for the handling of delicate soft-tissue specimens under cryogenic conditions. Here the development of a new X-ray micro-diffraction instrument at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, and its use with newly developed cryo-diffraction techniques for soft-tissue studies, are described. The combination of the small beam sizes delivered by this instrument, the high delivered flux and successful cryo-freezing of rat-tail tendon has enabled us to record data to better than 4 Å resolution. The ability to quickly raster scan samples in the beam allows selection of ordered regions in fibrous samples for markedly improved data quality. Examples of results of experiments obtainable using this instrument are presented.

  13. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Roadmap on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O'Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with

  15. Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Seeds, A.J.; Liu, C. P.; T. Ismail; Fice, M. J.; Pozzi, F; Steed, R. J.; Rouvalis, E.; Renaud, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave photonics is the use of photonic techniques for the generation, transmission, processing and reception of signals having spectral components at microwave frequencies. This tutorial reviews the technologies used and gives applications examples.

  16. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the space-time wave mechanics of single photons, a subject with an almost century long history. The Landau-Peierls photon wave function, which is related nonlocally to the electromagnetic field is first described, and thereafter the so-called energy wave function, based...... on the positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...... train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...

  17. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  18. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  19. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    on the positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...

  20. Glasses for photonic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, K.; Krol, D.M.; Hirao, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of glassy materials in planar and fiber-based photonic structures have led to novel devices and components that go beyond the original thinking of the use of glass in the 1960s, when glass fibers were developed for low-loss, optical communication applications. Expl

  1. Tutorials in complex photonic media

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A; McCall, Martin W; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    The field of complex photonic media encompasses many leading-edge areas in physics, chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. In Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media , leading experts have brought together 19 tutorials on breakthroughs in modern optics, such as negative refraction, chiral media, plasmonics, photonic crystals, and organic photonics. This text will help students, engineers, and scientists entering the field to become familiar with the interrelated aspects of the subject. It also serves well as a supplemental text in introductory and advanced courses on optica

  2. Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chremmos, Ioannis; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications explores advances in the fabrication process that enable nanometer waveguide separations. The technology surrounding the design and fabrication of optical microresonators has matured to a point where there is a need for commercialization. Consequently, there is a need for device research involving more advanced architectures and more esoteric operating princples. This volume discusses these issues, while also: Showing a reader how to design and fabricate microresonators Discussing microresonators in photonic crystals, microsphere circuits, and sensors, and provides application oriented examples Covering the latest in microresonator research with contributions from the leading researchers Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications would appeal to researchers and academics working in the optical sciences.

  3. Microfluidics and photonics for Bio-System-on-a-Chip: a review of advancements in technology towards a microfluidic flow cytometry chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Jessica; Chen, Chun-Hao; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Tsai, Frank; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Microfluidics and photonics come together to form a field commonly referred to as 'optofluidics'. Flow cytometry provides the field with a technology base from which both microfluidic and photonic components be developed and integrated into a useful device. This article reviews some of the more recent developments to familiarize a reader with the current state of the technologies and also highlights the requirements of the device and how researchers are working to meet these needs.

  4. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  5. Photonic Lantern

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2015-01-01

    Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus, enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail.

  6. Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Photonics for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  8. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.

  9. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  10. Recent progress in medical photonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The field of medical photonics is rapidly expanding, and a wide variety of optical technologies and instruments have recently been developed for diagnostic, therapeutic and basic science applications in medicine. This review presents the recent advances and application of medical photonics, and the obtained results from our laboratory are highlighted. Finally, the challenges and future prospects for the transition from technological exploration to clinical studies are discussed.

  11. Hallo photons calls photon; Allo photon appelle photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-09-01

    When a pair of photons is created, it seems that these 2 photons are bound together by a mysterious link. This phenomenon has been discovered at the beginning of the seventies. In this new experiment the 2 photons are separated and have to follow different ways through optic cables until they face a quantum gate. At this point they have to chose between a short and a long itinerary. Statistically they have the same probability to take either. In all cases the 2 photons agree to do the same choice even if the 2 quantum gates are distant of about 10 kilometers. Some applications in ciphering and coding of messages are expected. (A.C.)

  12. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  13. Photonic lanterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Argyros, Alexander; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-12-01

    Multimode optical fibers have been primarily (and almost solely) used as "light pipes" in short distance telecommunications and in remote and astronomical spectroscopy. The modal properties of the multimode waveguides are rarely exploited and mostly discussed in the context of guiding light. Until recently, most photonic applications in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astrophotonics and space photonics. Interestingly, these devices are now being explored for use in telecommunications and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years, particularly in the development of compact spectrographs. Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail. Furthermore, we foreshadow future applications of this technology to the field of nanophotonics.

  14. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  15. Heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Alexander W.; Fish, Gregory; Hall, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) have been dichotomized into circuits with high passive content (silica and silicon PLCs) and high active content (InP tunable lasers and transceivers) due to the trade-off in material characteristics used within these two classes. This has led to restrictions in the adoption of PICs to systems in which only one of the two classes of circuits are required to be made on a singular chip. Much work has been done to create convergence in these two classes by either engineering the materials to achieve the functionality of both device types on a single platform, or in epitaxial growth techniques to transfer one material to the next, but have yet to demonstrate performance equal to that of components fabricated in their native substrates. Advances in waferbonding techniques have led to a new class of heterogeneously integrated photonic circuits that allow for the concurrent use of active and passive materials within a photonic circuit, realizing components on a transferred substrate that have equivalent performance as their native substrate. In this talk, we review and compare advances made in heterogeneous integration along with demonstrations of components and circuits enabled by this technology.

  16. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  17. Green photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  18. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  19. Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

  20. Photonics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Georg A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...

  1. Photon differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Revall Frisvad, Jeppe; Erleben, Kenny;

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  2. ITMO Photonics: center of excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Bougrov, Vladislav; Kozlov, Sergey; Vasilev, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    ITMO University, the leading Russian center in photonics research and education, has the mission to train highlyqualified competitive professionals able to act in conditions of fast-changing world. This paradigm is implemented through creation of a strategic academic unit ITMO Photonics, the center of excellence concentrating organizational, scientific, educational, financial, laboratory and human resources. This Center has the following features: dissemination of breakthrough scientific results in photonics such as advanced photonic materials, ultrafast optical and quantum information, laser physics, engineering and technologies, into undergraduate and graduate educational programs through including special modules into the curricula and considerable student's research and internships; transformation of the educational process in accordance with the best international educational practices, presence in the global education market in the form of joint educational programs with leading universities, i.e. those being included in the network programs of international scientific cooperation, and international accreditation of educational programs; development of mechanisms for the commercialization of innovative products - results of scientific research; securing financial sustainability of research in the field of photonics of informationcommunication systems via funding increase and the diversification of funding sources. Along with focusing on the research promotion, the Center is involved in science popularization through such projects as career guidance for high school students; interaction between student's chapters of international optical societies; invited lectures of World-famous experts in photonics; short educational programs in optics, photonics and light engineering for international students; contests, Olympics and grants for talented young researchers; social events; interactive demonstrations.

  3. Photonic crystal fibers, devices, and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei JIN; Jian JU; Hoi Lut HO; Yeuk Lai HOO; Ailing ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews different types of air-silica photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), discusses their novel properties, and reports recent advances in PCF components and sensors as well as techniques for splicing PCFs to standard telecomm fibers.

  4. Photonic crystal fiber modelling and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a microstructured air-silica cross section offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibers for telecommunication, sensor, and other applications. Recent advances within research and development of these fibers are presented.......Photonic crystal fibers having a microstructured air-silica cross section offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibers for telecommunication, sensor, and other applications. Recent advances within research and development of these fibers are presented....

  5. Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelow, Sven; Mech, Alexandra; Giustina, Marissa; Gröblacher, Simon; Wieczorek, Witlef; Beyer, Jörn; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Zeilinger, Anton; Ursin, Rupert

    2013-03-25

    Single photons are an important prerequisite for a broad spectrum of quantum optical applications. We experimentally demonstrate a heralded single-photon source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in collinear bulk optics, and fiber-coupled bolometric transition-edge sensors. Without correcting for background, losses, or detection inefficiencies, we measure an overall heralding efficiency of 83%. By violating a Bell inequality, we confirm the single-photon character and high-quality entanglement of our heralded single photons which, in combination with the high heralding efficiency, are a necessary ingredient for advanced quantum communication protocols such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution.

  6. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  7. Photonic homeostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Fan-Hui

    2010-11-01

    Photonic homeostatics is a discipline to study the establishment, maintenance, decay, upgrading and representation of function-specific homoestasis (FSH) by using photonics. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stress may increase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activities above FSH-specific SIRT1 activity to induce a function far from its FSH. On the one hand, low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LLL) can not modulate a function in its FSH or a stress in its stress-specific homeostasis (StSH), but modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. On the other hand, the biophotons from a biosystem with its function in its FSH should be less than the one from the biosystem with its function far from its FSH. The non-resonant interaction of low intensity laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LIL) and a kind of membrane protein can be amplified by all the membrane proteins if the function is far from its FSH. This amplification might hold for biophoton emission of the membrane protein so that the photonic spectroscopy can be used to represent the function far from its FSH, which is called photonomics.

  8. PHOTON PBL: problem-based learning in photonics technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nicholas; Audet, Richard; Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2007-06-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational approach whereby students learn course content by actively and collaboratively solving real-world problems presented in a context similar to that in which the learning is to be applied. Research shows that PBL improves student learning and retention, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to skillfully apply knowledge to new situations - skills deemed critical to lifelong learning. Used extensively in medical education since the 1970's, and widely adopted in other fields including business, law, and education, PBL is emerging as an alternative to traditional lecture-based courses in engineering and technology education. In today's ever-changing global economy where photonics technicians are required to work productively in teams to solve complex problems across disciplines as well as cultures, PBL represents an exciting alternative to traditional lecture-based photonics education. In this paper we present the PHOTON PBL project, a National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (NSF-ATE) project aimed at creating, in partnership with the photonics industry and university research labs from across the US, a comprehensive series of multimedia-based PBL instructional resource materials and offering faculty professional development in the use of PBL in photonics technology education. Quantitative and qualitative research will be conducted on the effectiveness of PBL in photonics technician education.

  9. Integrated photonic quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Lebugle, Maxime; Guzman-Silva, Diego; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 20 years quantum walks (QWs) have gained increasing interest in the field of quantum information science and processing. In contrast to classical walkers, quantum objects exhibit intrinsic properties like non-locality and non-classical many-particle correlations, which renders QWs a versatile tool for quantum simulation and computation as well as for a deeper understanding of genuine quantum mechanics. Since they are highly controllable and hardly interact with their environment, photons seem to be ideally suited quantum walkers. In order to study and exploit photonic QWs, lattice structures that allow low loss coherent evolution of quantum states are demanded. Such requirements are perfectly met by integrated optical waveguide devices that additionally allow a substantial miniaturization of experimental settings. Moreover, by utilizing the femtosecond direct laser writing technique three-dimensional waveguide structures are capable of analyzing QWs also on higher dimensional geometries. In this context, advances and findings of photonic QWs are discussed in this review. Various concepts and experimental results are presented covering, such as different quantum transport regimes, the Boson sampling problem, and the discrete fractional quantum Fourier transform.

  10. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  11. Polymers for electronic & photonic application

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C P

    2013-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of polymeric materials by the electronic industry can be found in Polymers for Electronic and Photonic Applications. This bookprovides in-depth coverage of photoresis for micro-lithography, microelectronic encapsulants and packaging, insulators, dielectrics for multichip packaging,electronic and photonic applications of polymeric materials, among many other topics. Intended for engineers and scientists who design, process, and manufacturemicroelectronic components, this book will also prove useful for hybrid and systems packaging managers who want to be info

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave-mixing between photons and phonons and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong nonlocal effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a novel multi-cavity optomechanical device: a "photon see-saw", in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of the see-saw, are modulated anti-symmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other...

  14. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  15. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  16. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  17. Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-12-02

    I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy {gamma}{gamma} and e{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy {gamma}{gamma} collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider.

  18. Optical networking advances in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Paul E.; Demeester, Piet M. A.; Ackaert, Ann

    1999-07-01

    After a short introduction on the European Union RTD Programs, a more in-depth analysis will be given on the projects and results recently obtained within in the ACTS (Advanced Communications and Services Program) Photonic Technologies Area.

  19. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  20. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  1. Azimuthal correlations in photon-photon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Artéaga-Romero, N; Kessler, P; Ong, S; Panella, O

    1995-01-01

    Using the general helicity formula for \\gamma^* \\gamma^* collisions, we are showing that it should be possible to determine a number of independent ``structure functions'', i.e. linear combinations of elements of the two-photon helicity tensor, through azimuthal correlations in two-body or quasi two-body reactions induced by the photon-photon interaction, provided certain experimental conditions are satisfied. Numerical results of our computations are presented for some particular processes and dynamic models.

  2. Photon-photon scattering: a tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Long-established results for the low-energy photon-photon scattering, gamma gamma --> gamma gamma, have recently been questioned. We analyze that claim and demonstrate that it is inconsistent with experience. We demonstrate that the mistake originates from an erroneous manipulation of divergent integrals and discuss the connection with another recent claim about the Higgs decay into two photons. We show a simple way of correctly computing the low-energy gamma gamma scattering.

  3. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  4. Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, K.; Raffaelli, C.; Aleksic, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the framework of the EU-funded e-Photon/ONe + network of excellence, Virtual Department on Optical Switching. Technology aspects of photonics in switching and, in particular, recent ad...... advances in wavelength conversion, ring resonators, and packet switching and processing subsystems are presented as the building blocks for the implementation of a high-performance router for the next-generation Internet....

  5. Status and perspectives of solid state photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpar, Samo, E-mail: Samo.Korpar@ijs.s [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-05-21

    Recent years have seen a considerable progress in the development of solid state photon detectors. In particular it is the Geiger mode avalanche photodiode, also known as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), which is much investigated for its single photon sensitivity as well as its other appealing properties. In the present paper we discuss the recent advances of such photon detectors as well as possibilities for their application, mainly in ring imaging Cherenkov detectors.

  6. Light propagation and localization in modulated photonic lattices and waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Garanovich, Ivan L; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-01-01

    We review both theoretical and experimental advances in the recently emerged physics of modulated photonic lattices. Artificial periodic dielectric media, such as photonic crystals and photonic lattices, provide a powerful tool for the control of the fundamental properties of light propagation in photonic structures. Photonic lattices are arrays of coupled optical waveguides, where the light propagation becomes effectively discretized. Such photonic structures allow one to study many useful optical analogies with other fields, such as the physics of solid state and electron theory. In particular, the light propagation in periodic photonic structures resembles the motion of electrons in a crystalline lattice of semiconductor materials. The discretized nature of light propagation gives rise to many new phenomena which are not possible in homogeneous bulk media, such as discrete diffraction and diffraction management, discrete and gap solitons, and discrete surface waves. Recently, it was discovered that applyin...

  7. High energy photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  8. Simulating single photons with realistic photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Zhen; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Quantum information processing provides remarkable advantages over its classical counterpart. Quantum optical systems have been proved to be sufficient for realizing general quantum tasks, which, however, often rely on single-photon sources. In practice, imperfect single-photon sources, such as a weak-coherent-state source, are used instead, which will inevitably limit the power in demonstrating quantum effects. For instance, with imperfect photon sources, the key rate of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol will be very low, which fortunately can be resolved by utilizing the decoy-state method. As a generalization, we investigate an efficient way to simulate single photons with imperfect ones to an arbitrary desired accuracy when the number of photonic inputs is small. Based on this simulator, we can thus replace the tasks that involve only a few single-photon inputs with the ones that make use of only imperfect photon sources. In addition, our method also provides a quantum simulator to quantum computation based on quantum optics. In the main context, we take a phase-randomized coherent state as an example for analysis. A general photon source applies similarly and may provide some further advantages for certain tasks.

  9. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  10. Composite Photon Theory Versus Elementary Photon Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Walton A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the composite photon theory measures up well against the Standard Model's elementary photon theory. This is done by comparing the two theories area by area. Although the predictions of quantum electrodynamics are in excellent agreement with experiment (as in the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron), there are some problems, such as the difficulty in describing the electromagnetic field with the four-component vector potential because the photon has only two polarization states. In most areas the two theories give similar results, so it is impossible to rule out the composite photon theory. Pryce's arguments in 1938 against a composite photon theory are shown to be invalid or irrelevant. Recently, it has been realized that in the composite theory the antiphoton does not interact with matter because it is formed of a neutrino and an antineutrino with the wrong helicity. This leads to experimental tests that can determine which theory is correct.

  11. Photonics classes in high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Pearl V.; Shanks, Richard A.

    2002-05-01

    In continuing the development of a three-year high school photonics program, the Columbia Area Career Center (Missouri, USA) faces the challenges associated with introducing a new subject area to career technical education in the public school system. The program was established to address the severe lack of Laser Electro-Optical Technicians (LEOTs) in the local manufacturing industry. Its goals are to increase student awareness of the expanding job opportunities available in photonics and optics, teach skills needed for the field, and foster close ties with industry and post-secondary institutions. This paper examines the success of the program to date and outlines the problems associated with teaching an advanced curriculum at the high school level.

  12. Which technique for radiation is most beneficial for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? Intensity modulated proton therapy versus intensity modulated photon treatment, helical tomotherapy and volumetric arc therapy for primary radiation - an intraindividual comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnitz, Simone; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Neumann, Oliver; Koehler, Christhardt; Weihrauch, Mirko; Budach, Volker; Cozzi, Luca

    2015-04-17

    To compare highly sophisticated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by either helical tomotherapy (HT), RapidArc (RA), IMRT with protons (IMPT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Twenty cervical cancer patients were irradiated using either conventional IMRT, VMAT or HT; ten received pelvic (PEL) and ten extended field irradiation (EFRT). The dose to the planning-target volume A (PTV_A: cervix, uterus, pelvic ± para-aortic lymph nodes) was 1.8/50.4 Gy. The SIB dose for the parametrium (PTV_B), was 2.12/59.36 Gy. MRI-guided brachytherapy was administered with 5 fractions up to 25 Gy. For EBRT, the lower target constraints were 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the target volume. The irradiated small bowel (SB) volumes were kept as low as possible. For every patient, target parameters as well as doses to the organs at risk (SB, bladder, rectum) were evaluated intra-individually for IMRT, HT, VMAT and IMPT. All techniques provided excellent target volume coverage, homogeneity, conformity. With IMPT, there was a significant reduction of the mean dose (Dmean) of the SB from 30.2 ± 4.0 Gy (IMRT); 27.6 ± 5.6 Gy (HT); 34.1 ± 7.0 (RA) to 18.6 ± 5.9 Gy (IMPT) for pelvic radiation and 26.3 ± 3.2 Gy (IMRT); 24.0 ± 4.1 (HT); 25.3 ± 3.7 (RA) to 13.8 ± 2.8 Gy (IMPT) for patients with EFRT, which corresponds to a reduction of 38-52% for the Dmean (SB). Futhermore, the low dose bath (V10Gy) to the small bowel was reduced by 50% with IMPT in comparison to all photon techniques. Furthermore, Dmean to the bladder and rectum was decresed by 7-9 Gy with IMPT in patents with pelvic radiation and EFRT. All modern techniques (were proved to be dosimetrically adequate regarding coverage, conformity and homogeneity of the target. Protons offered the best sparing of small bowel and rectum and therefore could contribute to a significant reduction of acute and late toxicity in cervical cancer treatment.

  13. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  14. Bright Solid State Source of Photon Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Khoshnegar, Milad; Predojević, Ana; Dalacu, Dan; Prilmüller, Maximilian; Lapointe, Jean; Wu, Xiaohua; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim; Poole, Philip; Weihs, Gregor; Majedi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Producing advanced quantum states of light is a priority in quantum information technologies. While remarkable progress has been made on single photons and photon pairs, multipartite correlated photon states are usually produced in purely optical systems by post-selection or cascading, with extremely low efficiency and exponentially poor scaling. Multipartite states enable improved tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics as well as implementations of complex quantum optical networks and protocols. It would be favorable to directly generate these states using solid state systems, for better scaling, simpler handling, and the promise of reversible transfer of quantum information between stationary and flying qubits. Here we use the ground states of two optically active coupled quantum dots to directly produce photon triplets. The wavefunctions of photogenerated excitons localized in these ground states are correlated via molecular hybridization and Coulomb interactions. The formation of a triexciton leads...

  15. FY 2004 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Keller, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Martin, Peter M.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at PNNL is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for the MWIR and LWIR by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin film deposition capabilities, direct-laser writing techniques, IR photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology - all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  16. All-optical gates based on photonic crystal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moille, Grégory; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    We briefly review the technology of advanced nonlinear resonators for all-optical gating with a specific focus on the application of high-performance signal sampling and on the properties of III-V semiconductor photonic crystals

  17. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  18. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  19. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  20. Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a new synchrotron radiation source which has been proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The ALS will be a key component in a major new research facility, the National Center for Advanced Materials. The ALS will consist of an electron linear accelerator, a booster synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines. Most or all photon beam lines will originate from wiggler and undulator magnets placed in the 12 long straight sections of the ALS. A very low electron beam emittance will provide photon beams of unsurpassed spectral brilliance from specially-designed undulators, and a high radiofrequency will produce very short pulse lengths.

  1. Interactive Screen Experiments with Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Single photons are used for fundamental quantum physics experiments as well as for applications. Originally being a topic of advance courses, such experiments are increasingly a subject of undergraduate courses. We provide interactive screen experiments (ISE) for supporting the work in a real laboratory, and for students who do not have access to…

  2. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  3. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  4. Aspherical photon and anti-photon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Gibbons

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we identify photon surfaces and anti-photon surfaces in some physically interesting spacetimes, which are not spherically symmetric. All of our examples solve physically reasonable field equations, including for some cases the vacuum Einstein equations, albeit they are not asymptotically flat. Our examples include the vacuum C-metric, the Melvin solution of Einstein–Maxwell theory and generalisations including dilaton fields. The (anti-photon surfaces are not round spheres, and the lapse function is not always constant.

  5. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  6. Neuromorphic Silicon Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, Alexander N; de Lima, Thomas Ferreira; Wu, Allie X; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    We report first observations of an integrated analog photonic network, in which connections are configured by microring weight banks, as well as the first use of electro-optic modulators as photonic neurons. A mathematical isomorphism between the silicon photonic circuit and a continuous neural model is demonstrated through dynamical bifurcation analysis. Exploiting this isomorphism, existing neural engineering tools can be adapted to silicon photonic information processing systems. A 49-node silicon photonic neural network programmed using a "neural compiler" is simulated and predicted to outperform a conventional approach 1,960-fold in a toy differential system emulation task. Photonic neural networks leveraging silicon photonic platforms could access new regimes of ultrafast information processing for radio, control, and scientific computing.

  7. Photonic network-on-chip architecture using 3D integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Preston, Kyle; Hendry, Gilbert; Levy, Jacob S.; Chan, Johnnie; Wang, Howard; Lipson, Michal; Bergman, Keren

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a multi-layer silicon photonic microring resonator filter, fabricated using deposited materials, and transmit up to 12.5-Gb/s error-free data, establishing a novel class of high-performance silicon photonics for advanced photonic NoCs. Furthermore, by leveraging deposited materials, we propose a novel fully-integrated scalable photonic switch architecture for data center networks, sustaining nonblocking 256×256 port size with nanosecond-scale switching times, interconnecting 2,560 server racks with 51.2-Tb/s bisection bandwidth.

  8. Generation and Detection of Infrared Single Photons and their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG He-ping; WU Guang; WU E; PAN Hai-feng; ZHOU Chun-yuan; WU E.,F.Treussart; J.-F.Roch

    2006-01-01

    Unbreakable secret communication has been a dream from ancient time.It is quantum physics that gives us hope to turn this wizardly dream into reality.The rapid development of quantum cryptography may put an end to the history of eavesdropping.This will be largely due to the advanced techniques related to single quanta,especially infrared single photons.In this paper,we report on our research works on single-photon control for quantum cryptography,ranging from single-photon generation to single-photon detection and their applications.

  9. Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Entangled Photon Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    new entanglement source is to make sure the source can provide an efficient and scalable quantum information processor . They are usually generated...multiple scattering on the telecom wavelength photon-pair. Our findings show that quantum correlation of polarization-entangled photon-pairs is...Fiber, Quantum communication, Keyed Communication in Quantum Noise (KCQ) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18

  10. Photon transport in binary photonic lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review on the mathematical methods used to theoretically study classical propagation and quantum transport in arrays of coupled photonic waveguides. We focus on analysing two types of binary photonic lattices where self-energies or couplings are alternated. For didactic reasons, we split the analysis in classical propagation and quantum transport but all methods can be implemented, mutatis mutandis, in any given case. On the classical side, we use coupled mode theory and present ...

  11. 基于Hamming weight和泄漏光子数的高级加密标准密码芯片光辐射分析攻击∗%Attack on the advanced encryption standard cipher chip based on the corresp ondence b etween Hamming weight and the numb er of emitted photons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红胜; 徐子言; 张阳; 陈开颜; 李宝晨; 吴令安

    2016-01-01

    The security of information transmission is of paramount importance in all sectors of society, whether civilian or defence related. In ancient times the encryption of secret messages was mainly realized by physical or chemical means, but this was later supplemented by mathematical techniques. In parallel, the breaking of enemy codes has also been a subject of intense study. To date, the only known absolutely secure means of encryption is through quantum cryp-tography. However, this still has to be implemented by equipment that is vulnerable to various physical attacks, so it is important to study these methods of attack, both for legitimate users and for the surveillance of criminal activities. Today, nearly all transactions have to be realized through the computer and much effort has been devoted to cracking the software. However, little attention has been paid to the hardware, and it has only recently been realized that computer chips themselves can leak sensitive information, from which a code may even be deciphered. By studying the photonic emission and the data dependency of a cryptographic chip during operation, the corre-spondence between the Hamming weight of the operand and the number of photons emitted may be established, based on which a simple and effective method is proposed to crack the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher chip. An experimental platform has been set up for measuring and analyzing the leaked photonic emission using time-correlated single-photon counting. An AT89C52 microcontroller implementing the operation of the AES cipher algorithm is used as a cipher chip. The emitted photons are collected when the first AddRoundKey and SubBytes of the AES encryption arithmetic are executed, and their respective numbers are found to have a linear relationship with the operand Hamming weight. The sources of noise affecting the photon emission trace have been analyzed, so that the measurement error and uncertainty can be reduced effectively

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  13. Strongly interacting photons in one-dimensional continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The photon-photon scattering in vacuum is extremely weak. However, strong effective interactions between single photons can be realized by employing strong light-matter coupling. These interactions are a fundamental building block for quantum optics, bringing many-body physics to the photonic world and providing important resources for quantum photonic devices and for optical metrology. In this Colloquium, we review the physics of strongly-interacting photons in one-dimensional systems with no optical confinement along the propagation direction. We focus on two recently-demonstrated experimental realizations: (i) superconducting qubits coupled to open transmission lines, and (ii) interacting Rydberg atoms in a cold gas. Advancements in the theoretical understanding of these systems are presented in complementary formalisms and compared to experimental results. The experimental achievements are summarized alongside of a systematic description of the quantum optical effects and quantum devices emerging from the...

  14. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  15. Two-photon physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    A new experimental frontier has recently been opened to the study of two photon processes. The first results of many aspects of these reactions are being presented at this conference. In contrast, the theoretical development of research ito two photon processes has a much longer history. This talk reviews the many different theoretical ideas which provide a detailed framework for our understanding of two photon processes.

  16. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  17. NLC photon collider option progress and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronberg, J

    2000-08-31

    The idea of producing beams of high energy photons by Compton backscattering of laser photons was proposed over 20 years ago. At the time, producing the required laser pulses was not feasible. However, recent advances in high average power, diode pumped lasers appear to have solved this problem. The US Collaboration is now turning its attention to the engineering requirement of mating the laser and optics components with the accelerator structures in the confined space of the a colliding beam interaction region. The demonstration of a technically feasible interaction region design is planned for the Snowmass conference in 2001.

  18. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  19. Review on Dark Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.

  20. Effects of Longitudinal Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, C; Friberg, Christer; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    The description of longitudinal photons is far from trivial, and their phenomenological importance is largely unknown. While the cross section for direct interactions is calculable, an even more important contribution could come from resolved states. In the development of our model for the interactions of (real and) virtual photons, we have modeled resolved longitudinal effects by simple multiplicative factors on the resolved transverse-photon contributions. Recently, a first set of parton distributions for longitudinal virtual photons has been presented by Ch\\'yla. We therefore compare their impact on some representative distributions, relative to the simpler approaches.

  1. Spherical colloidal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Colloidal photonic crystals (PhCs), periodically arranged monodisperse nanoparticles, have emerged as one of the most promising materials for light manipulation because of their photonic band gaps (PBGs), which affect photons in a manner similar to the effect of semiconductor energy band gaps on electrons. The PBGs arise due to the periodic modulation of the refractive index between the building nanoparticles and the surrounding medium in space with subwavelength period. This leads to light with certain wavelengths or frequencies located in the PBG being prohibited from propagating. Because of this special property, the fabrication and application of colloidal PhCs have attracted increasing interest from researchers. The most simple and economical method for fabrication of colloidal PhCs is the bottom-up approach of nanoparticle self-assembly. Common colloidal PhCs from this approach in nature are gem opals, which are made from the ordered assembly and deposition of spherical silica nanoparticles after years of siliceous sedimentation and compression. Besides naturally occurring opals, a variety of manmade colloidal PhCs with thin film or bulk morphology have also been developed. In principle, because of the effect of Bragg diffraction, these PhC materials show different structural colors when observed from different angles, resulting in brilliant colors and important applications. However, this angle dependence is disadvantageous for the construction of some optical materials and devices in which wide viewing angles are desired. Recently, a series of colloidal PhC materials with spherical macroscopic morphology have been created. Because of their spherical symmetry, the PBGs of spherical colloidal PhCs are independent of rotation under illumination of the surface at a fixed incident angle of the light, broadening the perspective of their applications. Based on droplet templates containing colloidal nanoparticles, these spherical colloidal PhCs can be

  2. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  3. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  5. Entangled Photon Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Altepeter, Joseph B; Medic, Milja; Jeffrey, Evan R; Kumar, Prem

    2011-01-01

    We construct an entangled photon polarimeter capable of monitoring a two-qubit quantum state in real time. Using this polarimeter, we record a nine frames-per-second video of a two-photon state's transition from separability to entanglement.

  6. Photon mass from inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Törnkvist, Ola; Woodard, Richard

    2002-09-01

    We consider vacuum polarization from massless scalar electrodynamics in de Sitter inflation. The theory exhibits a 3+1 dimensional analog of the Schwinger mechanism in which a photon mass is dynamically generated. The mechanism is generic for light scalar fields that couple minimally to gravity. The nonvanishing of the photon mass during inflation may result in magnetic fields on cosmological scales.

  7. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and fluoresc

  8. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  9. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, when reading newspapers and journals or watching TV, one has been able to find feature presentations dealing with the prospects of terahertz (THz) technology and its potential impact on market applications. THz technology aims to fill the THz gap in the electro-magnetic spectrum in order to make the THz frequency regime, which spans the two orders of magnitude from 100 GHz to 10 THz, accessible for applications. From the lower-frequency side, electronics keeps pushing upwards, while photonic approaches gradually improve our technological options at higher frequencies. The popular interest reflects the considerable advances in research in the THz field, and it is mainly advances in the photonic branch, with the highlight being the development of the THz quantum cascade laser, which in recent years have caught the imagination of the public, and of potential users and investors. This special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides an overview of key scientific developments which currently represent the cutting edge of THz photonic technology. In order to be clear about the implications, we should define exactly what we mean by 'THz photonic technology', or synonymously 'THz photonics'. It is characterized by the way in which THz radiation (or a guided THz wave) is generated, namely by the use of lasers. This may be done in one of two fundamentally different schemes: (i) by laser action in the terahertz frequency range itself (THz lasers), or (ii) by down-conversion processes (photomixing) involving the radiation of lasers which operate in the visible, near-infrared or infrared spectral ranges, either in pulsed or continuous-wave mode. The field of THz photonics has grown so considerably that it is out of the question to cover all its aspects in a single special issue of a journal. We have elected, instead, to focus our attention on two types of development with a potentially strong impact on the THz field: first, on significant advances

  10. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities.

  11. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Yetisen, Ali K.; Cho, Sangyeon; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  12. Chirality in photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Malpuech, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    The optical modes of photonic structures are the so-called TE and TM modes that bring intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and chirality to these systems. This, combined with the unique flexibility of design of the photonic potential, and the possibility to mix photon states with excitonic resonances, sensitive to magnetic field and interactions, allows us to achieve many phenomena, often analogous to other solid-state systems. In this contribution, we review in a qualitative and comprehensive way several of these realizations, namely the optical spin Hall effect, the creation of spin currents protected by a non-trivial geometry, the Berry curvature for photons, and the photonic/polaritonic topological insulator.

  13. Photon Regeneration Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, A

    2006-01-01

    Precision experiments exploiting low-energy photons may yield information on particle physics complementary to experiments at high-energy colliders, in particular on new very light and very weakly interacting particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. Such particles may be produced by laser photons send along a transverse magnetic field. The laser polarization experiment PVLAS may have seen the first indirect signal of such particles by observing an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of photons after the passage through a magnetic field. This can be interpreted as evidence for photon disappearance due to particle production. There are a number of experimental proposals to test independently the particle interpretation of PVLAS. Many of them are based on the search for photon reappearance or regeneration, i.e. for ``light shining through a wall''. At DESY, the Axion-Like Particle Search (ALPS) collaboration is currently setting up such an experiment.

  14. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  15. Photon regeneration plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2006-12-15

    Precision experiments exploiting low-energy photons may yield information on particle physics complementary to experiments at high-energy colliders, in particular on new very light and very weakly interacting particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. Such particles may be produced by laser photons send along a transverse magnetic field. The laser polarization experiment PVLAS may have seen the first indirect signal of such particles by observing an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of photons after the passage through a magnetic field. This can be interpreted as evidence for photon disappearance due to particle production. There are a number of experimental proposals to test independently the particle interpretation of PVLAS. Many of them are based on the search for photon reappearance or regeneration, i.e. for ''light shining through a wall''. At DESY, the Axion-Like Particle Search (ALPS) collaboration is currently setting up such an experiment. (orig.)

  16. Function Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai; Li, Jing-Wu

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  17. A novel photonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.

  18. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  19. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  20. Photonics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Elizabeth [UNLV Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2010-01-15

    During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV's Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home's electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation's energy consumption by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve

  1. Optical fibers and photonics applications: topical tracks at Wilga conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a research survey of WILGA Symposium work, 2010-2012 Editions, concerned with Optical Fibers, Optoelectronic Devices, Sensors, Communication and Photonics Applications. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the three recent Wilga Symposia on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposia embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, photonic equipment for JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium is an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe. A digest of Wilga references is presented [1-274]. Wilga Symposia play a role of an universal integrator of young science in photonics and related areas in this country and also in this part of Europe. More than 5000 young scientists participated in scientific Wilga meetings and discussions during the last nearly two decades. Over 2500 papers were published, including over 1000 in Proc. SPIE.

  2. Single photons on demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grangier, P. [Institut d' Optique, Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Orsay (France)]. E-mail: philippe.grangier@iota.u-psud.fr; Abram, I. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, Marcoussis (France)]. E-mail: izo.abram@lpn.cnrs.fr

    2003-02-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  3. EDITORIAL: Photonic materials on demand Photonic materials on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay; Padilla, Willie J.; Brener, Igal

    2012-11-01

    As David Payne famously said, 'we never have a photonic material that we want...'. This has changed with the proliferation of nanotechnology. Metamaterials—artificial media structured on a sub-wavelength scale—offer a radical paradigm for the engineering of optical properties. Some remarkable advances have been possible with metamaterials. These include, for instance, negative-index media that refract light in the opposite direction from that of conventional materials, chiral materials that rotate the polarization state of light hundreds of thousands of times more strongly than natural optical crystals, and structured thin films with remarkably strong dispersion that can slow light in much the same way as resonant atomic systems with electromagnetically induced transparency. The research agenda is now shifting towards achieving tunable and switchable functionalities with metamaterials [1] where the goal is, paraphrasing Dave Payne, 'to have on demand the photonic material that we want'. The papers in this Journal of Optics special issue explore and review the different approaches to both switching and tuning of metamaterial properties through exploiting effects such as phase conjugation, intense photo-excitation and photoconductivity, the use of electro-optical effects in conductive oxides, the exploitation global quantum coherency and resonantly coupled classical resonator and quantum structures, hybridization with gain media and the manipulation with shapes and constitution of the complex metamolecules and metamaterial reliefs by design, or using MEMS actuation. References [1] Zheludev N I and Kivshar Y 2012 From metamaterials to metadevices Nature Mater.11 917

  4. Controlling photon emission from silicon for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Seref

    2014-03-01

    The importance of a photon source that would be compatible with silicon circuitry is crucial for data communication networks. A photon source with energies ranging from UV to near infrared can be activated in Si as originationg from defects related to dislocations, vacancies, strain induced band edge transitions and quantum confinement effects. Using an etching method developed in this work, one can also enhance selectively the UV-VIS, band edge emission and emissions at telecom wavelengths, which are tunable depending on surface treatment. Deuterium D2O etching favors near infrared emission with a characteristic single peak at 1320 nm at room temperature. The result offers an exciting solution to advanced microelectronics The method involves the treatment of Si surface by deuterium Deuterium containing acid vapor, resulting in a layer that emits at 1320 nm. Etching without deuterium, a strong band edge emission can be induced at 1150 nm or an emission at 1550 nm can be created depending on the engineered surface structure of silicon. Schottky diodes fabricated on treated surfaces exhibit a strong rectifying characteristics in both cases.

  5. Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the m

  6. Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the

  7. Photon collider Higgs factories

    CERN Document Server

    Telnov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  8. Single photon quantum cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Beveratos, A; Gacoin, T; Villing, A; Poizat, J P; Grangier, P; Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, Andre; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 9500 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  9. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  10. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  11. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  12. Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibart, Olivier; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Doutre, Florent; Kaiser, Florian; Labonté, Laurent; Lunghi, Tommaso; Picholle, Éric; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Integrated optical components on lithium niobate play a major role in standard high-speed communication systems. Over the last two decades, after the birth and positioning of quantum information science, lithium niobate waveguide architectures have emerged as one of the key platforms for enabling photonics quantum technologies. Due to mature technological processes for waveguide structure integration, as well as inherent and efficient properties for nonlinear optical effects, lithium niobate devices are nowadays at the heart of many photon-pair or triplet sources, single-photon detectors, coherent wavelength-conversion interfaces, and quantum memories. Consequently, they find applications in advanced and complex quantum communication systems, where compactness, stability, efficiency, and interconnectability with other guided-wave technologies are required. In this review paper, we first introduce the material aspects of lithium niobate, and subsequently discuss all of the above mentioned quantum components, ranging from standard photon-pair sources to more complex and advanced circuits.

  13. Effect of polarization entanglement in photon-photon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätzel, Dennis; Wilkens, Martin; Menzel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    It is found that the differential cross section of photon-photon scattering is a function of the degree of polarization entanglement of the two-photon state. A reduced general expression for the differential cross section of photon-photon scattering is derived by applying simple symmetry arguments. An explicit expression is obtained for the example of photon-photon scattering due to virtual electron-positron pairs in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown how the effect in this explicit example can be explained as an effect of quantum interference and that it fits with the idea of distance-dependent forces.

  14. Semiconducting-polymer photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Peter; Tessler, Nir; Friend, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous advances in the field of semiconducting-polymer optoelectronics as a result of a concerted chemistry, physics and engineering effort. For example, ink-jet-printed full-color active-matrix thin-film display prototypes with semiconducting polymers as the active layers have already been demonstrated. The key advantages of this technology lie in its full-color capability, scalability to both large-area and micro- displays, as well as low-cost associated with simplicity and solution processability. In a number of related inorganic device technologies, the control of optical properties using photonic structures has ben crucial to the performance of the devices. In principle, polymer devices can also benefit from such control if appropriate polymer optical building blocks that retain the processing advantages can be found. Here we will show that the refractive index of poly(p- phenylenevinuylene) (PPV) can be tuned over remarkable ranges from 1.6 to 2.7 at 550-nm wavelength by dispersing 50-angstrom-diameter silica nanoparticles into its matrix. This is achieved without incurring significant optical scattering losses. Using these semiconducting-polymer composites, we have demonstrated efficient distributed Bragg reflectors in the green spectral region from relatively few periods of quarterwave stacks of the high- and low-index materials. Controlled chemical doping of these photonic structures fabricated polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes in which current is injected through the polymer DBR with adequate confinement of photons and electron-hole pairs. We have also fabricated photo pumped all-polymer microcavity structures.

  15. Information Optics and Photonics Algorithms, Systems, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses applications, recent advances, and emerging areas in fields with applications in information optics and photonics systems. The objective of this book is to illustrate and discuss novel approaches, analytical techniques, models, and technologies that enhance sensing, measurement, processing, interpretation, and visualization of information using free space optics and photonics. The material in this book concentrates on integration of diverse fields for cross-disciplinary applications including bio-photonics, digitally enhanced sensing and imaging systems, multi-dimensional optical imaging and image processing, bio-inspired imaging, 3D visualization, 3D displays, imaging on the nano-scale, quantum optics, super resolution imaging, photonics for biological applications, and holographic information systems. As a result, this book is a useful resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students who work in the diverse fields comprising information optics and photonics.

  16. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0}

  17. High visibility time-energy entangled photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Steven; Lu, Xiyuan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Advances in quantum photonics have shown that chip-scale quantum devices are translating from the realm of basic research to applied technologies. Recent developments in integrated photonic circuits and single photon detectors indicate that the bottleneck for fidelity in quantum photonic processes will ultimately lie with the photon sources. We present and demonstrate a silicon nanophotonic chip capable of emitting telecommunication band photon pairs that exhibit the highest raw degree of time-energy entanglement from a micro/nanoscale source, to date. Biphotons are generated through cavity-enhanced spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator, wherein the nature of the triply-resonant generation process leads to a dramatic Purcell enhancement, resulting in highly efficient pair creation rates as well as extreme suppression of the photon noise background. The combination of the excellent photon source and a new phase locking technique, allow for the observation of a nearly perfe...

  18. Characterization of a Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion Source for Use in Single Photon Tests of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Preston; McDonld, Jackson; Harrington, Jason; Smith, R. Seth

    2014-03-01

    During the past year, a quantum optics laboratory was constructed and tested at Francis Marion University. A spontaneous parametric downconversion source was used to create pairs of correlated photons for use in single photon tests of quantum mechanics. Photons from a spontaneous parametric downconversion source were detected with single photon counting modules that were purchased through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPHA). The effect of pump polarization on the output intensity was studied. Coincidences between pairs of correlated photons were counted and plotted as a function of the angle between the single photon detectors, in order to perform a test of Conservation of Momentum. The laboratory will be used to perform single photon tests of quantum mechanics, including the Grangier experiment, single photon interference, quantum state measurement, and tests of local realism.

  19. Photon Polarization in Photonic Crystal Fibers under Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; ZHANG Xiao-fu

    2007-01-01

    Using the quantum invariant theory and unitary transformation means, we study the influences of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering on the photon polarization in photonic crystal fibers(PCF). The results show that the photon polarization of the incident photon changes a lot due to scattered optical, and its general geometric phase factor, Hamiton number and evolution operator are definited both by the incident and scattered optical.

  20. Design of Tunable Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Filter as Photonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Seifan; Alireza Malekijavan; Alireza Monajati Kashani

    2014-01-01

    By creating point defects and line defects in photonic crystals, we reach the new sort of photonic crystals. Which allow us to design photonic crystals filters. In this type of photonic crystals the ability to tune up central frequency of filter is important to attention. In this paper, we use foregoing points for designing photonic crystal filters. The main function of this type of filters is coupling between shield of point defect modes and directional line defect modes. By using liquid cry...

  1. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  2. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  3. Experiments with Individual Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mark

    2004-05-01

    I describe several different experiments we have performed with individual photons. For example, while well known experiments involving phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering strongly suggest the existence of photons, they do not prove the existence of light quanta. To prove the existence of light quanta one must perform an experiment whose results cannot be explained using classical waves. We have performed such an experiment--it demonstrates the localization of light quanta by showing that a single photon only goes one way when it leaves a beamsplitter [1]. In a second experiment we demonstrate that this single photon will interfere with itself when it transits an interferometer. The experiments have been performed by undergraduates, and the goal of this project is to develop a series of experiments exploring fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics for an undergraduate teaching lab. [1] P. Grangier, G. Roger and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).

  4. Silicon photonics: optical modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Gardes, F. Y.; Hu, Youfang; Thomson, D.; Lever, L.; Kelsall, R.; Ikonic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Photonics has the potential to revolutionise a whole raft of application areas. Currently, the main focus is on various forms of optical interconnects as this is a near term bottleneck for the computing industry, and hence a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. The adoption of silicon photonics for mass production will significantly benefit a range of other application areas. One of the key components that will enable silicon photonics to flourish in all of the potential application areas is a high performance optical modulator. An overview is given of the major Si photonics modulator research that has been pursued at the University of Surrey to date as well as a worldwide state of the art showing the trend and technology available. We will show the trend taken toward integration of optical and electronic components with the difficulties that are inherent in such a technology.

  5. What is a photon?

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the absorber theory of radiation as put forward by Wheeler and Feynman. We show that it gives a better understanding of the photon compared to the usual quantum electrodynamics (QED) picture.

  6. In-plane emission of indistinguishable photons generated by an integrated quantum emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliakos, Sokratis; Schwagmann, Andre; Bennett, Anthony J; Ward, Martin B; Ellis, David J P; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of indistinguishable photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an InAs quantum dot. The emitter is integrated in the waveguiding region of a photonic crystal structure, allowing for on-chip light propagation. We perform a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type of experiment with photons collected from the exit of the waveguide and we observe two-photon interference under continuous wave excitation. Our results pave the way for the integration of quantum emitters in advanced photonic quantum circuits.

  7. Photonics Explorer: revolutionizing photonics in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Fischer, Robert; Vlekken, Johan; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    The `Photonics Explorer' is a unique intra-curricular optics kit designed to engage, excite and educate secondary school students about the fascination of working with light - hands-on, in their own classrooms. Developed with a pan European collaboration of experts, the kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental material provided within a supporting didactic framework, distributed in conjunction with teacher training courses. The material has been specifically designed to integrate into European science curricula. Each kit contains robust and versatile components sufficient for a class of 25-30 students to work in groups of 2-3. The didactic content is based on guided inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques with a strong emphasis on hands-on experiments, team work and relating abstract concepts to real world applications. The content has been developed in conjunction with over 30 teachers and experts in pedagogy to ensure high quality and ease of integration. It is currently available in 7 European languages. The Photonics Explorer allows students not only to hone their essential scientific skills but also to really work as scientists and engineers in the classroom. Thus, it aims to encourage more young people to pursue scientific careers and avert the imminent lack of scientific workforce in Europe. 50 Photonics Explorer kits have been successfully tested in 7 European countries with over 1500 secondary school students. The positive impact of the kit in the classroom has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. A non-profit organisation, EYESTvzw [Excite Youth for Engineering Science and Technology], is responsible for the large scale distribution of the Photonics Explorer.

  8. Photonic bandgap structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, Pisco; Antonello, Cutolo

    2012-01-01

    This E-Book covers the research and the development of a novel generation of photonic devices for sensing applications. Key features of this book include a brief review of basic PhCs related design and fabrication concepts, a selection of crossover topics for the development of novel technological platforms for physical, chemical and biological sensing and a description of the main PhCs sensors to date by representing many of the exciting sensing applications that utilize photonic crystal structures.

  9. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  10. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  11. Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.

  12. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  13. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  14. Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.

  15. Spectroscopy-on-chip applications of silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, Roel; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Dhakal, Ashim; Selvaraja, Shankar K.; Komorowska, Katarzyna; Peyskens, Frédéric; Ryckeboer, Eva; Yebo, Nebiyu; Roelkens, Gunther; Le Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    In recent years silicon photonics has become a mature technology enabling the integration of a variety of optical and optoelectronic functions by means of advanced CMOS technology. While most efforts in this field have gone to telecom and datacom/interconnect applications, there is a rapidly growing interest in using the same technology for sensing applications, ranging from refractive index sensing to spectroscopic sensing. In this paper the prospect of silicon photonics for absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy on-a-chip will be discussed. To allow spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared the silicon photonics platform is extended with silicon nitride waveguides.

  16. Lasers in InP generic photonic integration technology platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkowski, Sylwester; Lenstra, Daan

    2015-04-01

    A review is given of a number of lasers in a form of photonic integrated circuits realized on InP substrate using a generic integration approach. The potential of these photonic circuits lies in their compactness, low power consumption, and significant reduction of fabrication cost by realization in generic foundry runs. Generic integration platforms offer the possibility of realizing functionally advanced photonic circuits using combinations of just a few standardized and parameterized building blocks. This vibrant field opens new doors to innovative product development for SMEs as well as curiosity-driven research.

  17. Present and future applications of analogue microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Photonics may be even more suited for analog than for digital signal applications. Today, microwave photonics techniques are currently used in radio-over-fibre signal transmission and other commercial applications, but recent advances are widening the scope of application to new areas. The speakers...... will introduce present and emerging opportunities for analog photonics, among which microwave filters, arbitrary optical waveform control, THz radiation and UWB pulse generation. A panel discussion will contrast different views from company, academy and funding bodies, to identify the most promising ones...... for commercial applications as well as the challenges and research opportunities to be pursued to make it reality....

  18. Sfermion production at photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. E-mail: michael.klasen@desy.de

    2001-10-11

    We calculate total and differential cross-sections for sfermion production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation and in photon-photon collisions with arbitrary photon polarization. The total cross-section at a polarized photon collider is shown to be larger than the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross-section up to the kinematic limit of the photon collider.

  19. National photonics skills standards for technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Darrell M.

    1995-10-01

    Photonics is defined as the generation, manipulation, transport, detection, and use of light information and energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The range of applications of phonics extends from energy generation to detection to communication and information processing. Photonics is at the heart of today's communication systems, from the laser that generates the digital information transported along a fiber- optic cable to the detector that decodes the information. Whether the transmitted information is a phone call from across the street or across the globe, photonics brings it to you. Where your health is concerned, photonics allows physicians to do minimally invasive surgery using fiber-optic endoscopes and lasers. Researches using spectroscopy and microscopy are pushing the frontiers of biotechnology in activities as widespread as diagnosing disease and probing the mysteries of the genetic code. Advanced sensing and imaging techniques monitor the environment, gathering data on crops and forests, analyzing the ocean's currents and contents, and probing the atmosphere of pollutants. Transportation needs are being impacted by photonic sensors and laser rangefinders that will soon monitor and control the traffic on our nation's highways. In our factories, photonics provides machine vision systems that give a level of quality control human inspectors could never achieve. In manufacturing, lasers are replacing a variety of cutting, welding, and marking techniques, while imaging systems teamed with neural networks are producing intelligent robots. In short, photonics is paving our way into the new millennium. The skill standard is intended to define the knowledge and capabilities - the skills - that workers in the phonics industry need. Phonics will be one of the primary battlefields of the world economic conflict, and it is imperative that U.S. photonics technicians be skilled enough to allow the United States to remain competitive in a global marketplace. The

  20. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and

  1. Two-photon interference with non-identical photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    Two-photon interference with non-identical photons is studied based on the superposition principle in Feynman's path integral theory. The second-order temporal interference pattern is observed by superposing laser and pseudothermal light beams with different spectra. The reason why there is two-photon interference for photons of different spectra is that non-identical photons can be indistinguishable for the detection system when Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is taken into account. These studies are helpful to understand the second-order interference of light in the language of photons.

  2. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  3. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  4. Two-photon Interference with Non-identical Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianbin; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-Li; Xu, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    The indistinguishability of non-identical photons is dependent on detection system in quantum physics. If two photons with different wavelengths are indistinguishable for a detection system, there can be two-photon interference when these two photons are incident to two input ports of a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, respectively. The reason why two-photon interference phenomena are different for classical and nonclassical light is not due to interference, but due to the properties of light and detection system. These conclusions are helpful to understand the physics and applications of two-photon interference.

  5. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  6. Photonic band gap of 2D complex lattice photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-ying; YUAN Li-bo

    2009-01-01

    It is of great significance to present a photonic crystal lattice structure with a wide photonic bandgap. A two-dimension complex lattice photonic crystal is proposed. The photonic crystal is composed of complex lattices with triangular structure, and each single cell is surrounded by six scatterers in an hexagon. The photonic band gaps are calculated based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The results indicate that the photonic crystal has tunable large TM polarization band gap, and a gap-midgap ratio of up to 45.6%.

  7. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  8. Antigravity Acts on Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2002-04-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity assumes that photons don't change frequency as they move from Sun to Earth. This assumption is correct in classical physics. All experiments proving the general relativity are in the domain of classical physics. This include the tests by Pound et al. of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo solar redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr's correspondence principle assures that quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein's classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. When we treat photons as quantum mechanical particles; we find that gravitational force on photons is reversed (antigravity). This modified theory contradicts the equivalence principle, but is consistent with all experiments. Solar lines and distant stars are redshifted in accordance with author's plasma redshift theory. These changes result in a beautiful consistent cosmology.

  9. Fuel Effective Photonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, N.; Srivarshini, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the entry of miniaturization in electronics and ultra-small light-weight materials, energy efficient propulsion techniques for space travel can soon be possible. We need to go for such high speeds so that the generation’s time long interstellar missions can be done in incredibly short time. Also renewable energy like sunlight, nuclear energy can be used for propulsion instead of fuel. These propulsion techniques are being worked on currently. The recently proposed photon propulsion concepts are reviewed, that utilize momentum of photons generated by sunlight or onboard photon generators, such as blackbody radiation or lasers, powered by nuclear or solar power. With the understanding of nuclear photonic propulsion, in this paper, a rough estimate of nuclear fuel required to achieve the escape velocity of Earth is done. An overview of the IKAROS space mission for interplanetary travel by JAXA, that was successful in demonstrating that photonic propulsion works and also generated additional solar power on board, is provided; which can be used as a case study. An extension of this idea for interstellar travel, termed as ‘Star Shot’, aims to send a nanocraft to an exoplanet in the nearest star system, which could be potentially habitable. A brief overview of the idea is presented.

  10. Axion mediated photon to dark photon mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ejlli, Damian

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between dark/mirror sector and ordinary sector is considered, where the two sectors interact with each other by sharing the same QCD axion field. This feature makes possible the mixing between ordinary and dark/mirror photons in ordinary and dark electromagnetic fields. Exact and perturbative solutions of equation of motions describing the evolution of fields in ordinary and dark external magnetic fields are found. User friendly quantities such as transition probability rates, induced phase shifts and angle of rotation of the polarization plane of light are derived. Possible astrophysical and cosmological applications of this mechanism are suggested.

  11. International photonics training: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Massa, Nicholas; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna

    2007-06-01

    From 2004, the Center for Science Education and Training (CSET) participated to the European Union-funded educational network "Hands-on Science". The aim of the Romanian team was to transform teachers and students from end-users of educational aids to active designers and developers of instructional materials. Several science fields were identified, including photonics. The team at CSET is now focusing on: lasers and their applications, optical fiber communications, solar energy as a sustainable source, and the use of optical spectroscopy in physics and chemistry. CSET initiated an international collaboration with the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) in Boston, Mass., when the Center enrolled an experienced Romanian high school science teacher in a twelve-week "Introduction to Photonics" laboratory-based professional development course. The course was developed by NEBHE through an Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program grant from National Science Foundation and is designed for high school and community college educators from both science and technology instructional areas. The paper reports the experience of this international participation which was made possible since the course is delivered via the Internet by Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, Conn. Its impact on photonics education in Romania and the USA is analyzed, as the participant teacher shares her experiences with teachers and faculty in the "Introduction to Photonics" course and with those enrolled into the Romanian "Hands-on-Science" program.

  12. Mesoscopic photon heat transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...

  13. Photonics: practically there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gould

    2002-09-01

    Strange things happen to light when it passes through photonic crystals. A significant variation in refractive index between the material’s periodic lattice structure and its substrate traps transmitted photons in either one area or the other, creating distinct ‘allowed’ and ‘forbidden’ energy regions. Light with wavelengths equivalent to the forbidden region, the so-called photonic bandgap, is stopped from passing further. Wavelengths from the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum, on the other hand, are free to continue their passage through the material unhindered. In effect, the material is able to halt the passage of light just as the periodic potential of semiconductors, such as silicon, bars electrons from occupying the forbidden energy bandgap.

  14. Photon kinetics in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Morozov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a kinetic theory of radiative processes in many-component plasmas with relativistic electrons and nonrelativistic heavy particles. Using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique in many-particle QED, we show that the transverse field correlation functions can be naturally decomposed into sharply peaked (non-Lorentzian parts that describe resonant (propagating photons and off-shell parts corresponding to virtual photons in the medium. Analogous decompositions are obtained for the longitudinal field correlation functions and the correlation functions of relativistic electrons. We derive a kinetic equation for the resonant photons with a finite spectral width and show that the off-shell parts of the particle and field correlation functions are essential to calculate the local radiating power in plasmas and recover the results of vacuum QED. The plasma effects on radiative processes are discussed.

  15. Direct photons at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus; Grimm, Andreas [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    Photons, as all electromagnetic probes, can give direct access to the hot and dense phase of a heavy-ion reaction. We show calculations of direct photon emission at SiS100- and SiS-300 energies with the UrQMD-hybrid model. UrQMD is a full microscopic+macroscopic transport/fluid-dynamics hybrid model with hadron- and string-driven equilibration phase, a full (3+1)-dimensional fluiddynamic hot and dense phase and a hadronic after-burner. Unequilibrated matter at high rapidity is preserved during the fluid phase. A strong emphasis is set on the impact of viscosity and Equation of State at zero and non-zero baryon density to the spectra and flow patterns of thermal and non-thermal photons in A+A-collisions at the colliding systems relevant for FAIR.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  17. Photon physics with PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-07-15

    In this Paper the author discusses briefly the physics motivation for extending measurements of particle production with high granularity and particle id capabilities to neutrals in PHENIX. The author then discusses the technique of direct photon measurement in the presence of copious background photons from {pi}{sup o} decays. The experiment will measure relatively low p{sub t} photons near y=0 in the lab frame. This new experimental environment of high multiplicity and low {gamma} momenta will affect both the techniques used and the type of analysis which can be performed. The Phenix Electromagnetic calorimeter is described and its capabilities illustrated with results from simulation and beam tests of the first production array.

  18. Photonic Feshbach resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Feshbach resonance is a resonance for two-atom scattering with two or more channels,in which a bound state is achieved in one channel.We show that this resonance phenomenon not only exists during the collisions of massive particles,but also emerges during the coherent transport of massless particles,that is,photons confined in the coupled resonator arrays linked by a separated cavity or a tunable two level system(TLS).When the TLS is coupled to one array to form a bound state in this setup,the vanishing transmission appears to display the photonic Feshbach resonance.This process can be realized through various experimentally feasible solid state systems,such as the couple defected cavities in photonic crystals and the superconducting qubit coupled to the transmission line.The numerical simulation based on the finite-different time-domain(FDTD) method confirms our assumption about the physical implementation.

  19. Anti-photon

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is neither a compilation, nor a critique of the article by W. E. Lamb of which it gets the name: It adds arguments and applications. Quantum electrodynamics quantizes "normal modes" chosen arbitrarily among the infinity of sets of orthogonal modes of the electromagnetic field. Changing the choice of normal modes splits the photons which are not physical objects. The classical field of electromagnetic energy is often, wrongly, considered as linear, so that Bohr's electron falls on the nucleus and photon counting is false. Using absolute energies and radiances avoids doing these errors. Considering the photons as small particles interacting without pilot waves with single atoms, astrophysicists use Monte-Carlo computations for the propagation of light in homogeneous media while it works only in opalescent media as clouds. Thus, for instance, two theories abort while, they are validated using coherence and Einstein theories, giving a good interpretation of the rings of supernova remna...

  20. PHOTON2: A web-based professional development model for photonics technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nicholas M.; Washburn, Barbara A.; Kehrhahn, Marijke; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna D.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present a web-based teacher professional development model for photonics technology education funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (ATE) program. In response to the rapidly growing demand for skilled photonics technicians, the PHOTON2 project will increase the number of high school teachers and community college faculty across the US proficient in teaching photonics technology at their own institutions. The project will also focus on building the capacity of educators to engage in lifelong learning through web-based professional development. Unlike the traditional professional development model whereby educators receive training through intensive short-term workshops, the PHOTON2 project team has developed a pedagogical framework designed specifically for adult learners in which technical content, curriculum development, and learner self-regulatory development are integrated into an active, collaborative, and sustained online learning environment. In Spring 2004, two cohorts of science and technology educators, career/guidance counselors, and industry mentors from eleven states including California, Pennsylvania, Texas, Arizona, Hawaii, and the six New England states commenced participation in the three-year project. Qualitative and quantitative research, focused on individual and environmental factors related to web-based learning, will examine the viability of web-based teacher/faculty professional development in engineering technology education.

  1. Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Photonic nanostructures provide a way of tailoring the interaction between light and matter and the past decade has witnessed a tremendous experimental and theoretical progress on this subject. In particular, the combination with semiconductor quantum dots has proven very successful. This manuscript reviews quantum optics with excitons in single quantum dots embedded in photonic nanostructures. The ability to engineer the interaction strength in integrated photonic nanostructures enables a range of fundamental quantum-electrodynamics experiments on, e.g., spontaneous-emission control, modified Lamb shifts, and enhanced dipole-dipole interaction. Furthermore, highly efficient single-photon sources and giant photon nonlinearities may be constructed with immediate applications for photonic quantum-information processing. The review summarizes the general theoretical framework of photon emission including the role of dephasing processes, and applies it to photonic nanostructures of current interest, such as photo...

  2. Photonic wires and trumpets for ultrabright single photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Photonic wires have recently demonstrated very attractive assets in the field of high-efficiency single photon sources. After presenting the basics of spontaneous emission control in photonic wires, we compare the two possible tapering strategies that can be applied to their output end so...... as to tailor their radiation diagram in the far-field. We highlight the novel “photonic trumpet” geometry, which provides a clean Gaussian beam, and is much less sensitive to fabrication imperfections than the more common needle-like taper geometry. S4Ps based on a single QD in a PW with integrated bottom...... mirror and tapered tip display jointly a record-high efficiency (0.75±0.1 photon per pulse) and excellent single photon purity. Beyond single photon sources, photonic wires and trumpets appear as a very attractive resource for solid-state quantum optics experiments....

  3. Dynamic increase and decrease of photonic crystal nanocavity Q factors for optical pulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upham, Jeremy; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2008-12-22

    We introduce recent advances in dynamic control over the Q factor of a photonic crystal nanocavity system. By carefully timing a rapid increase of the Q factor from 3800 to 22,000, we succeed in capturing a 4ps signal pulse within the nanocavity with a photon lifetime of 18ps. By performing an additional transition of the Q factor within the photon lifetime, the held light is once again ejected from of the system on demand.

  4. The magic of light! An entertaining optics and photonics awareness program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florensa, Carlos; Martí, Míriam; Kumar, S. Chaitanya; Carrasco, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Illusionism provides a surprising and unforgettable way of explaining photonics to a wide audience. Imagine grabbing with your own hand an egg-sized photon with the same incredible properties as in a quantum computer! And what about touching the light beam which detects and removes diseased cells like in cutting edge medical prototypes? The art of magic allows promoting photonics, exploring advanced subjects in an understandable and palpable fashion that strongly inspires all ages.

  5. Photonic crystals as metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinopoulou, S.

    2012-10-01

    The visionary work of Veselago had inspired intensive research efforts over the last decade, towards the realization of man-made structures with unprecedented electromagnetic (EM) properties. These structures, known as metamaterials, are typically periodic metallic-based resonant structures demonstrating effective constitutive parameters beyond the possibilities of natural material. For example they can exhibit optical magnetism or simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity which implies the existence of a negative refractive index. However, also periodic dielectric and polar material, known as photonic crystals, can exhibit EM capabilities beyond natural materials. This paper reviews the conditions and manifestations of metamaterial capabilities of photonic crystal systems.

  6. Coherent terahertz photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Alwyn J; Fice, Martyn J; Balakier, Katarzyna; Natrella, Michele; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; van Dijk, Frederic; Pepper, Michael; Aeppli, Gabriel; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Linfield, Edmund; Renaud, Cyril C

    2013-09-23

    We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

  7. Photon-photon interactions with inner coupled double-cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Wen-Xi; Li Hong-Cai; Yang Rong-Can

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the interaction between two spatial modes of the optical fields with a single atom trapped inner coupled double-cavity.Theoretical derivation and numerical simulation with the experimental available parameters show that photon-photon switching and π phase shift of single photons may be achieved with current experimental technology.As the probe and control fields are in different spatial modes,the system is superior for implementing cavity QED-based photonic quantum networks.

  8. cGMP in Mouse Rods: the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying single photon responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen P. Gross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate vision begins when retinal photoreceptors transduce photons into membrane hyperpolarization, which reduces glutamate release onto second-order neurons. In rod photoreceptors, transduction of single photons is achieved by a well-understood G-protein cascade that modulates cGMP levels, and in turn, cGMP-sensitive inward current. The spatial extent and depth of the decline in cGMP during the single photon response have been major issues in phototransduction research since the discovery that single photons elicit substantial and reproducible changes in membrane current. The spatial profile of cGMP decline during the single photon response affects signal gain, and thus may contribute to reduction of trial-to-trial fluctuations in the single photon response. Here we summarize the general principles of rod phototransduction, emphasizing recent advances in resolving the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP during the single photon response.

  9. Two-photon interference of temporally separated photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-10-01

    We present experimental demonstrations of two-photon interference involving temporally separated photons within two types of interferometers: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polarization-based Michelson interferometer. The two-photon states are probabilistically prepared in a symmetrically superposed state within the two interferometer arms by introducing a large time delay between two input photons; this state is composed of two temporally separated photons, which are in two different or the same spatial modes. We then observe two-photon interference fringes involving both the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect and the interference of path-entangled two-photon states simultaneously in a single interferometric setup. The observed two-photon interference fringes provide simultaneous observation of the interferometric properties of the single-photon and two-photon wavepackets. The observations can also facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the origins of the interference phenomena arising from spatially bunched/anti-bunched two-photon states comprised of two temporally separated photons within the interferometer arms.

  10. High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...

  11. High intensity X/γ photon beams for nuclear physics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, L.; Alesini, D.; Bacci, N.; Bliss, N.; Cassou, K.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Dupraz, K.; Giribono, A.; Petrillo, V.; Palumbo, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.

    2016-05-01

    In this manuscript we review the challenges of Compton backscattering sources in advancing photon beam performances in the 1 - 20 MeV energy range, underlining the design criteria bringing to maximum spectral luminosity and briefly describing the main achievements in conceiving and developing new devices (multi-bunch RF cavities and Laser recirculators) for the case of ELI-NP Gamma Beam System (ELI-NP-GBS).

  12. Isolation of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Wielers, M

    2001-01-01

    Photon identification in ATLAS is based mainly on the shower shapes in the calorimeters, conversion reconstruction and a track veto. In this note the additional gamma/jet separation power is evaluated if isolation is required around the shower as additional criteria.

  13. ALICE Photon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Kharlov, Y

    2013-01-01

    PHOS provides unique coverage of the following physics topics: - Study initial phase of the collision of heavy nuclei via direct photons, - Jet-quenching as a probe of deconfinement, studied via high Pτ ϒ and π0, - Signals of chiral-symmetry restoration, - QCD studies in pp collisions via identified neutral spectra.

  14. Pushing the Photon Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Cogdell, Richard; Hulst, van Niek F.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3-4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especi

  15. Two-photon cryomicroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Köhler, C.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on a new two-photon cryomicroscope which consist of a compact laser-scanning microscope combined with a motorized heating and freezing stage. Samples can be cooled down to -196 °C (77 K) and heated up to 600 °C (873 K) with adjustable heating/freezing rates between 0.01 K / min and 150 K / min. Two-photon imaging is realized by near infrared femtosecond-laser pulse excitation. The abilities of the two-photon cryomicroscope are illustrated in several measurements: imaging of fluorescent microspheres inside a piece of ice illustrates the feasibility of deep-microscopic imaging inside frozen sample. The temperature-dependent structural integrity of collagen is monitored by detection of second harmonic generation signals from porcine cornea. The measurements reveal also the dependence of the collagendenaturation temperature on hydration state of the cornea collagen. Furthermore, the potential of the two-photon cryomicroscope for optimization of freezing and thawing procedures as well as to evaluate the viability of frozen cells and tissue is discussed.

  16. Photonic curvilinear data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

  17. Photon thermal Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e.Righi-Leduc effect) in lattices of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This effect is related to a symetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat-transport by photon tunneling thanks to the particles anisotropy tuning.

  18. The Photonic Lantern

    CERN Document Server

    Birks, T A; Yerolatsitis, S; Leon-Saval, S G; Thomson, R R

    2015-01-01

    Photonic lanterns are made by adiabatically merging several single-mode cores into one multimode core. They provide low-loss interfaces between single-mode and multimode systems where the precise optical mapping between cores and individual modes is unimportant.

  19. Jet Production by Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, C; Friberg, Christer; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    The production of jets is studied in collisions of virtual photons, gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma*, specifically for applications at HERA and LEP2. Photon flux factors are convoluted with matrix elements involving either direct or resolved photons and, for the latter, with parton distributions of the photon. Special emphasis is put on the range of uncertainty in the modeling of the resolved component. The resulting model is compared with existing data.

  20. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  1. Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim; Schwaller, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to "photon jets". For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance [Formula: see text] can be mimicked by a process of the form [Formula: see text], where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an [Formula: see text] pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to [Formula: see text], where there are no photons at all but the dark photon [Formula: see text] decays to [Formula: see text] pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.

  2. Photons, photon jets and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Kopp, Joachim [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Schwaller, Pedro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to ''photon jets''. For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance S → γγ can be mimicked by a process of the form pp → S → aa → 4γ, where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to S → A'A' → e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}, where there are no photons at all but the dark photon A' decays to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.

  3. Photons in Natural and Life Sciences An Interdisciplinary Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The book describes first the principle photon generation processes from nuclear reactions, electron motion and from discrete quantum transitions. It then focuses on the use of photons in various selected fields of modern natural and life sciences. It bridges disciplines such as physics, chemistry, earth- and materials science, proteomics, information technology, photoelectrochemistry, photosynthesis and spintronics. Advanced light sources and their use in natural and life sciences are emphasized and the effects related to the quantum nature of photons (quantum computing, teleportation) are described. The content encompasses among many other examples the role of photons on the origin of life and on homochirality in biology, femtosecond laser slicing, photothermal cancer therapy, the use of gamma rays in materials science, photoelectrochemical surface conditioning, quantum information aspects and photo-spintronics. The book is written for scientists and graduate students from all related disciplines who are int...

  4. Bringing some photonic structures for solar cells to the fore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubas, Ludovic; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Torchio, Philippe; Duché, David; Vedraine, Sylvain; Vervisch, Wilfried; Le Rouzo, Judikaël; Flory, François; Rivière, Guillaume; Yeabiyo, Gizachew; Derbal, Hassina

    2011-03-20

    A review on the use of photonic structures enabling a better absorption of solar radiation within solar cells is proposed. Specific geometric configurations, such as folded solar cells or fiber-based architectures, are shown to be promising solutions to reach better light absorption. Electromagnetic optimization of thin-film solar cells and the use of angular thin-film filters, proposed by several research groups, also provide solutions to better concentrate solar radiation within the active layers of solar cells. Finally, results on "photonized" solar cells comprising gratings or more advanced photonic components, such as photonic crystals or plasmonic structures, and their effects on light-matter interaction in solar cells are highlighted.

  5. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  6. Photonic MPLS Network Technologies to Create Bandwidth-Abundant IP Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi; Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the prototypes of the Photonic MPLS router that can create bandwidth-abundant IP networks in a cost-effective manner. The characteristics of and recent advances in these prototypes are also described.

  7. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  8. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...

  9. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  10. Silicon photonics for high-performance interconnection networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberman, Aleksandr

    2011-12-01

    We assert in the course of this work that silicon photonics has the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. This work showcases that chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, enable unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of this work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches, and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. Furthermore, we leverage the unique properties of available silicon photonic materials to create novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies, and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks and computing systems. We show that the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. Furthermore, we explore the immense potential of all-optical functionalities implemented using parametric processing in the silicon platform, demonstrating unique methods that have the ability to revolutionize computation and communication. Silicon photonics

  11. FDTD Modeling of Nano- and Bio-Photonic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Tuchin, Valery; Pond, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the discussion of two recent unique applications of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method to the design and modeling of advanced nano- and bio-photonic problems. The approach that is adopted here focuses on the potential of the FDTD methodology to ad...

  12. Few-photon optical diode

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficiently than the opposite.

  13. Few-photon optical diode

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficie...

  14. Few-photon optical diode

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficie...

  15. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  16. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories. PMID:27695198

  17. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G; Humphreys, Peter C; Bustard, Philip J; Acosta, Victor M; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-11-12

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  18. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  19. Quantum Imaging with Undetected Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Gabriela B; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Indistinguishable quantum states interfere, but the mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. We present a novel quantum imaging concept that relies on the indistinguishability of the possible sources of a photon that remains undetected. Our experiment uses pair creation in two separate down-conversion crystals. If a pair is created in the first crystal, the undetected photon passes the sample to be imaged, and its mode is made identical to that of an undetected photon created in the second crystal. Because of the pair correlation, the phase and amplitude information imprinted on the undetected photon is also carried by its brother photon, called the signal. Interference of the two signal beams, one arising from each crystal, then reveals the image. The photons passing through the object are never detected, and the signal photons that are detected never interact with the object. We demonstrate the power of the method by exhibitin...

  20. Two photon physics. Personal recollection

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Ilya F

    2015-01-01

    The term two--photon processes is used for the reactions in which some system of particles is produced in collision of two photons, either real or virtual. In the study of these processes our main goal was to suggest approach, allowing to extract from the data information on proper two--photon process separating it from mechanism which responsible for the production of photons. Here I present my view for history of two--photon physics. I don't try to give complete review, concentrating mainly on works of our team (which cover essential part of the topic) and some colleagues. My citation is strongly incomplete. I cite here only papers which were essential in our understanding of the problems. The choice of presented details is the result of my discussions with Gleb Kotkin and Valery Serbo. 1. Prehistory. 2. Two photon processes at e^+e^- colliders. 3. Photon colliders. 4. Notes on physical program.

  1. A semiconductor photon-sorter

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, A J; Ellis, D J P; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2016-01-01

    Photons do not interact directly with each other, but conditional control of one beam by another can be achieved with non-linear optical media at high field intensities. It is exceedingly difficult to reach such intensities at the single photon level but proposals have been made to obtain effective interactions by scattering photons from single transitions. We report here effective interactions between photons created using a quantum dot weakly coupled to a cavity. We show that a passive single-photon non-linearity can modify the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and sort polarisation correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for optical switches operated by single quanta of light.

  2. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  3. Large-scale quantum photonic circuits in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas C.; Bunandar, Darius; Pant, Mihir; Steinbrecher, Greg R.; Mower, Jacob; Prabhu, Mihika; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Quantum information science offers inherently more powerful methods for communication, computation, and precision measurement that take advantage of quantum superposition and entanglement. In recent years, theoretical and experimental advances in quantum computing and simulation with photons have spurred great interest in developing large photonic entangled states that challenge today's classical computers. As experiments have increased in complexity, there has been an increasing need to transition bulk optics experiments to integrated photonics platforms to control more spatial modes with higher fidelity and phase stability. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonics platform offers new possibilities for quantum optics, including the integration of bright, nonclassical light sources, based on the large third-order nonlinearity (χ(3)) of silicon, alongside quantum state manipulation circuits with thousands of optical elements, all on a single phase-stable chip. How large do these photonic systems need to be? Recent theoretical work on Boson Sampling suggests that even the problem of sampling from e30 identical photons, having passed through an interferometer of hundreds of modes, becomes challenging for classical computers. While experiments of this size are still challenging, the SOI platform has the required component density to enable low-loss and programmable interferometers for manipulating hundreds of spatial modes. Here, we discuss the SOI nanophotonics platform for quantum photonic circuits with hundreds-to-thousands of optical elements and the associated challenges. We compare SOI to competing technologies in terms of requirements for quantum optical systems. We review recent results on large-scale quantum state evolution circuits and strategies for realizing high-fidelity heralded gates with imperfect, practical systems. Next, we review recent results on silicon photonics-based photon-pair sources and device architectures, and we discuss a path towards

  4. Flipping photons backward: reversed Cherenkov radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Charged particles moving faster than light in a medium produce Cherenkov radiation. In traditional, positive index-of-refraction materials this radiation travels forward. Metamaterials, with negative indices of refraction, flip the radiation backward. This readily separates it from the particles, providing higher flexibility in photon manipulation and is useful for particle identification and counting. Here we review recent advances in reversed Cherenkov radiation research, including the first demonstration of backward emission. We also discuss the potential for developing new types of devices, such as ones that pierce invisibility cloaks.

  5. Nonlinear interferometry approach to photonic sequential logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by rapidly advancing capabilities for extensive nanoscale patterning of optical materials, I propose an approach to implementing photonic sequential logic that exploits circuit-scale phase coherence for efficient realizations of fundamental components such as a NAND-gate-with-fanout and a bistable latch. Kerr-nonlinear optical resonators are utilized in combination with interference effects to drive the binary logic. Quantum-optical input-output models are characterized numerically using design parameters that yield attojoule-scale energy separation between the latch states.

  6. Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2016-09-06

    Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lai, Kun-Yu; Lee, Ming-Jui; Liao, Yu-Kuang; Ooi, Boon S.; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He-Hau, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells.

  8. Photons in a ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mück, Wolfgang, E-mail: mueck@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “Ettore Pancini”, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 80126, Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80126, Naples (Italy)

    2015-12-11

    The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularisation while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantisation of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularisation.

  9. Thermally induced photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Elmfors, P; Elmfors, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1998-01-01

    We calculate thermal corrections to the non-linear QED effective action for low-energy photon interactions in a background electromagnetic field. The high-temperature expansion shows that at $T \\gg m$ the vacuum contribution is exactly cancelled to all orders in the external field except for a non-trivial two-point function contribution. The high-temperature expansion derived reveals a remarkable cancellation of infrared sensitive contributions. As a result photon-splitting in the presence of a magnetic field is suppressed in the presence of an electron-positron QED-plasma at very high temperatures. In a cold and dense plasma a similar suppression takes place. At the same time Compton scattering dominates for weak fields and the suppression is rarely important in physical situations.

  10. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  11. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  12. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its \\emph{longitudinal} spin angular momentum density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding \\emph{transverse} spin angular momentum density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed "photonic wheels". It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves {propagating along a well defined direction, which carry} transverse spin angular momentum density. We show th...

  13. Photon Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Mendoza, S; Sussman, R A

    2005-01-01

    We study the relationship between the energy and entropy of a black body photon gas, within an idealised spherical adiabatic enclosure of radius R, as this is compressed into a self-gravitating regime. We show that this regime approximately coincides with the black hole regime for the system, i.e., R ~ R_{s}, where R_{s} denotes the Schwarzschild radius of the system. The entropy of this system is always below the suggested Holographic bound, even as R \\to R_{s}. A plausible quantum configuration for the photon gas at R \\to R_{s} is suggested, which satisfies all energy, entropy and temperature black hole conditions. Finally we examine our results from the point of view of recent Loop Quantum Gravity ideas.

  14. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  15. Surface nanoscale axial photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2011-01-01

    Dense photonic integration promises to revolutionize optical computing and communications. However, efforts towards this goal face unacceptable attenuation of light caused by surface roughness in microscopic devices. Here we address this problem by introducing Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP). The SNAP platform is based on whispering gallery modes circulating around the optical fiber surface and undergoing slow axial propagation readily described by the one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation. These modes can be steered with dramatically small nanoscale variation of the fiber radius, which is quite simple to introduce in practice. The extremely low loss of SNAP devices is achieved due to the fantastically low surface roughness inherent in a drawn fiber surface. In excellent agreement with the developed theory, we experimentally demonstrate localization of light in quantum wells, halting light by a point source, tunneling through potential barriers, dark states, etc. This demonstration, prototyping basi...

  16. Photons in a ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, Wolfgang [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Ettore Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularisation while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantisation of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularisation. (orig.)

  17. Photonics meet digital art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curticapean, Dan; Israel, Kai

    2014-09-01

    The paper focuses on the work of an interdisciplinary project between photonics and digital art. The result is a poster collection dedicated to the International Year of Light 2015. In addition, an internet platform was created that presents the project. It can be accessed at http://www.magic-of-light.org/iyl2015/index.htm. From the idea to the final realization, milestones with tasks and steps will be presented in the paper. As an interdisciplinary project, students from technological degree programs were involved as well as art program students. The 2015 Anniversaries: Alhazen (1015), De Caus (1615), Fresnel (1815), Maxwell (1865), Einstein (1905), Penzias Wilson, Kao (1965) and their milestone contributions in optics and photonics will be highlighted.

  18. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  19. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  20. Photonics and Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    DARPA NNI/NNCO BRI (2D Materials & Devices Beyond Graphene – planning phase) LRIR PIs Szep – RY: PICS Quantum Information...vertically from plasmonic filters into Si CMOS image sensor diodes via PMMA dielectric and SiNx vertical light couplers - •Designed and implemented signal...model) gernot.pomrenke@afosr.af.mil Future: Metasurfaces/ Meta Photonics, Quantum Integrated Nanophotonics, Ultra Low Power, Graphene Optoelectronics

  1. Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaccorso, F.; Z. Sun; Hasan, T.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The richness of optical and electronic properties of graphene attracts enormous interest. Graphene has high mobility and optical transparency, in addition to flexibility, robustness and environmental stability. So far, the main focus has been on fundamental physics and electronic devices. However, we believe its true potential to be in photonics and optoelectronics, where the combination of its unique optical and electronic properties can be fully exploited, even in the absence of a bandgap, ...

  2. Photon Stimulated Ion Desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-03

    tentatively concluded that H2O is e.g. oxigen on W1lll).2 If an ionic model is molepularly adsorbed at 300K for exposures of a icatle, then after losing one...ely t- Le relatively covalent, namely variation in H+ PSID yield with photon energy dosed GaAsll0;. is shown in Fig. 1. There is clearly a thres

  3. Illuminating WISPs with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Physics beyond the Standard Model naturally gives rise to very light and weakly interacting particles, dubbed WISPs (Weakly Interacting Slim Particles). A prime example is the axion, that has eluded experimental detection for more than thirty years. In this talk we review some of the strongly motivated candidates for such particles, the observational hints for them and the present status of searches with photon regeneration experiments, as well as possible future improvements. (orig.)

  4. Photon Statistics of Single-Photon Quantum States in Real Single Photon Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李园; 王军民; 彭堃墀; 张天才

    2004-01-01

    @@ Single photon detection (SPD) with high quantum efficiency has been widely used for measurement of different quantum states with different photon distributions.Based on the direct single SPD and double-SPD of HBT configuration, we discuss the effect of a real SPD on the photon statistics measurement and it shows that the measured photon distributions for different quantum states are corrected in different forms.The results are confirmed by experiment with the strongly attenuated coherent light and thermal light.This system can be used to characterize the photon statistics of the fluorescence light from single atom or single molecular.

  5. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  6. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  7. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  8. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  9. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  10. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  11. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  12. Ultrafast technologies for photonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucnal, Paul R.; Baby, Varghese; Xu, Lei; Glesk, Ivan

    2004-10-01

    Considerable progress has been in the last decade in the fields of photonic networks and ultra-fast optics. The past few years has seen the widespread use of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to provide enormous point-to-point capacity in the backbone and metro area networks. Remarkable progress in electronics, in terms of both costs and performance speeds, has to some extent alleviated the 'electronic bottleneck'. Developments in fiber-optics such as novel fiber types and Raman amplification have opened up additional wavelength regions of operation resulting in great expansion of usable fiber bandwidth. There exist unique opportunities for ultrafast technologies - a subject of much interest in the last decade and reaching a point of maturity - to complement these advances and spark the next generation networks. In our talk, we will mention two networking environments very different from WDM - (1) optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) and (2) optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). We will look at the potential of both these scenarios for different applications, focusing in particular on the latter as an approach that provides maximum flexibility to utilize the immense bandwidth of the optical fiber. We will also describe various ultra-fast technologies that have been developed e.g. .high repetition rate pulsed lasers, ultra-fast optical switches, time delay elements etc. which have a direct relevance to both these types of networks.

  13. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  14. Topological Photonic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Lin, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    As exotic phenomena in optics, topological states in photonic crystals have drawn much attention due to their fundamental significance and great potential applications. Because of the broken time-reversal symmetry under the influence of an external magnetic field, the photonic crystals composed of magneto-optical materials will lead to the degeneracy lifting and show particular topological characters of energy bands. The upper and lower bulk bands have nonzero integer topological numbers. The gapless edge states can be realized to connect two bulk states. This topological photonic states originated from the topological property can be analogous to the integer quantum Hall effect in an electronic system. The gapless edge state only possesses a single sign of gradient in the whole Brillouin zone, and thus the group velocity is only in one direction leading to the one-way energy flow, which is robust to disorder and impurity due to the nontrivial topological nature of the corresponding electromagnetic states. Furthermore, this one-way edge state would cross the Brillouin center with nonzero group velocity, where the negative-zero-positive phase velocity can be used to realize some interesting phenomena such as tunneling and backward phase propagation. On the other hand, under the protection of time-reversal symmetry, a pair of gapless edge states can also be constructed by using magnetic-electric coupling meta-materials, exhibiting Fermion-like spin helix topological edge states, which can be regarded as an optical counterpart of topological insulator originating from the spin-orbit coupling. The aim of this article is to have a comprehensive review of recent research literatures published in this emerging field of photonic topological phenomena. Photonic topological states and their related phenomena are presented and analyzed, including the chiral edge states, polarization dependent transportation, unidirectional waveguide and nonreciprocal optical transmission, all

  15. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha

    2006-12-01

    The polarization-dependent photonic band gaps (TM and TE polarizations) in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. It is observed that the size of the photonic band gap changes with changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. Further, it is reported, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the change in the orientation of the constituent elliptical air holes/dielectric rods in 2D photonic crystals.

  16. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  17. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  18. Photonic Crystal Laser Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2003-05-21

    Photonic crystals have great potential for use as laser-driven accelerator structures. A photonic crystal is a dielectric structure arranged in a periodic geometry. Like a crystalline solid with its electronic band structure, the modes of a photonic crystal lie in a set of allowed photonic bands. Similarly, it is possible for a photonic crystal to exhibit one or more photonic band gaps, with frequencies in the gap unable to propagate in the crystal. Thus photonic crystals can confine an optical mode in an all-dielectric structure, eliminating the need for metals and their characteristic losses at optical frequencies. We discuss several geometries of photonic crystal accelerator structures. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are optical fibers which can confine a speed-of-light optical mode in vacuum. Planar structures, both two- and three-dimensional, can also confine such a mode, and have the additional advantage that they can be manufactured using common microfabrication techniques such as those used for integrated circuits. This allows for a variety of possible materials, so that dielectrics with desirable optical and radiation-hardness properties can be chosen. We discuss examples of simulated photonic crystal structures to demonstrate the scaling laws and trade-offs involved, and touch on potential fabrication processes.

  19. Photonics technology development for optical fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, K. M.; Serkland, D. K.; Keeler, G. A.; Peake, G. M.; Mar, A.; von der Lippe, C. M.; Liu, J. J.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the photonic component development taking place at Sandia National Laboratories, ARDEC and the Army Research Laboratory in support of an effort to develop a robust, compact, and affordable photonic proximity sensor for munitions fuzing applications. Successful implementation of this sensor will provide a new capability for direct fire applications. The technologies under investigation for the optical fuze design covered in this paper are vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs), integrated resonant-cavity photodetectors (RCPDs), and refractive micro-optics. The culmination of this work will be low cost, robust, fully integrated, g-hardened components suitable for proximity fuzing applications. The use of advanced photonic components will enable replacement of costly assemblies that employ discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulk optics. The integrated devices will be mass produced and impart huge savings for a variety of Army applications. The specific application under investigation is for gun-fired munitions. Nevertheless, numerous civilian uses exist for this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  20. Photon absorption and photon scattering—What we do not know and why it matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R. H.

    2014-02-01

    We examine some of the problems of theory and experiment that are limiting our understanding of photon absorption and photon scattering. Much of what we know and don't know is signified via simple models, whether (i) in semi-classical non-relativistic dipole radiation of the hydrogen atom, treated as two quantum particles bound in a Coulomb potential, or (ii) in full relativistic multipole radiation of an atom in independent particle approximation. Chaotic and singular features can already be recognized. The inconsistencies in a non-relativistic multipole description lead to spurious predictions for absorption and scattering, but even the full theory is not in agreement with experiment. Additionally, paradoxes associated with quantum entanglement are already present in these simple models. The more advanced approaches treating many particle interactions and field quantization lead to a more sophisticated description of states and fields and cross-sections, which can simplify to the simpler models in various sum rule approximations, by invoking limitations on experimental measurement. Advanced discussions include issues of correlations and consequences of infrared divergence. A further level of complexity is to recognize the inevitable presence of environments, whether in a cage, a solid or a plasma, with consequences of modifying isolated processes, and in the significances for coherence and decoherence, and loss of entanglement. We conclude by reviewing the current status of the agreement between theory and experiment for photon absorption and scattering.

  1. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  2. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gang; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-01-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump AC or DC electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in electromagnetic spectrum.

  3. Topological photonics: an observation of Landau levels for optical photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported by DOE, DARPA, and AFOSR.

  4. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Ji Ping; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-10-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr-type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external-pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump ac or dc electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in an electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Photon-photon interaction in structured QED vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsagortsyan, K Z

    2012-01-01

    In spatially structured strong laser fields, quantum electrodynamical vacuum behaves like a nonlinear Kerr medium with modulated third-order susceptibility where new coherent nonlinear effects arise due to modulation. We consider the enhancement of vacuum polarization and magnetization via coherent spatial vacuum effects in the photon-photon interaction process during scattering of a probe laser beam on parallel focused laser beams. Both processes of elastic and inelastic four wave-mixing in structured QED vacuum accompanied with Bragg interference are investigated. The phase-matching conditions and coherent effects in the presence of Bragg grating are analyzed for photon-photon scattering.

  6. Photon-photon refraction for TeV gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrynina, Alexandra; Raffelt, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of TeV gamma rays can be strongly modified by B-field induced conversion to axion-like particles. The conversion rate depends on the photon dispersion relation which, at such high energies, is dominated by the B-field itself through the QED photon-photon interaction. However, ambient photons also contribute and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dominates when B electron+positron it is the extra-galactic background light. Local radiation fields, e.g., the galactic star light, can be more important for dispersion than the CMB.

  7. WILGA Photonics and Web Engineering, January 2012; EuCARD Sessions on HEP and Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from technical universities during the SPIE-IEEE Wilga January 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium held two times a year is a summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP st...

  8. Few-quantum-dot lasing in photonic crystal nanocavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Ates, Serkan; Stobbe, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanolasers have attracted great interest both for fundamental research and applications in the past decade. In photonic crystal cavities, the leakage to optical modes is strongly reduced, which increases the spontaneous emission coupling factor, β. This is a crucial parameter for...... advanced semiconductor models of photonic crystal nanolasers is still missing [2]. The goal of this work is to get a deep understanding of the quantum dots based nanocavity lasers by comparing experiments to theory.......Photonic crystal nanolasers have attracted great interest both for fundamental research and applications in the past decade. In photonic crystal cavities, the leakage to optical modes is strongly reduced, which increases the spontaneous emission coupling factor, β. This is a crucial parameter...... for the threshold characteristics of lasers. With increasing β, the well-known step-like threshold behavior becomes smoother. Although the smooth lasing transitions of photonic crystal nanolasers were observed and fitted by traditional rate equation models [1], a systematic comparison between experiments and more...

  9. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs, in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  10. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de

    1998-01-01

    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  11. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  12. Photon transport through layered media

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, W

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study photon transport in layered media. In this regard the properties of the photon have been studied. The interactions that it makes with matter have been studied as well. ANISN code has been run for the sample problems regarding neutron and photon transport. As the project pertains to the transport of photons the layered media, therefore, photon energy spectrum was calculated using isotopes inventory calculation code ORIKAN which is run using 12 energy groups. The photon cross-section library used has a 21 group structure. The 12 group structure was expanded into 21 groups by using the method of histogram splitting. Calculations were made to find values of the energy transmitted at the outermost surface of the shield and then plotted for varying thicknesses of the shield. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed.

  13. Quantum simulation with interacting photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons, these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting circuits, we focus on analogue quantum simulations in scenarios where effective photon-photon interactions exceed dissipative processes in the considered platforms.

  14. Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Kopp, Joachim [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Schwaller, Pedro [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to ''photon jets''. For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance S → γγ can be mimicked by a process of the form pp → S → aa → 4γ, where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to S → A{sup '}A{sup '} → e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}, where there are no photons at all but the dark photon A{sup '} decays to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons. (orig.)

  15. Photonic zitterbewegung and its interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Yong; Xiong Cai-Dong; Qiu Qi; Liao-Yun

    2012-01-01

    In terms of the volume-integrated Poynting vector,we present a quantum field-theory investigation of the zitterbewegung (ZB) of photons,and show that this ZB occurs only in the presence of virtual longitudinal and scalar photons.To present a heuristic explanation for such a ZB,by assuming that the space time is sufficiently close to the fiat Minkowski space,we show that the gravitational interaction can result in the ZB of photons.

  16. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  17. Negative refraction in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Asatsuma, T.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals are multidimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the crystals. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell’s law, can be tailored based on photonic band theory. Negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because photonic crystals usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at...

  18. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  19. An inquiry-based course in nano-photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbridge, Christine; Calvert, Jodi; Donnelly, Judith; Garofano, Jacquelynn; Massa, Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    We developed a curriculum to introduce nanotechnology and photonics concepts to community college students enrolled in a program designed to attract and retain students in technology associate degree programs. Working with the Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, an NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, and the PHOTON projects, funded by the Advanced Technological Education program of NSF, we developed hands-on, inquiry-based activities to address the course goals: improve critical thinking, introduce science and technology concepts common to technology programs and provide opportunity to practice math skills in context.

  20. Silicon applications in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenski, A. M.; Gawlik, G.; Wesolowski, M.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon technology enabled the miniaturization of computers and other electronic system for information storage, transmission and transformation allowing the development of the Knowledge Based Information Society. Despite the fact that silicon roadmap indicates possibilities for further improvement, already now the speed of electrons and the bandwidth of electronic circuits are not sufficient and photons are commonly utilized for signal transmission through optical fibers and purely photonic circuits promise further improvements. However materials used for these purposes II/V semiconductor compounds, glasses make integration of optoelectronic circuits with silicon complex an expensive. Therefore research on light generation, transformation and transmission in silicon is very active and recently, due to nanotechnology some spectacular results were achieved despite the fact that mechanisms of light generation are still discussed. Three topics will be discussed. Porous silicon was actively investigated due to its relatively efficient electroluminescence enabling its use in light sources. Its index of refraction, differs considerably from the index of silicon, and this allows its utilization for Bragg mirrors, wave guides and photonic crystals. The enormous surface enables several applications on medicine and biotechnology and in particular due to the effective chemo-modulation of its refracting index the design of optical chemosensors. An effective luminescence of doped and undoped nanocrystalline silicon opened another way for the construction of silicon light sources. Optical amplification was already discovered opening perspectives for the construction of nanosilicon lasers. Luminescences was observed at red, green and blue wavelengths. The used technology of silica and ion implantation are compatible with commonly used CMOS technology. Finally the recently developed and proved idea of optically pumped silicon Raman lasers, using nonlinearity and vibrations in the

  1. Higgs-photon resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A. [Fermilab; Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kearney, John [Fermilab

    2017-05-23

    We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon ($h^0 \\gamma$) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a $Z'$ boson, decays to $h^0 \\gamma$ occur at one loop. If the $Z'$ boson couples at tree-level to quarks, then the $h^0 \\gamma$ branching fraction is typically of order $10^{-5}$ or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of $Z' \\to h^0 \\gamma$ at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a $Z'$ mass in the 200--450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The 1-loop decay of the $Z'$ into lepton pairs competes with $h^0 \\gamma$, even if the $Z'$ couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a $Z'$ boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an $h^0 \\gamma$ resonance. In this model, the $h^0 \\gamma$ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a $Z'$ as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to $h^0 \\gamma$ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the $h^0$ plus collimated photons channel is allowed. We comment on prospects of observing an $h^0 \\gamma$ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where $h^0$ is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson.

  2. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications.

  3. Electromagnetic waves and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We explore how the thermal ground states of two mixing and pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theories, SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}\\sim 10^{-4}\\,$eV and SU(2)$_{e}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{e}\\sim 5\\times 10^5\\,$eV, associate either wave or particle aspects to electromagnetic disturbances during thermalisation towards the photon gas of a blackbody, in realising the photoelectric effect, and through the frequency dependence of the monochromatic, nonthermal beam structure in Thomson/Compton scattering.

  4. Silicon active photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  5. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  6. Nanoimprinted photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jayan; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Munoz, Ramon; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a simple yet efficient approach for nanoimprinting sub-50 nm dimensions starting from a low molecular weight plasticized polymer melt. This technique enabled us to successfully imprint versatile large area nanopatterns with high degrees of fidelity and rational control over the residual layers. The key advantage is its reliability in printing versatile nanostructures and nanophotonic devices doped with organic dyes owing to its low processing temperature. Since nanopatterns can be fabricated easily at low costs, this approach offers an easy pathway for achieving excellent nanoimprinted structures for a variety of photonic, electronic and biological research and applications.

  7. Photonic crystal optofluidic biolaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Mohammad Hazhir; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid; Abaeiani, Gholamreza; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Optofluidic biolasers are recently being considered in bioanalytical applications due to their advantages over the conventional biosensing methods Exploiting a photonic crystal slab with selectively dye-infiltrated air holes, we propose a new optofluidic heterostructure biolaser, with a power conversion efficiency of 25% and the spectral linewidth of 0.24 nm. Simulations show that in addition to these satisfactory lasing characteristics, the proposed lab-on-a-chip biolaser is highly sensitive to the minute biological changes that may occur in its cavity and can detect a single virus with a radius as small as 13 nm.

  8. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions.

  9. Jaynes Cummings Photonic Superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A classical realization of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized cavity mode, is proposed based on light transport in engineered waveguide superlattices. The optical setting enables to visualize in Fock space dynamical regimes not yet accessible in quantum systems, providing new physical insights into the deep strong coupling regime of the JC model. In particular, bouncing of photon number wave packets in Hilbert space and revivals of populations are explained as generalized Bloch oscillations in an inhomogeneous tight-binding lattice.

  10. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  11. Dirac tensor with heavy photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-01-15

    For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)

  12. Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.

    2011-12-01

    We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.

  13. Recent photon results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Glasman, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production o f isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rap idity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential c ross sections for isolated photon pair production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  14. Hologram of a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Jachura, Michał; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The spatial structure of single photons is becoming an extensively explored resource to facilitate free-space quantum communication and quantum computation as well as for benchmarking the limits of quantum entanglement generation with orbital angular momentum modes or reduction of the photon free-space propagation speed. Although accurate tailoring of the spatial structure of photons is now routinely performed using methods employed for shaping classical optical beams, the reciprocal problem of retrieving the spatial phase-amplitude structure of an unknown single photon cannot be solved using complementary classical holography techniques that are known for excellent interferometric precision. Here, we introduce a method to record a hologram of a single photon that is probed by another reference photon, on the basis of a different concept of the quantum interference between two-photon probability amplitudes. As for classical holograms, the hologram of a single photon encodes the full information about the photon's ‘shape’ (that is, its quantum wavefunction) whose local amplitude and phase are retrieved in the demonstrated experiment.

  15. Photon Differentials in Space and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny;

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel photon mapping algorithm for animations. We extend our previous work on photon differentials [12] with time differentials. The result is a first order model of photon cones in space an time that effectively reduces the number of required photons per frame as well as efficiently...... reduces temporal aliasing without any need for in-between-frame photon maps....

  16. Study of the photon identification efficiency with ALICE photon spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ya-Xian; ZHOU Dai-Cui; XU Chun-Cheng; YIN Zhong-Bao

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency for the detection and identification of photons with the ALICE PHOton Spectrometer PHOS has been studied with the Monte-Carlo generated data. In particular, the influence on the efficiency of the PHOS-module edge-effect and of the material in front of PHOS have been examined.

  17. Direct Writing of Photonic Structures by Two-Photon Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-mode dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowaveguides with strong mode confinement at excitation wavelength of 830 nm and high-Q polymer whispering gallery mode microcavities with surface roughness less than 12 nm have been directly written by two-photon polymerization, which pave the way to fabricate 3D plasmonic photonic structures by direct laser writing.

  18. Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...

  19. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide;

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  20. EDITORIAL: Special issue on green photonics Special issue on green photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Allan; Brongersma, Mark; Polman, Albert

    2012-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells can provide virtually unlimited amounts of energy by effectively converting sunlight into clean electrical power. Over the years, significant research and development efforts have been devoted to improving the structural and charge transport properties of the materials used in PV cells. Despite these efforts, the current energy conversion efficiencies of commercial solar cells are still substantially lower than the ultimate limits set by thermodynamics. Economic arguments in addition to the scarcity of some semiconductors and materials used in transparent conductive oxides are also driving us to use less and less material in a cell. For these reasons, it is clear that new approaches need to be found. One possible solution that is more-or-less orthogonal to previous approaches is aimed at managing the photons rather than the electrons or atoms in a cell. This type of photon management is termed Green Photonics. Nano- and micro-photonic trapping techniques are currently gaining significant attention. The use of engineered plasmonic and high refractive index structures shows tremendous potential for enhancing the light absorption per unit volume in semiconductors. Unfortunately, the design space in terms of the nanostructure sizes, shapes, and array structures is too large to allow for optimization of PV cells using brute force simulations. For this reason, new intuitive models and rapid optimization techniques for advanced light trapping technologies need to be developed. At the same time we need to come up with new, inexpensive, and scalable nanostructure fabrication and optical characterization techniques in order to realize the dream of inexpensive, high power conversion efficiency cells that make economic sense. This special issue discusses some of the exciting new approaches to light trapping that leverage the most recent advances in the field of nanophotonics. It also provides some insights into why giving the green light to green

  1. Octonacci photonic quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, E. R.; Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Mello, V. D.

    2015-08-01

    We study theoretically the transmission spectra in one-dimensional photonic quasicrystals, made up of SiO2(A) and TiO2(B) materials, organized following the Octonacci sequence, where the nth-stage of the multilayer Sn is given by the rule Sn =Sn-1Sn-2Sn-1 , for n ⩾ 3 and with S1 = A and S2 = B . The expression for transmittance was obtained by employing a theoretical calculation based on the transfer-matrix method. For normally incident waves, we observe that, for a same generation, the transmission spectra for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves are equal, at least qualitatively, and they present a scaling property where a self-similar behavior is obtained, as an evidence that these spectra are fractals. The spectra show regions where the omnidirectional band gaps emerges for specific generations of Octonacci photonic structure, except to TM waves. For TE waves, we note that all of them have almost the same width, for different generations. We also report the localization of modes as a consequence of the quasiperiodicity of the heterostructure.

  2. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its longitudinal spin angular momentum (AM) density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding transverse spin AM density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed ‘photonic wheels’. It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves propagating along a well defined direction, and carrying transverse spin AM density. We show that depending on the shape of these waves, the spin density may be either perpendicular to the mean linear momentum (globally transverse spin) or to the linear momentum density (locally transverse spin). We find that the latter case generically occurs only for non-diffracting beams, such as the Bessel beams. Moreover, we introduce the concept of meridional Stokes parameters to operationally quantify the transverse spin density. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to the exemplary cases of Bessel beams and evanescent waves. These results open a new and accessible route to the understanding, generation and manipulation of optical beams with transverse spin AM density.

  3. Silicon photonics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Watts, Michael R

    2010-11-08

    Most demonstrations in silicon photonics are done with single devices that are targeted for use in future systems. One of the costs of operating multiple devices concurrently on a chip in a system application is the power needed to properly space resonant device frequencies on a system's frequency grid. We asses this power requirement by quantifying the source and impact of process induced resonant frequency variation for microdisk resonators across individual die, entire wafers and wafer lots for separate process runs. Additionally we introduce a new technique, utilizing the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes in microdisks, to extract thickness and width variations across wafers and dice. Through our analysis we find that a standard six inch Silicon on Insulator (SOI) 0.35 μm process controls microdisk resonant frequencies for the TE fundamental resonances to within 1 THz across a wafer and 105 GHz within a single die. Based on demonstrated thermal tuner technology, a stable manufacturing process exhibiting this level of variation can limit the resonance trimming power per resonant device to 231 μW. Taken in conjunction with the power to compensate for thermal environmental variations, the expected power requirement to compensate for fabrication-induced non-uniformities is 17% of that total. This leads to the prediction that thermal tuning efficiency is likely to have the most dominant impact on the overall power budget of silicon photonics resonator technology.

  4. Robust Adaptive Photon Tracing using Photon Path Visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2011-01-01

    We present a new adaptive photon tracing algorithm which can handle illumination settings that are considered difficult for photon tracing approaches such as outdoor scenes, close-ups of a small part of an illuminated region, and illumination coming through a small gap. The key contribution in our...... algorithm is the use of visibility of photon path as the importance function which ensures that our sampling algorithm focuses on paths that are visible from the given viewpoint. Our sampling algorithm builds on two recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: adaptive Markov chain sampling...... and replica exchange. Using these techniques, each photon path is adaptively mutated and it explores the sampling space efficiently without being stuck at a local peak of the importance function. We have implemented this sampling approach in the progressive photon mapping algorithm which provides visibility...

  5. Spin photonics and spin-photonic devices with dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Xinxing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric metasurfaces with spatially varying birefringence and high transmission efficiency can exhibit exceptional abilities for controlling the photonic spin states. We present here some of our works on spin photonics and spin-photonic devices with metasurfaces. We develop a hybrid-order Poincare sphere to describe the evolution of spin states of wave propagation in the metasurface. Both the Berry curvature and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase on the hybrid-order Poincare sphere are demonstrated to be proportional to the variation of total angular momentum. Based on the spin-dependent property of Pancharatnam-Berry phase, we find that the photonic spin Hall effect can be observed when breaking the rotational symmetry of metasurfaces. Moreover, we show that the dielectric metasurfaces can provide great flexibility in the design of novel spin-photonic devices such as spin filter and spin-dependent beam splitter.

  6. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  7. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  8. Nanowire-based Quantum Photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulgarini, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I studied individual quantum dots embedded in one-dimensional nanostructures called nanowires. Amongst the effects given by the nanometric dimensions, quantum dots enable the generation of single light particles: photons. Single photon emitters and detectors are central building

  9. Photon detection at subwavelength scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We first investigate the microscopic working principle of the nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), and we find that the edge of the nanowire is much more sensitive than the central part. The experimental results agree quantitatively with the theory based on a photon-assisted ver

  10. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  11. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  12. Optics and photonics: essential technologies for our nation (technology & engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Research, Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future; Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical; Council, National Research

    2013-01-01

    Optics and photonics technologies are ubiquitous: they are responsible for the displays on smart phones and computing devices, optical fiber that carries the information in the internet, advanced precision manufacturing, enhanced defense capabilities, and a plethora of medical diagnostics tools. The opportunities arising from optics and photonics offer the potential for even greater societal impact in the next few decades, including solar power generation and new efficient lighting that could transform the nation's energy landscape and new optical capabilities that will be essential to support the continued exponential growth of the Internet. As described in the National Research Council report Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation, it is critical for the United States to take advantage of these emerging optical technologies for creating new industries and generating job growth. The report assesses the current state of optical science and engineering in the United States and abroad--incl...

  13. Four-dimensional multi-site two-photon excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Daria, Vincent Ricardo; Bowman, Richard; Redman, Stephen; Bachor, Hans-A

    2009-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of dynamic and arbitrary multi-site two-photon excitation in three-dimensional (3D) space using the holographic projection method. Rapid temporal response (fourth dimension) is achieved through high-speed non-iterative and non-optimized calculation of the hologram using a video graphics accelerator board. We verify that the projected asymmetric spot configurations have sufficient spatiotemporal photon density for localized two-photon excitation. This system is a significant advance and ready for applications such as time-resolved 3D photolysis of complex biological cell and neuronal networks, 3D microscopy, non-linear micro-fabrication and volume holographic optical storage.

  14. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  15. Spectral compression of single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoie, Jonathan; Wright, Logan G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Resch, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Photons are critical to quantum technologies since they can be used for virtually all quantum information tasks: in quantum metrology, as the information carrier in photonic quantum computation, as a mediator in hybrid systems, and to establish long distance networks. The physical characteristics of photons in these applications differ drastically; spectral bandwidths span 12 orders of magnitude from 50 THz for quantum-optical coherence tomography to 50 Hz for certain quantum memories. Combining these technologies requires coherent interfaces that reversibly map centre frequencies and bandwidths of photons to avoid excessive loss. Here we demonstrate bandwidth compression of single photons by a factor 40 and tunability over a range 70 times that bandwidth via sum-frequency generation with chirped laser pulses. This constitutes a time-to-frequency interface for light capable of converting time-bin to colour entanglement and enables ultrafast timing measurements. It is a step toward arbitrary waveform generatio...

  16. Surface-wave photonic quasicrystal

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    In developing strategies of manipulating surface electromagnetic waves, it has been recently recognized that a complete forbidden band gap can exist in a periodic surface-wave photonic crystal, which has subsequently produced various surface-wave photonic devices. However, it is not obvious whether such a concept can be extended to a non-periodic surface-wave system that lacks translational symmetry. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a surface-wave photonic quasicrystal that lacks periodicity can also exhibit a forbidden band gap for surface electromagnetic waves. The lower cutoff of this forbidden band gap is mainly determined by the maximum separation between nearest neighboring pillars. Point defects within this band gap show distinct properties compared to a periodic photonic crystal for the absence of translational symmetry. A line-defect waveguide, which is crafted out of this surface-wave photonic quasicrystal by shortening a random row of metallic rods, is also demonstrated to guide and bend sur...

  17. A semiconductor photon-sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A. J.; Lee, J. P.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Obtaining substantial nonlinear effects at the single-photon level is a considerable challenge that holds great potential for quantum optical measurements and information processing. Of the progress that has been made in recent years one of the most promising methods is to scatter coherent light from quantum emitters, imprinting quantum correlations onto the photons. We report effective interactions between photons, controlled by a single semiconductor quantum dot that is weakly coupled to a monolithic cavity. We show that the nonlinearity of a transition modifies the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and to create polarization-correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for semiconductor optical switches operated by single quanta of light.

  18. Photonic Astronomy and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum optics potentially offers an information channel from the Universe beyond the established ones of imaging and spectroscopy. All existing cameras and all spectrometers measure aspects of the first-order spatial and/or temporal coherence of light. However, light has additional degrees of freedom, manifest in the statistics of photon arrival times, or in the amount of photon orbital angular momentum. Such quantum-optical measures may carry information on how the light was created at the source, and whether it reached the observer directly or via some intermediate process. Astronomical quantum optics may help to clarify emission processes in natural laser sources and in the environments of compact objects, while high-speed photon-counting with digital signal handling enables multi-element and long-baseline versions of the intensity interferometer. Time resolutions of nanoseconds are required, as are large photon fluxes, making photonic astronomy very timely in an era of large telescopes.

  19. Silicon Nano-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao

    This thesis deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of nano-photonic devices including ridge waveguide components, microring resonators, and photonic crystal components, and explore the potential for these devices in dierent applications ranging from optical communication...... is achieved with small power variation. A widely tunable microwave notch lter is also experimentally demonstrated at 40 GHz. Other application such as pulse repetition rate multiplication by using microring resonator is also presented. Photonic crystal components are studied. Two dierent types of photonic...... crystal structures are analyzed concerning index sensitivity, dispersion engineering, and slow-light coupling. Several photonic crystal devices such as index sensor, slow-light coupler, and all-optical tunable cavity are presented....

  20. Quantum Simulation with Interacting Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We review the theoretical and experimental developments in recent research on quantum simulators with interacting photons. Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has now shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting c...

  1. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-12-01

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  2. Photonic nanowires for quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.;

    Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro......-photoluminescence, we investigate directly the SE of single InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in GaAs PWs and demonstrate performances that fully confirm the theoretical predictions [3]. In addition, we discuss recent results obtained on elliptical wires that ensure an efficient control of the photon polarization [4......, equivalent to the one obtained in state-of-the-art 2D photonic crystals, is measured. Moreover, a PW featuring an elliptical section provides a very efficient control over the polarization of the emitted photon. In that case, only one guided mode, with a linear polarization oriented along the major axis...

  3. Modelling of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance...... is provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...... modes in contiguous fibre segments curved at different radii. Overall microbend loss is expressed as a statistical mean of mismatch losses. Extending a well proven, established formula for macrobending losses in stop index fibres, we provide an estimate of macrobend losses in an air-guiding photonic...

  4. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.;

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  5. Photonic quantum information: science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.

  6. Perovskite photonic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-05-01

    The field of solution-processed semiconductors has made great strides; however, it has yet to enable electrically driven lasers. To achieve this goal, improved materials are required that combine efficient (>50% quantum yield) radiative recombination under high injection, large and balanced charge-carrier mobilities in excess of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, free-carrier densities greater than 1017 cm-3 and gain coefficients exceeding 104 cm-1. Solid-state perovskites are -- in addition to galvanizing the field of solar electricity -- showing great promise in photonic sources, and may be the answer to realizing solution-cast laser diodes. Here, we discuss the properties of perovskites that benefit light emission, review recent progress in perovskite electroluminescent diodes and optically pumped lasers, and examine the remaining challenges in achieving continuous-wave and electrically driven lasing.

  7. Photonics a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This book will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics, to be used as a textbook for undergraduate students or as a reference book for researchers and professionals. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optical and acousto-optical modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optics, and optical fiber components and devices.. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics.

  8. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  9. Photonics a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This extended and revised edition will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics for undergraduate students. It can also be used as a primer by researchers and professionals who start working in the field. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optic and acousto-optic modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optical phenomena, and optical fiber components and devices. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics. This second edition includes a set of problems at the end of all but the last chapter. These problems deal with numerical c...

  10. Photonic Floquet Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Rechtsman, Mikael C; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The topological insulator is a fundamentally new phase of matter, with the striking property that the conduction of electrons occurs only on its surface, not within the bulk, and that conduction is topologically protected. Topological protection, the total lack of scattering of electron waves by disorder, is perhaps the most fascinating and technologically important aspect of this material: it provides robustness that is otherwise known only for superconductors. However, unlike superconductivity and the quantum Hall effect, which necessitate low temperatures or magnetic fields, the immunity to disorder of topological insulators occurs at room temperature and without any external magnetic field. For this reason, topological protection is predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, a large theoretical effort has been directed towards bringing the concept into the domain of photonics: achieving topological protection of light at optical frequencies. ...

  11. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  12. Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongeek; Xu, Feihu; Venkatraman, Dheera; Lussana, Rudi; Villa, Federica; Zappa, Franco; Goyal, Vivek K.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing a scene's 3D structure and reflectivity accurately with an active imaging system operating in low-light-level conditions has wide-ranging applications, spanning biological imaging to remote sensing. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a depth and reflectivity imaging system with a single-photon camera that generates high-quality images from ~1 detected signal photon per pixel. Previous achievements of similar photon efficiency have been with conventional raster-scanning data collection using single-pixel photon counters capable of ~10-ps time tagging. In contrast, our camera's detector array requires highly parallelized time-to-digital conversions with photon time-tagging accuracy limited to ~ns. Thus, we develop an array-specific algorithm that converts coarsely time-binned photon detections to highly accurate scene depth and reflectivity by exploiting both the transverse smoothness and longitudinal sparsity of natural scenes. By overcoming the coarse time resolution of the array, our framework uniquely achieves high photon efficiency in a relatively short acquisition time.

  14. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang, Ru [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Ethnic Minority Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Chuan, E-mail: wangchuan@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  15. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  16. Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elvira, David; Verma, V; Braive, Remy; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Sagnes, Isabelle; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Dauler, Eric A; Abram, Izo; Stevens, Martin J; Beveratos, Alexios

    2011-01-01

    We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-$\\beta$ nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single photon detector we measured g$^{(n)}(\\vec{0})$ with $n$=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of dipoles and photons involved in the lasing process.

  17. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available –tissue interactions, wound healing and photodynamic therapy, where already several advances have been made6 by researchers at Rhodes University, the University of Johannesburg and the NLC. �e contributions to the �eld by Tebello Nyokong at Rhodes University were...

  18. Photonics and web engineering in Poland, WILGA 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2009-06-01

    The paper is a digest of work presented during a cyclic Ph.D. student symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering WILGA 2009. Symposium is organized by ISE PW in cooperation with professional organizations IEEE, SPIE, PSP and KEiT PAN. There are presented mainly Ph.D. and M.Sc. theses as well as achievements of young researchers. These papers, presented in such a big number, more than 250 in some years, are in certain sense a good digest of the condition of academic research capabilities in this branch of science and technology. The undertaken research subjects for Ph.D. theses in electronics is determined by the interest and research capacity (financial, laboratory and intellectual) of the young researchers and their tutors. Basically, the condition of academic electronics research depends on financing coming from applications areas. During Wilga 2009 there were organized, and thus the paper debates, the following topical sessions concerning applications of advanced electronics and photonics systems: merging of electronic systems and photonics, Internet engineering, distributed measurement systems, security in information technology, astronomy and cosmic technology, HEP experiments, environment protection, image processing and biometry. The paper contains also more general remarks concerning the workshops organized by and for the Ph.D. students in advanced photonics and electronics systems.

  19. Measurement of Ultra-Short Single-Photon Pulse Duration with Two-Photon Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Fan; SUN Fang-Wen; ZOU Chang-Ling; HAN Zheng-Fu; GUO Guang-Can

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a protocol of measuring the duration of ultra-short single-photon pulse with two-photon interference.The pulse duration can be obtained from the width of the visibility of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference or the indistinguishability of the two photons. Moreover, the shape of a single-photon pulse can be measured with ultra-short single-photon pulses through the two-photon interference.%@@ We proposed a protocol of measuring the duration of ultra-short single-photon pulse with two-photon interference.The pulse duration can be obtained from the width of the visibility of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference or the indistinguishability of the two photons.Moreover, the shape of a single-photon pulse can be measured with ultra-short single-photon pulses through the two-photon interference.

  20. Silicon-Nitride Platform for Narrowband Entangled Photon Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramelow, Sven; Clemmen, Stéphane; Orquiza, Daniel; Luke, Kevin; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2015-01-01

    CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for real-world quantum optics devices due to their scalability, robustness, and integration with electronics. Despite impressive advances using Silicon nanostructures, challenges remain in reducing their linear and nonlinear losses and in creating narrowband photons necessary for interfacing with quantum memories. Here we demonstrate the potential of the silicon nitride (Si3N4) platform by realizing an ultracompact, bright, entangled photon-pair source with selectable photon bandwidths down to 30 MHz, which is unprecedented for an integrated source. Leveraging Si3N4's moderate thermal expansion, simple temperature control of the chip enables precise wavelength stabilization and tunability without active control. Single-mode photon pairs at 1550 nm are generated at rates exceeding 107 s-1 with mW's of pump power and are used to produce time-bin entanglement. Moreover, Si3N4 allows for operation from the visible to the mid-IR, which make it highly promising fo...