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Sample records for 7-days moxifloxacin based

  1. Moxifloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options available. Moxifloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... a severe reaction to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  2. Drug-drug interactions between moxifloxacin and rifampicin based on pharmacokinetics in vivo in rats.

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    Huang, Lifei; Liu, Jiajun; Yu, Xin; Shi, Lei; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Heping; Huang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Moxifloxacin and rifampicin are all the first-line options for the treatment of active tuberculosis, which are often combined for the treatment of multidrug resistance pulmonary tuberculosis in clinic. However, the potential drug-drug interactions between moxifloxacin and rifampicin were unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the drug-drug interactions between moxifloxacin and rifampicin based on their pharmacokinetics in vivo after oral administration of the single drug and both drugs, and reveal their mutual effects on their pharmacokinetics. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: moxifloxacin group, rifampicin group and moxifloxacin + rifampicin group. Plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin and rifampicin were determined using LC-MS at the designated time points after drug administration, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. In addition, effects of moxifloxacin and rifampicin on their metabolic rate and absorption were investigated using rat liver microsome incubation systems and Caco-2 cell transwell model. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of moxifloxacin including Tmax , Cmax , t1/2 and AUC(0-t) increased more in the moxifloxacin + rifampicin group than in the moxifloxacin group, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of rifampicin, including peak concentration, area under the concentration-time curve, half-life and the area under the first moment plasma concentration-time curve, increased significantly (p 0.05). The rat liver microsome incubation experiment indicated that moxifloxacin could increase the metabolic rate of rifampicin from 23.7 to 38.7 min. However, the Caco-2 cell transwell experiment showed that moxifloxacin could not affect the absorption rate of rifampicin. These changes could enhance the drug efficacy, but they could also cause drug accumulation, which might induce adverse effect, so it was suggested that the drug dosage

  3. Moxifloxacin Injection

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    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  4. High eradication rate of H. pylori with moxifloxacin-based treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Bago, Petra; Vcev, Aleksandar; Tomic, Monika; Rozankovic, Marjan; Marusić, Marinko; Bago, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori remains a problematic treatment issue in clinical practice. The intention is to find a treatment that achieves a high rate of eradication at a low price and treatment options that are now used give us the opportunity to achieve this goal. Recently published results showing a low rate of resistance and better compliance with moxifloxacin-based treatment regimens indicate the need to investigate its efficacy in H. pylori eradication. This study is based on proving the efficacy of moxifloxacin in H. pylori eradication within the triple therapy. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of one week of moxifloxacin-based treatment with the standard treatment for H. pylori eradication. Patients with H. pylori infection and non-ulcer dyspepsia (n = 277) were randomly divided into four groups to receive: moxifloxacin 400 mg/d, metronidazole 400 mg twice daily, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily (MML group); moxifloxacin 400 mg/d, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily (MAL group); clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, metronidazole 400 mg twice daily, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily (CML group); clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily (CAL group). The patients were assessed for prevalence of H. pylori using the CLO test, histology and culture on gastric biopsy samples obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before randomization and 4-6 weeks after completion of treatment. Bacterial sensitivity to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin was determined with the E-test. 265 (95.6%) patients completed the study forming the basis for PP analysis. Eradication rates of H. pylori in ITT and in PP analyses were: in the MML group 93.5% (58/62) and 96.7% (58/60), respectively; in the MAL group 86.4% (57/66) and 90.5% (57/63); in the CML group 70.4% (50/71) and 75.8% (50/66); and in the CAL group 78.2% (61/78) and 80.2% (61/76). Moxifloxacin treatment protocols were

  5. The efficacy of moxifloxacin-based triple therapy in treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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    G. Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that moxifloxacin could exert an antimicrobial effect against Helicobacter pylori in both in vitro and in vivo models. To systematically evaluate whether moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy could improve eradication rates and reduce side effects in first-line or second-line anti-H. pylori treatment, eligible articles were identified by searches of electronic databases. We included all randomized trials comparing moxifloxacin-based triple therapy with standard triple or quadruple therapy during H. pylori eradication treatment. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0.10. Subanalysis/sensitivity analysis was also performed. We identified seven randomized trials (n=1263. Pooled H. pylori eradication rates were 79.03% (95%CI: 75.73-82.07 and 68.33% (95%CI: 64.44-72.04 for patients with moxifloxacin-based triple therapy or with standard triple or quadruple therapy, respectively (intention-to-treat analysis. The odds ratio (OR was 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.81, the occurrence of total side effects was 15.23% (95%CI: 12.58-18.20 and 27.17% (95%CI: 23.64-30.92 for groups with or without moxifloxacin, and the summary OR was 0.45 (95%CI: 0.26-0.77. In subgroup analyses, we noted that the second-line eradication rate in the moxifloxacin group was significantly higher than that in the quadruple therapy group (73.33 vs 60.17%, OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.16-2.73, P<0.001. However, there was no difference in first-line eradication treatment. Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that moxifloxacin-based triple therapy is more effective and better tolerated than standard triple or quadruple therapy. Therefore, a moxifloxacin-based triple regimen should be used in the second-line treatment of H. pylori infection.

  6. Increased Moxifloxacin Utilization Associated with an Unrestricted Addition to a Drug Reimbursement Formulary: A Population-Based Analysis

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    Alissa Jade Wright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:To determine whether utilization of moxifloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has changed since its addition to the British Columbia provincial formulary in 2009 and to determine whether utilization was guideline concordant.

  7. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

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    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  8. A Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Rifapentine plus Moxifloxacin-Based Regimen for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Conde, Marcus B.; Mello, Fernanda C. Q.; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Rolla, Valeria; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Loredo, Carla; Durovni, Betina; Armstrong, Derek T.; Efron, Anne; Barnes, Grace L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Savic, Radojka M.; Dooley, Kelly E.; Cohn, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The combination of rifapentine and moxifloxacin administered daily with other anti-tuberculosis drugs is highly active in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy. The objective of this phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the bactericidal activity, safety, and tolerability of a regimen comprised of rifapentine, moxifloxacin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide administered daily during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm), or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg) plus ethambutol (control) daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment. Results 121 participants (56% of accrual target) were enrolled. At completion of 8 weeks of treatment, negative cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium occurred in 47/60 (78%) participants in the investigational arm vs. 43/51 (84%, p = 0.47) in the control arm; negative cultures using liquid medium occurred in 37/47 (79%) in the investigational arm vs. 27/41 (66%, p = 0.23) in the control arm. Time to stable culture conversion was shorter for the investigational arm vs. the control arm using liquid culture medium (p = 0.03), but there was no difference using LJ medium. Median rifapentine area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) was 313 mcg*h/mL, similar to recent studies of rifapentine dosed at 450–600 mg daily. Median moxifloxacin AUC0-24 was 28.0 mcg*h/mL, much lower than in trials where rifapentine was given only intermittently with moxifloxacin. The proportion of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiological ineligibility was higher in the investigational arm vs. the control arm (11/62 [18%] vs. 3/59 [5%], p = 0.04) although the proportions of grade 3 or higher adverse events were

  9. Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging

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    Wang, Taejun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Seunghun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bumju; Hwang, Sekyu; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yoon, Yeoreum; Lee, Gilgu; Le, Viet-Hoan; Bok, Seoyeon; Ahn, G.-One; Lee, Jaewook; Gho, Yong Song; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Jang, Myoung Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Myoung Joon; So, Peter T. C.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear fluorescence microscopic technique widely used for cellular imaging of thick tissues and live animals in biological studies. However, MPM application to human tissues is limited by weak endogenous fluorescence in tissue and cytotoxicity of exogenous probes. Herein, we describe the applications of moxifloxacin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, as a cell-labeling agent for MPM. Moxifloxacin has bright intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence, good tissue penetration and high intracellular concentration. MPM with moxifloxacin was demonstrated in various cell lines, and animal tissues of cornea, skin, small intestine and bladder. Clinical application is promising since imaging based on moxifloxacin labeling could be 10 times faster than imaging based on endogenous fluorescence.

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin therapy in pneumonia: results of the first post-marketing surveillance study with intravenous moxifloxacin in hospital practice.

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    Barth, J; Stauch, K; Landen, H

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of sequential intravenous (IV)/oral therapy with moxifloxacin in pneumonia under general hospital treatment conditions. Patients with pneumonia were documented in this non-interventional multicentre study. The patients were treated with IV moxifloxacin or moxifloxacin sequential therapy (IV and oral) in hospitals throughout Germany. Exclusion criteria were limited to the contraindications mentioned in the summary of product characteristics. The participating hospital-based physicians documented the patients' demography, anamnesis, antibiotic pretreatment, concomitant diseases and medications. Moxifloxacin therapy and symptom status were recorded daily up to the ninth day and on the last day of treatment. The physicians assessed the efficacy and tolerability of IV moxifloxacin therapy and reported all adverse events observed within the treatment period. The 1749 documented patients had a mean age of 66.2 (SD 15.5) years; 56.4% were males and 43.5% females. The majority (99.3%) were treated with moxifloxacin 400mg once daily. On average, moxifloxacin was given for 7.6 days (SD 3.2). In cases of sequential therapy (78.9% of patients), IV moxifloxacin was switched to oral moxifloxacin after a mean of 4.1 days (SD 1.8). Moxifloxacin produced a significant clinical improvement in 58.2% of patients by day 3 of therapy, in 84.2% by day 5 and in 89.4% by day 7. Recovery occurred in 27.0% of patients by day 5, in 54.0% by day 7 and in 87.0% by day 14. It took a mean of 3.4 days (SD 1.9) until improvement and 7.2 days (SD 3.0) until cure. Overall efficacy of IV moxifloxacin therapy was rated by the physicians as 'very good' or 'good' in 82.9% of patients. Tolerability was rated in 94.3% of patients as 'very good' or 'good'. Adverse events were recorded for 92 (5.3%) patients, but events were considered by the attending physician to be related to moxifloxacin therapy for only 45 patients (2.6%). IV

  11. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

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    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions.

  12. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  13. Moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in outpatient acute exacerbations of COPD: MAESTRAL results.

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    Wilson, Robert; Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Arvis, Pierre; Alder, Jeff; Haverstock, Daniel; Trajanovic, Mila; Sethi, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial infections causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) frequently require antibacterial treatment. More evidence is needed to guide antibiotic choice. The Moxifloxacin in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis TriaL (MAESTRAL) was a multiregional, randomised, double-blind non-inferiority outpatient study. Patients were aged ≥ 60 yrs, with an Anthonisen type I exacerbation, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s clavulanic acid 875/125 mg p.o. b.i.d. (7 days). The primary end-point was clinical failure 8 weeks post-therapy in the per protocol population. Moxifloxacin was noninferior to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the primary end-point (111 (20.6%) out of 538, versus 114 (22.0%) out of 518, respectively; 95% CI -5.89-3.83%). In patients with confirmed bacterial AECOPD, moxifloxacin led to significantly lower clinical failure rates than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (in the intent-to-treat with pathogens, 62 (19.0%) out of 327 versus 85 (25.4%) out of 335, respectively; p=0.016). Confirmed bacterial eradication at end of therapy was associated with higher clinical cure rates at 8 weeks post-therapy overall (p=0.0014) and for moxifloxacin (p=0.003). Patients treated with oral corticosteroids had more severe disease and higher failure rates. The MAESTRAL study showed that moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of outpatients with AECOPD. Both therapies were well tolerated.

  14. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report.

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    Jiana Shi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 4, indicating a possible adverse reaction to moxifloxacin. The potential risk factors related to moxifloxacin-induced seizures are discussed. It highlights that preexisting central nervous system disease, elderly female with lower bodyweight and severe renal impairment may be the risk factors involved in moxifloxacin-induced seizures.

  15. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

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    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-05-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging. Both moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin had similar multiphoton spectra, while moxifloxacin had stronger fluorescence than gatifloxacin. MPM imaging of mouse cornea in vivo showed (1) moxifloxacin had good penetration through the superficial corneal epithelium, while gatifloxacin had relatively poor penetration, (2) both ophthalmic solutions had high intracellular distribution. In vivo MPM results were consistent with previous studies. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MPM as a method for in vivo direct measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea.

  16. Good penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses.

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    Sauermann, Robert; Karch, Rudolf; Kjellsson, Maria C; Feurstein, Thomas; Püspök, Andreas; Langenberger, Herbert; Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Jäger, Walter; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Abscesses are often treated with antibiotics in addition to incision or when incision is unfeasible, but accurate information about antibiotic abscess penetration in humans is missing. This study aimed at evaluating the penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses. After administration of a single dose of 400 mg moxifloxacin, drug concentrations were measured in 10 differently located abscesses at incision, and in plasma over 8 h. At incision performed 0.9-4.8 h after administration, moxifloxacin concentrations in abscesses ranged from ≤0.01 to 9.2 mg/l (1.9 ± 3.4 mg/l), indicating pronounced drug accumulation in some abscesses. The degree of abscess penetration could not be explained by covariates like the ratio of surface area to volume or pH of abscesses, or by moxifloxacin plasma concentrations. Concluding, moxifloxacin was detectable in most abscesses and may be a useful antibiotic for this indication. However, antibiotic abscess penetration was highly variable and unpredictable, suggesting surgical abscess incision whenever possible.

  17. Moxifloxacin (Avelox Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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    Sikander P. Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American female who presented with complaints of progressively worsening weakness, shortness of breath on minimal exertion, lethargy for the last few days, and short episodes of aphasia lasting 20–30 seconds. Prior to presentation, she was treated with two courses of moxifloxacin for sinusitis. Laboratory examination was remarkable for anemia and thrombocytopenia with elevated lactate dehydrogenase and no evidence of renal failure. Peripheral smear showed numerous schistocytes and she was diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Moxifloxacin was identified as the offending agent. The patient was treated with prednisone and plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the use of moxifloxacin. Although rare, physicians should be aware of this serious complication associated with its use.

  18. Real-life treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with moxifloxacin or macrolides: a comparative post-marketing surveillance study in general practice.

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    Schaberg, T; Möller, M; File, T; Stauch, K; Landen, H

    2006-01-01

    To compare the real-life treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs) using moxifloxacin tablets or one of the oral macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin in terms of symptom relief, time until improvement and cure, overall efficacy and tolerability. This prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study included out-patients with AECB whose last exacerbation was treated with a macrolide. The current AECB was treated either with moxifloxacin or with one of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin. Data were obtained on the patient's characteristics, disease and treatment history, the course of the current AECB including time to improvement and cure, and the final assessments of efficacy and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded in patients treated with moxifloxacin; for patients receiving macrolides, only drug-related adverse events were reported. 464 physicians treated 904 patients with moxifloxacin and 846 patients with one of the macrolides. Age, sex and body mass index were well matched between the two treatment groups. However, more moxifloxacin than macrolide patients presented with a generally bad condition (62.8% vs 48.6%). About 42% of patients in both groups had had chronic bronchitis for 1-5 years, and about 27% for 5-10 years. The mean number of AECBs in the previous 12 months was 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Moxifloxacin was administered to most patients for 5 (43.8%) or 7 days (42.4%). Patients in the macrolide group were treated in most cases with clarithromycin 500 mg for 4-7 days, roxithromycin 300 mg for 6-7 days or azithromycin 500 mg for 3 days. Physicians assessed overall efficacy and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 96.1% and 98.1%, respectively, of moxifloxacin-treated patients and in 67.5% and 91.7%, respectively, of macrolide-treated patients. The mean duration until improvement and cure of AECB was 3.2 days (+/- SD 1.5) and 6.2 days (+/- 2.6) in moxifloxacin

  19. Chemiluminescence determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical and biological samples based on its enhancing effect of the luminol-ferricyanide system using a microfluidic chip.

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    Suh, Yeoun Suk; Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Gyu-Man; Dang, Trung Dung

    2014-05-01

    A sensitive determination of a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin (MOX), by an enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) method using a microfluidic chip is described. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by a soft-lithographic procedure using polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). The fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip had three-inlet microchannels for introducing the sample, chemiluminescent reagent and oxidant, and a 500 µm wide, 250 µm deep and 82 mm long microchannel. An enhanced CL system, luminol-ferricyanide, was adopted to analyze the MOX concentration in a sample solution. CL light was emitted continuously after mixing luminol and ferricyanide in the presence of MOX on the PDMS microfluidic chip. The amount of MOX in the luminol-ferricyanide system influenced the intensity of the CL light. The linear range of MOX concentration was 0.14-55.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.06 and 0.2 ng/mL respectively. The presented method afforded good reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.05% for 10 ng/mL of MOX, and has been successfully applied for the determination of MOX in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

  20. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HCl AND BROMFENAC SODIUM IN EYE DROPS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

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    P. J. Vyas*, J. B. Dave and C. N. Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride is a fluorinated quinolone antibacterial and Bromfenac Sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of the reduction of post operative inflammatory conditions of the eye. Three new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOX and Bromfenac Sodium (BROM in their combined dosage forms. Method - I is based on simultaneous equation method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 265 nm (λmax of BROM. Method - II Q‐absorption Ratio method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 276.66 nm (Isoabsorptive point. Method - III involves the use of First order derivative technique. Here 301.71 nm, the zero crossing point of Bromfenac Sodium, was selected for the determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and 293.22 nm, the zero crossing point of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, was selected for the determination of Bromfenac Sodium. Methanolic HCL (0.1 M was the solvent used in all three methods. Moxifloxacin showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml and Bromfenac showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml in all the methods. All methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. All methods were found to be accurate, precise and reproducible. These methods were applied to the assay of the drugs in marketed formulation, which were found in the range of 98.0% to 102.0% of the labelled value for both Moxifloxacin and Bromfenac. Hence, the methods herein described can be successfully applied in quality control of combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  1. Decreased gastrointestinal toxicity associated with a novel capecitabine schedule (7 days on and 7 days off): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoo, Karen A; Gajria, Devika; Suh, Emily; Patil, Sujata; Theodoulou, Maria; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Traina, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine is widely used in the management of metastatic breast cancer; however, drug delivery is limited by gastrointestinal and other toxicity. We employed mathematical modeling to rationally design an optimized dose and schedule for capecitabine of 2,000?mg twice daily, flat dosing, 7 days on, 7 days off. Preclinical data suggested increased efficacy and tolerability with this novel dosing, and three early-phase clinical trials have suggested a favorable toxicity profile. To further def...

  2. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-11-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory evidence of a CNS infection. No systemic maternal infection or maternal genitourinary tract infection occurred at the time of delivery. Empirical treatment was initiated, consisting of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and aciclovir. After clinical deterioration, 16S ribosomal DNA PCR in cerebrospinal fluid detected M hominis, antibiotic treatment was switched to moxifloxacin, and pharmacokinetic data were obtained. This Grand Round illustrates the challenges that exist in the diagnosis and treatment of M hominis meningoencephalitis: bacterial cultures are often negative and recommended empirical antimicrobials do not provide adequate antimicrobial coverage. Optimal antimicrobial treatment regimens for M hominis meningoencephalitis are unknown. Although we describe successful treatment of a neonate with a complicated M hominis meningoencephalitis with moxifloxacin, caution with fluoroquinolone monotherapy (including moxifloxacin) has to be taken into account because resistance to fluoroquinolones has previously been described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  4. Concentration-Dependent Synergy and Antagonism of Linezolid and Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Childhood Tuberculosis: The Dynamic Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Nuermberger, Eric; Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Background. No treatment regimens have been specifically designed for children, in whom tuberculosis is predominantly intracellular. Given their activity as monotherapy and their ability to penetrate many diseased anatomic sites that characterize disseminated tuberculosis, linezolid and moxifloxacin could be combined to form a regimen for this need. Methods. We examined microbial kill of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by the combination of linezolid and moxifloxacin multiple exposures in a 7-by-7 mathematical matrix. We then used the hollow fiber system (HFS) model of intracellular tuberculosis to identify optimal dose schedules and exposures of moxifloxacin and linezolid in combination. We mimicked pediatric half-lives and concentrations achieved by each drug. We sampled the peripheral compartment on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 for Mtb quantification, and compared the slope of microbial kill of Mtb by these regimens to the standard regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide, based on exponential decline regression. Results. The full exposure-response surface identified linezolid-moxifloxacin zones of synergy, antagonism, and additivity. A regimen based on each of these zones was then used in the HFS model, with observed half-lives of 4.08 ± 0.66 for linezolid and 3.80 ± 1.34 hours for moxifloxacin. The kill rate constant was 0.060 ± 0.012 per day with the moxifloxacin-linezolid regimen in the additivity zone vs 0.083 ± 0.011 per day with standard therapy, translating to a bacterial burden half-life of 11.52 days vs 8.53 days, respectively. Conclusions. We identified doses and dose schedules of a linezolid and moxifloxacin backbone regimen that could be highly efficacious in disseminated tuberculosis in children. PMID:27742639

  5. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  6. The Moxifloxacin-Based Triple Therapies to Treat Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Failure%莫西沙星三联疗法治疗根治失败的幽门螺杆菌感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玲; 李智

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察莫西沙星三联疗法治疗根治失败的幽门螺杆菌(Hp)感染的临床疗效及药物的不良反应.方法 选取常规Hp根治失败的患者125例随机分成A、B两组,A组64例给予莫西沙星0.4g qd+泮托拉唑0.4g bid+阿莫西林1.0g bid;B组61例给子泮托拉唑0.4g bid+枸盐酸铋钾0.22g bid+呋喃唑酮0.2g bid+阿莫西林1.0g bid,A、B两组均服药1周.两组停服质子泵抑制剂及抗菌素4周后行14C-BUT呼气试验检测Hp感染是否根治.结果 A、B两组的根治率分别为90.5%和75.4%(P<0.05);不良反应发生率分别为9.4%和22.8%(P<0.05).A组比B组多支付医疗费用137.9元.结论 莫西沙星三联疗法治疗根治失败的Hp感染是一种有效,安全的治疗方案.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and the associated symptoms of moxifioxacin-based readicate helicobacter pylori (Hp) after treatment failure.Methods 125 patients with initial treatment failure were randomly divided into 2 groups; group A ( n = 64) took moxifloxacin 0.4 g qd + pantoloc 0.4 g bid + amoxillin 1.0 g bid; group B ( n = 61 ) took pantoloc 0.4 g bid + amoxillin 1.0 g bid + bismuth potassium citrate 0.22 g bid + furazolidone 0.2 g bid.The patients in both groups were treated for one-week.Hp status was assessed four-weeks after the end of treatment by 14C-UBT breath test.Results The treatment was completed in all the 125 patients.The rates of Hp readication in goups A and B were 90.5% and 75.4% ( P < 0.05), The rates of the associated symptoms in groups A and B were 9.4% and 22.8% ( P < 0.05 ).The group A than group B was more 137.9 yuan for the medical fee.Conclusion The moxifloxacin-based triple therapies is an effective, safechoice after the eradication failure for Hp infection.

  7. The role of moxifloxacin in tuberculosis therapy

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    Stephen H. Gillespie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a global threat with more than 9 million new infections. Treatment remains difficult and there has been no change in the duration of the standard regimen since the early 1980s. Moreover, many patients are unable to tolerate this treatment and discontinue therapy, increasing the risk of resistance. There is a growing tide of multidrug resistance and few effective antibiotics to tackle the problem. Since the turn of the millennium there has been a surge in interest in developing new therapies for TB and a number of new drugs have been developed. In this review the repurposing of moxifloxacin, an 8-methoxy-fluoroquinolone, for TB treatment is discussed. The evidence that underpins the development of this agent is reviewed. The results of the recently completed phase III trials are summarised and the reasons for the unexpected outcome are explored. Finally, the design of new trials that incorporate moxifloxacin, and that address both susceptible disease and multidrug resistance, is described.

  8. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  9. Exogenous dopamine induces dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (rSULT2A1) in rat liver and changes the pharmacokinetic profile of moxifloxacin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueyan; Li, Jian; Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Guangping; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ji, Xiwei; Li, Liang; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyan

    2015-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) plays an important role in the detoxification of hydroxyl-containing xenobitotics and in the regulation of the biological activities of hydroxysteroids. Although dopamine (DA) is a vital neurotransmitter, DA also has some special functions in outer peripheral system and takes effect by binding with dopamine receptors including five subtypes (D1-D5). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous DA on both the regulation of rSULT2A1 (rat SULT2A1) and the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin which is a specific substrate of rSULT2A1. After different doses of DA (0, 2, 10 and 100 mg/kg/d) were administrated to both male and female rats for 7 days, the activity, protein level and mRNA expression of rSULT2A1 increased significantly. Moreover, both Cmax and AUC of moxifloxacin decreased and AUC of moxifloxacin sulfate conjugate metabolite increased significantly when moxifloxacin was administered to rats with DA pretreatment. Additionally, D1 expression in liver and cAMP concentration also increased after the treatment with DA. Overall these results suggest that exogenous DA may induce rSULT2A1 in rat liver and may further change the pharmacokinetic characteristics of some substrates of SULT2A1, and the activation of D1-like receptor is probably involved in rSULT2A1 induction by DA.

  10. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 1- versus 7-day manipulation following collagenase injection for dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Dayne T; Noland, Shelley S; Watt, Andrew J; Kollitz, Kathleen M; Vedder, Nicholas B; Huang, Jerry I

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of manual manipulation at day 7 to day 1 following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Eligible patients were randomized to manipulation at day 1 versus day 7 following CCH injection. Preinjection, premanipulation, postmanipulation, and 30-day follow-up metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures were measured. Pain scores were recorded at each time point. Data were stratified per cohort based on primary joint treated (MCP vs PIP). Means were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Forty-three patients with 46 digits were eligible and were randomized to 1-day (22 digits) and 7-day (24 digits) manipulation. For MCP joints, there were no significant differences in flexion contractures between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (47° vs 46°), postmanipulation (0° vs 2°), or 30-day follow-up (1° vs 2°) measurements. Premanipulation, the residual contracture was significantly lower in the 7-day group (23° vs 40°). For PIP joints, there were no significant differences between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (63° vs 62°), premanipulation (56° vs 52°), postmanipulation (13° vs 15°), or 30-day (14° vs 16°) measurements. There were no significant differences in pain or skin tears between the 2 groups. No flexor tendon ruptures were observed. The effectiveness of CCH in achieving correction of Dupuytren contractures was preserved when manipulation was performed on day 7, with no differences in correction, pain, or skin tears. These data suggest that manipulation can be scheduled at the convenience of the patient and surgeon within the first 7 days after injection. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreased protein binding of moxifloxacin in patients with sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorn, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean (SD unbound fraction of moxifloxacin in plasma from patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was determined by ultrafiltration to 85.5±3.0% (range 81.9 and 91.6% indicating a decreased protein binding of moxifloxacin in this population compared with the value of 58–60% provided in the Summary of Product Characteristics. However, previous investigations neglected the influence of pH and temperature on the protein binding of moxifloxacin. Maintaining physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C – as in the present study – the unbound fraction of moxifloxacin in plasma from healthy volunteers was 84%. In contrast, the unbound fraction of moxifloxacin was 77% at 4°C and 66–68% in unbuffered plasma or at pH 8.5 in fair agreement with previously published data. PK/PD parameters e.g. AUC/MIC or ratios between interstitial fluid and free plasma concentrations, which were obtained assuming a protein binding rate of moxifloxacin of 40% or more, should be revised.

  12. In Vitro Activities of Moxifloxacin, 127I-Moxifloxacin and 131I-Moxifloxacin Against Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

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    Hasan Demiroğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Moxifloxacin (MXF, radio (Na131I and cold (K127I iodinated MXF on methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556 (MSSA biofilms. Methods: MXF was labeled with Na131I using the iodogen method. The optimum radiodination conditions for 131I-MXF was determined by thin-layer radio chromatography studies. Thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC chromatograms were obtained by using Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System. The MICs of MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were determined using the microdilution broth method according to CLSI criteria. Time kill curves were performed over 24 h using an inoculum of 2×105 (CFU/mL. Biofilms were grown in microtitre plates, dyed with crystal violet and the mean optical density (OD630 was used for quantification. Biofilms were incubated MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF at various concentration (0.03 to 64 µg/mL. Results: MXF was labeled with 131I iodogen method. 131I-MXF was obtained with high a yield 95±3%. The MIC values for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was 0.06 µg/mL. Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 0.25 µg/mL 4 hour for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF. At MIC levels, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was not showed a marked reduction of metabolic activity in the S. aureus biofilm. The ODs of biofilm after incubation with an increasing antibiotic concentration were significantly lower than the ODs of biofilms without antibiotic p≤005. The radiolabeled MXF was most effective than MXF, 127I-MXF in reducing the number of bacteria in biofilm. After 24 h incubation Log10 CFU/mL values for 32 µg/mL antibiotic concentration: Control, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were 9.5, 4.3, 4.8 and 3.1, respectively. Conclusion: 131I and 127I were used alone there was no penetration of the S. aureus biofilm and no damage. In contrast our results demonstrate that the radiolabeled Moxifloxacin (131I-MXF have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus

  13. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

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    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  14. Application of intracameral moxifloxacin to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery

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    Servet Cetinkaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intracameral moxifloxacin in preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.METHODS:Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients underwent cataract surgery between January and June 2012. Some patients received intracameral moxifloxacin at the end of surgery, while others did not(controls. Pre- and postperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARbest corrected visual acuity(BCVA, intraocular pressure(IOP, corneal edema, and anterior chamber(ACstatus were examined.RESULTS: Thirty-three patients(19 males, 14 females; average age, 64.81±11.61y(range: 41-82yreceived moxifloxacin and 32 patients(15 males, 17 females; average age, 65.43±11.10y(range: 42-81ydid not. The differences in patient age(P=0.827and sex(P=0.396were insignificant. Preoperative BCVA was approximately 20/130 in both groups. After surgery, moxifloxacin and control patients had a BCVA of 20/25 and 20/23, respectively(P=0.160. Preoperative IOP was 14.93±2.77mmHg(range: 11-21mmHgin moxifloxacin patients and 15.06±2.42mm Hg(range: 12-21mmHgin controls(P=0.850. After surgery, IOP was not statistically different between two groups(moxifloxacin: 14.06±2.31(range: 10-19mmHg, controls: 14.03±2.36mmHg(range: 10-19mmHg, P=0.960. Slight differences in corneal edema(P=0.623and anterior chamber cell(P=0.726incidences between two groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Intracameral moxifloxacin is safe and effective in preventing endophtalmitis after cataract surgery.

  15. Intraocular penetration of sequentially instilled topical moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sugioka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Koji Sugioka1, Masahiko Fukuda1, Shohei Komoto1, Motoki Itahashi1, Masakazu Yamada2, Yoshikazu Shimomura11Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka, Japan; 2Division for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare the intraocular penetration levels of the newer fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin in the rabbit’s cornea, aqueous humor, and conjunctiva after topical instillation.Methods: 0.5% moxifloxacin, 0.3% gatifloxacin, and 0.5% levofloxacin were instilled in random sequence in both eyes of nine New Zealand White rabbits at two-minute intervals. Instillation was repeated every 15 minutes for a total of three drops of each fluoroquinolone per eye. Three additional animals had only moxifloxacin instilled bilaterally using the same schedule. Sixty minutes after the final instillation, the rabbits were sacrificed for determination of corneal, aqueous humor, and conjunctival fluoroquinolone concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved significantly higher concentrations than levofloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea (P = 0.0102 and P = 0.0006, respectively, aqueous humor (P = 0.0015 and P < 0.0001, respectively, and conjunctiva (P = 0.0191 and P = 0.0236, respectively. Conclusions: 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops provided superior intraocular penetration in rabbits’ eyes compared with the two other fluoroquinolones, 0.5% levofloxacin and 0.3% gatifloxacin.Keywords: fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penetration, rabbit

  16. Moxifloxacin dosing in post-bariatric surgery patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, Pieter; Eleveld, Douglas J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; T'Jollyn, Huybrecht; Van Bortel, Luc M.; Ruige, Johannes; De Waele, Jan; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Boussery, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Given the ever increasing number of obese patients and obesity related bypass surgery, dosing recommendations in the post-bypass population are needed. Using a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis and PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) simulations, we investigated whether adequate moxifloxacin

  17. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

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    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION OF INFUSION MEDICATION ON BASIS OF MOXIFLOXACIN

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    Almakaeva L.G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of fluoroquinolones covers by experience of treatment more than 800 million patients, and presently they are one of basic classes in the antimicrobial arsenal of practical medicine. Such achievements became possible after the clear understanding of intercommunication of structure and activity of molecules of this class of antibiotics. This knowledge became the basis for the synthesis of new derivatives with a wide range, powerful activity and improved pharmacokinetic profile for the best clinical outcome. Moxifloxacin is 8-methoxyfluoroquinolon of wide spectrum which interacts mainly with DNA gyrase of gram-negative and with topoisomerase of IV type of gram-positive bacteria. He has the extended activity against gram-positive cocci, however keeps activity against gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin also has good activity against atypical respiratory pathogens (Legionella of pneumophila, Chlamydia of pneumoniae and Mycoplasma of pneumoniae. Another his feature is high anti-anaerobic activity. Therefore development of domestic medication with Moxifloxacin - a fluoroquinolone 4 generations - is actual. Materials and methods Research material was a substance of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, produced by firm «Sansh Biotech Pvt. Ltd.», India, a dosage form on the basis of Moxifloxacin - solution for infusion. Qqualitative and quantitative control of samples of the drug were conducted on parameters which characterize stability: рН, content of active substance, transparency, colour, related impurities, mechanical inclusions on methods, which are described in SPhU. Results and Discussion Proposed the drug is antibiotic of wide spectrum of action of fluoroquinolone. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride is powder pale yellow with slightly hygroscopic nature. He moderately dissolve in water and methanol, poorly will dissolve in hydrochloric acid and ethanol, and practically will not dissolve in an acetone and toluene. рН 0,2 % solution is in a range

  19. A Faropenem, Linezolid, and Moxifloxacin Regimen for Both Drug-Susceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children: FLAME Path on the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Nuermberger, Eric; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-11-01

     The regimen of linezolid and moxifloxacin was found to be efficacious in the hollow fiber system model of pediatric intracellular tuberculosis. However, its kill rate was slower than the standard 3-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. We wanted to examine the effect of adding a third oral agent, faropenem, to this dual combination.  We performed a series of studies in the hollow fiber system model of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by mimicking pediatric pharmacokinetics of each antibiotic. First, we varied the percentage of time that faropenem persisted above minimum inhibitory concentration (TMIC) on the moxifloxacin-linezolid regimen. After choosing the best faropenem exposure, we performed experiments in which we varied the moxifloxacin and linezolid doses in the triple regimen. Finally, we performed longer-duration therapy validation experiments. Bacterial burden was quantified using both colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) and time to positivity (TTP). Kill slopes were modeled using exponential regression.  TTP was a more sensitive measure of bacterial burden than CFU/mL. A faropenem TMIC > 62% was associated with steepest microbial kill slope. Regimens of standard linezolid and moxifloxacin plus faropenem TMIC > 60%, as well as higher-dose moxifloxacin, achieved slopes equivalent to those of the standard regimen based by both TTP and CFU/mL over 28 days of treatment.  We have developed an oral faropenem-linezolid-moxifloxacin (FLAME) regimen that is free of first-line drugs. The regimen could be effective against both multidrug-resistant and drug-susceptible tuberculosis in children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. A Faropenem, Linezolid, and Moxifloxacin Regimen for Both Drug-Susceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children: FLAME Path on the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Nuermberger, Eric; Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Background. The regimen of linezolid and moxifloxacin was found to be efficacious in the hollow fiber system model of pediatric intracellular tuberculosis. However, its kill rate was slower than the standard 3-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. We wanted to examine the effect of adding a third oral agent, faropenem, to this dual combination. Methods. We performed a series of studies in the hollow fiber system model of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by mimicking pediatric pharmacokinetics of each antibiotic. First, we varied the percentage of time that faropenem persisted above minimum inhibitory concentration (TMIC) on the moxifloxacin-linezolid regimen. After choosing the best faropenem exposure, we performed experiments in which we varied the moxifloxacin and linezolid doses in the triple regimen. Finally, we performed longer-duration therapy validation experiments. Bacterial burden was quantified using both colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) and time to positivity (TTP). Kill slopes were modeled using exponential regression. Results. TTP was a more sensitive measure of bacterial burden than CFU/mL. A faropenem TMIC > 62% was associated with steepest microbial kill slope. Regimens of standard linezolid and moxifloxacin plus faropenem TMIC > 60%, as well as higher-dose moxifloxacin, achieved slopes equivalent to those of the standard regimen based by both TTP and CFU/mL over 28 days of treatment. Conclusions. We have developed an oral faropenem-linezolid-moxifloxacin (FLAME) regimen that is free of first-line drugs. The regimen could be effective against both multidrug-resistant and drug-susceptible tuberculosis in children. PMID:27742640

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rossi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP. Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL, and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and

  2. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors an...

  3. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

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    Chatzikyrkou Christos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin.

  4. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay.

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    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    Full Text Available Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, in the form of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides, was evaluated in HIV-1 uninfected persons in both long-term (7 day and 24 hour, commercially available QuantiFERON TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT, whole blood assays. Our findings showed differences in the IFN-gamma response between 24 hour and 7 day cultures, with recombinant proteins inducing a significantly higher response than the peptide pools in 7 day whole blood assays. The activity of peptides and recombinant proteins did not differ in 24 hour whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assays, nor in the ELISpot assay. Further analysis by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the peptides are degraded over the course of 7 days of incubation in whole blood whilst the recombinant proteins remain intact. This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity.

  5. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  6. Antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin on bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cachovan, Georg; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2014-02-01

    The activity of moxifloxacin was compared with ofloxacin and doxycycline against bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm (single strain and mixed population) in vitro. MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycyline were determined against single strains and mixed populations in a planktonic state. Single-species biofilms of two Porphyromonas gingivalis and two Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains and a multispecies biofilm consisting of 12 species were formed for 3 days. The minimal biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) were determined after exposing the biofilms to the antibacterials (0.002-512 µg ml(-1)) for 18 h, addition of nutrient broth for 3 days and subsequent subcultivation. Photographs were taken using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The MICs and MBCs did not differ between ofloxacin and moxifloxacin against A. actinomycetemcomitans, whilst moxifloxacin was more active than the other tested antibacterials against anaerobes and the mixed population. The single-species biofilms were eradicated by moderate concentrations of the antibacterials, and the lowest MBECs were always found for moxifloxacin (2-8 µg ml(-1)). MBECs against the multispecies biofilms were 128, >512 and >512 µg ml(-1) for moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycycline, respectively. In summary, moxifloxacin in a topical formulation may have potential as an adjunct to mechanical removal of the biofilms.

  7. Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime by first and ratio first derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry

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    Attimarad Mahesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new combination of moxifloxacin HCl and cefixime trihydrate is approved for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. At initial formulation development and screening stage a fast and reliable method for the dissolution and release testing of moxifloxacin and cefixime were highly desirable. The zero order overlaid UV spectra of moxifloxacin and cefixime showed >90% overlapping. Hence, simple, accurate precise and validated two derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime. Methods In the first derivative spectrophotometric method varying concentration of moxifloxacin and cefixime were prepared and scanned in the range of 200 to 400 nm and first derivative spectra were calculated (n = 1. The zero crossing wavelengths 287 nm and 317.9 nm were selected for determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime, respectively. In the second method the first derivative of ratio spectra was calculated and used for the determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime by measuring the peak intensity at 359.3 nm and 269.6 nm respectively. Results Calibration graphs were established in the range of 1–16 μg /mL and 1–15 μg /mL for both the drugs by first and ratio first derivative spectroscopic methods respectively with good correlation coefficients. Average accuracy of assay of moxifloxacin and cefixime were found to be 100.68% and 98 93%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of both inter and intraday assays were less than 1.8%. Moreover, recovery of moxifloxacin and cefixime was more than 98.7% and 99.1%, respectively. Conclusions The described derivative spectrophotometric methods are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and excellent alternative to sophisticated chromatographic techniques. Hence, the proposed methods can be used for the quality control of the cited drugs and can be extended for routine analysis of the drugs in formulations.

  8. Effect of empirical treatment with moxifloxacin and meropenem vs meropenem on sepsis-related organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkhorst, Frank M; Oppert, Michael; Marx, Gernot; Bloos, Frank; Ludewig, Katrin; Putensen, Christian; Nierhaus, Axel; Jaschinski, Ulrich; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Weyland, Andreas; Gründling, Matthias; Moerer, Onnen; Riessen, Reimer; Seibel, Armin; Ragaller, Maximilian; Büchler, Markus W; John, Stefan; Bach, Friedhelm; Spies, Claudia; Reill, Lorenz; Fritz, Harald; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kuhnt, Evelyn; Bogatsch, Holger; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Kollef, Marin H; Reinhart, Konrad; Welte, Tobias

    2012-06-13

    Early appropriate antimicrobial therapy leads to lower mortality rates associated with severe sepsis. The role of empirical combination therapy comprising at least 2 antibiotics of different mechanisms remains controversial. To compare the effect of moxifloxacin and meropenem with the effect of meropenem alone on sepsis-related organ dysfunction. A randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial of 600 patients who fulfilled criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock (n = 298 for monotherapy and n = 302 for combination therapy). The trial was performed at 44 intensive care units in Germany from October 16, 2007, to March 23, 2010. The number of evaluable patients was 273 in the monotherapy group and 278 in the combination therapy group. Intravenous meropenem (1 g every 8 hours) and moxifloxacin (400 mg every 24 hours) or meropenem alone. The intervention was recommended for 7 days and up to a maximum of 14 days after randomization or until discharge from the intensive care unit or death, whichever occurred first. Degree of organ failure (mean of daily total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] scores over 14 days; score range: 0-24 points with higher scores indicating worse organ failure); secondary outcome: 28-day and 90-day all-cause mortality. Survivors were followed up for 90 days. Among 551 evaluable patients, there was no statistically significant difference in mean SOFA score between the meropenem and moxifloxacin group (8.3 points; 95% CI, 7.8-8.8 points) and the meropenem alone group (7.9 points; 95% CI, 7.5-8.4 points) (P = .36). The rates for 28-day and 90-day mortality also were not statistically significantly different. By day 28, there were 66 deaths (23.9%; 95% CI, 19.0%-29.4%) in the combination therapy group compared with 59 deaths (21.9%; 95% CI, 17.1%-27.4%) in the monotherapy group (P = .58). By day 90, there were 96 deaths (35.3%; 95% CI, 29.6%-41.3%) in the combination therapy group compared with 84 deaths (32.1%; 95% CI, 26.5%-38.1%) in

  9. A Case Report of Severe Corneal Toxicity following 0.5% Topical Moxifloxacin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vignesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a widely used topical antibiotic in various bacterial infections of the eye. Its safety and efficacy have been proved by many studies. We report a case of a rare adverse effect following its use. A 10-year-old female who had presented with acute bacterial conjunctivitis in both eyes with no corneal involvement was started on preservative-free 0.5% topical moxifloxacin four times a day. The child developed a severe form of corneal toxicity in both eyes with circumcorneal congestion and corneal edema following its use. The child's visual acuity had dropped from 20/20 to 20/400 in both the eyes. Topical moxifloxacin was discontinued, following which the cornea cleared dramatically and the visual acuity became normal. This case indicates that though rare, topical moxifloxacin can cause severe keratitis and that more studies need to be conducted to evaluate its safety.

  10. In vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 anaerobes isolated from human intra-abdominal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Merriam, C Vreni; Fernandez, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 recent anaerobic isolates obtained from pretreatment cultures in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections was studied using the CLSI M11-A-6 agar dilution method. Moxifloxacin was active against 87% (96 of 110) Bacteroides fragilis strains at accounting for most of the resistant isolates; excluding the aforementioned four resistant species, 86% (303 of 363) of Bacteroides species isolates and 94% (417 of 450) of all other genera and species were susceptible to < or = 2 microg/ml of moxifloxacin. Overall, moxifloxacin was active against 763 of 923 (83%) of strains at < or = 2 microg/ml, supporting its use as a monotherapy for some community-acquired intra-abdominal infections.

  11. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

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    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  12. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  13. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Cheryl L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR. Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

  14. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...... after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40min of exercise was larger (P=0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher...

  15. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  16. Pulsed moxifloxacin for the prevention of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This proof-of-concept study evaluates whether intermittent pulsed moxifloxacin treatment could reduce the frequency of these exacerbations. Methods Stable patients with COPD were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive moxifloxacin 400 mg PO once daily (N = 573 or placebo (N = 584 once a day for 5 days. Treatment was repeated every 8 weeks for a total of six courses. Patients were repeatedly assessed clinically and microbiologically during the 48-week treatment period, and for a further 24 weeks' follow-up. Results At 48 weeks the odds ratio (OR for suffering an exacerbation favoured moxifloxacin: per-protocol (PP population (N = 738, OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.565-0.994, p = 0.046, intent-to-treat (ITT population (N = 1149, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.645-1.008, p = 0.059, and a post-hoc analysis of per-protocol (PP patients with purulent/mucopurulent sputum production at baseline (N = 323, OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.84, p = 0.006. There were no significant differences between moxifloxacin and placebo in any pre-specified efficacy subgroup analyses or in hospitalization rates, mortality rates, lung function or changes in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ total scores. There was, however, a significant difference in favour of moxifloxacin in the SGRQ symptom domain (ITT: -8.2 vs -3.8, p = 0.009; PP: -8.8 vs -4.4, p = 0.006. Moxifloxacin treatment was not associated with consistent changes in moxifloxacin susceptibility. There were more treatment-emergent, drug related adverse events with moxifloxacin vs placebo (p Conclusions Intermittent pulsed therapy with moxifloxacin reduced the odds of exacerbation by 20% in the ITT population, by 25% among the PP population and by 45% in PP patients with purulent/mucopurulent sputum at baseline. There were no unexpected adverse

  17. Effect of coadministration of moxifloxacin and rifampin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine aerosol infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Solapure, S; Gaonkar, S; Mahesh Kumar, K N; Shandil, R K; Deshpande, Abhijeet; Kumar, Naveen; Vishwas, K G; Panduga, Vijender; Reddy, Jitendar; Ganguly, Samit; Louie, A; Drusano, G L

    2012-06-01

    Coadministration of moxifloxacin and rifampin was evaluated in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary infection to determine whether the finding of antagonism documented in a hollow-fiber infection model could be recapitulated in vivo. Colony counts were followed in a no-treatment control group, groups administered moxifloxacin or rifampin monotherapy, and a group administered a combination of the two agents. Following 18 days of once-daily oral administration to mice infected with M. tuberculosis, there was a reduction in the plasma exposure to rifampin that decreased further when rifampin was coadministered with moxifloxacin. Pharmacodynamic analysis demonstrated a mild antagonistic interaction between moxifloxacin and rifampin with respect to cell kill in the mouse model for tuberculosis (TB). No emergence of resistance was noted over 28 days of therapy, even with monotherapy. This was true even though one of the agents in the combination (moxifloxacin) induces error-prone replication. The previously noted antagonism with respect to cell kill shown in the hollow-fiber infection model was recapitulated in the murine TB lung model, although to a lesser extent.

  18. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......' to Aalborg University Hospital (H.I.N). G.V.D.H. is an external senior scientific consultant to Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain). H.A. has provided scientific input and presentations for Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain) on several occasions. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. TRIAL...

  19. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning decimals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Decimals. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning decimals super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their chag

  20. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  1. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  2. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that at equal protein content, milk, but not meat, decreased bone turnover in boys. This suggested that milk-derived components are important for bone metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized that milk-derived proteins (whey and casein) affect bone turnover during...... growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount...... of whey and casein was identical to their content in 1.5 L of milk. We measured serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (immunoassay) and estimated dietary intake (3-day weighed food record) at baseline and after 7 days. Only s...

  3. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rouse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  4. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate, Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, and Enrofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Acid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Gouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolones antibiotics: gemifloxacin mesylate (GMF, moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF, and enrofloxacin (ENF in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the basic drugs and acid dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG, bromocresol purple (BCP, bromophenol blue (BPB, bromothymol blue (BTB, and methyl orange (MO in acidic buffer solutions. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 420, 408, 416, 415, and 422 nm for BCG, BCP, BPB, BTB, and MO, respectively, for GMF; at 410, 415, 416, and 420 nm for BCP, BTB, BPB, and MO, respectively, for MXF; and at 419 and 414 nm for BCG and BTB, respectively, in case of ENF. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the ranges 1.0–30, 1.0–20, and 2.0–24 μg mL−1 for GMF, MXF, and ENF, respectively. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference methods showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  6. Primary photophysical properties of moxifloxacin--a fluoroquinolone antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Fernando; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Edge, Ruth; Allen, Norman S

    2008-01-01

    The photophysical properties of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic moxifloxacin (MOX) were investigated in aqueous media. MOX in water, at pH 7.4, shows two intense absorption bands at 287 and 338 nm (epsilon = 44,000 and 17,000 dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively). The absorption and emission properties of MOX are pH-dependent, pK(a) values for the protonation equilibria of both the ground (6.1 and 9.6) and excited singlet states (6.8 and 9.1) of MOX were determined spectroscopically. MOX fluoresces weakly, the quantum yield for fluorescence emission being maximum (0.07) at pH 8. Phosphorescence from the excited triplet state in frozen ethanol solution has a quantum yield of 0.046. Laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies have been carried out to characterize the transient species of MOX in aqueous solution. On laser excitation, MOX undergoes monophotonic photoionization with a quantum yield of 0.14. This leads to the formation of a long-lived cation radical whose absorption is maximum at 470 nm (epsilon(470) = 3400 dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1)). The photoionization process releases hydrated electron which rapidly reacts (k = 2.8 x 10(10) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) with ground state MOX, yielding a long-lived anion radical with maximum absorption at 390 nm (epsilon(390) = 2400 dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1)). The cation radical of MOX is able to oxidize protein components tryptophan and tyrosine. The bimolecular rate constants for these reactions are 2.3 x 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and 1.3 x 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), respectively. Singlet oxygen sensitized by the MOX triplet state was also detected only in oxygen-saturated D(2)O solutions, with a quantum yield of 0.075.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of micro hydrogel of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Deshmukh, Rucha V; Gaikwad, Kishori R; Parikh, Kemy A; Manvi, F V

    2012-06-01

    The field of ocular drug delivery is one of the interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Novel approaches for ophthalmic drug delivery need to be established to increase the ocular bioavailability by overcoming the inherent drawbacks of conventional dosage forms. In situ hydrogels are instilled as drops into the eye and undergoes a sol-to-gel transition in the cul-de-sac, improved ocular bioavailability by increasing the duration of contact with corneal tissue, thereby reducing the frequency of administration. The purpose of the present work was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system using three different gelling agents with different mechanisms for in situ gelation of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. polyox (a pH-sensitive gelling agent), sodium alginate (an ion-sensitive gelling agent), and poloxamer (a temperature-sensitive gelling agent) were employed for the formation of in situ hydrogel along with HPMC K4M as viscofying agent, which increases the residence time of the drug in the ocular cavity. The promising formulations MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9) were evaluated for pH, drug content, in vitro gelation, in vitro drug release, in vivo drug release, ocular irritation, and stability. Percent drug content of 98.2, 98.76, and 99.43%; viscosity of 15.724 × 100, 16.108 × 100, and 15.213 × 100 cP at 20 rpm, cumulative percent release of 75.364, 74.081, and 71.752%, and C (max) of 1,164.16, 1,187.09, and 1,220.58 ng/ml was observed for formulation MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9), respectively. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious, stable, and non-irritant and provided sustained release of the drug over 8 h.

  8. An unusual case of bilateral anterior uveitis related to moxifloxacin: the first report in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel, Carlos M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to oral moxifloxacin.Methods: Case report.Results: A 54-year-old female presented bilateral anterior uveitis following a 10-day course of oral moxifloxacin. She developed a bilateral anterior uveitis associated with pigment dispersion syndrome and iris transillumination.Conclusions: Drug-induced uveitis is one of the causes of anterior uveitis. Uveitis related to fluoroquinolones is a rare entity, there are few cases reported in the literature, this is the first case reported in Latin America.

  9. Comparative study of the mutant prevention concentrations of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and gemifloxacin against pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2010-02-01

    We tested the propensity of three quinolones to select for resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) against 100 clinical strains, some of which harbored mutations in type II topoisomerases. Compared with levofloxacin and gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin had the lowest number of strains with MPCs above the susceptibility breakpoint (P<0.001), thus representing a lower selective pressure for proliferation of resistant mutants. Only moxifloxacin gave a 50% MPC (MPC50) value (1 microg/ml) within the susceptible range.

  10. Comparative Study of the Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin, and Gemifloxacin against Pneumococci▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the propensity of three quinolones to select for resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) against 100 clinical strains, some of which harbored mutations in type II topoisomerases. Compared with levofloxacin and gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin had the lowest number of strains with MPCs above the susceptibility breakpoint (P < 0.001), thus representing a lower selective pressure for proliferation of resistant mutants. Only moxifloxacin gave a 50% MPC (MPC50) value (1 μg/ml) within the susceptible range. PMID:20008781

  11. Allometric scaling of marbofloxacin, moxifloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin pharmacokinetics: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S K

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the allometric analyses of marbofloxacin, moxifloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin using pharmacokinetic data from the literature. The parameters of interest (half-life, clearance and volume of distribution) were correlated across species as a function of body weight using an allometric approach (Y = aWb). Results of the allometric analysis indicated similarity between clearance and volume of distribution as they relate to body weight for all drugs. The elimination half-life was independent of body mass for all fluoroquinolones except moxifloxacin. Results of the analysis suggest that allometric scaling can be used as a tool for predicting pharmacokinetic parameters for fluoroquinolones.

  12. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  13. Optimization of separation and determination of moxifloxacin and its related substances by RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevic, Predrag; Ciric, Andrija; Djurdjevic, Aleksandra; Stankov, Milena Jelikic

    2009-09-01

    A RP-HPLC method for the separation and determination of impurities of moxifloxacin, in its pharmaceutical forms as well as moxifloxacin degradation products, was developed with the aid of DryLab software and chemometric (response surface) approach. The separation of four synthesis-related impurities was achieved on a Waters C(18) XTerra column using a mobile phase of (water+triethylamine (2%, v/v)): acetonitrile=90:10 (v/v%); the pH of water phase being adjusted with phosphoric acid to 6.0. Flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.5 ml/min and UV detection at 290 nm was employed. The column was thermostated at 45 degrees C. The resolution between the two least resolved impurity peaks was in average, R(s,min) > 1.5. Method validation parameters indicate linear dynamic range 0.2-2.0 microg/ml with LOQ ca. 0.20 microg/ml and LOD ca. 0.05 microg/ml for all analytes. The method was applied for the impurities determination in drug tablets and infusion (Avelox), Bayer AG) and for degradation products determination in a stability study of moxifloxacin. The impurity content in the tablets and infusion was quantified as 0.1% of total drug. Two degradation products were noted under hydrolytic conditions. The method can also be used for rapid and accurate quantification of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in its tablets during stability testing.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J. W. C.; van Altena, R.; Bokkerink, H. J.; Luijckx, G. J.; van Soolingen, D.; Aarnoutse, R. E.; van der Werf, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Moxifloxacin cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration was evaluated by obtaining full plasma and CSF time concentration curves for 4 patients with tuberculous meningitis. The geometric mean ratio of the areas under the curve for CSF to plasma were 0.82 (range, 0.70-0.94) at 400 mg once per day and 0.71

  15. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of an intensified regimen containing rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, L.H. te; Dian, S.; Ganiem, A.R.; Ruesen, C.J.; Burger, D.M.; Donders, R.; Ruslami, R.; Crevel, R. van; Aarnoutse, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data suggest that intensified antimicrobial treatment may improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Considering that drug exposure is the intermediate link between dose and effect, we examined the concentration-response relationship for rifampicin and moxifloxacin in TBM patients.

  16. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  17. Oral bioavailability of moxifloxacin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Julie; Colin, Pieter; De Paepe, Peter; Ruige, Johannes; Batens, Helene; Van Nieuwenhove, Yves; Vogelaers, Dirk; Blot, Stijn; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Van Bortel, Luc M.; Boussery, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is the most commonly performed procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. This anatomical alteration may affect the absorption and consequently the bioavailability of oral drugs. This study aims to investigate the oral bioavailability of moxifloxacin

  18. Chitosan-Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Matrices as Carriers for Hydrodynamically Balanced Capsules of Moxifloxacin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anurag; Dubey, Juhi; Verma, Navneet; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, gastroretentive, hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS) for stomach-specific floating sustained drug release has gained a lot of importance in improving absorption of drugs especially those absorbed from stomach and small intestine. The objective of the current investigation is to evaluate chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based on polymeric matrices as a carrier for single-unit capsules based on HBS for stomach- specific floating sustained drug release using moxifloxacin HCl (MX) as a model drug. Various HBS capsules of MX were prepared by physical blending of MX with chitosan (low or medium molecular mass) or HPMC (K4M or K15M) or chitosan-HPMC combinations in varying proportions followed by encapsulation into size 0 capsules made of hard gelatin. The in vitro buoyancy and drug release in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) were evaluated. HBS capsules based on chitosan (low and medium molecular weight and their combination) as polymer matrix failed to float on 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2). Whereas, formulations containing HPMC (K4M or K15M) or their mixture with chitosan, remained buoyant and released MX over 9 h in the acidic dissolution medium following zero-order kinetics. HPMC (K4M, K15M, blend of K4M and K15M) or their mixture with low/medium molecular mass chitosan may constitute excellent carrier systems for the stomach-specific sustained delivery of MX over a longer period. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. In vitro activity of moxifloxacin and piperacillin/sulbactam against pathogens of acute cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Weber; Wolfgang Huber; Klaus Kamereck; Philipp Winkle; Petra Voland; Hans Weidenbach; Roland M Schmid; Christian Prinz

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the in vitro activity of moxifioxacin and piperacillin/sulbactam against pathogens isolated from patients with acute cholangitis.METHODS:In this prospective study a total of 65 patients with acute cholangitis due to biliary stone obstruction (n = 7),benign biliary stricture (n =16),and malignant biliary stricture (n = 42) were investigated with regard to spectrum of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance.Pathogens were isolated from bile cultures in all study patients.In 22 febrile patients,blood cultures were also obtained.In vitro activity of moxifloxacin and piperacillin/sulbactam was determined by agar diffusion.RESULTS:Thirty-one out of 65 patients had positive bile and/or blood cultures.In 31 patients,63 isolates with 17 different species were identified.The predominant strains were Enterococcus species (26/63),Ecoli (13/63) and Klebsiella species (8/63).A comparable in vitro activity of moxifloxacin and piperacillin/sulbactam was observed for E.coli and Klebsiella species.In contrast,Enterococcus species had higher resistances towards moxifloxacin.Overall bacteria showed antibiotic resistances in vitro of 34.9% for piperacillin/sulbactam and 36.5% for moxifloxacin.CONCLUSION:Enterococcus species,E.coli andKlebsiella species were the most common bacteria isolated from bile and/or blood from patients with acute cholangitis.Overall,a mixed infection with several species was observed,and bacteria showed a comparable in vitro activity for piperacillin/sulbactam and moxifloxacin.

  20. Intensified regimen containing rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis: an open-label, randomised controlled phase 2 trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslami, R.; Ganiem, A.R.; Dian, S.; Apriani, L.; Achmad, T.H.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Borm, G.F.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Crevel, R. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intensified antibiotic treatment might improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety, and survival benefit of several treatment regimens containing high-dose rifampicin and moxifloxacin in patients with tuberculous meningitis in a hospital setting. M

  1. [In vitro activity of linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, clindamycin and rifampin, alone and in combination, against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, A; Jurado, A; Marco, F; Almela, M; Ortega, M; Mensa, J

    2005-06-01

    Information about the in vitro effect of combinations of anti-staphylococcal agents on staphylococci is scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, clindamycin and rifampin, alone or in combination, against Staphylococcus spp. Two Staphylococcus aureus and two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures were studied using the killing curve method. The combinations analyzed were linezolid+moxifloxacin, linezolid+levofloxacin, linezolid+clindamycin, linezolid+rifampin, moxifloxacin+rifampin, moxifloxacin+clindamycin, levofloxacin+rifampin and levofloxacin+clindamycin. The following concentrations (mg/l) were used: 8 and 16 for linezolid, 2 for moxifloxacin, 3 for levofloxacin, 2 for clindamycin and 2 and 5 for rifampin. The activity was considered synergistic when a reduction in growth of at least 2 log(10) was produced with the combination in comparison to the most active antibiotic alone; antagonistic when a growth of at least 2 log(10) was produced with the combination in comparison to the most active antibiotic alone; and indifferent if the variation was less than 1 log(10). Linezolid and clindamycin were bacteriostatic, while moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were bactericidal. Rifampin was bacteriostatic against S. aureus and bactericidal against S. epidermidis. Linezolid and clindamycin reduced the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, however an antagonistic effect was only observed against S. aureus. Other combinations of linezolid, rifampin, clindamycin, levofloxacin or moxifloxacin were indifferent. Linezolid and clindamycin antagonize the bactericidal activity of fluorquinolones against staphylococci. There was no difference between any other combinations against either S. aureus or S. epidermidis.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Moxifloxacin Versus Cefoperazone with Azithromycin in the Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuyun; XIONG Shengdao; XU Yongjian; LIU Jin; LIU Huiguo; ZHAO Jianping; XIONG Weining

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravenous moxifloxacin with those of a commonly used empirical antibiotic regimen, cefoperazone and azithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients requiring initial parenteral therapy, 40 patients with CAP were divided into two groups, a moxifloxacin group (n=20) and a control group(n=20), which were treated for 7 to 14 days. The patients in the moxifloxacin group were intravenously given 400 mg of moxifloxacin (AveloxR) once a day. Patients in the control group were administered 2.0 g of cefoperazone twice a day and azithromycin 0.5 g once a day. Clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory examinations were performed before the treatment, and at the end of the treatment. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between two treatment groups at end of therapy (90 % for moxifloxacin, 95 % for cefoperazone plus azithromycin) (P>0.05). The bacteriologic eradication rate at the end of treatment was 90 % in the moxifloxacin group and 80 % in the cefoperazone-plus-azithromycin group, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). In addition, both drugs were well-tolerated in this trial, with the number of drug-related adverse events being comparable. It is concluded that moxifloxacin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for CAP and was equivalent to the commonly used empirical treatment of cefoperazone plus azithromycin. Moxifloxacin is likely to offer clinicians an alternative for reliable empirical CAP treatment in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance.

  3. Evidence for moxifloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: the impact of pharmaco-economic considerations on guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    In an era of limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treatment in addition to its effectiveness. However, guidelines do not tend to consider the cost-effectiveness of treatment options. This paper aims to conduct an international literature review with a view to assessing the impact of pharmaco-economic considerations of CAP treatment with moxifloxacin on recent guidelines. The pharmaco-economic state of the art of treating CAP with moxifloxacin is assessed and compared with guidelines issued by the European Respiratory Society and by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society. Also, evidence on moxifloxacin consumption and antimicrobial resistance, and the impact of resistance on the cost-effectiveness of moxifloxacin is reviewed. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EconLit up to January 2009. The existing pharmaco-economic evidence indicates that moxifloxacin is a cost-effective treatment for CAP. However, data limitations and uncertainty surrounding the evolution of resistance emphasize the need for caution. As recommended by guidelines, the choice of antimicrobial should consider the local frequency of causative pathogens, the local pattern of antimicrobial resistance, and risk factors for resistant bacteria. The pharmaco-economic evidence corroborates the importance of these factors as they have an impact on the cost-effectiveness of treating CAP patients with moxifloxacin. CAP guidelines need to take into account pharmaco-economic considerations by balancing the effectiveness of antimicrobial regimens against their costs. The pharmaco-economic value of moxifloxacin is influenced by the causative pathogens involved and resistance patterns. Therefore, it may be advisable to identify patient subgroups in which treatment with moxifloxacin is cost-effective and should be recommended by

  4. Disposition kinetics of long acting moxifloxacin following intravenous administration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag M. Modi

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to study the disposition kinetics and dosage regimens of long acting moxifloxacin following intravenous administration at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg-1 b. wt. in six male sheep and to calculate dosage regimens of the same in sheep. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using six healthy male sheep. Long acting Moxifloxacin solution (10 % moxifloxacin in solution with L- arginine, N-butyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol was injected in jugular vein and periodical blood samples were collected from contra-lateral jugular vein in test tubes containing 30-50 IU heparin (anticoagulant at 0.083 (5 min, 0.166 (10 min, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and up to 96 h post administration of drug. Drug concentration in plasma was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with Fluorescence Detector. The blood concentrations versus time data were analyzed using software. Results: After single dose intravenous administration of long acting moxifloxacin the plasma concentration of 0.016 ± 0.001 μg/ml-1 was maintained for up to 72 h. Distribution half-life (t and elimination half-life (t were 1.637 ± 0.053 h, and 1/2 1/2 12.130 ± 0.202 h, following IV administration. The mean values of apparent volume of distribution V 5.436 ± 0.135 L/kg-1 d(area as well as mean residence time 10.02 ± 4.787 minute were detected with IV administration. Conclusion: The long acting Moxifloxacin @ the dose 7.5 mg/kg IV maintains the effective therapeutic concentration in the plasma of sheep for up to 72 hours. The long acting Moxifloxacin at this dose rate can be used to treat sensitive bacteria causing infectious diseases in sheep. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 517-521

  5. Effect of moxifloxacin combined with cefotaxime compared to cefotaxime-gentamicin combination on prevention of white matter damage associated with Escherichia coli sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saché, Nolwenn; Baud, Olivier; Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Biran, Valérie; Brunel-Meunier, Nadège; Bidet, Philippe; Kitzis, Marie-Dominique; Gressens, Pierre; Bingen, Edouard; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2011-07-01

    Relative to the cefotaxime-gentamicin combination, the moxifloxacin-cefotaxime combination significantly reduced microglial activation and immature oligodendrocyte cell death and delayed myelination in the developing white matter of neonatal rats with experimental Escherichia coli sepsis. These neuroprotective effects were not due to differences in in vivo bactericidal activities or in the systemic inflammatory responses and could be related to the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of moxifloxacin. Molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of moxifloxacin remain to be elucidated.

  6. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy evaluation in empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Brock, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    for each patient were evaluated against epidemiological cutoff MIC values for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. PK-PD targets adopted were a Cmax/MIC of ≥12.2 for all pathogens, an fAUC0-24/MIC of >34 for S. pneumoniae, and an fAUC0-24/MIC of >75 for H...... the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day in 18 patients treated empirically for community-acquired pneumonia. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess the potential efficacy of moxifloxacin and to simulate the maximal MICs for which recommended pharmacokinetic....... influenzae and L. pneumophila. Individual predicted estimates for Cmax/MIC and fAUC0-24/MIC as well as simulated maximal MICs resulting in target attainment for oral and intravenous administration of the drug were suitable for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae but not for L. pneumophila. These results indicate...

  7. The impact of chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus on liver function in a 7-day ultramarathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chou

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Compared to their counterparts, runners who are HBV carriers had significantly greater increases in levels of ALT, AST, and T-BIL during a 7-day ultramarathon, indicating that the liver function of carriers is more highly impacted in these races.

  8. Blood pressure circadian pattern and physical exercise assessment by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Ibáñez-Jalón, Elisa; González-Viejo, Natividad; Guenaga-Saenz, Nahia; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55 ± 14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; ρ = 0.19 to 0.11; P Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  9. Ion activated in situ gel system for ophthalmic delivery of moxifloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Mahesh N.; Ashok A. Hajare

    2010-01-01

    Rapid precorneal elimination of drug is a major limitation of conventional ophthalmic formulations. An ion activated in situ gel forming systems of an antibacterial agent moxifloxacin hydrochloride for instillation as drops into eye undergoing a sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac was formulated. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, pH, in vitro release, rheological study, Draize ...

  10. Safety profile of the respiratory fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin: comparison with other fluoroquinolones and other antibacterial classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone with potent activity against respiratory pathogens, is approved and considered as an alternative to beta-lactams and macrolides for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis and lower respiratory tract infections. In this review, we critically examine its safety profile in comparison with other fluoroquinolones and other antibacterial classes sharing similar indications. Data were extracted from published clinical trials, meta-analyses, postmarketing studies, spontaneous report systems and case reports for rare effects. Global analysis did not reveal significantly higher incidences of drug-related adverse effects than for comparators. Tendon rupture was infrequent with moxifloxacin, including when used in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Severe toxic cutaneous reactions and allergies were very rare. Phototoxicity and CNS adverse effects were less common than with other fluoroquinolones. Although causing a 4-7 msec corrected QT interval prolongation, severe cardiac toxicity was neither seen in large cohorts or clinical trials nor reported to pharmacovigilance systems. Hepatotoxicity was not different from what was observed for other fluoroquinolones (excluding trovafloxacin) and less frequent than reported for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or telithromycin. The data show that using moxifloxacin, in its accepted indications and following the corresponding guidelines, should not be associated with an excessive incidence of drug-related adverse reactions, provided the clinician takes care in identifying patients with known risk factors and pays due attention to the contraindications and warnings mentioned in the labelling.

  11. Failure of moxifloxacin treatment in Mycoplasma genitalium infections due to macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, Deborah L; Tagg, Kaitlin A; Jeoffreys, Neisha J; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-10-01

    Increasing azithromycin treatment failure in sexually transmitted Mycoplasma genitalium infection, is linked to macrolide resistance and second-line treatment relies on the fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin. We recently detected fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance-associated mutations in 15% and 43%, respectively, of 143 initial M. genitalium PCR-positive specimens. For a subset of 33 Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre patients, clinical information and results of sequence analysis of M. genitalium macrolide and fluoroquinolone target genes - the 23S rRNA gene, and parC and gyrA, respectively - were used to examine whether mutations were associated with treatment failure. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations correlated with microbiological (p = 0.013) and clinical (p = 0.024) treatment failure, and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations with microbiological moxifloxacin treatment failure (p = 0.005). We describe the first reported cases of clinical and microbiological moxifloxacin treatment failure. Failure of first- and second-line antibiotic treatment of M. genitalium infection is occurring and likely to increase with current treatment strategies.

  12. A new approach to counteract bacteria resistance: a comparative study between moxifloxacin and a new moxifloxacin derivative in different model systems of bacterial membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Silvia C; Ribeiro, Carla; Gameiro, Paula

    2013-02-01

    New drug design has been one of the major challenges to combat bacterial resistance over the past decade. Conventional antibiotics act by destroying bacterial cell wall or by blocking biosynthetic pathways necessary for its survival. Unfortunately, there has been a fast increase in multiresistance, to several conventional antibiotics, in clinical bacterial strains. Previous studies have shown that metalloantibiotics, ternary complexes of antibiotic-metal-phenanthroline, present an increased potential as antimicrobial agents. In this work moxifloxacin, a fourth-generation quinolone, with a broad spectrum of action, and its copper ternary complex (metalloantibiotic) have been study by fluorescence spectroscopy. Partition coefficients were determined and showed that while free moxifloxacin exhibits the same behaviour independently of the lipidic system tested, the metalloantibiotic presents higher partition to liposomes, in a lipid composition-dependent way. These significant differences in the interaction of the metalloantibiotic with model bacteria membranes point out for a putative change in its uptake mechanism with increased drug-lipid interaction potentiating metalloantibiotic influx.

  13. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus levofloxacin plus metronidazole for community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tieying; Sun Li; Wang Rongmei; Ren Xiaoping; Sui Dong-jiang; Pu Chun; Ren Yajuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease throughout the world and the incidence continues to grow as the population ages.Aspiration is an important pathogenic mechanism for pneumonia in the elderly and the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors is a major medical problem.Our study aimed to assess whether moxifloxacin in comparison to levofloxacin plus metronidazole are effective and safe in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors.Methods In this prospective,multicenter,open-label,randomized controlled trial,77 patients with mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive moxifloxacin or levofloxacin plus metronidazole.The primary efficacy variables were clinical outcomes in evaluable patients at a follow-up visit 7 to 14 days after the end of therapy.Results Seven days after the end of therapy a clinical cure was achieved for 76.7% (23 of 37) of efficacy-evaluable patients in the moxifloxacin group and 51.7% (15 of 40) of patients in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group.There was a significant difference between the two groups (x2=4.002,P <0.05).Bacteriological success rates were similar in the moxifloxacin group (93.3%) and levofloxacin plus metronidazole group (96.4%),there was no significant difference between the two groups (P >0.05).The overall adverse event rate was 10.8% (4/37) in the moxifloxacin group versus 17.5% (7/40) in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group,there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05).No serious adverse events were observed.Conclusions Moxifloxacin is effective and safe for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors.And the regimen of moxifloxacin monotherapy is more convenient compared with levofloxacin plus metronidazole.

  15. Diabetes, hypertension, overweight and hyperlipidemia and 7-day case-fatality in first myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: In this population-based inception cohort study, diabetes but not hypertension and hyperlipidemia were associated with MI fatality. This further emphasizes the importance of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor and the need for close surveillance of diabetic patients. Overweight was however associated with decreased MI fatality.

  16. The role of topical moxifloxacin, a new antibacterial in Europe, in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose; Verboven, Yves; Stroman, David; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses current practice in the treatment of conjunctivitis and how the use of topical moxifloxacin can increase therapeutic effectiveness, reduce treatment failures and, consequently, be cost effective and reduce the societal burden of the disorder. Current practice and effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Data on healthcare utilization as a result of treatment failure were collected by survey and the cost of treatment was defined using national costings. A decision-analytic model to assess cost effectiveness was developed and the impact on the healthcare budget was calculated to define the health economic impact. Bacterial conjunctivitis represents a significant health problem and accounts for an estimated 1-1.5% of primary-care consultations. The disorder is highly contagious and causes a substantial healthcare and societal burden. Bacterial conjunctivitis is generally self-limiting, resolving within 1-2 weeks. However, the use of antibacterials significantly improves clinical and microbiological remission, shortens symptom duration, and enables more effective use of healthcare resources, compared with placebo. From a health economic perspective this benefits the healthcare system and society, since fewer healthcare resources are needed and the adult affected, or the parent/caregiver of the child affected, can return to full work capacity sooner, reducing loss of productivity. Treatment strategies vary significantly between countries. Most patients are first seen in primary care, where 'wait-and-see', lubrification and antiseptic or antibacterial treatment is provided. In Europe, when antibacterials are prescribed most general practitioners (GPs) prescribe a broad-spectrum topical antibacterial. The most commonly used drugs are chloramphenicol and fusidic acid, with fluoroquinolones rarely reported as first-line treatment by GPs. At the specialist (ophthalmologist) level, or for second-line treatment at the GP level, topical

  17. Safety and efficacy of moxifloxacin monotherapy for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Rafael; Garcia-Reyne, Ana; Caba, Pedro; Chaves, Fernando; Resines, Carlos; Llanos, Fernando; López-Medrano, Francisco; Lizasoain, Manuel; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2010-12-01

    The rifampin-ciprofloxacin combination is recommended for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections to avoid the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance; however, the efficacy of this combination is limited by the tolerability problems associated with the use of rifampin. Moxifloxacin is a quinolone up to 10 times more active against staphylococci than ciprofloxacin and the risk of resistance development during monotherapy against staphylococci is theoretically lower for moxifloxacin, but information regarding its use in bone infections is lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin monotherapy in patients with orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections. From June 2006 to April 2009, all patients with culture-proven infection by quinolone-sensitive staphylococcal strains associated with orthopedic implants at our institution were included in a management protocol that mostly included specific surgery, 1 to 2 weeks of an intravenous course of cloxacillin-cefazolin or vancomycin, and long-term therapy with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 3 months). Cure was defined as (i) a lack of clinical signs and symptoms of infection, (ii) a C-reactive protein level less than 5 mg/liter, and (iii) absence of radiological signs of loosening or infection at the latest follow-up visit. Failure was defined as (i) persisting clinical and/or laboratory signs of infection or (ii) persisting or new isolation of the initial microorganism. A total of 48 patients with a median follow-up of 716 days (range, 102 to 1,613 days) were included in the study. Complete drug compliance was achieved in all but two patients (4.2%), who required drug discontinuation because of side effects (diarrhea and dizziness). No moxifloxacin-induced arrhythmia was reported. Twenty patients had joint prosthesis infections (5 acute-onset infections and 15 chronic infections), and 28 patients had osteosynthesis material

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Moxifloxacin Monotherapy for Treatment of Orthopedic Implant-Related Staphylococcal Infections ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Rafael; Garcia-Reyne, Ana; Caba, Pedro; Chaves, Fernando; Resines, Carlos; Llanos, Fernando; López-Medrano, Francisco; Lizasoain, Manuel; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The rifampin-ciprofloxacin combination is recommended for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections to avoid the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance; however, the efficacy of this combination is limited by the tolerability problems associated with the use of rifampin. Moxifloxacin is a quinolone up to 10 times more active against staphylococci than ciprofloxacin and the risk of resistance development during monotherapy against staphylococci is theoretically lower for moxifloxacin, but information regarding its use in bone infections is lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin monotherapy in patients with orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections. From June 2006 to April 2009, all patients with culture-proven infection by quinolone-sensitive staphylococcal strains associated with orthopedic implants at our institution were included in a management protocol that mostly included specific surgery, 1 to 2 weeks of an intravenous course of cloxacillin-cefazolin or vancomycin, and long-term therapy with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 3 months). Cure was defined as (i) a lack of clinical signs and symptoms of infection, (ii) a C-reactive protein level less than 5 mg/liter, and (iii) absence of radiological signs of loosening or infection at the latest follow-up visit. Failure was defined as (i) persisting clinical and/or laboratory signs of infection or (ii) persisting or new isolation of the initial microorganism. A total of 48 patients with a median follow-up of 716 days (range, 102 to 1,613 days) were included in the study. Complete drug compliance was achieved in all but two patients (4.2%), who required drug discontinuation because of side effects (diarrhea and dizziness). No moxifloxacin-induced arrhythmia was reported. Twenty patients had joint prosthesis infections (5 acute-onset infections and 15 chronic infections), and 28 patients had osteosynthesis material

  19. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    Outer membrane vesicle BALB/c mice s.c. 1026b i.n. 5 x 10 3 0% at d 14 86 Outer ...6.6 x 10 5 30% at d 42 80 Bip proteins BALB/c mice i.p. Ashdown i.p. 970 0% at d 5 81 Omp3 and Omp7 ( Outer membrane ...proteins) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10 6 50% at d 21 82 Omp85 ( Outer membrane protein) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10

  20. Moxifloxacin-Gelrite in situ ophthalmic gelling system against photodynamic therapy for treatment of bacterial corneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Laithy, Hanan M; Nesseem, Demiana I; El-Adly, Amira A; Shoukry, Meriana

    2011-10-01

    In this study, six in situ gelling formulations based on Gelrite were prepared and evaluated for the retained ophthalmic delivery of Moxifloxacin (Mox). The effectiveness of the best developed formula G5 was compared with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the recent expanding approach for the treatment of ophthalmologic disorders after the assessment of optimum photodynamic inactivation parameters that permit efficient pathogens eradication. It was found that, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (Gram-positive) was more susceptible to effective lethal photosensitization that reaches 93.5% reduction in viable count than Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Gramnegative) of 76.1% using 3 mg/mL Hematoporphyrin (HP), illuminated by 630 nm Light Emitting Diode (LED) at 9 J/cm(2) and incubated for 15 min. Following topical instillation of G5 to rabbits corneas, higher amount of Mox was retained in the aqueous humor up to 24 h with significant 6-fold increase in the C(max) and AUC((0-∞)) compared to vigamox commercial eye drops. After post corneal infection with S. aureus, both approaches were effectively treating the infection without causing ocular irritation or collateral damage to corneal tissue where G5 showed remarkable improvement after four days compared to seven days of PDT treatment.

  1. Comparison of the Anti-angiogenic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Two Antibiotics: Clarithromycin Versus Moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hironori; Das, Subrata K; Cho, Yang Kyung; Archer, Bonnie; Ambati, Balamurali K

    2016-04-01

    Clarithromycin is a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic with anti-inflammatory as well as antibacterial activity, and has been used worldwide. Moxifloxacin is a leading fourth generation quinolone antibiotic that has been used worldwide perioperatively. We intended to evaluate whether clarithromycin can suppress angiogenesis and inflammation in the cornea, and to compare the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of the two antibiotics, clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. We made a murine corneal suture model and tested the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of clarithromycin (5 mg/ml) and moxifloxacin (5 mg/ml) in two randomly divided groups. Dexamethasone (5 mg/ml) was used as a positive control. After making two sutures on the cornea, we performed subconjunctival injections (10 μl) on each group on the day of suture, and every day thereafter until the 8th day post-suture. After harvesting corneas on the 8th post-suture day for immunohistochemical staining, we compared neovascularization (NV), lymphangiogenesis (LY) and inflammatory cell infiltration among the groups. Clarithromycin suppressed NV, LY and inflammatory infiltration, compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). However, moxifloxacin did not suppress NV, LY, or inflammatory infiltration, compared with PBS. Comparison between clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, clarithromycin showed a tendency of decreasing LY (p = 0.063) and had less inflammatory cell infiltration (p anti-(lymph)angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of clarithromycin were as high as those of dexamethasone. Clarithromycin suppressed LY and inflammation in the cornea, and its anti-inflammatory effect was significantly superior to that of moxifloxacin.

  2. Validated spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of moxifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Sanjay K.; Chopra, Shruti; Ahmad, Farhan J.; Khar, Roop K.

    2007-10-01

    New, simple, cost effective, accurate and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of moxifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Moxifloxacin was estimated at 296 nm in 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) and at 289 nm in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-12 μg ml -1 ( r2 = 0.9999) in hydrochloric acid and 1-14 μg ml -1 ( r2 = 0.9998) in the phosphate buffer medium. The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity coefficient were found to be 4.63 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 9.5 ng cm -2/0.001 A in hydrochloric acid; and 4.08 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 10.8 ng cm -2/0.001 A in phosphate buffer media, respectively indicating the high sensitivity of the proposed methods. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.0402, 0.1217 μg ml -1 in hydrochloric acid and 0.0384, 0.1163 μg ml -1 in phosphate buffer medium, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, i.v. infusions, eye drops and polymeric nanoparticles). The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation dosage forms and dissolution studies.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Contribute to the Bactericidal Effects of the Fluoroquinolone Moxifloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, M J; Martín-Galiano, A J; Arnanz, C; Zimmerman, T; de la Campa, A G

    2015-11-02

    We studied the transcriptomic response of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin at a concentration that inhibits DNA gyrase. Treatment of the wild-type strain R6, at a concentration of 10× the MIC, triggered a response involving 132 genes after 30 min of treatment. Genes from several metabolic pathways involved in the production of pyruvate were upregulated. These included 3 glycolytic enzymes, which ultimately convert fructose 6-phosphate to pyruvate, and 2 enzymes that funnel phosphate sugars into the glycolytic pathway. In addition, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase was downregulated, likely leading to an increase in acetyl-CoA. When coupled with an upregulation in formate acetyltransferase, an increase in acetyl-CoA would raise the production of pyruvate. Since pyruvate is converted by pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an increase in pyruvate would augment intracellular H2O2. Here, we confirm a 21-fold increase in the production of H2O2 and a 55-fold increase in the amount of hydroxyl radical in cultures treated during 4 h with moxifloxacin. This increase in hydroxyl radical through the Fenton reaction would damage DNA, lipids, and proteins. These reactive oxygen species contributed to the lethality of the drug, a conclusion supported by the observed protective effects of an SpxB deletion. These results support the model whereby fluoroquinolones cause redox alterations. The transcriptional response of S. pneumoniae to moxifloxacin is compared with the response to levofloxacin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase IV. Levofloxacin triggers the transcriptional activation of iron transport genes and also enhances the Fenton reaction.

  4. Impact of moxifloxacin on serum free amino acid and cytokines in patients with tuberculosis treated by

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Zhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the impact of serum free amino acid and cytokines in patients with tuberculosis treated by Moxifloxacin.Methods:Chose 130 cases pulmonary tuberculosis patients,they were divided into observation group and control group according to random number table method, 65 cases in each group, all patients were given tuberculosis standard treatment, and on this basis, patients in control group were given levofloxacin tablets, patients in observation group were given moxifloxacin hydrochloride oral, they were treated for 6 months, compared the serum free amino acid and cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha-gamma (TNF-α), interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) between two groups before and after treatment. The serum isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine in two groups after were increased significantly than before treatment, the difference was statistically significant, acquired aspartic acid, glutamic acid in observation group after treatment were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, the difference was statistically significant; The serum IL-18, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in two groups after treatment were significantly reduced, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); the serum IL-18, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in observation group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group after treatment, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:Compared with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin treatment tuberculosis can improve the patients' serum free amino acid levels, adjust the Th1/Th2 balance.

  5. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial analysis of aqueous humor after topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline P; Silva, Cely B; Mimica, Lycia M J; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Malavazzi, Gustavo R; Hida, Richard Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous humor in patients who had preoperative topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%. Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Brazil. Comparative case series. Twenty-nine eyes from 29 cataract surgery patients were included in this study. In the study group (n = 15 eyes), 3 topical applications of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% were administered preoperatively; in the control group (n = 14 eyes), no topical applications were administered. Aqueous humor samples were collected and stored in sterile microtubes at -80°C until analysis. Antimicrobial analysis was performed using standard strains with standard sterile filter paper disks. Inhibition halos were measured in millimeters, and both bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects were analyzed. Inhibition halos were observed on most of the study group plates except those with Streptococcus pneumoniae: Escherichia coli (13.93 mm ± 0.64 [SD]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.63 ± 0.61 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (7.47 ± 0.68 mm), and S epidermidis (4.20 ± 3.33 mm) The differences between the mean inhibition halo diameters were statistically significant (P < .0001) in all samples. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms studied. After topical application of moxifloxacin 0.5%, aqueous humor showed bacteriostatic effect against E coli, K pneumoniae, S aureus, and S epidermidis. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms evaluated. No antimicrobial effect against S pneumoniae was observed. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sadahiro, Sotaro, E-mail: sadahiro@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Chieko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  8. Efficacy of moxifloxacin & econazole against multidrug resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U D Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Studies have shown the bactericidal potential of econazole and clotrimazole against Mycobacterium tuberculosis under in vitro and ex vivo conditions along with their synergism with conventional antituberculosis drugs. These molecules were also found to be effective against different multidrug resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis isolates in vitro. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo antimycobacterial potential of moxifloxacin and econazole alone and in combination against multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in a mice model. Methods: Mice were infected with 2.5×10 [7] bacilli of MDR strain of M. tuberculosis by aerosol route of infection. After four weeks of infection, chemotherapy was started orally by moxifloxacin 8.0 mg/kg body wt and econazole 3.3 mg/kg alone and in combination, as well as with four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs as a positive control. The animals were sacrificed and the lungs and spleen were excised under aspetic conditions. The tissues were homogenized with sterile normal saline, an aliquot of the homogenate was plated on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with oleate albumin dextrose catalase (OADC and incubated at 37°C for four weeks. The number of visible and individual colonies were counted. Results: The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs (RIF+INH+EMB+PZA after eight weeks of therapy had no impact as the bacillary load in lungs and spleens remained unchanged. However, econazole, moxifloxacin alone as well as in combination significantly reduced the bacillary load in lungs as well as in spleens of MDR-TB bacilli infected mice. Interpretation & conclusions: Co-administration of the two drugs (econazole and moxifloxacin to MDR-TB strain JAL-7782 infected mice exhibited additive effect, the efficacy of the drugs in combination being higher as compared with ECZ or MOX alone. These results were substantiated by histopathological studies. This study suggests the utility of

  9. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Atas; Burhan; Baskan; Ayse; zkse; Fatma; Mutlu; Sarιgüzel; Süleyman; Demircan; Emine; Pangal

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection(IVI) group]were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema(DME) or age-related macular degeneration(ARMD). Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity.RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients(44.4%)were male and twenty(55.6%) were female. Average age was 68.4 ±9.0(range 50-86). The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight(66.7%) of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism.There was no bacterial growth in 8(20.5%) of IVI eyes and in 16(44.4%) of control eyes(P =0.03). Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci(CoNS) in IVI eyes and 47.2%CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant(P =0.2). Eleven of 25 bacteria(44.0%) isolated from IVI eyes and 11(57.9%) of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant(12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes)(P =0.44). There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid

  10. No proarrhythmic properties of the antibiotics Moxifloxacin or Azithromycin in anaesthetized dogs with chronic-AV block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Beekman, J D M; Attevelt, N J M

    2006-01-01

    not been shown to cause torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP). Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has rarely been associated, clinically, with cases of proarrhythmia. As there is a lack of clinical data available, the cardiac safety of these drugs was assessed in a TdP-susceptible animal model......The therapeutically available quinolone antibiotic moxifloxacin has been used as a positive control for prolonging the QT interval in both clinical and non-clinical studies designed to assess the potential of new drugs to delay cardiac repolarization. Despite moxifloxacin prolonging QT, it has...

  11. Moxifloxacin plus standard first-line therapy in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Liang, Jian-Qin; Wang, Jin-He; Feng, Shi-Sheng; Zhang, Guang-Yu

    2015-07-01

    The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has been recommended by the guidelines for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Monotherapy is not recommended by the guidelines and only a few studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin plus standard first-line therapy in treating TB. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to further investigate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin plus standard therapy compared with standard therapy alone in treating patients with pulmonary TB. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE and Google Scholar (until February 12, 2015) were searched for studies that evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of moxifloxacin in the treatment of pulmonary TB. Rate of culture conversion and serious adverse events (SAEs) were assessed. Risk of bias and sensitivity analysis, using the leave-one-out approach, was used to assess the robustness of the findings. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis which covered 2056 patients with pulmonary TB. For all included studies, the drug regimens at least contained rifampicin and pyrazinamide and the length of treatment was at least eight weeks. The odds ratio (OR) for the negative culture rate for moxifloxacin plus first-line medications compared first-line medications alone (the control group) was 1.60 with 95% CI in 0.93-2.74 (P = 0.089), indicating the moxifloxacin plus first-line medications had no significantly greater rate of culture conversion compared with first-line medication alone. The odds ratio of SAEs for moxifloxacin plus first-line medications compared with first-line medications alone found no difference in rate of SAEs between treatment groups (OR = 0.94, P = 0.862). In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that there was a trend for the addition of moxifloxacin to standard first-line therapy for non-drug resistant TB resulted to increase the rate of culture conversion but this effect requires confirmation

  12. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal Samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Robert G; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011-2012, respectively. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  13. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (PHolter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  14. Estimating children's eating habits. Validity of a questionnaire measuring food frequency compared to a 7-day record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, L; Lundmark, K; Dahlquist, G; Persson, L A

    1989-11-01

    A questionnaire measuring food frequency was validated against 7-day records of food intake in a group of 30 children, 2-16 years of age. Special emphasis was given to the ability of the questionnaire to estimate frequency of intake of foods of particular interest in diabetes mellitus. Fifteen children had insulin-dependent diabetes; 15 were healthy. Comparison of the two methods regarding frequency of foods with high content of sucrose, protein, fat, fibres, nitrite or vitamin C showed a correlation of 0.52-0.76. The frequency of intake of some staple foods was often overestimated by the questionnaire, while the frequency of meat, sausage and some sweet snacks was underestimated. The use of the questionnaire to identify high or low consumers of the mentioned nutrients showed a rather low sensitivity (0.38-0.50), but a high specificity (0.86-1.0) when compared with results of the 7-day record. In our limited sample of subjects no systematic differences were found comparing sexes or diabetic and healthy children. A food frequency questionnaire may, in spite of some important reservations, be a useful tool for screening purposes when more time-consuming and resource-demanding methods cannot be used.

  15. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch.

  16. Influence of Moxifloxacin on Hepatic Redox Status and Plasma Biomarkers of Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokanmi Ore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. We examined the hepatic redox status and plasma biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rat following administration of moxifloxacin (MXF. Twenty-four Wistar rats, 180–200 g, were randomized into four groups (I–IV. Animals in group I (control received 1 mL of distilled water, while animals in groups II, III, and IV received 1 mL each of MXF equivalent to 4 mg/kg b.w., 8 mg/kg b.w., and 16 mg/kg b.w., respectively. After seven days, plasma urea, bilirubin, and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05 elevated in the MXF-treated animals. Activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly increased in the plasma of MXF-treated animals compared to control. Also plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly in the MXF-treated groups relative to control. Moreover, MXF triggered a significant decrease in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S transferase activities. Likewise, MXF caused a decrease in the hepatic levels of glutathione and vitamin C. A significant increase in hepatic MDA content was also observed in the MXF-treated animals relative to control. Overall, our data suggest that the half-therapeutic, therapeutic, and twice the therapeutic dose of MXF induced nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and altered hepatic redox balance in rats.

  17. Validated microbiological and HPLC methods for the determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abdelaziz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison between microbiological and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC assays for quantification of moxifloxacin in tablets, ophthalmic solutions and human plasma. The microbiological method employed a cylinder-plate agar diffusion assay using a strain of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the test organism and phosphate buffer (pH8 as the diluent. The calibration curves were linear (R²> 0.98 over a concentration range of 0.125 to 16 µgml-1. The within day and between days precisions were 0.999 over the range of 0.125 to 16 µg ml-1. The within day and between days precisions were < 4.07% and < 5.09% respectively. Recovery values were between 97.7 and 107.6%. Similar potencies were obtained after the analysis of moxifloxacin tablets and ophthalmic solutions by both methods. Also pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after the analysis of plasma samples of six male healthhy volunteers by both validated methods.

  18. Intravitreal moxifloxacin in the management of Ochrobactrum intermedium endophthalmitis due to metallic intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available David J Jacobs,1,2 Thomas J Grube,3 Harry W Flynn Jr,4 Craig M Greven,5 Avinash Pathengay,6 Darlene Miller,4 Robert F Sanke,1,2 Joseph Thorman7 1Trinity Regional Eyecare, Minot, ND, USA; 2School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Grube Retina Clinic, Mandan, ND, USA; 4Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Wake Forest University Eye Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 6LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; 7Rolla Eye Clinic, ND, USA Abstract: A healthy 34-year-old man presented with Ochrobactrum intermedium endophthalmitis due to a metallic intraocular foreign body. After vitrectomy, lensectomy, removal of the metallic intraocular foreign body, intravitreal vancomycin and ceftazidime, and systemic ciprofloxacin, intraocular inflammation worsened. Repeat vitreous culture confirmed persistent endophthalmitis due to multidrug-resistant O. intermedium. The endophthalmitis successfully resolved after the administration of intravitreal moxifloxacin. Keywords: moxifloxacin, Ochrobactrum intermedium, endophthalmitis, intraocular foreign body

  19. Development and characterisation of thermo reversible mucoadhesive moxifloxacin hydrochloride in situ ophthalmic gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dholakia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustain release thermo reversible in situ gel of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride using mucoadhesive polymer was prepared. Mucoadhesive polymer was used to obtain an ophthalmic delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that will provide prolong retention time for treatment of ocular diseases. Developed formulations were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility study, pH, Clarity, Gelation temperature study, Mucoadhesion properties and in-vitro release studies. Drug-excipient compatibility study was performed by FTIR technique.The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and polymers as well as the combination spectra of the drug and polymer were taken, which indicate no interaction between Moxifloxacin and polymers when compared with infrared spectrum of pure drug as all functional group frequencies were present. The values of other parameters obtained were in acceptable range. In vitro release tests revealed that 98% drug was released from the in situ gel containing 0.5% and 1.00% HPMC in 12 hr. provides prolonged release.

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in Bulk and its Pharmaceutical Dosage form by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. DEVIKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, efficient and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the Simultaneous determination of cefixime (CEF and moxifloxacin (MOX in combined dosage form. Chromatographicseparationofthetwo drugswasperformedonaPurospherBDSC18 column(250mm×4.6mmid, 5µm particlesize. The mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile and 0.01M KH2PO4 in a ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. The detection was made at 276 nm. The retention time of cefixime and moxifloxacin was found to be 3.140±0.007min and 7.007± 0.006min. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 20-120 µg/ml for both cefixime and moxifloxacin .All the analytical validation parameters were determined and found in the limit as per ICH guidelines, which indicate the validity of the method. The developed method is also found to be precise, accurate, specific, robust and rapid for the simultaneous determination of cefixime and moxifloxacin in tablet dosage forms.

  1. A brief review of moxifloxacin in the treatment of elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Ferrara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna M FerraraDepartment of Haematological, Pneumological, Cardiovascular and Surgical Sciences, University of Pavia, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a common cause of morbidity and a potentially life-threatening illness throughout the world mainly in elderly patients. Initial antibacterial treatment, usually empirical, should be as effective as possible in order to assure rapid clinical resolution and reduce high rates of hospitalization and mortality especially affecting aged patients. New fluoroquinolones with potent activity against the most important respiratory pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, a key pathogen mainly in old patients with CAP, have been recently suggested by several international guidelines as monotherapy for the treatment of most CAP patient categories. Among newer derivatives, moxifloxacin, an advanced generation 8-methoxy quinolone, has demonstrated good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in large, well designed clinical trials both in adults and old patients with CAP, achieving also in aged people efficacy comparable with that of standard treatments. Good pharmacokinetic characteristics such as excellent penetration into respiratory tract tissues and fluids, optimal bioavailability, simplicity of once-daily dosing, and good tolerability, represent potential advantages of moxifloxacin over other therapies. In addition, primarily due to a shorter length of hospital stay, moxifloxacin has been shown to save costs compared with standard therapy.Keywords: moxifloxacin, community-acquired pneumonia, elderly patients

  2. Plasma disposition and tissue residue of Moxifloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudah, A; Hasabelnaby, S

    2014-01-01

    The disposition kinetics and the plasma availability of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration at 5 mg/kg body weight. Tissue residue profiles (liver, kidney, lung and muscle) and plasma were also studied after multiple intramuscular and oral administrations of 5 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Following intravenous injection, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/ml and were obtained at 1.40 and 1.87 h (Tmax), post administration, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities following intramuscular and oral administration, respectively, of moxifloxacin were 92.48 and 87.94%. 6. Tissue concentrations following i.m. and p.o. administration were highest in liver and kidney, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lung and muscle. No moxifloxacin residues were detected in tissues and plasma after 120 h after i.m. or oral administration.

  3. In Vitro Killing Effect of Moxifloxacin on Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

    OpenAIRE

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Karnesis, Lazaros; Galani, Irene; Giamarellou, Helen

    2002-01-01

    The time-kill effect of moxifloxacin on 20 genetically distinct isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was studied. The majority (80%) were killed by a concentration equivalent to four times the MIC; the MIC induced a transient decrease in bacterial counts at 4 h, followed by regrowth. No effect was detected in four isolates. These results merit further clinical consideration.

  4. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  5. [Usefulness of moxifloxacin tablet on nursing and health care-associated pneumonia--a prospective study with a simple suspension method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Chitose; Hidaka, Takanobu

    2013-04-01

    Patients with nursing and health care-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) include those at risk for aspiration or those who have difficulties to take pills. We conducted a prospective study to examine the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin (MFLX) administration through an enteral feeding tube by a simple suspension method in patients with NHCAP receiving long-term care at the hospital. The study was performed in subjects meeting the definition of NHCAP according to the Japanese Respiratory Society amongst patients with pneumonia who were fed by a feeding tube under long-term care at Makita General Hospital during the period from Dec. 2010 to Oct. 2011. A dose of 400 mg MFLX was administered once daily for three consecutive days, as a rule, through a gastrostomy or nasogastric feeding tube by a simple suspension method. The primary endpoint was a test of cure (TOC) 7 days after the last administration. Sixteen patients were included in the analysis of the study. As the patient background, 11 were assessed as long-term care level 5, 5 were not receiving care, and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) score was 4 in all patients. Twelve (75%) had experience of aspiration while 4 (25%) had none, and all had some underlying diseases (complications). The severity of pneumonia according to the A-DROP scoring system was mild in 1 patient (6%), moderate in 14 patients (88%) and severe in 1 patient (6%). A test of cure 7 days after the last administration, which was the primary endpoint, showed an efficacy rate of 81.3% (13/16 patients), while the efficacy evaluation 3 days after administration, which was an endpoint for early phase drug efficacy, showed that the drug was effective in all patients (100%; 16/16 patients). Neither adverse drug reactions nor abnormal laboratory findings were observed. MFLX administration through an enteral feeding tube by a simple suspension method was shown to be as highly effective as injection in patients with NHCAP

  6. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  7. In vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P K; Majumdar, D K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of present investigation was to study the in vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through freshly excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas. Moxifloxacin, 0.043 to 0.048% (w/v) ophthalmic solutions with or without (0.5% v/v) benzyl alcohol were made in arachis, castor, cottonseed, olive, soybean, sunflower and sesame oils. Permeation studies were conducted by putting 1 ml oil formulation on cornea (0.50 cm2) fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in receptor (containing 10 ml bicarbonate ringer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C under stirring) by spectrophotometry at 291 nm, after 120 min. Post permeation corneal hydration was measured to assess corneal damage. The study was designed with paired corneas i.e. one cornea of an animal received formulation without benzyl alcohol while the contralateral cornea received formulation with benzyl alcohol. Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution in castor oil showed maximum permeation with all the corneas. Addition of benzyl alcohol, a preservative, to oil drops reduced permeation of moxifloxacin from each oil drop, with corneas of all the species. Partition experiments with moxifloxacin oil drops and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) indicated higher partitioning of drug in the oil phase, in presence of benzyl alcohol. Thus results of permeation are consistent with the partition characteristics of drug between oil and aqueous phase. Corneal hydration obtained with all the formulations was between 75 to 80% indicating no corneal damage.

  8. Eficacia de la moxifloxacina en infecciones odontogénicas Efficacy of moxifloxacin in odontogenic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de la boca se caracterizan por ser polimicrobianas, endógenas, oportunistas, dinámicas y mixtas debido a que intervienen bacterias aerobias y especialmente anaerobias. La mayor parte de estas infecciones son odontogénicas, siendo las más frecuentes caries, periodontitis, absceso periapical, absceso periodontal, pericoronaritis, pulpitis, sinusitis, osteítis e infección de los espacios aponeuróticos. Las quinolonas presentan una alta penetración tisular y una buena absorción cuando se suministra después de dosis orales, pero solamente los compuestos desarrollados recientemente como la Moxifloxacina demuestran suficiente efectividad clínica y microbiológica. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la eficacia in vitro e in vivo de la Moxifloxacina para el tratamiento de las infecciones de origen dental.The infections of the mouth are characterized for being polimicrobians, endogenous, opportunistic, dynamic and mixed because aerobic and specially anaerobic bacteria take part. Most of these infections are odontogenics, being the most frequent decays, periodontitis, periapical abscess, periodontal abscess, pericoronitis, pulpitis, sinusitis, osteitis and infection of the aponeurotic spaces. Quinolonas displays a high tissue penetration and a good absorption when it is provided after oral doses, but only the compounds developed recently as the Moxifloxacin demonstrates sufficient clinical and microbiological effectiveness. The aim of this article is to present the effectiveness in vitro and in vivo of the Moxifloxacin for the treatment of the infections of dental origin.

  9. [The fructose induced "glycogenosis". I. Ultrastructural and morphometric analysis of rat hepatocytes 7 days after fructose overload (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, U N; Uhl, H; Seufer, G; Robausch, T; Böhm, N; Sasse, D

    1975-01-01

    Infusion of fructose has been shown to stimulate the SER and to reduce the RER in rat liver cells. After feeding fructose of 7 days a glycogenosis of unknown pathogenesis occurs, which was analysed morphometrically. 60% fructose in water, was given as drinking water to animals deprived of other food. Controls had free access to Altromin-R-standard diet and drinking water. Liver tissue was analysed morphometrically according to the methods described by Weibel. Rat hepatocytes accumulate a material with histochemical properties of glycogen. The enlargement of hepatic nuclei is probably due to a pathological edema. The SER is decreased suggesting a drop of glycogen catabolizing enzymes. The drastic reduction of the RER and the non-membrane bound ribosomes are signs of inpeeded protein synthesis. According to this, the peroxisomes, which arise from the RER, are decreased in volume and number. The hepatocellular chondrioma is transformed morphometrically in a smaller number of larger, pleomorphic and cup-shaped mitochondria. The ATP level drops while, on the other hand, the cristeal membranes increase. This might be caused by a negative feed back mechanism. The hepatocellular cytoarchitecture described is similar to the one found in glycogenosis type I and in the cerebrohepato-renal syndrom.

  10. Levofloxacin plus metronidazole administered once daily versus moxifloxacin monotherapy against a mixed infection of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Hovde, Laurie B; Sprandel, Kelly A; Rodvold, Keith A; Rotschafer, John C

    2005-02-01

    Moxifloxacin has been suggested as an option for monotherapy of intra-abdominal infections. Recent data support the use of a once-daily metronidazole regimen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of levofloxacin (750 mg every 24 h [q24h]) plus metronidazole (1,500 mg q24h) compared with that of moxifloxacin (400 mg q24h) monotherapy in a mixed-infection model. By using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model in duplicate, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis were exposed to peak concentrations of 8.5 mg of levofloxacin/liter q24h, 32 mg of metronidazole/liter q24h, and 2 mg for moxifloxacin/liter q24h for 24 h. The activities of levofloxacin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin plus metronidazole were evaluated against E. coli, B. fragilis, and E. coli plus B. fragilis. The targeted half-lives of levofloxacin, metronidazole, and moxifloxacin were 8, 8, and 12 h, respectively. Time-kill curves were analyzed for time to 3-log killing, slope, and regrowth. Pre- and postexposure MICs were determined. The preexposure levofloxacin, metronidazole, and moxifloxacin MICs for E. coli and B. fragilis were 0.5 and 1, >64 and 0.5, and 1 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin achieved a 3-log killing against E. coli and B. fragilis in all experiments, as did metronidazole against B. fragilis. Metronidazole did not decrease the starting inoculum of E. coli. The area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratios for E. coli and B. fragilis were 171.7 and 85.9, respectively, for levofloxacin and 26 and 103.9, respectively, for moxifloxacin. Levofloxacin plus metronidazole exhibited the fastest rates of killing. The levofloxacin and moxifloxacin MICs for B. fragilis increased 8- to 16-fold after the organism was exposed to moxifloxacin. No other changes in the postexposure MICs were found. Levofloxacin plus metronidazole administered once daily exhibited activity similar to that of moxifloxacin against the mixed E. coli and B

  11. Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a moxifloxacin regimen that optimizes kill of Yersinia pestis and prevents emergence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, A; Heine, H S; VanScoy, B; Eichas, A; Files, K; Fikes, S; Brown, D L; Liu, W; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sörgel, F; Drusano, G L

    2011-02-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague, is classified as a CDC category A bioterrorism pathogen. Streptomycin and doxycycline are the "gold standards" for the treatment of plague. However, streptomycin is not available in many countries, and Y. pestis isolates resistant to streptomycin and doxycycline occur naturally and have been generated in laboratories. Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that demonstrates potent activity against Y. pestis in in vitro and animal infection models. However, the dose and frequency of administration of moxifloxacin that would be predicted to optimize treatment efficacy in humans while preventing the emergence of resistance are unknown. Therefore, dose range and dose fractionation studies for moxifloxacin were conducted for Y. pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model in which the half-lives of moxifloxacin in human serum were simulated so as to identify the lowest drug exposure and the schedule of administration that are linked with killing of Y. pestis and with the suppression of resistance. In the dose range studies, simulated moxifloxacin regimens of ≥175 mg/day killed drug-susceptible bacteria without resistance amplification. Dose fractionation studies demonstrated that the AUC (area under the concentration-time curve)/MIC ratio predicted kill of drug-susceptible Y. pestis, while the C(max) (maximum concentration of the drug in serum)/MIC ratio was linked to resistance prevention. Monte Carlo simulations predicted that moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day would successfully treat human infection due to Y. pestis in 99.8% of subjects and would prevent resistance amplification. We conclude that in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, the clinically prescribed moxifloxacin regimen of 400 mg/day is predicted to be highly effective for the treatment of Y. pestis infections in humans. Studies of moxifloxacin in animal models of plague are warranted.

  12. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  13. In Vitro Killing Effect of Moxifloxacin on Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Karnesis, Lazaros; Galani, Irene; Giamarellou, Helen

    2002-01-01

    The time-kill effect of moxifloxacin on 20 genetically distinct isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was studied. The majority (80%) were killed by a concentration equivalent to four times the MIC; the MIC induced a transient decrease in bacterial counts at 4 h, followed by regrowth. No effect was detected in four isolates. These results merit further clinical consideration. PMID:12435710

  14. Pharmacokinetics and aqueous humor penetration of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin 0.5% in patients undergoing cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucci Jr FA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Frank A Bucci Jr, Ines Teuma Nguimfack, Angel T Fluet Bucci Laser Vision Institute, Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% ophthalmic solutions in aqueous humor after multiple doses prior to cataract surgery. Methods: Ninety-eight eyes underwent cataract surgery and met the requirements of PK analysis. Eligible eyes were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive levofloxacin or moxifloxacin prior to cataract surgery and were randomized into one of four sampling time points (ie, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hour post-last dose. Randomization was investigator and laboratory-masked. Three days prior to cataract surgery, each patient instilled one drop of the assigned study medication into the operative eye four times daily. One aqueous humor specimen was collected from the eye at the randomized time point. Aqueous humor specimens were assayed for drug concentration using a validated liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometer. Results: Concentrations of the drug in the aqueous humor, as described by mean Cmax and pooled AUC0–6 values, were greater for levofloxacin than moxifloxacin (Cmax: 1.43, 0.87 µg/ml, respectively, P=0.008; AUC0–6 6.1, 3.8 µg·min/ml, P<0.001 respectively. No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Significantly greater drug exposures were attained in aqueous humor following the administration of levofloxacin 1.5% than moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution. Achieving considerable higher drug concentration in the aqueous humor with levofloxacin 1.5% may demonstrate a greater potential for bacterial eradication. Keywords: concentration, endophthalmitis, antibiotics, phacoemulsification, prophylaxis, fluoroquinolone

  15. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment of implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections with moxifloxacin, flucloxacillin, rifampin, and combination therapy: an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greimel F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Felix Greimel,1 Christine Scheuerer,1 Andre Gessner,2 Michaela Simon,2 Thomas Kalteis,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Achim Benditz,1 Hans-Robert Springorum,1 Jens Schaumburger1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Abstract: The efficacy of antibiotic monotherapy and combination therapy in the treatment of implant-associated infection by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in an animal study. The femoral medullary cavity of 66 male Wistar rats was contaminated with S. aureus (ATCC 29213 and a metal device was implanted, of which 61 could be evaluated. Six treatment groups were studied: flucloxacillin, flucloxacillin in combination with rifampin, moxifloxacin, moxifloxacin in combination with rifampin, rifampin, and a control group with aqua. The treatment was applied for 14 days. After euthanasia, the bacterial counts in the periprosthetic bone, the soft tissue, and the implant-associated biofilm were measured. Both antibiotic combination treatments (moxifloxacin plus rifampin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin achieved a highly significant decrease in microbial counts in the bone and soft tissue and in the biofilm. Mono-antibiotic treatments with either moxifloxacin or flucloxacillin were unable to achieve a significant decrease in microbial counts in bone and soft tissue or the biofilm, whilst rifampin was able to reduce the counts significantly only in the biofilm. Antibiotic resistance was measured in 1/3 of the cases in the rifampin group, whereas no resistance was measured in all other groups. The results show that combinations of both moxifloxacin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin are adequate for the treatment of periprosthetic infections due to infections with S. aureus, whereas monotherapies are not effective or not applicable due to the rapid development of

  16. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  17. Norfloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. A summary of 3-day and 7-day therapy studies in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R; Deaney, N B; Round, E M; VandenBurg, M J; Currie, W J

    1984-05-01

    The results of clinical trials in which norfloxacin was used for 7 days compared with amoxycillin or cotrimoxazole, or for 3 days compared with citrated nalidixic acid, are presented. Additionally, the results of a concurrent open study of 3 days of norfloxacin in the management of simple urinary tract infections are discussed. Resistance to norfloxacin was only encountered in 0.2% of pathogens isolated. Norfloxacin was as effective in eradicating bacteriuria as amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole or citrated nalidixic acid. The response to 3 days of norfloxacin was similar to that seen after 7 days therapy with this compound, or to 7 days of cotrimoxazole. The incidence of adverse experiences to norfloxacin in 758 patients was below 10%.

  18. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial: a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijper Ed J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. Methods/Design A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febrile urinary tract infection will be randomly allocated to a short treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded placebo or standard treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded ciprofloxacin. The study is performed in the Leiden region in which one university hospital, 6 general hospitals and 32 primary health care centers are clustered. Patients eligible for randomization are competent patients aged 18 years or above with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as defined by the combination of fever, one or more symptoms of urinary tract infection and a positive urine nitrate test and/or the presence of leucocyturia. Exclusion criteria are known allergy to fluoroquinolones, female patients who are pregnant or lactating, polycystic kidney disease, permanent renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant causal uropathogen, renal abscess, underlying chronic bacterial prostatitis, metastatic infectious foci and inability to obtain follow-up. The primary endpoint is the clinical cure rate through the 10- to 18-day post-treatment visit. Secondary endpoints are the microbiological cure rate 10- to 18-day post-treatment, the 30- and 90-day overall mortality rate, the

  19. Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin for initial therapy of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qiaoling; Liu, Qihui; Sun, Feng; Shao, Lingyun; Jin, Jialin; Yu, Shenglei; Ai, Jingwen; Zhang, Bingyan; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-02-24

    Moxifloxacin (MOX) and gatifloxacin (GAT) have exhibited promising mycobactericidal activity, and a number of clinical trials have been conducted in recent decades to compare the treatment efficacy of MOX-containing and/or GAT-containing regimens with the standard regimen. The aim of this meta-analysis for clinical trials of MOX- or GAT-containing regimens was to evaluate their treatment efficacy and safety in initial therapy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB). Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, and nine studies with 6980 patients were included. We found that fluoroquinolone substitution for isoniazid or ethambutol in short-course regimens might result in more frequent unfavorable treatment outcomes compared with the standard regimen-in particular, an increased incidence of relapse. In a per-protocol analysis, MOX-containing regimens had slightly higher rates of sputum culture conversion at two months than the standard regimen (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P MOX- or GAT-containing regimens and the standard regimen. In conclusion, MOX or GAT might not have the ability to shorten treatment duration in the initial therapy for tuberculosis despite the non-inferiority or even slightly better efficacy in the early phase of treatment compared with the standard regimen. Furthermore, it is safe to include MOX or GAT in initial TB treatment.

  20. Moxifloxacin increases anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity of irinotecan in human xenograft tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Debby; Halperin, Drora; Fabian, Ina; Tsarfaty, Galia; Askenasy, Nadir; Shalit, Itamar

    2010-04-15

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are topoisomerase I inhibitors chemotherapeutic agents used in combination chemotherapy. We showed previously that combination of moxifloxacin (MXF) and CPT induced inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I activity, on proliferation of HT-29 cells in vitro and enhanced apoptosis, compared to CPT alone. Analysis of secretion of the pro-angiogenic factors IL-8 and VEGF showed significant reduction by MXF. Using a murine model of human colon carcinoma xenograft, we compared the effects of MXF/CPT in vitro to MXF/irinotecan combination in vivo. We show that the MXF/CPT inhibitory effects observed in vitro are reflected in the inhibition of the progressive growth of HT-29 cells implanted in SCID mice. Using caliper measurements, Doppler ultrasonography, image analyses and immunohistochemistry of nuclear proteins (Ki-67) and vascular endothelial cells (CD-31) we show that addition of MXF (45mg/kg) to a relatively ineffective dose of irinotecan (20mg/kg), results in a 50% and 30% decrease, respectively, in tumor size and a decrease in Ki-67 staining. Power Doppler Ultrasound showed a significant, pronounced decrease in the number of blood vessels, as did CD-31 staining, indicating decreased blood flow in tumors in mice treated with MXF alone or MXF/irinotecan compared to irinotecan. These results suggest that the combination of MXF/irinotecan may result in enhanced anti-neoplastic/anti-angiogenic activity.

  1. 莫西沙星和左氧氟沙星致急性肾小管间质肾病%Acute interstitial nephritis caused by moxifloxacin and levofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖慧; 杭永付; 梁雁

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old male patient received an oral moxifloxacin 0. 4 g once daily for respiratory infection and after 3 days of treatment,his symptoms were not improved and appeared urine decrease. Moxifloxacin was stopped and changed into levofloxacin 0. 2 g twice daily by mouth. After 8 days of treatment,the patient's symptoms was not improved apparently and appeared urinary protein( + ),5-10 erythrocytes/ high magnification( HP),3-5 white blood cells/ HP,serum creatinine 419 μmol/ L. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular interstitial nephropathy. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis-induced by moxifloxacin and levofloxacin was considered. Levofloxacin was stopped and an IV infusion of methylpred-nisolone 250 mg once daily was given,and 3 days later,it was changed into oral prednison 40 mg once daily. After 7 days of treatment,the patient' s blood creatinine was 168 mol/ L,urea 13. 6 mmol/ L, glomerular filtration rate 45. 8 ml/ min/ 1. 73 m2 . The patient got better and was discharged. At 2 months of follow up,the patient's blood creatinine was 119 μmol/ L and urea was 6. 2 mmol/ L.%1例31岁男性患者因呼吸道感染给予莫西沙星0.4 g、1次/ d 口服,用药3 d 病情无改善并出现尿量减少;换用左氧氟沙星0.2 g、2次/ d 口服,用药8 d 病情仍无明显好转,且出现尿蛋白(+),5~10个红细胞/ HP,3~5个白细胞/ HP,Scr 419μmol/ L。肾活检示急性肾小管间质肾病。考虑可能为莫西沙星和左氧氟沙星引起的急性间质性肾炎。停用左氧氟沙星,给予甲泼尼龙250 mg、1次/ d 静脉滴注;3 d 后改为泼尼松40 mg、1次/ d 口服。治疗7 d 后患者 Scr 降至168μmol/ L,尿素13.6 mmol/ L,eGFR 45.8 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2。2个月后复查,患者 Scr 119μmol/ L,尿素6.2 mmol/ L。

  2. Cost-effectiveness of 7-day-Holter monitoring alone or in combination with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Felix; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Gröschel, Klaus; Mostardt, Sarah; Biermann, Janine; Edelmann, Frank; Liman, Jan; Wasem, Jürgen; Goehler, Alexander; Wachter, Rolf; Neumann, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Prolonged Holter monitoring of patients with cerebral ischemia increases the detection rate of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); this leads to improved antithrombotic regimens aimed at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes. The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day-Holter monitoring (7-d-Holter) alone or in combination with prior selection via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to a standard 24-h-Holter using a cost-utility analysis. Lifetime cost, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for a cohort of patients with acute cerebral ischemia and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. A Markov model was developed to simulate the long-term course and progression of cerebral ischemia considering the different diagnostic algorithms (24-h-Holter, 7-d-Holter, 7-d-Holter after preselection by TTE). Clinical data for these algorithms were derived from the prospective observational Find-AF study (ISRCTN 46104198). Predicted lifelong discounted costs were 33,837 for patients diagnosed by the 7-d-Holter and 33,852 by the standard 24-h-Holter. Cumulated QALYs were 3.868 for the 7-d-Holter compared to 3.844 for the 24-h-Holter. The 7-d-Holter dominated the 24-h-Holter in the base-case scenario and remained cost-effective in extensive sensitivity analysis of key input parameter with a maximum of 8,354 /QALY gained. Preselecting patients for the 7-d-Holter had no positive effect on the cost-effectiveness. A 7-d-Holter to detect PAF in patients with cerebral ischemia is cost-effective. It increases the detection which leads to improved antithrombotic regimens; therefore, it avoids recurrent strokes, saves future costs, and decreases quality of life impairment. Preselecting patients by TTE does not improve cost-effectiveness.

  3. Single daily dose of moxifloxacin versus ofloxacin plus metronidazole as a new treatment approach to uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease: a multicentre prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşicioğlu, Osman; Gungorduk, Kemal; Ozdemir, Aykut; Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen; Yildirim, Gökhan; Sanci, Muzaffer; Ark, Cemal

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus ofloxacin plus metronidazole in patients with uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease (uPID; defined as PID symptoms and signs, but no complications such as septicemia, perihepatitis, and tubo-ovarian abscess) in Turkey. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, parallel-group study conducted between June 2010 and March 2013 in four hospitals in Turkey. Women received a 14-day course of either oral moxifloxacin at 400mg once daily (n = 560) or oral ofloxacin at 400mg twice daily plus oral metronidazole at 500 mg twice daily (n = 543). A total of 1156 women were randomized to the study. Total compliance was achieved in 1103 patients. For the primary measure of efficacy (clinical cure), moxifloxacin showed no difference compared with ofloxacin plus metronidazole (445/560 [79.5%] vs. 449/543 [82.7%]; p = 0.172). Bacteriological cure rates were high and comparable between treatment arms (99/119 [83.2%] vs. 93/110 [84.5%]; p = 0.781). Drug-related adverse events occurred less frequently with moxifloxacin than with ofloxacin plus metronidazole (210/560 [37.5%] vs. 252/543 [46.4%]; p = 0.003). Furthermore, moxifloxacin treatment was lower in cost and achieved higher patient compliance compared with ofloxacin plus metronidazole (31.4 Euros vs. 23.4 Euros and 7/578 (1.2%) vs. 22/578 (3.8%), respectively; p = 0.005). In patients with uPID, once-daily moxifloxacin monotherapy was clinically and microbiologically as efficacious as twice-daily ofloxacin plus metronidazole therapy and was associated with fewer drug-related adverse events, lower patient non-compliance, and a lower treatment cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication and Appraisal of Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) - Moxifloxacin Nanoparticles using Vitamin E-TPGS: A Potential Intracanal Drug Delivery Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Hardik; Patri, Gaurav

    2017-06-01

    Nanotechnology is gaining momentum in the search for ideal biomaterials by dental researchers. The expansible nature of Endodontology deems exploration, learning and scrutinizing newer avenues which have the potential to be applied and investigated. The popularity of polymers as drug delivery vehicles has opened avenues for their application in the root canal system. This study utilized application of biodegradable polymers as potential drug delivery vehicles against Enterococcus faecalis, one of the main reasons for post treatment disease. This study aimed at fabricating Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) (PLGA)-moxifloxacin nanoparticles and assessing its sustained antimicrobial efficacy with calcium hydroxide and chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel against Enterococcus faecalis. PLGA (50:50) in a quantity of 100 mg was dissolved in 1 ml ethyl acetate and 45 ml of 0.3% w/v Vitamin-E Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate (vitamin E-TPGS) was kept for magnetic stirring in separate beaker. Moxifloxacin (50 μl) was added to polymer PLGA following which vitamin E-TPGS was added to the polymer. Nanoparticles were fabricated using ultrasonication and collected by centrifugation. Surface characterization was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Results were obtained in the form of zone of inhibition by the nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis and comparisons were made with chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel and calcium hydroxide using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Student t-test. Upon statistical analysis, the zone of inhibition against E. faecalis remained constant with PLGA-moxifloxacin nanoparticles for 14 days while it decreased with chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel and remained nil for calcium hydroxide (pEndodontics as potential intracanal medicaments.

  5. Fabrication and Appraisal of Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) – Moxifloxacin Nanoparticles using Vitamin E-TPGS: A Potential Intracanal Drug Delivery Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnology is gaining momentum in the search for ideal biomaterials by dental researchers. The expansible nature of Endodontology deems exploration, learning and scrutinizing newer avenues which have the potential to be applied and investigated. The popularity of polymers as drug delivery vehicles has opened avenues for their application in the root canal system. This study utilized application of biodegradable polymers as potential drug delivery vehicles against Enterococcus faecalis, one of the main reasons for post treatment disease. Aim This study aimed at fabricating Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) (PLGA)-moxifloxacin nanoparticles and assessing its sustained antimicrobial efficacy with calcium hydroxide and chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods PLGA (50:50) in a quantity of 100 mg was dissolved in 1 ml ethyl acetate and 45 ml of 0.3% w/v Vitamin-E Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate (vitamin E-TPGS) was kept for magnetic stirring in separate beaker. Moxifloxacin (50 μl) was added to polymer PLGA following which vitamin E-TPGS was added to the polymer. Nanoparticles were fabricated using ultrasonication and collected by centrifugation. Surface characterization was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Results were obtained in the form of zone of inhibition by the nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis and comparisons were made with chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel and calcium hydroxide using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Student t-test. Results Upon statistical analysis, the zone of inhibition against E. faecalis remained constant with PLGA-moxifloxacin nanoparticles for 14 days while it decreased with chitosan-moxifloxacin hydrogel and remained nil for calcium hydroxide (pEndodontics as potential intracanal medicaments. PMID:28764283

  6. An in vitro Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide alone and in Combination with Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Enterococcus Faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Rai, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Aina; Sinha, Sonal; Tripathi, Prerna; Gupta, Khushboo; Sabharwal, Sumit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of propolis and calcium hydroxide alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Enterococcus faecalis (E. Faecalis). The laboratory study was carried out to test the effectiveness of propolis and calcium hydroxidealone as well as in combination with the established endodontic medicaments (moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin). The various combinations were-group 1: propolis, group 2: calcium hydroxide, group 3: moxifloxacin, group 4: ciprofoxacin, group 5: propolis + moxifloxacin, group 6: propolis + Ciprofloxacin, group 7: calcium hydroxide + ciprofloxacin, group 8: calcium hydroxide + moxifloxacin. The efficacy of these medicaments was tested by checking for the zone of inhibition for the specific strain (ATCC 29212) of E. faecalis at different time intervals, i.e. 24, 48 and 72 hours. Mean zone of inhibition was maximum in group V (21.94 ± 4.26) followed by group VI (18.80 ± 1.93), group I (18.71 ± 4.26), group VIII (15.88 ± 2.59), group III (14.91 ± 1.00), group VII (14.57 ± 2.17), group IV (13.91 ± 1.00) and minimum in group II (12.89 ± 2.14). Mean zone of inhibition was found to be maximum at 72 hours and minimum at 24 hours. At all time intervals, the combination of Propalis with Moxifocacin showed the maximum antimicrobial efficacy. On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that propolis and calcium hydroxide show synergistic effect with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. Faecalis. Propolis in combination with antibiotics and alone is more effective than calcium hydroxide. Since propolis alone and in combination with antibiotics was observed to be more effective than calcium hydroxide, propolis can be considered as an intracanal medicament when compared to traditional calcium hydroxide.

  7. Kinetics of kill of bacterial conjunctivitis isolates with moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, compared with the aminoglycosides tobramycin and gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph S Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudolph S Wagner1, David B Granet2, Steven J Lichtenstein3, Tiffany Jamison4, Joseph J Dajcs4, Robert D Gross5, Paul Cockrum41New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Ratner Children’s Eye Center, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA; 4Alcon Research, Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To compare the kinetics and speed of kill of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae on exposure to three topical ophthalmic antibiotic solutions.Materials and methods: Bacterial conjunctivitis isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were exposed to 1:1000 dilutions of moxifloxacin 0.5%, tobramycin 0.3%, gentamicin 0.3%, and water (control. At 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after exposure, aliquots were collected, cells were cultured, and viable cell counts were determined using standard microbiological methods.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved 99.9% kill (3-log reduction at approximately 2 hours for S. pneumoniae and at 15 minutes for H. influenzae. Tobramycin and gentamicin did not achieve 3-log reduction of S. pneumoniae during the 180-minute study period. An increase in bacterial growth was noted for these isolates. Gentamicin took more than 120 minutes to achieve the 3-log reduction of H. influenzae and tobramycin did not reach the 3-log reduction of this pathogen during the 180-minute study period.Conclusion: Moxifloxacin killed S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in vitro faster than tobramycin and gentamicin, suggesting its potential clinical benefit as a first-line treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis to minimize patient symptoms and to limit the contagiousness of the disease.Keywords: kinetics of kill, bacterial conjunctivitis, in vitro, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides

  8. Bacterial degradation of moxifloxacin in the presence of acetate as a bulk substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M F; Maia, A S; Tiritan, M E; Castro, P M L

    2016-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones constitute a group of emerging pollutants and their occurrence in different environmental compartments is becoming object of increasing public concern due to their ecotoxicological effects and the potential to develop resistant bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the biodegradation of moxifloxacin (MOX), for which studies in the literature are very scarce. An activated sludge (AS) consortium and three bacterial strains able to degrade fluoroaromatic compounds - strains F11, FP1 and S2 - were tested. Biodegradation studies were conducted using acetate as a bulk carbon source. Strain F11 showed the highest biodegradation capacity, being able to completely consume and dehalogenate 7.5 μM of the target antibiotic when daily co-supplemented with acetate present as a readily degradable organic substrate in wastewaters. MOX could be used by strain F11 as a sole nitrogen source but the presence of an external nitrogen source in the culture medium was essential for complete biodegradation. Strain F11 was capable of completely consuming MOX in a range between 2 and 11 μM, although stoichiometric fluoride release was not obtained for the highest tested concentration. The antibacterial activity of residual MOX and of the metabolic products potentially resultant from the biodegradation process was investigated by agar diffusion tests, demonstrating that MOX biodegradation is associated with the elimination of the antibacterial properties of the target antibiotic and of the produced metabolites, which is an important result, as the activity of antibiotics and/or their metabolites in the environment, even at low levels, may lead to the development of resistant bacterial strains. Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that strain F11 is a promising microorganism for the treatment of waters contaminated with MOX, where it could be used for bioaugmentation/bioremediation purposes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting

  9. Quadruple therapy with moxifloxacin and bismuth for first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Francesco Ciccaglione; Luigina Cellini; Laurino Grossi; Leonardo Marzio

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare triple therapy vs quadruple therapy for 10 d as first-line treatment of Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) infection.METHODS:Consecutive H.pylori positive patients never treated in the past for this infection were randomly treated with triple therapy of pantoprazole (PAN) 20 mg bid,amoxicillin (AMO) 1 g bid and moxifloxacin (MOX) 400 mg bid for 10 d (PAM) or with quadruple therapy of PAN 20 mg bid,AMO 1 g bid,MOX 400 mg bid and bismuth subcitrate 240 mg bid for 10 d (PAMB).All patients were found positive at 13 C-Urea breath test (UBT) performed within ten days prior to the start of the study.A successful outcome was confirmed with an UBT performed 8 wk after the end of treatment.x2 analysis was used for statistical comparison.Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) values were also calculated.RESULTS:Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the PAM group and 50 in the PAMB group.One patient in each group did not return for further assessment.Eradication was higher in the PAMB group (negative:46 and positive:3) vs the PAN group (negative:44 and positive:12).The H.pylori eradication rate was statistically significantly higher in the PAMB group vs the PAM group,both with the PP and ITT analyses (PP:PAMB 93.8%,PAM 78.5%,P < 0.02; ITT:PAMB 92%,PAM 77.1%,P <0.03).CONCLUSION:The addition of bismuth subcitrate can be considered a valuable adjuvant to triple therapy in those areas where H.pylori shows a high resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  10. Characterisation of patients receiving moxifloxacin for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in clinical practice: results from an international, observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Mösges

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective, non-controlled, multi-centre Phase IV observational cohort study of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis who were treated with moxifloxacin in clinical practice in 19 countries in Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. With the data collected we evaluated the presentation and course of the current disease episode, particularly in terms of the principal clinical signs and symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and diagnostic procedures. A final assessment of moxifloxacin therapy was made to evaluate the impact of the sinusitis episode on activities of daily life and on sleep disturbance, and to evaluate the clinical outcome of treatment. A total of 7,090 patients were enrolled, of whom 3909 (57.6% were included in the valid for clinical outcome and safety population. Regional differences were observed in the main symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and, according to several characteristics, disease episodes appeared to be more severe in patients in Europe than in the Asia Pacific or Middle East regions. The sinusitis episode impacted on daily living for mean (SD periods of 3.6 (3.2, 4.6 (3.9 and 3.1 (3.0 days and disturbed sleep for 3.6 (3.2, 4.6 (3.9 and 3.1 (3.0 nights in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. With moxifloxacin treatment, the mean (SD time to improvement of symptoms was 3.0 (1.5, 3.4 (1.6 and 3.2 (1.5 days, and the time to resolution of symptoms was 4.8 (2.6 days, 5.7 (2.4 days and 5.5 (2.5 days, in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. In conclusion, acute rhinosinusitis remains a substantial health burden with significant impact on patients' quality of life, and there are differences between global regions in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and clinical course of disease episodes. Moxifloxacin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in the overall population.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930488.

  11. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  12. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  13. Effects of 7-day continuous D-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice. In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32mg/kg/h). During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. The present subchronic treatment results support the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  15. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  16. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (PDoxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (PDoxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (PDoxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of moxifloxacin in dried blood spots using LC-MS/MS and the impact of the hematocrit and blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, D H; Koster, R A; Alffenaar, J W C; Brouwers, J R B J; Uges, D R A

    2011-01-01

    Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a potential oral agent use in the treatment of multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Due to variability in pharmacokinetics and in vitro susceptibility of causative bacteria, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MFX is recommended. Conventional plasma sampling for TDM is

  18. A validated stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine eye drops and its application in pH dependent degradation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant B Dave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A fixed dose combination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine is used in ratio of 1:1 as eye drops for the treatment of the reduction of post operative inflammatory conditions of the eye. A simple, precise, and accurate High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine in eye drops. Materials and Methods: Isocratic HPLC separation was achieved on a ACE C 18 column (C 18 (5 μm, 150 mm×4.6 mm, i.d. using the mobile phase 10 mM potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer pH 4.6-Acetonitrile (75:25 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed at 307 nm. Drugs were subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and photo degradation. Moreover, the proposed HPLC method was utilized to investigate the pH dependent degradation kinetics of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine in buffer solutions at different pH values like 2.0, 6.8 and 9.0. Results and Conclusion: The retention time (t R of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine were 3.81±0.01 and 8.82±0.02 min, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 2-20 μ/mL each for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and 0.9999, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The drugs could be effectively separated from different degradation products and hence the method can be used for stability analysis. Different kinetics parameters like apparent first-order rate constant, half-life and t 90 (time for 90% potency left were calculated.

  19. Time to detection of positive BacT/Alert blood cultures and lack of need for routine subculture of 5- to 7-day negative cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, D J; Hulbert, B B; Migneault, P C

    1992-01-01

    Consecutive BacT/Alert blood cultures which were instrument negative following a 7-day incubation were subcultured. Eighteen (0.2%) of 11,476 bottles had growth on subculture. Eleven of these eighteen isolates were considered contaminants on the basis of the identity of the organism and lack of other positive blood cultures from the same patient. In addition, analysis of time to instrument detection for approximately 2,900 positive blood cultures indicates that 5 or 6 days of incubation is su...

  20. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Henley-Einion, Josie; Barnett, Amanda; Edwards, Darren; Heidi Seage, C

    2011-06-01

    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants (n=8, all female) kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline matching was assessed by comparing all dream reports to all diary records for days that occurred after the dream. A significant dream-lag effect for the 5-7 day period, compared to baseline and compared to the 2-4 day period, was found. This may indicate a memory processing function for sleep, which the dream content may reflect. Participants' and three independent judges' mean ratings also confirmed a significant day-residue effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study

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    Dunbar Lala M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%, Moraxella catarrhalis (100%, Staphylococcus aureus (80%, and Legionella spp. (100%. The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%. In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1% and nausea (5.8%. Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

  2. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate and Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Abdel Wahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, sensitive, and accurate kinetic spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of gemifloxacin mesylate (GMF and moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX in pure forms and pharmaceutical preparations (tablets. The method is based on coupling the studied drugs with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl in the presence of alkaline borate buffer. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 466 and 464 nm for GMF and MOX, respectively, after a fixed time of 20 and 15 min on a water bath adjusted at 70 ± 5°C for both drugs. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color were carefully studied and optimized. The absorbance-concentration plots were linear over the ranges 0.5–8.0 and 2.0–12 μg mL−1 for GMF and MOX, respectively. The limit of detection of the kinetic method was about 0.12 (2.47 × 10−7 M and 0.36 (8.22 × 10−7 M μg mL−1 for GMF and MOX, respectively. The proposed methods have been applied and validated successfully with percentage relative standard deviation (RSD% ≤ 0.52 as precision and percentage relative error (RE% ≤ 1.33 as accuracy. The robustness of the proposed method was examined with recovery values that were 97.5–100.5 ± 1.3–1.9%. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference spectrophotometric methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy or precision.

  3. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser, E-mail: ssqaiser2002@yahoo.co [Nuclear Medicine Research Laboratory (NMRL), University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Rafiullah [Phytopharmaceutical and Neutraceuticals Research Laboratory (PNRL), University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    In the present investigation, radiosynthesis of the {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND) and its biological evaluation in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was assessed. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex was radiochemically examined in terms of stability in saline and in serum and biologically its in-vitro binding with S. aureus and percent absorption in MWR models. Radiochemically the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex showed more than 90% stability in saline up to 240 min and in serum 14.95% undesirable species was appeared within 16 h. In-vitro the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex showed saturated binding with S. aureus. In MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus the complex showed about six fold higher uptakes in the infected muscle as compared to the normal muscle. However, insignificant change in the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex in the infected and inflamed or normal muscle was observed in the MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex disappeared from the circulatory system and appeared in the urinary system within 60-90 min followed by excretion through normal route of urinary system. Based on the elevated and stable radiochemical succumb in saline, serum, saturated in-vitro binding with S. aureus and higher accumulation in the target organ of the MWR, we recommend the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex for radio-localization of the infection induced by S. aureus in human.

  4. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with pH-Sensitive Nanovalves for Delivery of Moxifloxacin Provide Improved Treatment of Lethal Pneumonic Tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zilu; Clemens, Daniel L; Lee, Bai-Yu; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Horwitz, Marcus A; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2015-11-24

    We have optimized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with pH-sensitive nanovalves for the delivery of the broad spectrum fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin (MXF) and demonstrated its efficacy in treating Francisella tularensis infections both in vitro and in vivo. We compared two different nanovalve systems, positive and negative charge modifications of the mesopores, and different loading conditions-varying pH, cargo concentration, and duration of loading-and identified conditions that maximize both the uptake and release capacity of MXF by MSNs. We have demonstrated in macrophage cell culture that the MSN-MXF delivery platform is highly effective in killing F. tularensis in infected macrophages, and in a mouse model of lethal pneumonic tularemia, we have shown that the drug-loaded MSNs are much more effective in killing F. tularensis than an equivalent amount of free MXF.

  5. Susceptibility of Mexican brucella isolates to moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobials used in the treatment of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, Ahidé; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Migranas-Ortiz, Roberto; Orrantia-Gradín, Rubén; Hernández-Oliva, Gerardo M; Gutiérrez-Rubio, Arturo Torres Y; Cardeñosa, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease of domestic and wild animals that is transmitted to humans and exists worldwide. We assessed the in vitro activity of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, doxicycline, rifampin, streptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) against 97 Brucella strains isolated from clinical samples, animals and dairy products in Mexico. Fluoroquinolones showed an antibacterial activity similar to that of tetracyclines (MIC(90) 0.5). Other drugs commonly used against brucellosis were less active, such as rifampin (MIC(90) 2.0 microg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC(90) 4.0 microg/ml). TMP/SMX showed the poorest activity (MIC(90) 8.0 microg/ml). Fluoroquinolones, either first-generation or the newer 8-methoxi derivatives, might be useful in the therapy of brucellosis, which remains to be assessed in clinical trials.

  6. 莫西沙星致眩晕与视物模糊%Dizziness and blurred vision induced by moxifloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焕芬; 胡月琴

    2016-01-01

    1例45岁女性患者因脓毒血症、肺部感染和胆囊炎,给予莫西沙星注射液0.4 g (250 ml)静脉滴注,1次/d。首次静脉滴注该药约30 min时,患者出现眩晕和视物模糊,静脉滴注结束后约2 h,上述症状自行缓解。次日再次静脉滴注莫西沙星后约30 min,上述症状复现。立即停用莫西沙星,改用哌拉西林他唑巴坦4.5 g入0.9%氯化钠注射液100 ml、1次/8 h静脉滴注。此后患者未再出现眩晕及视物模糊。%A 45-Year-old woman with sepsis,pulmonarY infection and cholecYstitis received Iv infusion of moxifloxacin for injection 0. 4 g( 250 ml ) once dailY. About 30 minutes after the first Iv infusion,the patient developed the sYmptoms of dizziness and blurred vision. Two hours later after the end of Iv infusion,the above-mentioned sYmptoms disappeared spontaneouslY. The same sYmptoms recurred about 30 minutes after Iv infusion on the next daY. Moxifloxacin was stopped and changed to Iv infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam 4. 5 g added to 0. 9% sodium chloride for injection 100 ml once per 8 hours. subsequentlY the patient did not have the sYmptoms of dizziness and blurred vision.

  7. Efficacy of Triple Antibiotic Paste, Moxifloxacin, Calcium Hydroxide And 2% Chlorhexidine Gel In Elimination of E. Faecalis: An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, K.S; Gupta, Pankaj; Tejolatha, Bellam; Gupta, Anjali; Kashyap, Shruti; Desai, Veena; Farista, Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Root canal treatment is incomplete without usage of intra canal medicaments. They help in the reduction of bacterial count and its by-products, making canals clean and decreasing postoperative pains. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of triple antibiotic paste, Moxifloxacin, calcium hydroxide and 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) gel in elimination of Enterococcous faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods Seventy-five root blocks were obtained from extracted single rooted human teeth. The canal diameter was increased using Gates- Glidden drill up to size 3 and then contaminated with E. faecalis for 21 days. The contaminated samples were then divided into following 5 groups. Group 1: Saline (negative group), Group 2: Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, Group 3: 2% CHX gel, Group 4: Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) (50 μg – metronidazole of 400 mg, 50 μg – minocycline of 100 mg, 50 μg – ciprofloxacin of 100 mg) and Group 5: Moxifloxacin (50 μg – moxifloxacin of 400 mg). Dentin debris was obtained at the end of first, 7th, and 10th day using Gates Glidden drill sizes 4 and 5. The bacterial load was assessed by counting the number of Colony Forming Units (CFUs). The data were analyzed with the ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests to assess the differences in antibacterial efficacy between groups (p=<0.001). Results A 2% CHX gel alone completely inhibited the growth of E. faecalis after one, seven and 10 days. The 2% CHX gel was the most effective medicament against E. faecalis, as it showed significant differences with normal saline, calcium hydroxide, Moxifloxacin or triple antibiotic paste at all time intervals. The triple antibiotic paste group showed a moderate antibacterial effect as its difference with all group was significantly better at all days. Moxifloxacin was more effective than calcium hydroxide on 7th and 10th day. Conclusion Best antimicrobial efficacy was shown by 2% CHX gel. Moxifloxacin was equally efficient

  8. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  10. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  11. [b][/b]Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Peel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011–2012, respectively. [b]Results[/b]. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  12. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkies, Krystyna, E-mail: kserkies@wp.pl [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  13. Comparison of the IKr blockers moxifloxacin, dofetilide and E-4031 in five screening models of pro-arrhythmia reveals lack of specificity of isolated cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalos, L; Varkevisser, R; Jonsson, Mkb

    2012-01-01

    -4031 (unsafe compounds). Experimental approach The assays included: 1. The anesthetized remodeled chronic complete AV-block (CAVB) dog, 2. The anesthetized methoxamine sensitized unremodeled rabbit, 3. Multi-cellular hESC-CM clusters, 4. Isolated CM obtained from the CAVB dog and 5. Isolated CM...... open new opportunities to identify pro-arrhythmic compounds. In the present study, five assays were employed, in the same laboratory, to investigate their sensitivity and specificity for elucidating pro-arrhythmic properties of I(Kr) blocking drugs using moxifloxacin (safe compound) and dofetilide or E...... with the exception of the isolated CM, in which 10 µM induced EADs in 35% of the CAVB CM and in 23% of the rabbit CM. At supra-therapeutic concentrations (=100 µM), moxifloxacin was pro-arrhythmic in the isolated rabbit CM (33%), in the hESC-CM clusters (18%), and in the methoxamine rabbit (17%). The unsafe agents...

  14. Photodegradation assessment of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in the presence of excipients from tablets by UPLC-MS/MS and DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Hubicka, Urszula; Żmudzki, Paweł; Talik, Przemysław; Żuromska-Witek, Barbara; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MOX), norfloxacin (NOR) and ofloxacin (OFL), are the antibacterial synthetic drugs, belonging to the fluoroquinolones group. Fluoroquinolones are compounds susceptible to photodegradation process, which may lead to reduction of their antibacterial activity and to induce phototoxicity as a side effect. This paper describes a simple, sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of CIP, MOX, NOR and OFL in the presence of photodegradation produc...

  15. Cooperation between prokaryotic (Lde) and eukaryotic (MRP) efflux transporters in J774 macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes: studies with ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismond, Ann; Tulkens, Paul M; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Courvalin, Patrice; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2008-09-01

    Antibiotic efflux is observed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, modulating accumulation and resistance. The present study examines whether eukaryotic and prokaryotic fluoroquinolone transporters can cooperate in the context of an intracellular infection. We have used (i) J774 macrophages (comparing a ciprofloxacin-resistant cell line overexpressing an MRP-like transporter with wild-type cells with basal expression), (ii) Listeria monocytogenes (comparing a clinical isolate [CLIP21369] displaying ciprofloxacin resistance associated with overexpression of the Lde efflux system with a wild-type strain [EGD]), (iii) ciprofloxacin (substrate of both Lde and MRP) and moxifloxacin (nonsubstrate), and (iv) probenecid and reserpine (preferential inhibitors of MRP and Lde, respectively). The ciprofloxacin MICs for EGD were unaffected by reserpine, while those for CLIP21369 were decreased approximately fourfold (and made similar to those of EGD). Neither probenecid nor reserpine affected the moxifloxacin MICs against EGD or CLIP21369. In dose-response studies (0.01x to 100x MIC) in broth, reserpine fully restored the susceptibility of CLIP21369 to ciprofloxacin (no effect on EGD) but did not influence the activity of moxifloxacin. In studies with intracellular bacteria, reserpine, probenecid, and their combination increased the activity of ciprofloxacin in wild-type and ciprofloxacin-resistant macrophages in parallel with an increase in ciprofloxacin accumulation in macrophages for EGD and an increase in accumulation and decrease in MIC (in broth) for CLIP21369. Moxifloxacin accumulation and intracellular activity were consistently not affected by the inhibitors. A bacterial efflux pump may thus actively cooperate with a eukaryotic efflux transporter to reduce the activity of a common substrate (ciprofloxacin) toward an intracellular bacterial target.

  16. Effects of prulifloxacin on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects: a randomized, crossover, double-blind versus placebo, moxifloxacin-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosignoli, Maria Teresa; Di Loreto, Giorgio; Dionisio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Prulifloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is quantitatively transformed after oral administration into ulifloxacin, the active metabolite. On the basis of preclinical data suggesting that prulifloxacin is not likely to prolong the QT interval, a trial to assess the potential effects of prulifloxacin on QT and corrected QT (QTc) interval in humans was performed. Fifty-two healthy subjects were randomized into three groups to receive prulifloxacin 600 mg, moxifloxacin 400mg and placebo once daily for 5 days, using a crossover, double-blind versus placebo, moxifloxacin-controlled study. At baseline and days 1 and 5, three 12-lead digital ECGs were recorded before and up to 24 hours after dosing at nine predefined timepoints. Blood samples were also collected at each treatment timepoint. ECG data were analysed in a blinded manner by a centralized laboratory using skilled readers. QT values were corrected for heart rate using an individual correction method (QTcI) as the primary variable, and Fridericia's method as reference. In forty-eight subjects who completed the study, compared with placebo, prulifloxacin had no relevant effect on cardiac repolarization, with the largest mean QTcI increase being 3.97 ms (one-sided 95% CI 0.01, 7.93), whereas moxifloxacin demonstrated the expected positive effect (maximum mean QTcI increase of 12.0 ms, one-sided 95% CI 8.66, 15.34), thus demonstrating the good sensitivity of the study. A statistically significant correlation between QTcI changes and plasma concentrations was found for moxifloxacin but not for ulifloxacin. Prulifloxacin at steady state after therapeutic doses has no significant effects on the QTc interval and thus should prove to have no cardiac liability.

  17. Contrasting Effects of Acidic pH on the Extracellular and Intracellular Activities of the Anti-Gram-Positive Fluoroquinolones Moxifloxacin and Delafloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to currently marketed fluoroquinolones, which are zwitterionic, delafloxacin is an investigational fluoroquinolone with an anionic character that is highly active against Gram-positive bacteria. We have examined the effect of acidic pH on its accumulation in Staphylococcus aureus and in human THP-1 cells, in parallel with its activity against extracellular and intracellular S. aureus. Moxifloxacin was used as a comparator. Delafloxacin showed MICs 3 to 5 log2 dilutions lower than those of moxifloxacin for a collection of 35 strains with relevant resistance mechanisms and also proved to be 10-fold more potent against intracellular S. aureus ATCC 25923. In medium at pH 5.5, this difference was further enhanced, with the MIC decreasing by 5 log2 dilutions. In infected cells incubated in acidic medium, the relative potency was 10-fold higher than that at neutral pH and the maximal relative efficacy reached a bactericidal effect at 24 h. These results can be explained by a 10-fold increase in delafloxacin accumulation in both bacteria and cells at acidic pH, making delafloxacin one of the most efficient drugs tested in this model. Opposite effects were seen for moxifloxacin with respect to both activity and accumulation. As reported for zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, delafloxacin was found associated with the soluble fraction in homogenates of eukaryotic cells. Taken together, these properties may confer to delafloxacin an advantage for the eradication of S. aureus in acidic environments, including intracellular infections. PMID:21135179

  18. 莫西沙星的不良反应分析%Adverse drug reactions induced by moxifloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可华; 于锋英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨莫西沙星不良反应发生的一般规律,为临床合理安全用药提供参考. 方法 以莫西沙星为关键词,检索维普数据资源系统、万方数据资源(2001年1月-2010年1月)系统,收集莫西沙星不良反应的文献和病例,对患者的一般情况、用药情况、不良反应类型和发生时间、临床表现和转归等资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 94例患者中,年龄≥50岁的患者有62例,占65.96%,明显高于其他年龄段,且老年伴基础疾病患者更易发生;静脉滴注66例,占70.21%,口服28例,占29.79%;发生不良反应110例次,其中神经系统损害达38例次,占34.55%,其次主要累及皮肤及附件和四肢肌肉表现各占15.45%,过敏样反应占9.09%. 结论 临床应重视莫西沙星不良反应的危害性,注意用药患者的人群特点.%OBJECTIVE To explore the general law of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by moxifloxacin, and provide reference for the clinical rational use of drugs. METHODS Moxifloxacin as the search-word and VIP,WANGFANG DATA (2001. 01-2010. 01 )were searched. The data were analyzed retrospectively, including characteristics of patients, drug use, as well as type,onset time, clinical manifestations and prognosis to advese drug reaction. RESULTS In 94 case of patients, the patients aged more than 50 were 62 cases, accounting for 65.96% ; Intravenous drip were 66 cases, accounting for 70. 12%, 28 cases of oral medication, accounting for 29.79% ;Among 110 case-times of adverse reactions, 38 cases occurred to nervous system disorders (34. 55%).Next was skin and appendages disorders(15 %), limb musculo-skeletal system disorders ( 15.45 %). The ratio of allergic reactions was 9. 09%. And it is more likely to occur in elder persons (>50 years) with underlying diseases. CONCLUSION Clinical doctors should pay more attention to the dangers of ADRs induced by moxifloxacin.

  19. Association Between 7 Days Per Week Rehabilitation and Functional Recovery of Patients With Acute Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study Based on the Japan Rehabilitation Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Momosaki, Ryo; Kakuda, Wataru; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that functional outcome of patients with stroke who receive 7d/wk of rehabilitation is generally better than that of similar patients who undergo 5 or 6d/wk of rehabilitation. Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals. From the Japan Rehabilitation Database, which includes data on 8033 patients with acute stroke collected between January 2005 and December 2013, we included 3072 patients with stroke who were admitted to the acute hospitals and received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Seven days per week of rehabilitation was defined as rehabilitation therapy administrated by a physical or occupational therapist on every weekday, Saturday, and Sunday. Favorable functional independence in daily living, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at the time of discharge. A total of 1075 (35.0%) patients received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference in favorable functional recovery between the 7d/wk rehabilitation group and non-7d/wk rehabilitation group (43.3% vs 37.6%, respectively; P=.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using the generalized estimating equations method showed that 7d/wk of rehabilitation was independently associated with favorable functional recovery. Our cohort analysis demonstrated that 7d/wk of rehabilitation in early rehabilitation for patients with acute stroke can lead to functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  1. Comparison of abuse, suspected suicidal intent, and fatalities related to the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal patch versus other opioid analgesics in the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Paul M; Sessler, Nelson E; Harikrishnan, Venkatesh; Singh, Richa; Perkel, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Prescription opioid related abuse, suicide and death are significant public health problems. This study compares rates of poison center calls categorized as intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent or fatality for the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal system/patch (BTDS) with other extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids indicated for chronic pain. Retrospective 24-month cohort study using National Poison Data System data from July 2012 through June 2014. BTDS was introduced in the United States in January 2011. Numbers and rates of calls of intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent and fatalities were evaluated for BTDS, ER morphine, ER oxycodone, fentanyl patch, ER oxymorphone and methadone tablets/capsules, using prescription adjustment to account for community availability. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Absolute numbers and prescription-adjusted rates of intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent with BTDS were significantly lower (p opioid analgesics examined. No fatalities associated with BTDS exposure were reported. This post-marketing evaluation of BTDS indicates infrequent poison center calls for intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent events, suggesting lower rates of these risks with BTDS compared to other ER/LA opioids.

  2. Effect of Broiler Breeder Age and Glutamine Supplementation on the Development of the Intestinal Mucosa of 7-Day-Old Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of glutamine and broiler breeder age on the development of intestinal mucosa in broiler chicks during first week of age. For this purpose, 32 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two broiler breeder ages (30 and 60 weeks and two dietary glutamine supplementation levels (0% and 1%. The morphological development of intestinal mucosa, particularly villus height and crypt depth, was evaluated. The results showed that the supplementation with 1% of glutamine influenced the development of villus height in the duodenum (p=0.009, jejunum (p = 0.006, and ileum (p = 0.001, as well as crypt depth in the jejunum (p = 0.037 of 7-day-old broilers. These results suggest that the presence of glutamine influenced the development of intestinal mucosa during the first week of age, when these tissues are highly influenced by dietary components, especially by trophic agents. The results show that broiler breeder age (30 or 60 weeks did not influence the evaluated parameters.

  3. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction between europium(III) and moxifloxacin in micellar solution and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Lee, Sang Hak; Ragupathy, Dhanusuraman; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Sang-Ryoul; Kim, Sung Hong

    2012-02-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of moxifloxacin (MOX) using europium(III)-MOX complex as a fluorescence probe in the presence of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The fluorescence (FL) intensity of Eu(3+) was enhanced by complexation with MOX at 614 nm after excitation at 373 nm. The FL intensity of the Eu(3+)-MOX complex was significantly intensified in the presence of SDBS. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the enhanced FL intensity of the system showed a good linear relationship with the concentration of MOX over the range of 1.8 × 10(-11)-7.3 × 10(-9) g mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The limit of detection of MOX was found to be 2.8 × 10(-12) g mL(-1) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.25% for 5 replicate determination of 1.5 × 10(-8) g mL(-1) MOX. The proposed method is simple, offers higher sensitivity with wide linear range and can be successfully applied to determine MOX in pharmaceutical and biological samples with good reproducibility. The luminescence mechanism is also discussed in detail with ultraviolet absorption spectra.

  4. Effect of PEG and water-soluble chitosan coating on moxifloxacin-loaded PLGA long-circulating nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Devi, V Kusum; Pai, Roopa S

    2017-02-01

    Moxifloxacin (MOX) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, MOX is cleared from the body within 24 h and required for repetitive doses which may then result in hepatotoxicity and acquisition of MOX resistant-TB, related with its use. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of MOX. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to MOX-PLGA NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) (cationic deacetylated chitin) to particle surface, was rose for surface modification of NPs. Surface modified NPs (MOX-PEG-WSC NPs) were prepared to provide controlled delivery and circulate in the bloodstream for an extended period of time, thus minimizing dosing frequency. In vivo pharmacokinetic and in vivo biodistribution following oral administration were investigated. NP surface charge was closed to neutral +4.76 mV and significantly affected by the WSC coating. MOX-PEG-WSC NPs presented striking prolongation in blood circulation, reduced protein binding, and long-drawn-out the blood circulation half-life with resultant reduced liver sequestration vis-à-vis MOX-PLGA NPs. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of MOX-PEG-WSC NPs that showed sustained release behavior from nanoparticles which indicates low frequency of dosing.

  5. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-04-17

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  7. The effect of 7 days of letrozole pretreatment combined with misoprostol on the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic factors of placental and decidual tissues from first-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Sofie Shuk Fei; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Chiu, Philip Chi Ngong; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate if letrozole-induced suppression of estradiol reduces progesterone receptor expression and apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 20 women requesting first-trimester abortion with gestation up to 63 days to receive either letrozole 10 mg daily or placebo pretreatment for 7 days before administrating 400 mcg of vaginal misoprostol followed by suction abortion. We collected the placental and decidual tissues on which we performed immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers (active caspase 3, caspase 3, Bcl2, CD95, fas ligand) and determined H-scores of each based on the intensities of staining. We performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in the samples of four women to confirm the findings from apoptotic markers. We excluded one woman in the letrozole group from the analysis because she had passage of abortus after taking letrozole, leaving 19 women (9 in the letrozole group, 10 in the placebo group) for analysis. There was no significant difference in the H-scorings of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers, as well as proportion of apoptotic cells on TUNEL assay between the two groups. The H-scores for the progesterone receptor were 8.17 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) in the letrozole group and 9.01 ± 2.82 in the placebo group (p=0.36). We did not detect a difference in the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers in placental and decidual tissues after letrozole pretreatment for 7 days in first-trimester abortion. We did not confirm the hypothesis that letrozole reduces progesterone receptor expression and induces apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. Further studies are required to allow better understanding of the mechanism by which estrogen suppression following the use of letrozole can lead to improved abortion rate in the first

  8. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  9. A SWOT Analysis of the Development of 7 Days Inn%7天连锁酒店发展的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴; 彭保发; 吴云超; 黄佳

    2015-01-01

    since the luxury hotel is beyond the accept scope of most people ,the economic hotels are more welcomed by many people,although the present market situation is sound and the market prospects are broad, but along with the rapid development of economic hotels ,there are also a lot of problems.This paper is started from the current situation of economic hotels in our country and took the typical representative 7 Days Inn for example. it the pointed out rea-sons why the economic hotels are developing rapidly and the main problems existing in development with the contrasive analysis and comparative analysis,data analysis and other analysis methods Comprehensively,and proposed the development prospect and strategies in this industry, ,like to lay emphasis on theme culture,to carry out the differential management, to select the optimal franchisees ,to establish perfect management system and so on,hoping to provide reference for the development of ecomonic hotel in our country.%由于高档酒店超出了多数人的接受范围,使得经济型酒店受到了很多人的欢迎,虽然目前市场形势较好,市场前景广阔,但在经济型酒店发展迅速同时,也存在着不少的问题。文章就是从我国经济型酒店的现状入手,以极具代表性的7天连锁酒店为例。综合运用对比分析、数据分析等不同分析方法,指出了近几年我国经济型酒店迅猛发展的原因和发展过程中存在的主要问题,提出了这个行业未来的发展前景和发展战略,如重视主题文化、实行差异化管理、择优选择加盟店、建立完善的管理系统等等,希望对我国经济型酒店的发展提供参考价值。

  10. Simultaneous quantification of gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and besifloxacin concentrations in cornea and aqueous humor by LC-QTOF/MS after topical ocular dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Luisa C; Moreira, Matheus Vilardo L; Keller, Kelly M; Viana, Fernando Antônio B; Melo, Marília M; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are widely used as ophthalmic antimicrobials. This study aimed to validate a new analytical technique for simultaneous quantification of gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and besifloxacin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) at 10min and 1h after instillation of topical ophthalmic antimicrobial suspensions. It was used twenty-two male dogs without ocular lesions verified by ophthalmic and histologic examinations. Methanol:water (4:1) was used for the extraction procedure for cornea and acetonitrile:water (4:1) was used for aqueous humor. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a C18 column with a linear gradient of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% formic acid. The total chromatographic run time was 4min. Mass spectrometry analyses were performed on a Xevo™ G2-S QTof tandem mass spectrometer, operated in a positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI+) mode. The retention times were approximately 1.42min for gatifloxacin, 1.87min for moxifloxacin, and 3.01min for besifloxacin. No interference peak was detected for the three tested antimicrobials in samples obtained from both cornea and aqueous humor, ensuring that the peak response was exclusive to the analyte of interest. The limit of detection for the three antimicrobials was 0.11μg/mL and the limit of quantification was 0.42μg/mL for both cornea and aqueous humor samples. At both time points post instillation of the three antimicrobials, moxifloxacin had the highest corneal concentration and besifloxacin demonstrated the highest concentration in the aqueous humor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of levofloxacin, pazufloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Campos, Gonçalo; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2013-07-01

    For the first time a simple, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of levofloxacin (LEV), pazufloxacin (PAZ), gatifloxacin (GAT), moxifloxacin (MOX) and trovafloxacin (TRO) in human plasma. Samples were pre-treated with acetonitrile for precipitation of plasma proteins followed by evaporation and reconstitution steps. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and norfloxacin, used as internal standard (IS), was performed under gradient elution on a LiChroCART(®) Purospher Star C18 column (55mm×4mm, 3μm). The mobile phase comprised a mixture of 0.1% aqueous formic acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethylamine, acetonitrile and methanol pumped at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The detector was set at excitation/emission wavelengths of 260/455nm. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)≥0.9923) in the ranges of 0.005-5μg/mL for GAT, 0.02-5μg/mL for LEV, PAZ and MOX and 0.04-5μg/mL for TRO. The intra and interday precision did not exceed 7.32% and the intra and interday accuracy ranged from -11.73 to 8.92%. The limits of quantification were established at 0.005μg/mL for GAT, 0.02μg/mL for LEV, PAZ and MOX and 0.04μg/mL for TRO. No endogenous or tested exogenous compounds were found to interfere at the retention times of the analytes and IS. Since the proposed method proved to be reliable for the quantitative determination of LEV, PAZ, GAT, MOX and TRO it may be a useful tool for routine analysis and to support clinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies involving these antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation and identification of moxifloxacin impurities in drug substance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Zhi Xin Jia; Bao Ming Ning; Jin Lan Zhang; Song Wu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/FTICRMS) method was described for the investigation of impurity profile in moxifloxacin (MOX) drug substance and chemical reference substance.Ten impurities were detected by HPLC-UV,while eight impurities were identified by using the high accurate molecular mass combined with multiple-stage mass spectrometric data and fragmentation rules.In addition,to our knowledge,five impurities were founded for the first time in MOX drug substance.

  13. Comparative in vitro activity of penicillin G, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, pristinamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid against ofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédénucci, I; Chomarat, M; Bercion, R; Carricajo, A; Celard, M; Croizé, J; Delubac, F; Fèvre, D; Fuhrmann, C; Helfre, M; Letouzey, M N; Lelièvre, H; Mandjee, A; Marthelet, P; Meley, R; Perrier-Gros-Claude, J D; Ros, A; Roure, C; Smati, S; Thierry, J; Tous, J

    2002-10-01

    Screening by ofloxacin disk was carried out on 1158 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in order to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic activity of penicillin G, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, linezolid, pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin against ofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains. It was concluded that these new antimicrobial agents could be useful for the treatment of pneumococcal infections caused by penicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. pneumoniae, and would represent a valid therapeutic option for patients allergic to beta-lactams, should they prove to be potent in vivo.

  14. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave

  15. Application of experimental design and response surface technique for selecting the optimum RP-HPLC conditions for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl and ketorolac tromethamine in eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipbhai D. Kalariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed for the separation of moxifloxacin HCl and ketorolac tromethamine using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC on C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with UV detection at 308 nm. Experimental designs were applied for multivariate optimization of the experimental conditions of RP-HPLC method. Three independent factors: methanol content in the mobile phase composition, buffer pH and flow rate were used to design mathematical models. Here faced central composite (FCC experimental design was used to study the response surface technique and to study in depth the effects of these independent factors. Derringer’s desirability function was applied to simultaneously optimize the retention time of last eluting peak (ketorolac tromethamine and tailing factor of moxifloxacin. The predicted optimum assay condition consisted of methanol and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2; 25 mM, 0.5% Triethylamine in a proportion of 60:40% v/v, respectively, as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min−1. Using this optimum condition, baseline separation of both drugs with good resolution and a run time of less than 7 min were achieved. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision.

  16. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  17. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Schaper, N.; Hampel, B.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Arvis, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study had a prospective, ra

  18. Activity of Moxifloxacin against Resistant Staphylococcus Biofilms in Vitro%莫西沙星对耐药葡萄球菌生物膜体外药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜剑伟; 陈向东; 汪辉; 李魁; 范璐; 王素霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of moxifloxacin against four strains of clinical resistant Staphylococcus biofilms in vitro. Methods: MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations), MBIC (minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration) and MBEC (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) were examined by microdilution in broth; the percentages of biofilms formed and the viable cells of biofilms were investigated; and the synergy effects against biofilms were evaluated by a microdilution checkerboard method. Results: Moxifloxacin can eradicat biofilms at the concentration of 16-256 mg·L-1; The biofilms formed significantly decreased when moxifloxacin was at 2×MIC; moxifloxacin at 100×MIC caused significant decrease in viable cells of biofilms; the fractional biofilm inhibitory concentrations (FBICs) of moxifloxacin in combination with topical antibiotic retapamulin were all less than 1.0. Conclusions: Moxifloxacin can inhibit and eradicate clinical resistant Staphylococcus biofilms in vitro; synergy was demonstrated for moxifloxacin in combination with topical antibiotic retapamulin against them.%目的:研究莫西沙星对4株临床耐药葡萄球菌生物膜的体外药效学。方法:采用微量肉汤稀释法测定莫西沙星的最低抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)、最低抑制生物膜浓度(minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration,MBIC)和最低摧毁生物膜浓度(minimal biofilm eradication concentration,MBEC);测定莫西沙星对细菌生物膜形成量以及存活菌的影响;采用微量稀释棋盘法测定莫西沙星与局部用药瑞他帕林的联合抗生物膜效果。结果:莫西沙星在16~256 mg·L-1的范围内可完全摧毁细菌生物膜;2×MIC显著降低生物膜的形成量;100× MIC可显著降低生物膜存活菌数;与瑞他帕林的联合抗生物膜分数(fractional biofilm inhibitory concentration,FBIC)均小于1.0。结论:莫西沙星对4株耐药葡

  19. Randomized clinical trial of thrice-weekly 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin containing regimens in the treatment of new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohideen S Jawahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shortening tuberculosis (TB treatment duration is a research priority. This paper presents data from a prematurely terminated randomized clinical trial, of 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin regimens, in South India. METHODS: Newly diagnosed, sputum-positive HIV-negative pulmonary TB patients were randomly allocated to receive gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin, along with isoniazid and rifampicin for 4 months with pyrazinamide for first 2 months (G or M or isoniazid and rifampicin for 6 months with ethambutol and pyrazinamide for first 2 months (C. All regimens were administered thrice-weekly. Clinical and bacteriological assessments were done monthly during treatment and for 24 months post-treatment. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended termination of the trial due to high TB recurrence rates in the G and M regimens. RESULTS: Of 416 patients in intent-to-treat analysis, 6 (5% of 124, 2 (2% of 110 and 2 (2% of 137 patients with drug-susceptible TB in the G, M and C arms respectively had unfavorable response at the end of treatment; during the next 24 months, 17 (15% of 115, 11 (11% of 104 and 8 (6% of 132 patients respectively, had TB recurrence. Of 38 drug-resistant patients 1 of 8 and 3 of 26 in the G and C arms respectively had unfavourable response at the end of treatment; and TB recurrence occurred in 2 of 7 and 2 of 23 patients, respectively. The differences in TB recurrence rates between the G and C arms was statistically significant (p = 0.02. Gastro-intestinal symptoms occurred in 23%, 22% and 9% of patients in the G, M and C arms respectively, but most reactions were mild and manageable with symptomatic measures; 1% required regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: 4-month thrice-weekly regimens of gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin with isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide, were inferior to standard 6-month treatment, in patients with newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary TB. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry

  20. How long should umbilical venous catheters remain in place in neonates who require long-term (≥5-7 days) central venous access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Amy; Giesinger, Regan; Dunn, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this evidenced-based review, we examine the current available literature to help answer the question 'In neonates requiring long-term central access [patient], does removal of the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) on days 5-7 and replacement with a peripherally inserted central catheter line [intervention] compared with leaving the UVC in situ [comparison] reduce rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections [outcome]?'

  1. One case of moxifloxacin in the treatment of legionella pneumonia%莫西沙星治疗军团菌肺炎1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 唐东军; 靳海斌

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the clinical data of 1 case of patient with legionella pneumonia treated by moxifloxacin and legionella culture was the gold standard for diagnosis,the new generation of macrocyclic lactones and respiratory quinolone had become the first drug choice for treatment of legionella pneumonia.%目的:本文报告了莫西沙星治疗军团菌肺炎患者1例的临床资料,认为军团菌培养是确诊肺炎的金标准,新一代的大环内酯类及呼吸喹诺酮已成为治疗军团菌肺炎的首选药物.

  2. Microbiota evaluation of patients with a Boston type I keratoprosthesis treated with topical 0.5% moxifloxacin and 5% povidone-iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernanda Pedreira; do Nascimento, Heloísa Moraes; Ecker, David J; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A; Sampath, Rangarajan; Rosenblatt, Mark I; de Sousa, Luciene Barbosa; de Oliveira, Lauro Augusto

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a prophylactic regimen of daily topical 0.5% moxifloxacin and 5% povidone-iodine (PI) in patients with Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) and to assess the applicability of a novel molecular diagnostic technique to analyze the ocular surface microbiota in these patients. Ten patients had their inferior conjunctival fornix sampled for standard culture methods before the addition of topical 5% PI to the prophylactic regimen and were considered the control group (group 1). The inferior conjunctival fornix and the KPro-donor cornea interface of 10 patients treated with the mentioned prophylactic regimen were sampled and analyzed by standard culture methods and using a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay (group 2). Samples from the inferior conjunctival fornix were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 3 patients and for Aerobasidium pullulans in 1 patient in group 1. The inferior conjunctival fornix and the KPro-donor cornea interface scrapings were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively, in group 2. No bacteria and fungi growth were detected in any patient from group 2 with the molecular diagnostic approach. None of the patients with culture-positive results developed keratitis or endophthalmitis during the study. Topical 0.5% moxifloxacin associated with topical 5% PI is an effective prophylactic regimen in patients with Boston type I KPro. The molecular diagnostic approach using serial polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry was comparable with standard microbiologic techniques as a surveillance tool in these patients.

  3. Incidence of corneal infections after laser in situ keratomileusis and surface ablation when moxifloxacin and tobramycin are used as postoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Usobiaga, Julio; Llovet-Osuna, Fernando; Djodeyre, Mohammad Reza; Llovet-Rausell, Andrea; Beltran, Jaime; Baviera, Julio

    2015-06-01

    To assess the incidence, culture results, and visual outcomes of infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and surface ablation when topical moxifloxacin was added to postoperative prophylaxis with tobramycin. Clínica Baviera, Instituto Oftalmológico Europeo, Bilbao, Spain. Retrospective case series review. The medical records of 55 255 patients (108 014 eyes) who had LASIK and surface ablation were reviewed to identify cases of infectious keratitis. The incidence, risk factors, clinical course, days to diagnosis, treatment, and final visual outcomes were recorded. These data were compared with previously published data of 221 437 eyes that received postoperative tobramycin alone. Post-LASIK infectious keratitis was diagnosed in 10 eyes (9 patients) and post-surface ablation infectious keratitis in 11 eyes (10 patients). The onset of infection was early in 40.00% of cases after LASIK and in 36.36% after surface ablation. Cultures were positive in 2 cases after surface ablation. Immediate flap lifting and irrigation with antibiotics were performed in all eyes after LASIK. The final corrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 7 cases after LASIK (70.00%) and 7 cases after surface ablation (63.64%) and 20/40 or better in all cases after LASIK or surface ablation. The incidence of infectious keratitis decreased from 0.025% to 0.011% (P surface ablation. Infectious keratitis was less frequent after LASIK than after surface ablation. The frequency of infection, mainly early-onset infection, was lower when the postoperative treatment was tobramycin and moxifloxacin rather than tobramycin alone. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of moxifloxacin on QT dispersion of cor pulmonale%莫西沙星对肺心病患者QT离散度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雯; 霍建民; 张薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究喹诺酮类抗生素莫西沙星用于肺心病心功能失代偿期抗感染治疗时对其QT离散度( QTd)的影响,为肺心病抗感染治疗提供进一步研究资料.方法 将87例临床病例分为两组:肺心病观察组(n=60)和非肺心病对照组(n=27),记录其QTd及校正的QT离散度(QTcd),进行统计分析.再将上述病例分为三组,肺心病心功能失代偿期患者使用莫西沙星抗感染治疗组(n=29),肺心病心功能失代偿期患者使用β-内酰胺类抗生豪(哌拉西林/头孢哌酮)抗感染治疗(n=31),无肺心疾患的感染患者使用莫西沙星抗感染治疗(n=27),记录其用药前、用药2h和用药48 h的QTd及QTcd,并进行统计分析.结果 60例肺心病心功能失代偿期患者和27例非肺心病心功能失代偿期患者QTd和QTcd比较差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).29例肺心病心功能失代偿期患者使用莫西沙星抗感染治疗时,用药2h和用药48 h与用药前QTd和QTcd比较差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);用药48 h与用药2 h QTd和QTcd比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).31例肺心病心功能失代偿期患者使用β-内酰胺类抗生素抗感染治疗时,用药2h和用药48 h与用药前QTd和QTcd比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).27例无肺心疾患的感染患者使用莫西沙星抗感染治疗时,用药2h与用药前QTd和QTcd比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);用药48 h与用药前QTd和QTcd比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 ①肺心病心功能失代偿期患者QTd、QTcd是增大延长的,往往QTd越大,预后越差.②莫西沙星具有增加QTd的作用,当有肺心病等潜在QT间期延长的危险因素时,更容易使其QTd增大延长.%Objective To investigate the effects of moxifloxacin on QT dispersion (QTd) of cor pulmonale,and to provide further evidences for anti-infection treatment of cor pulmonale.Methods 87patients were divided into two groups:cor pulmonale group ( n =60) and non

  5. Effect of a 7-day treatment with idazoxan and its 2-methoxy derivative RX 821002 [correction of RX 821001] on alpha 2-adrenoceptors and non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M.; Reverte, M.; Langin, D.; Senard, J. M.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study investigates the influence of a 7-day treatment with 2 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily of RX 821002 (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist which binds only to alpha 2-adrenoceptors) or idazoxan (alpha 2-antagonist which binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors and also to non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites: NAIBS) on alpha 2-adrenoceptor (labelled with [3H]-RX 821002) and NAIBS (labelled with [3H]-idazoxan) number in three tissues (adipocytes, colocytes and platelets) in the rabbit. 2. Acute administration of RX 821002 or idazoxan increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and catecholamine levels with no change in plasma glucose levels. 3. The 7-day treatment with RX 821002 or idazoxan failed to influence food intake, total body weight or perirenal adipose tissue weight. 4. RX 821002 and idazoxan increased the number of [3H]-RX 821002 binding sites in adipose tissue with no change in colocytes or platelets. 5. RX 821002 and idazoxan failed to modify [3H]-idazoxan binding sites on adipocytes and colocytes. No significant [3H]-idazoxan binding was detected on rabbit platelets. 6. The results show that a 7-day treatment with alpha 2-antagonists induces an up-regulation in adipocyte alpha 2-adrenoceptors. In contrast, this phenomenon does not involve all the tissues since colocytes and platelets escape the effects of alpha 2-antagonists. The data suggest a differential regulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors according to their location. 7. The fact that NAIBS did not vary suggests that alpha 2-adrenoceptors and NAIBS are two different entities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1686202

  6. Intraperitoneal Vancomycin Plus Either Oral Moxifloxacin or Intraperitoneal Ceftazidime for the Treatment of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Yang, Zhikai; Qu, Zhen; Wang, Huan; Tian, Xue; Johnson, David W; Dong, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics is recommended as a first treatment for managing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. However, the efficacy of oral administration of quinolones has not been well studied. Randomized controlled pilot study. 80 eligible patients with PD-related peritonitis from Peking University First Hospital (40 in each arm). Intraperitoneal vancomycin, 1g, every 5 days plus oral moxifloxacin, 400mg, every day (treatment group) versus intraperitoneal vancomycin, 1g, every 5 days plus intraperitoneal ceftazidime, 1g, every day (control group). The primary end point was complete resolution of peritonitis, and secondary end points were primary or secondary treatment failure. PD effluent white blood cell count. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. There were 24 and 22 Gram-positive organisms, 6 and 7 Gram-negative organisms, 9 and 10 culture-negative samples, and 1 and 1 fungal sample in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Complete resolution of peritonitis was achieved in 78% and 80% of cases in the treatment and control groups, respectively (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.30-2.52; P=0.8). There were 3 and 1 cases of relapse in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Primary and secondary treatment failure rates were not significantly different (33% vs 20% and 10% vs 13%, respectively). In each group, there was 1 peritonitis-related death and 6 transfers to hemodialysis therapy. During the 3-month follow-up period, 7 and 3 successive episodes of peritonitis occurred in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Only 2 adverse drug reactions (mild nausea and mild rash, respectively) were observed in the 2 groups. Sample size was relatively small and the eligibility ratio was low. Also, the number of peritonitis episodes was low, limiting the power to detect a difference between groups. This pilot study suggests that intraperitoneal vancomycin with oral moxifloxacin is a

  7. Moxifloxacin for 78 Cases of Typhoid%莫西沙星治疗78例伤寒的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘云虎; 季志宇; 陈艺坛; 陈光; 熊勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of moxif loxacin on typhoid patients. Methods: 78 typhoid patients were randomly divided into trial group and control group, The 39 trial group members were treated with moxifloxacin, In the control group, 39 patients were treated with levofloxacin, intravenous dripping every day until normal temperature for 7d. Results: After treatment, the cured rate in the trial group was 94.8%, while for the control group was 92.3%(P > 0.05). The time of reducing fever and returning to normal temperature is shorter in the trial group than in the control group, it was significant differences in two group(P<0.05), and the treatment of reaction was significant lower in the trial group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Moxifloxacin is effective and safe in the treatment of typhoid patients, and has good prospects in clinical application.%目的:探讨莫西沙星在伤寒治疗中的临床意义.方法:将我院2008年6月至2010年6月期间78例确诊的伤寒患者随机分为治疗组(39例)和对照组(39例),治疗组给予莫西沙星,对照组给予盐酸左氧氟沙星,均静脉滴注,每日1次,体温正常后7d停药.结果:治疗组痊愈率94.8%,总有效率100%;对照组痊愈率92.3%,总有效率100%,两组痊愈率差异无统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组开始退热和体温降至正常的时间均较对照组缩短,差异有显著意义(P<0.05).治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:莫西沙星在伤寒治疗中具有疗效确切、无复发、副作用少等特点,在治疗非耐药和耐药伤寒中有重要作用,有较好的临床应用前景.

  8. Simultaneous quantification of linezolid, tinidazole, norfloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin in human plasma for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Sally A

    2013-12-01

    Linezolid may be administered in combination with norfloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and tinidazole for the treatment of various infections, such as urinary and respiratory tract infections, to improve the efficacy of the treatment or to reduce the duration of therapy. Knowledge of the antibiotic plasma concentrations combined with bacterial susceptibility evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration would optimize treatment efficacy while limiting the risk of dose-related adverse effects and avoiding suboptimal concentrations. A new high-performance liquid chromatography assay method was developed and validated for determination of the above-mentioned drugs in small samples of human plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile:methanol (1:1, vol/vol), satisfactory separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase comprising 20 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate-2 hydrate (pH = 3.2) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 75:25, vol/vol; the elution was isocratic at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at 260 nm. The validated method was applied to assay real plasma samples used for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of the selected drugs. The assay method described was found to be rapid, sensitive, reproducible, precise, and accurate. Linearity was demonstrated over the concentration ranges as follows: 0.1-30 μg/mL for linezolid and tinidazole; 0.05-5 μg/mL for norfloxacin; and 0.1-10 μg/mL for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin (mean r = 0.9999, n = 12). The observed within- and between-day assay precisions were within 12.5%, whereas accuracy ranged between 92.0% and 112% for all the analytes. The lower limit of quantification was 0.1 μg/mL for all the analytes except norfloxacin which was 0.05 μg/mL. This assay method was valid within a wide range of plasma concentrations and may be proposed as a suitable

  9. US-Based Emergency Department Visits for Fluoroquinolone-Associated Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Christopher; Budnitz, Dan; Sorbello, Alfred; Mehta, Hina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of hypersensitivity reactions per 100,000 prescription dispensings of fluoroquinolones based on care rendered in a nationally-representative sample of US hospital emergency departments (ED). Methods We analyzed the frequency of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system (2004–2010) in conjunction with US retail outpatient prescription data from IMS Health (2004–2010). We further categorized reaction severity into three subgroups (mild, moderate, severe). Results Based on 1,422 cases of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions and national drug utilization projections, we estimated risk of hypersensitivity reactions for moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. The absolute risk of a fluoroquinolone-related hypersensitivity reaction of any severity was low (44.0 (95% CI 34.8–53.3) ED visits/100,000 prescriptions; however, we identified a statistically significant difference in the relative risk (rate ratios) of seeking care in an ED attributed to moxifloxacin hypersensitivity compared to either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. For all reaction severities, the estimated ED visits/100,000 prescriptions were 141.3 (95% CI 99.9–182.7) for moxifloxacin, 40.8 (95% CI 31.5–50.0) for levofloxacin, and 26.3 (95% CI 20.8–31.9) for ciprofloxacin. When the rates were stratified by reaction severity category (mild or moderate-severe), moxifloxacin continued to be implicated in more ED visits per 100,000 prescriptions dispensed than either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Fluoroquinolones may cause hypersensitivity reactions requiring care in an ED, and relative to use, the rate of moxifloxacin-related hypersensitivity reactions is higher than comparator fluoroquinolones. PMID:23963962

  10. Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and H2 receptor antagonist in pharmaceutical dosage formulations by RP-HPLC: application to in vitro drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najma Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin (MOX and H2-antagonists was first time developed in bulk and formulations. Purospher STAR C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm column was used. The mobile phase (methanol: water: ACN, 60:45:5 v/v/v, pH 2.7 was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1, eluent was monitored at 236, 270 and 310 nm for cimetidine, famotidine and ranitidine, respectively. The proposed method is specific, accurate (98-103%, precise (intra-day and inter-day variation 0.098-1.970% and linear (r>0.998. The LOD and LOQ were 0.006-0.018 and 0.019-0.005 μg mL-1, respectively. The statistical parameters were applied to verify the results. The method is applicable to routine analysis of formulations and interaction of MOX with H2-antagonist.

  11. Validated HPTLC and Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Methods for the Simultaneous Estimation of Moxifloxacin and Dexamethasone in Bulk and Ophthalmic Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohan Gandhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel HPTLC and stability indicating RP-HPLC methods were developed for simultaneous estimation of Moxifloxacin (MOX and Dexamethasone (DEX in ophthalmic dosage form. For HPTLC method, the separation was carried out on HPTLC aluminum plates using acetonitrile:water:ammonia (8:1:0.5 v/v/v as mobile phase and developed plates were read at 266 nm. The drugs were resolved satisfactorily with Rf values of 0.09±0.01 and 0.74±0.01 for MOX and DEX, respectively. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out on Shiseido C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 µm, using 0.02M acetate buffer (pH is 4 adjusted with triethylamine and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 v/v with a flow rate of 1.2 m/min and the detection was carried out at 254 nm. The retention times were found to be 2.144±0.5 min and 4.732±0.5 min. for MOX and DEX respectively. Developed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and were found to be within the limits.

  12. Simple and sensitive stability-indicating ion chromatography method for the determination of cyclopropylamine in nevirapine and moxifloxacin hydrochloride drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Pavan Kumar S R; Khagga, Mukkanti; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Sigamani, John Prasanna; Vundavilli, Jagadeesh Kumar; Masani, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Hemant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cyclopropylamine (CPA) in nevirapine (NEV) and moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) pharmaceutical drug substances. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Metrosep C4, 5 μm (250 mm × 4.0 mm) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mM hydrochloric acid containing 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and was delivered in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min(-1) at 27°C. A conductometric detector was used for the detection of the analyte. The drug substances were subjected to stress conditions including oxidation, thermal, photolytic and humidity for the evaluation of the stability-indicating nature of the method. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values are 0.10 μg mL(-1) and 0.37 μg mL(-1) respectively. The linearity range of the method is between 0.37 μg mL(-1) and 1.5 μg mL(-1) and the correlation coefficient is found to be 0.9971. The average recoveries of CPA in NEV and MOX are 97.0% and 98.0%, respectively.

  13. 莫西沙星联合盐酸氨溴索治疗慢性支气管炎的效果研究%Effect on Moxifloxacin Combined With Ambroxol Hydrochloride in Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊耀

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究莫西沙星联合盐酸氨溴索对慢性支气管炎的治疗效果。方法研究2015年1~10月慢性支气管炎患者66例,依照数字法分组。采用常规疗法者33例,进入对照组;采用莫西沙星联合盐酸氨溴索者33例,进入实验组。组间比较。结果两组中实验组的咳痰、咳嗽及喘息消失时间更短,住院日更短,治疗有效率更高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论莫西沙星联合盐酸氨溴索治疗慢性支气管炎效果较佳。%Objective Moxifloxacin combined with ambroxol hydrochloride effect in treatment of chronic bronchitis is to be studied. Methods Chose 66 patients of chronic bronchitis who were treated in hospital from January 2015 to October 2015 and separated them into two groups according to digits. 33 patients in control group were given conventional treatment,while another 33 patients in study group were given moxifloxacin combined with ambroxol hydrochloride treatment and then compared treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’symptoms disappeared time of sputum,cough and wheezing is shorter and treatment efficacy was higher in study group compared to counterparts in control group,there was a differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Moxifloxacin combined with ambroxol Hydrochloride is quite effective in treatment of chronic bronchitis.

  14. A Stability-Indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Assay for the Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine, Ethionamide, and Moxifloxacin in Fixed Dose Combination Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munib-ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability indicating reversed phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of antitubercular drugs, ethionamide (ETH, and moxifloxacin (MOX with commonly coprescribed vitamin, pyridoxine (PYR in tablet dosage form. The method was found rapid, precise and accurate. The separation was performed in Hibar 150-4.6, Purospher STAR, RP-18e (5 μm column, using mobile phase A (0.03 M sodium citrate adjusted to pH 5 with glacial acetic acid and mobile phase B (100% methanol, ran at variable proportions at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 320 nm. The method was observed linearly in the range of 2.5–17.5 μg/mL for PYR, 25–175 μg/mL for ETH, and 40–280 μg/mL for MOX with respective limits of detection/quantitation of 0.125 μg/mL/1.28 μg/mL, 0.25 μg/mL/2.56 μg/mL, and 0.35 μg/mL/3.65 μg/mL. The drugs were also subjected to oxidative, hydrolytic, photolytic, and thermal degradation; the degradation products showed interference with the detection of PYR, ETH, and MOX. The proposed method was observed to be effective to quantitate MOX (400 mg, ETH (250 mg, and PYR (25 mg in fixed dose combination tablet formulation.

  15. Controlled release of moxifloxacin from intraocular lenses modified by Ar plasma-assisted grafting with AMPS or SBMA: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, A F R; Vieira, A P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B; Gil, M H; Coimbra, P; Alves, P; Bozukova, D; Correia, T R; Correia, I J; Guiomar, A J; Serro, A P

    2017-08-01

    Intraocular lenses (IOLs) present an alternative for extended, local drug delivery in the prevention of post-operative acute endophthalmitis. In the present work, we modified the surface of a hydrophilic acrylic material, used for manufacturing of IOLs, through plasma-assisted grafting copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) or [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (SBMA), with the aim of achieving a controlled and effective drug release. The material was loaded with moxifloxacin (MFX), a commonly used antibiotic for endophthalmitis prevention. The characterization of the modified material showed that relevant properties, like swelling capacity, wettability, refractive index and transmittance, were not affected by the surface modification. Concerning the drug release profiles, the most promising result was obtained when AMPS grafting was done in the presence of MFX. This modification led to a higher amount of drug being released for a longer period of time, which is a requirement for the prevention of endophthalmitis. The material was found to be non-cytotoxic for rabbit corneal endothelial cells. In a second step, prototype IOLs were modified with AMPS and loaded with MFX as previously and, after sterilization and storage (30days), they were tested under dynamic conditions, in a microfluidic cell with volume and renovation rate similar to the eye aqueous humour. MFX solutions collected in this assay were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and the released antibiotic proved to be effective against both bacteria until the 12th day of release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Evaluation of In Vitro and Pharmacodynamic Indices That Best Predict In Vivo Efficacy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandil, Radha K.; Jayaram, Ramesh; Kaur, Parvinder; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Suresh, B. L.; Mahesh, B. N.; Jayashree, R.; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Balasubramanian, V.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the fluoroquinolone class are being actively evaluated for inclusion in tuberculosis chemotherapy regimens, and we sought to determine the best in vitro and pharmacodynamic predictors of in vivo efficacy in mice. MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were 0.1 mg/liter (sparfloxacin [SPX]) and 0.5 mg/liter (moxifloxacin [MXF], ciprofloxacin [CIP], and ofloxacin [OFX]). The unbound fraction in the presence of murine serum was concentration dependent for MXF, OFX, SPX, and CIP. In vitro time-kill studies revealed a time-dependent effect, with the CFU reduction on day 7 similar for all four drugs. However, with a J774A.1 murine macrophage tuberculosis infection model, CIP was ineffective at up to 32× MIC. In addition, MXF, OFX, and SPX exhibited less activity than had been seen in the in vitro time-kill study. After demonstrating that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were proportional to the dose in vivo, dose fractionation studies with total oral doses of 37.5 to 19,200 mg/kg of body weight (MXF), 225 to 115,200 mg/kg (OFX), 30 to 50,000 mg/kg (SPX), and 38 to 100,000 mg/kg (CIP) were performed with a murine aerosol infection model. MXF was the most efficacious agent (3.0 ± 0.2 log10 CFU/lung reduction), followed by SPX (1.4 ± 0.1) and OFX (1.5 ± 0.1). CIP showed no effect. The ratio of the AUC to the MIC was the pharmacodynamic parameter that best described the in vivo efficacy. In summary, a lack of intracellular killing predicted the lack of in vivo activity of CIP. The in vivo rank order for maximal efficacy of the three active fluoroquinolones was not clearly predicted by the in vitro assays, however. PMID:17145798

  17. Moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: evaluation of in vitro and pharmacodynamic indices that best predict in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandil, Radha K; Jayaram, Ramesh; Kaur, Parvinder; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Suresh, B L; Mahesh, B N; Jayashree, R; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Balasubramanian, V

    2007-02-01

    Members of the fluoroquinolone class are being actively evaluated for inclusion in tuberculosis chemotherapy regimens, and we sought to determine the best in vitro and pharmacodynamic predictors of in vivo efficacy in mice. MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were 0.1 mg/liter (sparfloxacin [SPX]) and 0.5 mg/liter (moxifloxacin [MXF], ciprofloxacin [CIP], and ofloxacin [OFX]). The unbound fraction in the presence of murine serum was concentration dependent for MXF, OFX, SPX, and CIP. In vitro time-kill studies revealed a time-dependent effect, with the CFU reduction on day 7 similar for all four drugs. However, with a J774A.1 murine macrophage tuberculosis infection model, CIP was ineffective at up to 32x MIC. In addition, MXF, OFX, and SPX exhibited less activity than had been seen in the in vitro time-kill study. After demonstrating that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were proportional to the dose in vivo, dose fractionation studies with total oral doses of 37.5 to 19,200 mg/kg of body weight (MXF), 225 to 115,200 mg/kg (OFX), 30 to 50,000 mg/kg (SPX), and 38 to 100,000 mg/kg (CIP) were performed with a murine aerosol infection model. MXF was the most efficacious agent (3.0+/-0.2 log10 CFU/lung reduction), followed by SPX (1.4+/-0.1) and OFX (1.5+/-0.1). CIP showed no effect. The ratio of the AUC to the MIC was the pharmacodynamic parameter that best described the in vivo efficacy. In summary, a lack of intracellular killing predicted the lack of in vivo activity of CIP. The in vivo rank order for maximal efficacy of the three active fluoroquinolones was not clearly predicted by the in vitro assays, however.

  18. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  19. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jinghua Duan,1,2 Frederick G Vogt,3 Xiaojian Li,1 Don Hayes Jr,4,5 Heidi M Mansour6 1University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences – Drug Development Division, Lexington, KY, USA; 2University of Washington-Seattle, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Seattle, WA, USA; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Analytical Sciences, Product Development, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 4The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Columbus, OH, USA; 5The Ohio State University, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA; 6The University of Arizona–Tucson, College of Pharmacy, Skaggs Center of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was

  20. Greatest International ANtiinfective Trial (GIANT with moxifloxacin in the treatment of acute exacerbation of  chronic bronchitis: subanalysis of Chinese data of a global, multicenter, noninterventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Feng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Yulin Feng1, Faguang Jin2, Shuang Mu3, Hong Shen4, Xiaohong Yang5, Yuling Wang6, Zhenshan Wang7, Yingjun Kong8, Zuke Xiao9, Qiming Feng101Respiratory Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China; 2Respiratory Department, Tang Du Hospital, China; 3Respiratory Department, Peking University People’s Hospital, China; 4Emergency Department, The General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army, China; 5Respiratory Department, Xinjiang People’s Hospital, China; 6Respiratory Department, Shi Jiazhuang First Hospital, China; 7Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, China; 8Respiratory Department, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, China; 9Respiratory Department, The Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, China; 10Emergency Department, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, ChinaBackground and objective: A single infective acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB has a sustained effect on health status. Although a number of clinical investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of antibiotics in AECB, increased bacterial resistance has caused concern about the efficacy of currently available antibiotic therapies. This subanalysis of a global noninterventional study aimed to evaluate the impact of AECB on the patient and the community and the effectiveness and safety of a treatment with moxifloxacin (MXF tablets in daily life clinical practice in China.Methods: This prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, multicenter observational study, which started in China in April 2004 and ended in February 2007, was part of the global GIANT study. Patients with a diagnosis of mild to severe AECB were treated with MXF tablets 400 mg for a period at the physician’s discretion. The observation period for each patient covered a complete treatment period with MXF. For each patient, the physician documented data at an initial visit (baseline and at least one follow-up visit

  1. 含莫西沙星强化期抗结核方案用于初治肺结核的效果评价%Therapeutic effect of the regimen containing Moxifloxacin in intensive phase for pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾维

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect and safety of the regimen containing Moxifloxacin in intensive phase for pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods 88 cases with initial tuberculosis(each group of 44 cases) were studied in comparison in the same period. The treatment group contained isoniazid, rifampicin and moxifloxacin of antituberculosis regime and the control group contained isoniazid,rifampicin and pyrazineamide. Results After 2 months intensive phase anti-tubercular treatment ,the sputum negative conversion rates was 95.0% and control's was 94.4%(P > 0.05); the absorb rate of lesions: the treatment group 77.3 % and the control group 79.5%; the liver damage rate: the treatment group and control group was 68.2% ,34.1% respectively(P < 0.05). Conclusion Anti-tuberculosis intensive phase regimes containing moxifloxacin for tuberculosis treatment was safe and effective in initial treatment of pulmonary tuberculose.%目的 探讨强化期含莫西沙星用于初治肺结核的有效性和安全性.方法 对88例初治肺结核进行了同期对照配对研究(每组44例).其中治疗组为含莫西沙星(异烟肼、利福平、莫西沙星)的抗结核方案,对照组为异烟肼、利福平、吡嗪酰胺的治疗方案.结果 抗结核治疗2个月,治疗组与对照组痰菌阴转率(95.0%与94.4%)、病灶吸收好转率(77.3%与79.5%)差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05));肝损率治疗组34.1%,对照组68.2%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 含莫西沙星的强化期联合抗结核方案用于初治肺结核的治疗安全有效.

  2. Determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloridum standard by non-aqueous potentiometry titration%非水电位滴定法测定盐酸莫西沙星含量的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂忠莉; 李长生; 唐雪枫; 陈小宁; 李芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:探究非水电位滴定法[李发美.分析化学[M].第6版.北京:人民卫生出版社,2007:152-179.]测定盐酸莫西沙星含量的方法。方法以0.01 mol/L盐酸溶液-无水甲醇(1∶8)为溶剂,用甲醇钠滴定液(0.1 mol/L)进行滴定。结果非水电位滴定法:方法精密度RSD为0.46%(n=9),平均回收率为100.0%。结论非水电位滴定法的测定结果与高效液相色谱法在统计学上无显著性差异,方法简便快速,结果准确可靠。%Objective To establish a non-aqueous potentiometry titration method for the content determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloridum standard. Methods 0.01 mol·L-1 solution of hydrochloric acid-anhydrous methanol(1:8) were used as solvent for non-aqueous potentiomerry titration. 0.1 mol·L-1 solution of sodium methylate was used to titrate the content of moxifloxacin hydrochloridum standard.Results Non-aqueous Potentiometry titration: The precision RSD was 0.46%(n=9), the average recovery was 100.0%. Conclusion Non-aqueous potentimetry titration method is identical statistically. Non-aqueous potentiometry titration method is accurate and used widely.

  3. 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性考察%Study on Compatible Stability of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and Sodium Chlorid Injection Mixed with Fluconazole Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 张丽梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性.方法 分别观察配伍液在室温(20±1)℃下放置8 h内的外观并测定pH变化,用紫外分光光度法测定主药含量.结果 两药配伍后4 h内,外观、pH、含量均无明显变化.结论 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液在4 h内可以配伍使用.%Objective To observe the compatibility of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and sodium Chloride Injection with Fluconazole Injec-tion. Methods The change in appearance and pH value of the compatible solution placed at room temperature (20 ± 1) ℃ for 8 h was ob-served, while the content of moxifloxacin and fluconazole was determined by UV spectrophotometry as well. Results There were no signifi-cant changes in appearance, pH value and concentration after the mixture of the two drugs within 4 h. Conclusion Moxifloxacin Hydrochlo-ride and Sodium Chloride Injection can be mixed with Fluconazole Injection for use within 4 h.

  4. QT interval prolongation and type I hypersensitivity reaction caused by orally taken moxifloxacin%莫西沙星片致 QT 间期延长和速发型变态反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧登科; 周晓明; 陈愉; 肇丽梅; 赵立

    2014-01-01

    Mezlocillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection(2. 5 g,once every 12 hours)and azithromycin injection(0. 5 g,once daily)were given to a 23-year-old female patient due to the community-aquired mycoplasma pneumonia and acute purulent tonsillitis. On the eleventh day,the treatments above mentioned were changed to oral moxifloxacin 0. 4 g once daily because of the improvement of the patient's condition. Thirty minutes after the moxifloxacin administration for the first time,the patient felt chest tightness,palpitation,fever,and generalized flush accompanied by wheal and papula on her limbs and trunk. The electrocardiogram examination showed double directional or inverted T waves in the precordial leads and prolonged QT period with corrected QT interval 462 ms. Laboratory examination showed creatine kinase(CK)239 U/ L,isoenzyme of creatine kinase(CK-MB)35 U/ L. TypeⅠhypersensitivity reaction was diagnosed. Moxifloxacin was stopped and ananaphylaxis and supportive treatments were given immediately. Three days later,her skin symptoms disappeared,ECG examination result returned to normal. The levels of CK and CK-MB were 40 U/ L and 11 U/ L,respectively.%1例23岁女性患者因支原体肺炎合并急性化脓性扁桃体炎给予注射用美洛西林钠舒巴坦钠(2.5 g,1次/12 h)和阿奇霉素(0.5 g,1次/ d)静脉滴注,第11天因病情好转改为莫西沙星0.4 g口服,1次/ d。患者首次服用莫西沙星后约30 min 出现胸闷、心悸、气促、发热,接着出现颜面及全身潮红,四肢及躯干出现风团、红色丘疹伴瘙痒,心电图提示胸前导联 T 波双向、倒置,QT 间期延长,校正的 QT 间期为462 ms。实验室检查示肌酸激酶(CK)239 U/ L,CK 同工酶(CK-MB)35 U/ L。诊断为速发型过敏反应。停用莫西沙星并立即给予抗过敏治疗及对症处理,3 d 后皮肤症状消失,心电图正常,CK 40 U/ L,CK-MB 11 U/ L。

  5. Efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate in combination with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of drug resistant Helicobacter pylor infection%四联疗法治疗耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁祥; 杨英君; 卢惠伦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of Helicobactor pylori infection failed after treatment with conventional triple therapy for the treatment of failure of drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection,and a control group with quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication rate difference.Methods The 85 patients with Helicobacter pylori infections and treated with conventional triple therapy for a course of over 2 weeks and confirmed treatment failure by the C14 breath test were randomly divided into therapeutic group and control group.The patients in the therapeutic group were treated with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate 914mg Bid+ moxifloxacin tablet 400mg Qd+ esomeprazole 20mg Bid.Those in the control group were treated with esomeprazole 20mg Bid+ colloidal bismuth tartrate 165mg Qid+ amoxicillin capsule 1000mg Bid + clarithromycin 500mg Bid,for a course of 1 week.Results About 83.3% of Helicobacter pylori in the patients of therapeutic group was eradicated and eradication rate in the control group was 70% showing significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusions Combined use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,moxifloxacin and esomeprazole is superior to the quadruple therapy containing bismuth in treatment of Helicobactor pylori-infected patients failed with conventional triple therapy.The regimen could be used as the second-line therapy with mild side effects.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾和莫西沙星与埃索美拉唑联用,治疗传统的三联疗法治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的根除率,并与对照组四联疗法比较是否存在差异. 方法 将85例传统的三联疗法治疗2周以上,经C14呼气试验检查证实治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染病例,随机分为试验组及对照组,试验组治疗方案为阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片914mgBid+莫西沙星片400mgQd+埃索美拉唑片20mgBid,对

  6. 莫西沙星联合柳氮磺吡啶治疗溃疡性结肠炎临床研究%Clinical study of moxifloxacin combined with salicylazosulfapyridine in treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴禄寿; 林志翔; 戴益琛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy, adverse reaction and half year recurrence rate of moxifloxacin combined with salicylazosulfapyridine in patients with ulcerative colitis.Methods The patients were randomly divided into treatment group ( n = 42) and control group ( n = 36).The patients in treatment group were treated by moxifloxacin 0.4g, once daily after meals, with a treatment course of 10d.All patients were all treated with salicylazosulfapyridine 1.0g once, three times daily after meals for 4 weeks.After 4 weeks treatment, biochemistry test, three routine examination of blood, urine and stool and endoscopy were re-examined.Two groups were followed-up for 6 months.Results In treatment group, the effective rate was 52.4%, the total effective rate was 92.9% ,the half year recurrence rate was 9.5%.The main manifestations of adverse reaction were 3 cases of leucopenia (7.1% ) ,5 cases of gastrointestinal reaction (11.9%).In control group, the effective rate was 27.8%, the total effective rate was 75.0%and the half year recurrence rate was 22.2%.The main manifestations of adverse reaction were 4 cases of leucopenia ( 11.1% ) ,5 cases of gastrointestinal reaction ( 13.8% ).Conclusion Moxifloxacin combined with salicylazosulfapyridine has good treatment effect on ulcerative colitis with no adverse effect increased and low half year recurrence rate.%目的 观察莫西沙星与柳氮磺吡啶在治疗溃疡性结肠炎中的作用、副作用及半年复发率.方法 随机将溃疡性结肠炎患者分为治疗组42例,给莫西沙星0.4 g,1次/d,餐后服用,治疗10d;柳氮磺吡啶1.0 g,4次/d,餐后服用,治疗4周.对照组36例给予柳氮磺吡啶1.0 g,4次/d,餐后服用,治疗4周.治疗4周后复查生化,血、尿、便三大常规及肠镜,并随访半年.结果 治疗组显效率为52.4%,总有效率为92.9%,半年复发率9.5%;副反应主要表现白细胞轻度减少3例(7.1%),胃肠道反应5例(11.9%).

  7. 口服莫西沙星致过敏伴腹痛和阴道出血%Allergy complicated with abdominal pain and colporrhagia due to oral moxifloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹林; 牟红梅

    2015-01-01

    1例45岁女性患者因急性支气管炎自行口服莫西沙星0.4 g。约5 min 后,患者出现周身瘙痒、全身皮肤发红、颜面水肿、声音嘶哑、呕吐、腹痛、腹泻;约25 min 后出现视物模糊、神志恍惚。遂静脉注射甲泼尼龙120 mg,快速静脉滴注0.9%氯化钠注射液1000 ml,但患者腹痛无缓解,服药后1 h 出现阴道出血。腹部超声检查未见明显异常。给予哌替啶100 mg 肌内注射,约30 min 后患者腹痛减轻,口服莫西沙星24 h 后阴道出血停止。患者1个月前有相同发病及诊治经历。%A 45 year-old woman with acute bronchitis took moxifloxacin 0. 4 g orally by herself. She developed pruritus and rubefaction on the whole body,edema in the face,hoarseness,vomiting,abdominal pain,and diarrhea 5 minutes after taking the medicine. About 25 minutes later,she developed clouded vision and became unconscious. She was given an intravenous injection of methylprednisolone 120 mg,and rapid intravenous drip of 0. 9% sodium chloride injection 1 000 ml. But the abdominal pain did not alleviate. She developed colporrhagia one hour after taking the medicine. The result of abdominal ultrasound examination showed no obvious abnormity. Then she was given an intramuscular injection of meperidine 100 mg. About 30 minutes later,her abdominal pain was relieved. Twenty-four hours after receiving moxifloxacin,her colporrhagia was stopped. The patient had a similar experience of morbidity,diagnosis and therapy one month ago.

  8. Literature Analysis of 44 ADR Cases Induced by Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride%盐酸莫西沙星致不良反应44例文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳小青; 蔡德; 林燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨盐酸莫西沙星致不良反应(ADR)的类型及特点,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对2002年1月-2010年8月以来国内公开发行的医药期刊报道的盐酸莫西沙星致ADR,共计44例进行分类统计、分析.结果:ADR临床主要表现为中枢及外周神经系统损害(17.4%)、交感副交感神经系统损害(11.8%)、呼吸系统损害(10.4%)、皮肤及其附件损害(9.0%)、胃肠系统损害(8.3%)等;有基础疾病的中老年人ADR发生率高;ADR治愈16例(36.4%),好转26例(59.1%),有后遗症2例(4.5%).结论:临床应重视盐酸莫西沙星的ADR,坚持合理用药.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the type and characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) induced by oxifloxacin hydrochloride, and to provide reference for rational use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS: 44 moxifloxacin hydrochloride-inducing ADR cases reported in domestic publication medicine periodicals since 2002.1.-2010.8. were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The clinical main manifestations were central and perpheral nervous system disorders (17.4%), sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system disorders (11.8%), respiration system disorder (10.4%), lesion of skin and appendants (9.0%), gastro-intestinal system disorders (8.3%), the incidence of ADR in middle and old aged people was high, 16 cases were cured (36.4%), 26 cases were improved (59.1%), 2 cases suffered from sequelae (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Great importance should be attached to ADR induced by moxifloxacin hydrochloride and rational use of drugs.

  9. Quick Drought Response Index, 7 Day CONUS Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — QuickDRI, short for Quick Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought Mitigation...

  10. Assessing predictive services' 7-day fire potential outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Haiganoush Preisler

    2015-01-01

    The Predictive Services program was created under the National Wildfire Coordinating Group in 2001 to address the need for long- and short-term decision support information for fire managers and operations personnel. The primary mission of Predictive Services is to integrate fire weather, fire danger, and resource availability to enable strategic fire suppression...

  11. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearse, R.M.; Moreno, R.P.; Bauer, P.; Pelosi, P.; Metnitz, P.; Spies, C.; Vallet, B.; Vincent, J.L.; Hoeft, A.; Rhodes, A.; Pickkers, P.; Bouw, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an intern

  12. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas da córnea e da conjuntiva à moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina e outras fluoroquinolonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2% to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4% to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1% and 103 (100% were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6% specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4% and 96 (93.2% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer e comparar a susceptibilidade in vitro de bactérias isoladas do olho à fluoroquinolonas, incluindo moxifloxacina e gatifloxacina. MÉTODOS: Um total de 154 bactérias isoladas de ceratites e conjuntivites foram submetidas a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana aos antibióticos usando o método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: Das 51 bactérias isoladas da córnea, 46 (90,2% foram sensíveis a ciprofloxacina, 45 (88,2% a ofloxacina e 41 (80,4% a lomefloxacina. Todas as bactérias isoladas da córnea foram sensíveis a moxifloxacina e a gatifloxacina. Das 103 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva 101 (98,1% e 103 (100% foram sensíveis a gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, respectivamente. Duas cepas de Streptococcus sp do grupo viridans mostraram-se resistentes à gatifloxacina. Um total de 82 (79,6% esp

  13. Pre-Column derivatization Chiral HPLC Method for the separation and quantification of (R,R)-2,8-diazobicyclo [4.3.0]nonane content in (S,S)-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, A Key Intermediate of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Bulusu Lakshmi sushma; Madhusudhan, G.; A. Jayashree; Koti Reddy Yeruva

    2015-01-01

    A simple and robust analytical method was developed for the separation and quantification of (R,R)-isomer in (S,S)-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, a non chromophoric moiety and key intermediate in the synthesis of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride by using pre-column derivatization reagent 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD Chloride). The derivatization was brought to be optimized at room temperature. The separation was achieved on Chiralpak IC 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column with isocratic elution mode ...

  14. 连锁酒店产品战略分析--以济南市槐荫区7天连锁酒店为例%Analysis of chain hotel product strategy:Taking Ji'nan District 7 Days Inn as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炜

    2013-01-01

      以济南市槐荫区7天连锁酒店经十中路分店的产品销售战略为研究对象,主要采用随机问卷调查和实地考察的方法进行数据收集,运用 Excel软件对调查的数据进行整理分析,以SWO T战略组合模型提出该酒店可以采用WO 战略,即扭转内部劣势把握外部机会,使其产品在同类酒店中更具优势,从而使得7天连锁酒店在济南市经济型酒店市场中更具竞争力。%In Huaiyin District of Ji'nan city 7 Days Inn after ten road store sales strategy as the research ob-ject ,mainly adopts the method of random questionnaire and on-the-spot investigation to collect data ,use Excel software to analyze the survey data ,the SWOT strategic combination model is proposed for the hotel can adopt the WO strategy ,namely the torsion internal weaknesses grasp the external opportunities ,make the products more competitive in the same hotel ,w hich makes the 7 Days Inn in the more competitive mar-ket in Ji'nan city Econo Hotel .

  15. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  16. Pre-Column derivatization Chiral HPLC Method for the separation and quantification of (R,R-2,8-diazobicyclo [4.3.0]nonane content in (S,S-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, A Key Intermediate of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulusu Lakshmi sushma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and robust analytical method was developed for the separation and quantification of (R,R-isomer in (S,S-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, a non chromophoric moiety and key intermediate in the synthesis of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride by using pre-column derivatization reagent 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD Chloride. The derivatization was brought to be optimized at room temperature. The separation was achieved on Chiralpak IC 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column with isocratic elution mode with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, ethanol and diethyl amine in the ratio of 1:1:0.1 (v/v/v. The eluents were monitored at 340 nm using a UV detector.

  17. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  18. 七氟烷麻醉对新生7d大鼠学习记忆功能及S100β蛋白的影响%Effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory function and S100β protein in the 7-day-old rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冬梅; 高琳; 徐桂萍; 苏涛; 马雪萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory functions and S100β protein in anaplasis in the 7-day-old rat.Methods 48 SD rats of both sexes aged 7-day-old weighing 1 2-1 6 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (1 6 rats in each group):group A and group B inhaled 3 % sevoflurane in oxygen(1L/min) for 6h and 2h respectively; group C inhaled oxygen(1L/min) only.After inhalation,the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water-maze test and Y-maze test from 16d to 24d.The rats were killed in the day of 8d and 25d respectively,and the blood were collected for the expression of serum concentration S100β protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results (1) Results of Morris water-maze test:Compared with group C,escape latency prolonged in group A and group B in 17-20d(P < 0.05 or 0.01) ;escape latency prolonged in group A compared with group B in 19-20d(P < 0.01) ;but there were no significant differences in the probe time in original platform quadrant and the frequency of crossing original platform among three groups(P >0.05).(2) Result of Y-maze test:In 22d,the total reaction time of group A and B were longer than group C (P <0.05 or 0.01),and the error number was increased in group A and B compared with group C(P < 0.01) ; while in 23-24d,there were no significant differences between every index of each groups (P > 0.05).(3) Results of the blood serum index:In 8d,serum concentration of S100β protein was significantly increased in group A and B compared with group C (P <0.01),and serum concentration of S100β protein was significantly increased in group A compared with group B (P < 0.05) ; But there were no significant differences in serum concentration of S100β protein of each groups in 25d(P > 0.05).Conclusion Sevoflurane anesthesia in the 7-day-old rat can temporarily decrease the ability of learning and memory functions in the length of inhalation

  19. Observation on curative effect of moxifloxacin in the treatment of initial-treated smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during intensive chemotherapy%莫西沙星在初治肺结核患者化疗中疗效的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆沄; 苟超伦; 李炜; 苗凤济; 李冬; 周倩

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察含莫西沙星抗结核方案在初治涂阳肺结核患者强化期化疗中的疗效。方法临床选取3年间我院收治的符合纳入及排除标准的涂阳初治肺结核患者93例。随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组在强化期给予HRZE常规抗结核方案基础上加用莫西沙星,对照组给予HRZE常规抗结核方案。对强化期各治疗时间点的痰菌阴转情况和其他临床指标进行分析。结果观察组第4、6、8周痰结核菌阴转率明显高于对照组(P0. 05). The adverse reactions of the two groups were similar (P>0. 05). Conclusion Moxifloxacin-containing anti-TB program can reduce sputum negative conversion time and improve the negative conversion rate and lesions absorption efficiency in the treatment of initial-treated smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during intensive chemotherapy, with the similar adverse reactions as the control group.

  20. Discussion on Moxifloxacin by intraperitoneal injection for Treating 1 Case of PD-Related Peritonitis%1例莫西沙星腹腔给药治疗腹透相关性腹膜炎的病例讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘可欣; 徐珽; 管玫

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨腹膜炎的腹腔给药方式.方法 通过收集监测临床1例莫西沙星导致的抗生素相关性腹泻不良反应报告,回顾性分析用药过程,结合临床医学与临床药学进行探讨.结果 未查见腹膜炎腹腔给药方式方法的金标准.药师通过具体药物的药代动力学探讨了给药方式.结论 临床药师可运用药物相关知识给临床提供有价值的药学服务.%Objective To explore the intraperitoneal administration mode in treating peritonitis. Methods 1 case of antibiotic - related diarrhea caused by moxifloxacin in clinic was collected and monitored. The medication process was retrospectively analyzed in combination with the clinical medicine and clinical pharmacy. Results The gold standard of intraperitoneal administration way and mode was not found. Clinical pharmacist investigated the intraperitoneal administration mode through the pharmacokinetics of the concrete drug. Conclusion Clinical pharmacist can provide valuable pharmacy services to clinic through the use of drug information combined with clinical knowledge.

  1. Vivax malaria in children: recurrences with standard total dose of primaquine administered in 3 vs. 7 days Malaria vivax en niños: recurrencias con dosis total estándar de primaquina administrada durante 3 frente a 7 días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Worldwide, the efficacy of cloroquine-primaquine for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malarious attacks has not been thoroughly evaluated. In Latin America such studies are scarce, and in Colombia, almost nonexisting.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of two regimens for administration of primaquine in children aged less than 18 years.

    Methodology: A clinical, controlled, unmasked study was carried out, with randomized administration of two primaquine regimens, namely: 0.50 mg/kg/day for 7 days (0.50-7 vs. 1.17 mg/kg/day for 3 days (1.17-3.

  2. 莫西沙星对老年肾功能不全社区获得性肺炎的治疗效果及安全性评价%Efficiency and safety of moxifloxacin in treatment of elderly community acquired pneumonia with renal dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭晨晨; 王烁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxifloxacinin treatment of community acquired pneumonia in elderly patients with renal dysfunction , so as to provide safe and effective antibiotics for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia for patients . elderly renal dysfunction .Methods A total of 128 elderly patients with community acquired pneumonia , who enrolled the emergency department of the hospital from Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 , were divided into two groups according to the renal function .The normal group ( n =63 ) and the renal dysfunction group without hemodialysis ( n =65 ) were both treated with moxifloxacin .The clinical efficacies and the adverse reactions were observed .Results There was no statistically difference in the clinical effective rates (81.0% vs.87.7%, P=0.294), the pathogensclearance rate (80.56% vs.88.37%, P=0.335) and the incidence of the adverse reactions (7.93% vs.9.23%, P=0.794) between the two groups.There was no significant difference of moxifloxacin plasma concentration between the two groups at each time point.The plasma concentration was stable in the whole protocol .Conclusion Moxifloxacincan achieve good clinic effect in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia with renal dysfunction in elderly patients with less adverse reaction .%目的:评估莫西沙星在老年肾功能不全社区获得性肺炎( community acquired pneumonia, CAP)中的治疗效果及安全性,为临床治疗老年肾功能不全CAP选择安全、高效的抗菌药物。方法选取2011-01~2013-12在急诊科住院的128例老年CAP患者,根据肾功能状况分为肾功能正常组(n=63)和肾功能不全但未透析组(n=65),均给予莫西沙星治疗,观察临床疗效及不良反应。结果肾功能正常组与肾功能不全组比较,治疗有效率(81.0%vs.87.7%,P=0.294),细菌清除率(80.56%vs.88.37%,P=0.335),不良反应发生率(7.93%vs.9

  3. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal ketamine exposure.

  4. 7-Day Biodefense: Engineered Nanoparticle for Virus Elimination by Opsonization (ENVELOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Pilot batches of liposomes produced by Northern Lipids using this process had the same physical properties as similar batches produced at UCSB and...a lipid anchor to create a glycolipid that could be incorporated into liposomes. Alternatives were to conjugate the carbohydrate to a different...molecules such as sucrose when exposed to protein and lipid surfactants in the airway. The pharmacokinetic profile was not dependent on the liposome

  5. Five-hour sleep restriction for 7 days increases subjective sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Keiko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Hori, Reiko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Teruyuki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a 5-h sleep restriction for 7 d on subjective sleepiness in an ambulatory condition by comparing them with baseline conditions consisting of an 8-h sleep for 7 consecutive days. Subjects were 13 healthy male students (mean age 21.1 yr). Each subject was required to get 8 h of sleep (baseline, from 2300 to 0700) for 7 d, and 5 h of sleep (sleep restriction, from 0100 to 0600) for 7 d in an ambulatory condition. The order of the two sleep schedules was randomly assigned. Subjective sleepiness was assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) every 3 h at 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, and 2100 for 7 successive days during each sleep schedule. The VAS score during sleep restriction gradually increased up to the 5th day and then reached a plateau. The patterns of time-course changes in the VAS score were similar to those at baseline. The VAS scores showed a peak at 0900, taking a dip at 1200, and then gradually increasing toward 2100. The mean VAS score of the last three days of the 5-h sleep restriction was significantly higher than that at baseline (psleep restriction for 7 d in an ambulatory condition increased subjective sleepiness up to the 5th day and then reached a plateau. The patterns of the time-course changes in sleepiness of 5-h sleep restriction per day did not differ from that at baseline.

  6. Sevoflurane exposure in 7-day-old rats affects neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and neurocognitive function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; Zhanggang Xue; Jing Cang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sevoflurane is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and former studies showed that it causes neurodegeneration in the developing brain.The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and behavior.Methods We administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine,an S-phase marker,before,during,and after 4 h of sevoflurane given to rats on postnatal day 7 to assess dentate gyrus progenitor proliferation and Fluoro-Jade staining for degeneration.Spatial reference memory was tested 2 and 6 weeks after anesthesia.Results Sevoflurane decreased progenitor proliferation and increased cell death until at least 4 days after anesthesia.Spatial reference memory was not affected at 2 weeks but was affected at 6 weeks after sevoflurane administration.Conclusion Sevoflurane reduces neurogenesis and increases the death of progenitor cells in developing brain.This might mediate the lateonset neurocognitive outcome after sevoflurane application.

  7. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  8. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  9. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7-day Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Andi; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We report the WIMP dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing Underground Laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3$\\times10^4$ kg-day,the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 3.5 and 1000 GeV/c$^2$. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found $2.5\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^2$ for the WIMP mass 40 GeV/c$^2$ at 90% confidence level.

  10. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted...

  11. Is a 7-day Helicobater pylori treatment enough for eradication and inactivation of gastric inflammatory activity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Robles-lara; Carlos Robles-Medranda; Manuel Moncayo; Byron Landivar; Johnny Parrales

    2008-01-01

    AIM- To compare the efficacy of a 7-d vs 10-d triple therapy regarding H pylori eradication, endoscopic findings and histological gastric inflammatory inactivation in the Ecuadorian population. METHODS: 136 patients with dyspepsia and H pylori infection were randomized in 2 groups (68 per group): group 1, 7-d therapy; group 2, t0-d therapy. Both groups received the same medication and daily dosage: omeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin I g bid. Endoscopy was performed for histological assessment and H pylori infection status before and 8 wk after treatment. RESULTS: H pylori was eradicated in 68% of group 1 vs 83. 8% of group 2 for the intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) (P = 0. 03; OR = 2. 48; 95% CI, 1. 1-5. 8), and 68% in group 1 vs 88% in group 2 for the per-protocol analysis (PP) (P = 0. 008; OR = 3. 66; 95% CI, 1. 4-10). Endoscopic gastric mucosa normalization was observed in 56. 9% in group 1 vs 61. 2% in group 2 for ITT, with similar results for the PP, the difference being statistically not significant. The rate of inflammatory inactivation was 69% in group 1 vs 88. 7% in group 2 for ITT (P = 0. 007;OR = 3. 00; 95% CI, 1. 2-7. 5), and 69% in group 1 vs96% in group 2 for PP (P = 0. 0002; OR = 7. 25; 95% CI, 2-26). CONCLUSION: In this Ecuadorian population, the 10-d therapy was more effective than the 7-d therapy for H pylori eradication as well as for gastric mucosa inflammatory inactivation.

  12. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  13. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    : Seventy-one patients (36 females, 35 males, average age 41.9 years from three Brazilian university centers (located in the cities of Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre, with peptic ulcers confirmed by endoscopy, and infections by H. pylory proven by at least two diagnostic testings were admitted in the trial. An association of pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1.0 g was administered to patients twice daily for 7 days. RESULTS: By the end of treatment all patients were examined for digestive symptoms, presence of adverse events, and treatment adherence. Sixty days after the end of the treatment a new endoscopy with biopsies and respiratory function testing with 13C-urea breath test was performed in order to determine the eradication rates of that microorganism. Patients showing negative results at least in the 13C-urea breath test and in one other test (urease or histology were considered H. pylory-negative. By the end of the trial, 60/69 (87%, CI 95% = 78.9-94.8 patients had the H. pylory eradicated in the per protocol analysis and 60/71 (84.5%, CI 95% = 76-92.9 in the intention-to-treat analysis. One patient was withdrawn from the trial due to a diarrhea. Twelve (16.9% patients showed adverse symptoms that were deemed as mild symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that the association of pantoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin administered during 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated alternative as regards the eradication of H. pylory in patients with peptic ulcer in Brazil.

  14. The cross-resistance to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in Mycobacteriu tuberculosis and gene mutations in gyrA and gyrB%结核分枝杆菌对左氧氟沙星与莫西沙星的交叉耐药性及gyrA和gyrB基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国利; 陈澎; 孙昌文; 张灵霞; 李邦印; 赵雁林

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究结核分枝杆菌(Mycobacterium tuberculosis,MTB)对左氧氟沙星(levofloxacin,LVF)与莫西沙星(moxifloxacin,MXF)的交叉耐药性,分析gyrA和gyrB基因突变位点分布及突变位点与耐药水平的关系.方法 采用改良罗氏培养基检测MTB标准菌株H37Rv、66株LVF耐药和55株LVF敏感的MTB临床分离菌株LVF和MXF的最低抑菌浓度(minimal inhibition concentra-tion,MIC).通过PCR直接测序法测定gyrA和gyrB耐药基因片段.结果 MXF的MIC比LVF低2~4倍,MXF抗MTB菌株的活性是LVF的2~4倍.MTB标准菌株H37Rv未见gyrA和gyrB基因突变.66株LVF耐药和55株LVF敏感菌株均存在gyrA AGC95ACC(Ser→Thr)突变;55株LVF敏感菌株gyrA和gyrB基因未见其他突变.66株LVF耐药菌株中,40株(60.6%)gyrAGAC94(AAC或GGC或GCC或CAC或TAC)(Asp→Asn或Gly或Ala或His或Tyr)突变;19株(28.8%)gyrA GCGg0GTG(Ala→Val)和1株(1.5%)gyrA GCG90AAG(Ala→Lys)(未见报导)双碱基突变;3株(4.6%)gyrA TCG91CCG(Ser→Pro)突变;1株(1.5%)gyrB GAC500AAC(Asp→Asn)突变;2株(3.0%)呈gyrA GAC94(AAC或GCC)(Asp→Asn或Ala)与gyrB GGG551AGG(Gly→Arg)(未见报导)双位点突变.gyrA GAC94(AAC或GGC)(Asp→Asn或Gly)突变引起FQs药物较高水平耐药;GAC94GCC(Asp→Ala)和GCG90GTG(Ala→Val)突变引起FQs药物较低水平耐药.结论 LVF与MXF之间存在交叉耐药,MXF MIC随LVF MIC增高而增高,但耐药水平不同.GyrA基因突变位点可能与耐药水平有关,有可能根据基因突变的位点分析耐药水平.

  15. 莫西沙星溶液雾化吸入对慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并呼吸衰竭患者炎症介质及血气分析指标的影响%Effects of moxifloxacin solution for inhalation on inflammatory mediators and blood gas analysis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 张翼; 尤慧敏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨莫西沙星溶液雾化吸入对慢阻肺合并呼吸衰竭患者炎症介质及血气分析的影响.方法 收集嘉善县第一人民医院呼吸科收治的慢阻肺合并呼衰的患者60例,随机分为对照组和实验组,每组各30例,在常规治疗基础上,对照组患者给予吸入用硫酸沙汀胺醇溶液(2 mg/次,每天3次雾化吸入治疗,实验组给予莫西沙星溶液2 mg/次,每天4次雾化吸入治疗,2组患者均治疗2周,对所有患者的血清CRP、TNF-α、IL-10、IL-18水平及动脉血PO2、PCO2 水平进行检测.结果 与对照组治疗后比较,实验组患者血清CRP、TNF-α、IL-18水平较低(P<0.05),血清IL-10水平较高(P<0.05);实验组患者的动脉血PO2 水平较高,PCO2 水平较低(P<0.05).结论 莫西沙星溶液雾化吸入能够显著降低慢阻肺合并呼衰患者血清CRP、TNF-α以及IL-18水平,提高血清IL-10水平,改善PO2 和PCO2.%Objective To analyse effects of moxifloxacin solution for aerosol inhalation on inflammatory mediators and blood gas analysis index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure.Methods 60 patients who were diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure in our hospital were collected.All patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,30 cases in each group.On the basis of conventional treatment, control group were given sulfate for inhalation shating amine alcohol solution 2mg per times, 3 times per day atomization inhalation treatment,and experimental group was given 2 mg/times, 4 times per day atomization inhalation treatment,two were treated for 2 weeks.After the treatment, the serum levels of CRP,TNF-α,IL-10,IL-18 and arterial blood PO2 ,PCO2 levels were detected in all patients.Results Compared with control group post-treatment, the serum levels of CRP, IL-18 and TNF-αwere lower in experimental group (P<0.05), and the serum level of IL-10 was higher

  16. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-07

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  17. Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte; Johansson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BASE - Engelsk basisgrammatik er resultatet af Lise-Lotte Hjulmands grundige bearbejdning og omfattende revidering af Christer Johanssons Engelska basgrammatik. Grammatikken adskiller sig fra det svenske forlæg på en lang række punkter. Den er bl.a. tilpasset til et dansk publikum og det danske...

  18. Influence of moxifloxacin on lipoteichoic acid induced apoptosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human alveolar macrophage%莫西沙星对脂磷壁酸诱导的人肺泡巨噬细胞凋亡及炎症因子释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗进梅; 吴本权; 刘慧; 李洪涛; 黄静; 朱家馨; 张天托

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the lipoteichoic acid(LTA) induced apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in human alveolar macrophage (AM) and the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflamatory effect of moxifloxacin (MXF).Methods Obtained human AM from bronchoalveolar lavage and used MTT assay to observe the effects of LTA and MXF on cell activity,optical microscope to investigate the change of the cell morphology,flow cytometry to assess cell apoptosis,RT-PCR to detect the mRNA levels of TLR2,IL-1 β,IL-8 and TNF-α,ELISA for the production of IL-8 to exam RT-PCR.Results LTA showed cytotoxicity on AM in a dose-dependent manner ( P<0.05 ) ; MXF inhibited the effect of LTA without cytotoxicicy ( P<0.05 ).LTA promoted apoptosis ( P<0.05 ) and the mRNA expressions of TRL2,IL-1 β,IL-8 and TNF-α significantly in AM (P<0.05),the peaks and peak time ofthe above factors were (3.56±0.03) at 12 h,(46.63±7.06) at 6 h,(28.07±1.24) at 12 h and (2.34 ±0.50) at 3 h respectively and increased the release of IL-8 protein level at 24 h (P<0.05).MXF inhibited the cell apoptosis and the above mRNA expression at 12h ( P<0.05 ),and inhibited the IL-8 protein level at 24 h( P<0.05 ).Conclusion LTA showed cytotoxicity on AM,induced AM apoptosis and increased the expression of TLR2,IL-I β,IL-8 and TNF-α of AM ; MXF could protect AM through inhibiting of the above effects and may play a key role beside bactericidal effect in gram-positive bacteria pneumonia.%目的 探讨脂磷壁酸(LTA)对人肺泡巨噬细胞(AM)凋亡及炎症因子释放的影响和莫西沙星(MXF)对其反应的抑制作用.方法 收集、提纯及体外培养人AM,LTA刺激4h后,加或不加MXF与其共孵育,于各实验终点用MTT法计算细胞相对活力,光学显微镜观察细胞形态,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡率,RT-PCR法检测TLR2、IL-1β、IL-8及TNF-α的mRNA水平,ELISA检测IL-8蛋白水平,验证RT-PCR.结果 LTA对AM有细胞毒性,并呈浓度递增关系(P<0

  19. [Dimensional changes of silver and gallium-based alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, R Y; Markarian, R A; Loguercio, A D

    2001-01-01

    Gallium-based dental alloys were created with the aim of solving the problem of toxicity of mercury. The material shows mechanical properties similar to those of dental amalgam, but researches point out two unfavorable characteristics: great corrosion and excessive post-setting expansion, and the latter is capable of cracking dental structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate, during 7 days, the in vitro dimensional alteration of a gallium dental alloy (Galloy, SDI, Australia), in comparison with a dental amalgam containing zinc (F400, SDI, Australia), as a function of the contact with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) during the setting period. The storage experimental conditions were: storage in dry environment, immersion in saline solution and contamination during condensation. Additionally, the effects of contamination during the trituration of dental amalgam and the effects of protecting the surface of the gallium alloy with a fluid resin were studied. Specimens were stored at 37 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, and measuring was carried out, sequentially, every 24 h during 7 days. When the gallium alloy was either contaminated or immersed, an expansion significantly greater than that observed in the other experimental conditions was noticed after 7 days. The application of a fluid resin to protect the surface of the cylinders was able to avoid the increase in expansion caused by superficial moisture. The amalgam alloy did not show significant dimensional alterations, except when it was contaminated during trituration.

  20. E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leistner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.

  1. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  2. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  3. An evaluation of the sensitivity of freshwater mussels in 7-day effluent toxicity tests compared to commonly tested species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The causes of...

  4. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  5. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    resulted in improvements in insulin action in the absence of weight loss. Glucose disposal rates during the euglycemic clamp were significantly increased at both hyperinsulinemic stages after training (40 mU: 1.84 +/- 0.32 to 2.67 +/- 0.37 mg.kg(-1).min(-1), P ...The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...

  6. [Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-bearing in an experiment with 7-day immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Zhuravleva, O A; Morukov, B V; Zabolotskaia, I V; Vostrikova, L V; Kuzichkin, D S

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-loading were studied in three groups of 21-30 y.o. volunteers for 7-d dry immersion. Blood serum was investigated for 38 biochemical parameters that characterize myocardium, skeletal musculature, hepatobiliary system, kidney, pancreas, GI tract, prostate, and protein-nucleic, carbohydrate, electrolyte and mineral metabolism. Seven-day DI w/o countermeasures (n = 5) increased concentration of conjugated bilirubin, suppressed activities of muscular (creatine phosphokinase MM) and myocardial enzymes (CPK MB, OBDH), and caused an upward trend in cholesterol, its atherogenic LDP fraction and triglycerides. Mechanic sole stimulation (n = 6) intensified, within the physiological norm, erythrocyte hematolysis raising total bilirubin and potassium. Despite the stimulation, activity of muscle and myocardial enzymes made a decrease. Blood creatinine decreased to a less extent than in the immersed group w/o stimulation, however, lipid parameters did not rise. High-frequency stimulation of the lower leg and hip muscles in the course of immersion (n = 5) was noted to heighten the activity of muscle enzymes and potassium level in blood beyond the physiological norm. Change in creatinine did not reach a statistical significance and lipid metabolism parameters were not different from baseline values. Application of these physical methods of counteracting deficiency of weight bearing did not interfere with redistribution of body liquids due to immersion. Values of the parameters under study were mostly within the normal limits throughout the experimental exposure suggesting absence of pathological developments during DI or in consequence of physical stimulation. Therefore, the reactions were obviously of normal adaptive character.

  7. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time-course of this effect of Epo are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the cognitive improvement reflects direct neurobiological actions or is secondary to hematological effects. We therefore assessed the actions of single administration of Epo (40,000 IU) vs. saline to healthy volunteers on cognitive and neural measures of executive function using a verbal fluency task and N-back working memory (WM) paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on day 3 and 7 after administration in two separate cohorts of subjects. Epo modulated neuronal response in a fronto-parietal network during WM performance at both time points; on day 3 after administration, activation was increased in left-hemisphere frontal and cingulate cortex and reduced in the right parietal cortex; in contrast, neural response was enhanced in a right-lateralized fronto-parietal network and reduced in left-side regions 1 week post-administration. In addition, Epo-treated volunteers displayed improved verbal fluency performance 1 week post-administration. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in hematological measures suggesting that they reflect direct neurobiological actions of Epo. The findings are consistent with enduring effects of Epo on neurotrophic signaling and induction of neurochemical changes over time in neural networks typically affected in neuropsychiatric illness. The present study supports the notion that Epo may have clinical applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Effect of hypercarbia and isoflurane on brain cell death and neurocognitive dysfunction in 7-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greg; May, Laura D V; Sall, Jeffrey W; Alvi, Rehan S; Bell, Joseph S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Rau, Vinuta; Hilton, Joan F; Dai, Ran; Lee, Michael T; Visrodia, Kavel H; Ku, Ban; Zusmer, Emanuel J; Guggenheim, Jeremy; Firouzian, Atoosa

    2009-04-01

    Millions of neonates undergo anesthesia each year. Certain anesthetic agents cause brain cell death and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in postnatal day (P)7 rats. Despite its intuitive appeal, a causal link between cell death and neurocognitive decline after anesthesia has not been established. If one existed, the degree of cell death would be expected to correlate with the degree of neurocognitive dysfunction caused by anesthesia. The authors therefore tested if cell death caused by various durations of isoflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration causes duration-dependent long-term neurocognitive dysfunction. Isoflurane was administered to P7 rats at 1 minimum alveolar concentration for 0, 1, 2, or 4 h. To control for the respiratory depressant effects of anesthesia, a group of rats was treated with 4 h of carbon dioxide. Cell death was assessed by FluoroJade staining 12 h after the end of each intervention, and neurocognitive outcome was assessed 8 weeks later by using fear conditioning, spatial reference memory, and spatial working memory tasks. Widespread brain cell death was caused by 2 h and 4 h of isoflurane and by 4 h of carbon dioxide. The degree and distribution of thalamic cell death was similar in 4 h isoflurane-treated and 4-h carbon dioxide-treated rats. Only 4 h of isoflurane caused a long-term neurocognitive deficit affecting both spatial reference memory and spatial working memory. Working memory was improved in carbon dioxide-treated rats. Isoflurane-induced brain cell death may be partly caused by hypercarbia. The inconsistencies between cell death and neurocognitive outcome suggest that additional or alternative mechanisms may mediate anesthesia-induced long-term neurocognitive dysfunction.

  9. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7 Days of Data from the PandaX-II Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andi; Xiao, Mengjiao; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Xuyuan; Han, Ke; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jimin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-09-16

    We report the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing underground laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3×10^{4}  kg day, the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 5 and 1000  GeV/c^{2}. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found 2.5×10^{-46}  cm^{2} for the WIMP mass 40  GeV/c^{2} at 90% confidence level.

  10. Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Jamie; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J; McCabe, Ciara

    2010-09-01

    Reduced subjective experience of reward (anhedonia) is a key symptom of major depression. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)) antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use and was recently withdrawn from the market because of these adverse effects. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model of reward we hypothesized that rimonabant would impair reward processing. Twenty-two healthy participants were randomly allocated to receive rimonabant (20 mg), or placebo, for 7 d in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavour of chocolate) and aversive (sight of mouldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) stimuli on the final day of drug treatment. Rimonabant reduced the neural response to chocolate stimuli in key reward areas such as the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Rimonabant also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimulus condition in the caudate nucleus and ventral striatum, but increased lateral orbitofrontal activations to the aversive sight and taste of strawberry condition. Our findings are the first to show that the anti-obesity drug rimonabant inhibits the neural processing of rewarding food stimuli in humans. This plausibly underlies its ability to promote weight loss, but may also indicate a mechanism for inducing anhedonia which could lead to the increased risk of depressive symptomatology seen in clinical use. fMRI may be a useful method of screening novel agents for unwanted effects on reward and associated clinical adverse reactions.

  11. Prognostic value of severity by various visceral proteins in critically ill patients with SIRS during 7 days of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharras-El Idrissi, Hicham; Molina-López, Jorge; Herrera-Quintana, Lourdes; Domínguez-García, Álvaro; Lobo-Támer, Gabriela; Pérez-Moreno, Irene; Pérez-de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells-Del Pozo, Elena

    2016-11-29

    Critically ill patients typically develop a catabolic stress state as a result of a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) that alters clinical-nutritional biomarkers, increasing energy demands and nutritional requirements. To evaluate the status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in critically ill patients and the association between these clinical-nutritional parameters with the severity during a seven day stay in intensive care unit (ICU). Multicenter, prospective, observational and analytical follow-up study. A total of 115 subjects in critical condition were included in this study. Clinical and nutritional parameters and severity were monitored at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. A significant decrease in APACHE II and SOFA (p < 0.05) throughout the evolution of critically ill patients in ICU. In general, patients showed an alteration of most of the parameters analyzed. The status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were below reference levels both at admission and the 7th day in ICU. A high percentage of patients presented an unbalanced status of albumin (71.3%), prealbumin (84.3%) and transferrin (69.0%). At admission, 27% to 47% of patients with altered protein parameters had APACHE II above 18. The number of patients with altered protein parameters and APACHE II below 18 were significantly higher than severe ones throughout the ICU stay (p < 0.01). Regarding the multivariate analysis, low prealbumin status was the best predictor of severity critical (p < 0.05) both at admission and 7th day of the ICU stay. The results of the present study support the idea of including low prealbumin status as a severity predictor in APACHE II scale, due to the association found between severity and poor status of prealbumin.

  12. Population-based resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones: results from a multicountry surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zignol, Matteo; Dean, Anna S; Alikhanova, Natavan; Andres, Sönke; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Dadu, Andrei; Dreyer, Andries; Driesen, Michèle; Gilpin, Christopher; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Hoffner, Sven; Husain, Ashaque; Hussain, Alamdar; Ismail, Nazir; Kamal, Mostofa; Mansjö, Mikael; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Niemann, Stefan; Omar, Shaheed V; Qadeer, Ejaz; Rigouts, Leen; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine; Schito, Marco; Seyfaddinova, Mehriban; Skrahina, Alena; Tahseen, Sabira; Wells, William A; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Kimerling, Michael; Floyd, Katherine; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-10-01

    Pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones are essential antituberculosis drugs in new rifampicin-sparing regimens. However, little information about the extent of resistance to these drugs at the population level is available. In a molecular epidemiology analysis, we used population-based surveys from Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, and South Africa to investigate resistance to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones among patients with tuberculosis. Resistance to pyrazinamide was assessed by gene sequencing with the detection of resistance-conferring mutations in the pncA gene, and susceptibility testing to fluoroquinolones was conducted using the MGIT system. Pyrazinamide resistance was assessed in 4972 patients. Levels of resistance varied substantially in the surveyed settings (3·0-42·1%). In all settings, pyrazinamide resistance was significantly associated with rifampicin resistance. Among 5015 patients who underwent susceptibility testing to fluoroquinolones, proportions of resistance ranged from 1·0-16·6% for ofloxacin, to 0·5-12·4% for levofloxacin, and 0·9-14·6% for moxifloxacin when tested at 0·5 μg/mL. High levels of ofloxacin resistance were detected in Pakistan. Resistance to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin when tested at 2 μg/mL was low in all countries. Although pyrazinamide resistance was significantly associated with rifampicin resistance, this drug may still be effective in 19-63% of patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Even though the high level of resistance to ofloxacin found in Pakistan is worrisome because it might be the expression of extensive and unregulated use of fluoroquinolones in some parts of Asia, the negligible levels of resistance to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones documented in all survey sites is an encouraging finding. Rational use of this class of antibiotics should therefore be ensured to preserve its effectiveness. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development

  13. A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, δ Orionis Aa. III. Analysis of Optical Photometric (MOST) and Spectroscopic (Ground-based) Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pablo, H.; Richardson, N.D.; Moffat, A.F.J.; Corcoran, M.; Shenar, T.; Benvenuto, O.; Fuller, J.; Nazé, Y.; Hoffman, J.L.; Miroshnichenko, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Evans, N.; Eversberg, T.; Gayley, K.; Gull, T.; Hamaguchi, K.; Hamann, W.-R.; Henrichs, H.; Hole, T.; Ignace, R.; Iping, R.; Lauer, J.; Leutenegger, M.; Lomax, J.; Nichols, J.; Oskinova, L.; Owocki, S.; Pollock, A.; Russell, C.M.P.; Waldron, W.; Buil, C.; Garrel, T.; Graham, K.; Heathcote, B.; Lemoult, T.; Li, D.; Mauclaire, B.; Potter, M.; Ribeiro, J.; Matthews, J.; Cameron, C.; Guenther, D.; Kuschnig, R.; Rowe, J.; Rucinski, S.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on both high-precision photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope and ground-based spectroscopy of the triple system δ Ori A, consisting of a binary O9.5II+early-B (Aa1 and Aa2) with P = 5.7 days, and a more distant tertiary (O9 IV P> 400 years).

  14. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  15. Dentinal shear bond strength, microleakage, and contraction gap of visible light-polymerized liners/bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, R L; Barkmeier, W W

    1991-06-01

    The bond strength and microleakage patterns of three light-curing glass-ionomer cement liners/bases (Vitrebond, XR Ionomer, and Zionomer) were evaluated and compared to a fluoride-releasing resin (TimeLine) designed for the same use. Bond strength tests were performed at 24 hours and 7 days. At 24 hours Vitrebond, Time-Line, and Zionomer had statistically significantly greater bond strengths than XR Ionomer. At 7 days, Vitrebond had a statistically significantly stronger bond than the others. Microleakage was evaluated after 24 hours of thermocycling. Vitrebond and XR Ionomer had statistically significantly less leakage than the others, while TimeLine had significantly more leakage than the others. Polymerization contraction gaps between the liners/bases and dentin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Contraction gaps were approximately 10 microns with Vitrebond and XR Ionomer and 5 microns with TimeLine. A contraction gap generally was not observed with Zionomer.

  16. Application of starter cultures in the production of Enturire ? a traditional sorghum?based alcoholic beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Ntaate, Denis; Byakika, Stellah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enturire is an alcoholic sorghum? and honey?based beverage traditionally produced by spontaneous fermentation. Its fermentation process is lengthy (5?7?days), does not guarantee product quality and safety and thus necessitates use of pure starter cultures. This study compared a modified production process of Enturire, with honey added at the start to the traditional one (honey added 3?days into the fermentation). The study also evaluated two starter culture combinations (L.?plantarum...

  17. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Loredana; Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Serban, Andreea Iren; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Sima, Cornelia; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Zărnescu, Otilia; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2013-05-01

    oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner.

  18. Glycerol Salicylate-based Pulp-Capping Material Containing Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando Freitas; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Santos, Paula Dapper; Sartori, Cláudia; Wegner, Everton; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate-based, pulp-capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping material (Hydcal). An experimental cement was developed containing 60% glycerol salicylate resin, 10% methyl salicylate, 25% calcium hydroxide and 5% Portland cement. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days. Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate-based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal. The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching 12.59 ± 0.06 and 12.54 ± 0.05 after 7 days, for Hydcal and glycerol salicylate-based cements, respectively. Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. Hydcal exhibited an intense diffusion into dentin up to 40 µm deep, and the glycerol salicylate-based cement penetrated 20 µm. The experimental glycerol salicylate-based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material.

  19. Vonoprazan-Based Regimen Is More Useful than PPI-Based One as a First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoki; Kubota, Daisuke; Miyajima, Masayuki; Tokutake, Koujiro; Imai, Ryujiro; Fujisawa, Toru; Mori, Hiromitsu; Matsuda, Yoshiaki; Wada, Shuichi; Horiuchi, Akira; Kiyosawa, Kendo

    2017-01-01

    Background. A new agent, potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan (VPZ) has potent acid-inhibitory effects and may offer advantages over conventional H. pylori eradication therapies. We aimed to compare the eradication rate between VPZ-based treatment and PPI-based one. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was designed to assign 141 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis to VPZ group (VPZ 20 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg twice daily for 7 days) or PPI group (rabeprazole 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg twice daily for 7 days). Primary endpoints were eradication rates and adverse events. Results. Seventy of 72 patients in VPZ group and 63 of 69 patients in PPI group completed the treatment after 7 days. The eradication rate was significantly higher in VPZ group than PPI group by intention-to-treat analysis (95.8% versus 69.6%, P = 0.00003, 95% confidence interval [CI] 88.3-99.1% versus 57.3-80.1%) and per-protocol analysis (95.7% versus 71.4%, P = 0.0002, 95% CI 88.0-99.1% versus 58.7-82.1%). The incidence of adverse events was not different between the groups (26.3% in VPZ group versus 37.7% in PPI group, P = 0.15). Conclusion. VPZ-based regimen is more useful than that PPI-based regimen as a first-line H. pylori eradication therapy.

  20. Validation of Web-Based Physical Activity Measurement Systems Using Doubly Labeled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement accuracy of the 24hPAR WEB was moderate to high, it could be suitable for evaluating the effect of interventions on individuals as well as for examining physical activity behavior. PMID:23010345

  1. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF LOW CALCIUM FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIRAGI DAVE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to reduce environmental pollution that causes by production of Portland cement and cause by the increasing of waste material. Geopolymer concrete results from the reaction of a source material that is rich in silica and alumina with alkaline liquid. In this experiment low calcium (ASTM Class F fly ash based Geopolymer is used as the binder, in the replacement of portland cement to produce Geopolymer concrete. The alkaline liquid that been used in geopolymerisation is the combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium metasilicate (Na2Sio2. Fly ash has been collected from Badarpur NTPC plant, New Delhi. In the present study, three (3 series of geopolymer concrete specimens composing molar of sodium hydroxide (NaOH which is 8M was adopted. There are 9 cube specimens at size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were prepared. The test specimenswere cured at 60 degree in an oven and at ambient condition. The curing time varied from 24 hour to 168 hours (7 days. The result shows that the strength of geopolymer concrete after 24 hour is not superior and after 7 day the compressive strength of Geopolymer concrete is moderate. Therefore further curing period and temperatureshould be improved.

  2. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR (with minor modifications as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56% achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics and limited sampling strategy for first-line tuberculosis drugs and moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis-Escurra, C.; Later-Nijland, H. M. J.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.; Broeders, J.; Burger, D. M.; van Crevel, R.; Boeree, M. J.; Donders, A. R. T.; van Altena, R.; van der Werf, T. S.; Aarnoutse, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tuberculosis (TB) drugs currently focuses on peak plasma concentrations, yet total exposure [area under the 24-h concentration-time curve (AUC(0-24))] is probably most relevant to the efficacy of these drugs. We therefore assessed population AUC(0-24) data for al

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina Rodrigues; Denise Andreazzi

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amost...

  5. Eficacia de la moxifloxacina en infecciones odontogénicas Efficacy of moxifloxacin in odontogenic infections

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-01-01

    Las infecciones de la boca se caracterizan por ser polimicrobianas, endógenas, oportunistas, dinámicas y mixtas debido a que intervienen bacterias aerobias y especialmente anaerobias. La mayor parte de estas infecciones son odontogénicas, siendo las más frecuentes caries, periodontitis, absceso periapical, absceso periodontal, pericoronaritis, pulpitis, sinusitis, osteítis e infección de los espacios aponeuróticos. Las quinolonas presentan una alta penetración tisular y una buena absorción cu...

  6. Eficacia de la moxifloxacina en infecciones odontogénicas Efficacy of moxifloxacin in odontogenic infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-01-01

    .... La mayor parte de estas infecciones son odontogénicas, siendo las más frecuentes caries, periodontitis, absceso periapical, absceso periodontal, pericoronaritis, pulpitis, sinusitis, osteítis...

  7. Moxifloxacin Compared With Ciprofloxacin/Amoxicillin in Treating Fever and Neutropenia in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neutropenia; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. THE EXPERIENCE OF TREGALOZA BASED LUBRICANT USAGE FOR PATIENTS WHO UNDERWENT EXCIMER LASER SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eskina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the tregalose based eye drops effectiveness in patients who underwent PRK or TransPRK surgery. patients and methods: 50 patients with moderate myopia were examined before, 7 days and 1 month after PRK or TransPRK surgery made by SCHWIND Amaris excimer laser by the same surgeon. In addition to conventional diagnostics, Schirmer test and tear break up time were performed as well as ODSI questionare and Oxford index of ocular surface disorders were investigated. Patients were divided in two groups, Study group — “Thealos” group and “Control” group. In both groups patients have started using non preservative eye drops based on tregalosa and hyaluronic acid 4-th day after surgery respectively. results: The tear film breakup time was significantly better in “Thealos” group (7,22±3,61 sec 7 days postop and 9,36±3,68 sec 1 month postop in comparison to «Control” group 5,21±0,25 (р<0,01 sec and 7,21±2,85 sec respectively (р<0,05 as well as ocular surface index score in “Thealos” group post surgery was less (0,26±0,38 и 0,85±0,31 marks 7 days postop (р<0,05 and 0,09±0,19 and 0,21±0,4 (р<0,05 1 month postop respectively. There were no other statistically significant differences found in analysed data. Conclusion: Using of “Thealoz” non-preservative eye drops leads to faster recovery after surface excimer laser ablations in terms of dry eye manifestation, those as tearfilm stability and ocular surface index score, measured using “Oxford” scale. Moistening properties of tregaloze solution could be compared with those of hyaluronic acid solution.

  9. Swift reveals a ~5.7 day super-orbital period in the M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Murrray, S S

    2015-01-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29$\\pm$1 times the orbital period, i.e. $\\sim$81$\\pm$3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3--10 keV Swift XRT luminosity lightcurve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65+/-0.05 days, and a >5$\\sigma$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods 5.4--5.8 days were detected at a >3$\\sigma$ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70\\% l...

  10. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  11. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these di...

  13. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  14. Reduction in Thrombosis and Bacterial Adhesion with 7 Day Implantation of S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-Doped Elast-eon E2As Catheters in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Davis, Ryan P.; Jones, Anna M.; Major, Terry C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis and infection are two common problems associated with blood-contacting medical devices such as catheters. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a potent antimicrobial agent as well as an inhibitor of platelet activation and adhesion. Healthy endothelial cells that line the inner walls of all blood vessels exhibit a NO flux of 0.5~4×10−10 mol cm−2 min−1 that helps prevent thrombosis. Materials with a NO flux that is equivalent to this level are expected to exhibit similar anti-thrombotic properties. In this study, NO-releasing catheters were fabricated by incorporating S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in the Elast-eon E2As polymer. The SNAP/E2As catheters release physiological levels of NO for up to 20 d, as measured by chemiluminescence. Furthermore, SNAP is stable in the E2As polymer, retaining 89% of the initial SNAP after ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization. The SNAP/E2As and E2As control catheters were implanted in sheep veins for 7 d to examine the effect on thrombosis and bacterial adhesion. The SNAP/E2As catheters reduced the thrombus area when compared to the control (1.56 ± 0.76 and 5.06 ± 1.44 cm2, respectively). A 90% reduction in bacterial adhesion was also observed for the SNAP/E2As catheters as compared to the controls. The results suggest that the SNAP/E2As polymer has the potential to improve the hemocompatibility and bactericidal activity of intravascular catheters, as well as other blood-contacting medical devices (e.g., vascular grafts, extracorporeal circuits). PMID:25685358

  15. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  16. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P ....0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies...

  17. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  18. Special offer-7 days fly and drive Antarctica: The role of wilderness protection in deciding whether (semi) permanent tourist facilities in Antarctica should be prohibited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world’s last wildernesses. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23,000 (2004/05). The diversity of tourist activities is also increasing. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental...

  19. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  20. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  1. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use before first AI in dairy herds.

  2. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  3. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M. J.; Schouten, Leo J.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2–5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47–1.13), 0.80(0.47–1.39), and 0.72(0.52–1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135

  4. Stress-Strain of Hotmix Cold Laid Containing Buton Granular Asphat (BGA with Modifier Oil Base and Modifier Water Base as Wearing Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiamin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Buton granular asphalt (BGA is produced from natural rock asphalt. The employment of hotmix cold laid containing BGA with modifier oil base and modifier oil base can substitute hot rolled asphalt (HRA construction in the remote and distance areas. Natural rock asphalt that deposited in Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi in Indonesia is crushed to produce Buton granular asphalt (BGA. BGA and cold modifier were utilized to produce hot mixture that can be laid at cold temperature of 50OC to 27OC.The present study provides the information concerning the stress-strain pattern and compressive strength of hotmix cold laid containing BGA and Modifier Oil Base and Modifier Water Base at the storing and compaction time of 4 hours, 3 days and 7 days.

  5. Effects of neem-based insecticides on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOILM.GREENBERG; ALLANT.SHOWLER; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    Three commercial neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]-based insecticides, Agroneem, Ecozin, and Neemix, and a non-commercial neem leaf powder,were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect on larvae, and toxicity to eggs and larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),on cotton leaves in the laboratory. Oviposition deterrence in no-choice, and two- and fivechoice assays, was observed for the neem-based insecticide treatments when compared with a non-treated control. Neem-based insecticides also deterred feeding by beet armyworm larvae. Direct contact with neem-based insecticides decreased the survival of beet armyworm eggs. Survival of beet armyworm larvae fed for 7 days on leaves treated with neembased insecticides was reduced to 27, 33, 60, and 61% for neem leaf powder, Ecozin,Agroneem, and Neemix, respectively. Possibilities for adoption of neem-based insecticides in commercial cotton for beet armyworm control are discussed.

  6. The feasibility of hospital-based universal newborn hearing screening in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, W; Kemp, D T

    2001-01-01

    Current hearing screening programmes in the United Kingdom are performing unacceptably poorly. Davies et al. (1997) suggested that universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) would be more effective and cheaper to run. However, there is concern that hospital-based UNHS would not be feasible because of early postnatal discharge, and thus babies not staying in hospital long enough to be screened. Two studies were designed to determine the viability of hospital-based UNHS in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Study 1 retrospectively determined the discharge age and time of discharge of all 3021 well babies born at St Helier hospital, Carshalton, and the number of babies born at home in the area, from 19 October 1997-18 October 1998. Most well babies were found to pass through hospital at a convenient time for predischarge hearing screening, and the optimal protocol was screening from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week. The predicted maximal screening coverage was 92.68%. Study 2 tested the calculated optimal protocol over 1 week. It was found that UNHS with otoacoustic emissions on the maternity ward from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week, achieved a coverage of 89.06%, with an acceptable false positive rate of 6.2%. It is likely that a similar protocol with slight modifications could be implemented successfully in other hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  7. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  8. Pharmacodynamic assessment based on mutant prevention concentrations of fluoroquinolones to prevent the emergence of resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tomoyuki; Hori, Toshihiko; Sugimori, Giichi; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, on the basis of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) concept, and the emergence of resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolone antibacterials. Some clinical isolates with various MIC and MPC values of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were exposed under conditions simulating the time-concentration curves observed when moxifloxacin (400 or 80 mg, once a day) or levofloxacin (200 mg, twice a day) was orally administered by using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. The decrease in susceptibility was evaluated by altering the population analysis profiles after moxifloxacin or levofloxacin treatment for 72 h. When the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24))/MPC and peak concentration (C(max))/MPC were above 13.41 and 1.20, respectively, complete eradication occurred and no decrease in susceptibility was observed. On the other hand, when AUC(0-24)/MPC and C(max)/MPC were below 0.84 and 0.08, respectively, the susceptibility decreased. However, the time inside the mutant selective window and the time above the MPC did not show any correlation with the decrease in susceptibility. These results suggest that AUC(0-24)/MPC and C(max)/MPC are important parameters for predicting the emergence of resistant mutants and that higher values indicate greater effectiveness.

  9. Earthquake prediction in seismogenic areas of the Iberian Peninsula based on computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Esteban, A.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.; Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    A method to predict earthquakes in two of the seismogenic areas of the Iberian Peninsula, based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), is presented in this paper. ANNs have been widely used in many fields but only very few and very recent studies have been conducted on earthquake prediction. Two kinds of predictions are provided in this study: a) the probability of an earthquake, of magnitude equal or larger than a preset threshold magnitude, within the next 7 days, to happen; b) the probability of an earthquake of a limited magnitude interval to happen, during the next 7 days. First, the physical fundamentals related to earthquake occurrence are explained. Second, the mathematical model underlying ANNs is explained and the configuration chosen is justified. Then, the ANNs have been trained in both areas: The Alborán Sea and the Western Azores-Gibraltar fault. Later, the ANNs have been tested in both areas for a period of time immediately subsequent to the training period. Statistical tests are provided showing meaningful results. Finally, ANNs were compared to other well known classifiers showing quantitatively and qualitatively better results. The authors expect that the results obtained will encourage researchers to conduct further research on this topic. Development of a system capable of predicting earthquakes for the next seven days Application of ANN is particularly reliable to earthquake prediction. Use of geophysical information modeling the soil behavior as ANN's input data Successful analysis of one region with large seismic activity

  10. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E', an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E'/A' at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy.

  11. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  12. [Bioanode for a microbial fuel cell based on Gluconobacter oxydans inummobilized into a polymer matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, S V; Minaĭcheva, P R; Arliapov, V A; Asulian, L D; Alferov, V A; Ponomareva, O N; Reshetilov, A N

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius RKM V-1280 were immobilized into a synthetic matrix based on polyvinyl alcohol modified with N-vinylpyrrolidone and used as biocatalysts for the development ofbioanodes for microbial fuel cells. The immobilization method did not significantly affect bacterial substrate specificity. Bioanodes based on immobilized bacteria functioned stably for 7 days. The maximum voltage (fuel cell signal) was reached when 100-130 µM of an electron transport mediator, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, was added into the anode compartment. The fuel cell signals reached a maximum at a glucose concentration higher than 6 mM. The power output of the laboratory model of a fuel cell based on the developed bioanode reached 7 mW/m2 with the use of fermentation industry wastes as fuel.

  13. Tract-Based Bayesian Multivariate Analysis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Tianyao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Guoxing; Wang, Zhongqiu; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Detecting brain regions characterizing mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by combining Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and Graphical-model-based Multivariate Analysis (GAMMA). Materials and Methods. This study included 39 mTBI patients and 28 normal controls. Local research ethics committee approved this prospective study. Diffusion-tensor imaging was performed in mTBI patients within 7 days of injury. Skeletonized fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated by using TBSS. Brain regions characterizing mTBI were detected by GAMMA. Results. Two clusters of lower frontal white matter FA were present in mTBI patients. We constructed classifiers based on FA values in these two clusters to differentiate mTBI and controls. The mean accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, across five different classifiers, were 0.80, 0.94, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusions. Combining TBSS and GAMMA can detect neuroimaging biomarkers characterizing mTBI. PMID:24711857

  14. Fabrication of 3-dimensional cellular constructs via microstereolithography using a simple, three-component, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Gilbert, Hamish T J; Barker, Ian A; Becker, Jan M; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A; Covington, James A; Dove, Andrew P

    2013-01-14

    A novel method for the production of inhibitor- and solvent-free resins suitable for three-dimensional (3D) microstereolithography is reported. Using an exemplar poly(ethylene glycol)-based resin, the control of features in the X, Y, and Z planes is demonstrated such that complex structures can be manufactured. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the manufactured scaffolds remained viable during the 7 day assessment period, with proliferation rates comparable to those observed on tissue culture polystyrene. These data suggest that this novel, yet simple, method is suitable for the production of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  15. Genetic variants in the apelin system and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium interventions: a family-based association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Hixson, James E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gu, Dongfeng; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rice, Treva; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Chen, Jichun; Cao, Jie; Kelly, Tanika N; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; He, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    We examined the association between genetic variants in the apelin system and blood pressure (BP) responses to low-sodium and high-sodium interventions in the GenSalt Study. A 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium per day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium per day) was conducted among 1906 participants from 637 Han Chinese families. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and following each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both tag and functional SNPs, were selected from three candidate genes (APLN, APLNR, and ACE2). Single marker and haplotype analyses were conducted using the Family Based Association Test program. The false discovery rate method was used to correct for multiple testing. SNPs rs2282623 and rs746886 of the APLNR gene were significantly associated with DBP (both P = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively) responses to low-sodium intervention. Six SNPs of the ACE2 gene were significantly associated with SBP, DBP, or MAP responses to low-sodium intervention. Three of them, rs1514283, rs1514282, and rs4646176, were also significantly associated with MAP response to high-sodium intervention (all P family-based study indicates that genetic variants in the APLNR and ACE2 genes are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention.

  16. Gadolinium-based contrast media may be nephrotoxic even at approved doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev (Denmark)

    2004-09-01

    It is generally believed that gadolinium-based contrast media are not nephrotoxic at the approved doses for MR (<0.3 mmol/kg body weight). Recently, a patient with diabetic nephropathy required dialysis because of anuria 6-7 days after MR angiography with 0.14 mmol/kg body weight gadolinium-DTPA-BMA to assess renal artery stenosis. No special precautions (e.g., hydration) had been taken. The serum creatinine levels had been within 200 and 300 {mu}mol/l for the last 3 years with a very slow increase. This case highlights that gadolinium-based contrast media can cause contrast medium-induced nephropathy even at doses below 0.2 mmol/kg body weight in patients with multiple risk factors. (orig.)

  17. MRSA decontamination using octenidine-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevicius, Mindaugas; Juzéniené, Audra; Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Indré; Veršinina, Anželika

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidine-based products have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound surface. In the affected patients octenidine-based products were used in one or two cycles of 7 days each. In addition, adverse events were recorded and the tolerability was assessed using a 4-point scale ranging from 'very good' to 'poor'. Complete decontamination was achieved in 24 patients (67%) following treatment with the octenidine-based products. None of the patients experienced side-effects or secondary symptoms such as skin irritation or allergic reactions during the course of the study. In addition, octenidine was very well tolerated in the majority of patients (n=31; 86%). The results demonstrate that octenidine-based products are highly efficient in the multifaceted decontamination of hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. Having a range of products that can be used for full body decontamination (including the scalp and nasal passages) is of particular significance when developing an MRSA decontamination protocol, as multiple parts of the body can be affected. Combined with a favourable safety and tolerability profile, octenidine-based products thus represent a good choice in multifaceted MRSA decontamination regimes, which are necessary to

  18. The use of an IV to PO clinical intervention form to improve antibiotic administration in a community based hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cameron; Zahradnik, Michelle; Brown, Allison; Gina Fleming, Dimitra; Law, Madelyn

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials are among the most commonly prescribed medications in acute care settings, with 50% of antimicrobial use deemed inappropriate. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) aim to optimize antibiotic use in order to improve patient clinical outcomes while minimizing unwanted effects of therapy including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the emergence of resistant organisms. Antimicrobial Stewardship involves a coordinated set of interventions that ensure patients who require antimicrobial therapy receive the most appropriate agent at the correct dose, by the correct route for the correct duration. This project focused on the appropriate conversion from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics. The purpose of the project was to determine whether antibiotic prescribing patterns improved following the implementation of an IV to PO conversion clinical intervention form. A collaborative approach was used by an interprofessional team to review medical records and design a clinical intervention form that adheres to evidence-based guidelines to promote appropriate conversion for patients on intravenous antibiotics. Education efforts were made to inform health system staff about the goal of the intervention and to gather feedback for the improvement of the clinical intervention form. A five-week pilot intervention period trial was carried out with a specific focus on the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, specifically ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin. Data from the intervention phase, including overall antibiotic use, ratio of intravenous:oral antibiotic time and compliance with the clinical intervention form were assessed. The ratio of intravenous to oral fluoroquinolone use changed from 39.4% IV: 60.6% PO before the intervention, to 34.7% IV: 65.3% PO during the intervention, indicating an overall increase in the usage of oral fluoroquinolones during the intervention phase. In patients eligible to receive the clinical intervention form

  19. Effects of a Dicalcium and Tetracalcium Phosphate-Based Desensitizer on In Vitro Dentin Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Chiba, Ayaka; Scheffel, Debora L S; Hebling, Josimeri; Agee, Kelli; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer in reducing dentin permeability in vitro. Dentin fluid flow was measured before and after treatment of dentin with patent dentinal tubules using 1 or 3 applications of the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate containing agent TeethmateTM (TM) and comparing the results with two sodium fluoride varnishes VellaTM (VLA) and VanishTM (VAN), after storage in artificial saliva for 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Significant differences were observed among the 4 methods employed for reducing dentin permeability (p < 0.001) and the 3 post-treatment times (p < 0.001). VLA and VAN never achieved 50% permeability reductions consistently in any of the 3 time periods. Only the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer applied for 3 times consistently reduced dentin permeability by 50% after 24 h. When applied once, the permeability reduction of TM increased progressively over the 3 time periods. After 7 days, only one and three applications of the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer consistently reduced dentin permeability by more than 50%. Permeability reductions corresponded well with scanning electron microscopy examination of dentinal tubule orifice occlusion in dentin specimens treated with the agents. Overall, the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer is effective in reducing dentin permeability via a tubule occlusion mechanism. The ability of the agent to reduce dentin permeability renders it to be potentially useful as a clinical dentin desensitizing agent, which has to be confirmed in future clinical studies. By contrast, the two sodium fluoride varnishes are not effective in dentin permeability reduction and should be considered as topical fluoride delivering agents rather than tubular orifice-blocking agents.

  20. Effects of a Dicalcium and Tetracalcium Phosphate-Based Desensitizer on In Vitro Dentin Permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer in reducing dentin permeability in vitro. Dentin fluid flow was measured before and after treatment of dentin with patent dentinal tubules using 1 or 3 applications of the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate containing agent TeethmateTM (TM and comparing the results with two sodium fluoride varnishes VellaTM (VLA and VanishTM (VAN, after storage in artificial saliva for 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Significant differences were observed among the 4 methods employed for reducing dentin permeability (p < 0.001 and the 3 post-treatment times (p < 0.001. VLA and VAN never achieved 50% permeability reductions consistently in any of the 3 time periods. Only the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer applied for 3 times consistently reduced dentin permeability by 50% after 24 h. When applied once, the permeability reduction of TM increased progressively over the 3 time periods. After 7 days, only one and three applications of the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer consistently reduced dentin permeability by more than 50%. Permeability reductions corresponded well with scanning electron microscopy examination of dentinal tubule orifice occlusion in dentin specimens treated with the agents. Overall, the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer is effective in reducing dentin permeability via a tubule occlusion mechanism. The ability of the agent to reduce dentin permeability renders it to be potentially useful as a clinical dentin desensitizing agent, which has to be confirmed in future clinical studies. By contrast, the two sodium fluoride varnishes are not effective in dentin permeability reduction and should be considered as topical fluoride delivering agents rather than tubular orifice-blocking agents.

  1. The Effect of Alkaline Activator Ratio on the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăzărescu, A. V.; Szilagyi, H.; Baeră, C.; Ioani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline activation of fly ash is a particular procedure in which ash resulting from a power plant combined with a specific alkaline activator creates a solid material when dried at a certain temperature. In order to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the mix design of fly ash based geopolymer pastes should be explored comprehensively. To determine the preliminary compressive strength for fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material source, various ratios of Na2SiO3 solution/ NaOH solution were produced, keeping the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio constant. All the mixes were then cured at 70 °C for 24 hours and tested at 2 and 7 days, respectively. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary compressive strength results for producing fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material sources, the effect of alkaline activators ratio on the compressive strength and studying the directions for future research.

  2. OCT-based label-free in vivo lymphangiography within human skin and areola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Qin, Wan; Qi, Xiaoli; Kalkan, Goknur; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limitations of current imaging techniques, visualization of lymphatic capillaries within tissue in vivo has been challenging. Here, we present a label-free high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) based lymphangiography (OLAG) within human skin in vivo. OLAG enables rapid (~seconds) mapping of lymphatic networks, along with blood vessel networks, over 8 mm x 8 mm of human skin and 5 mm x 5 mm of human areola. Moreover, lymphatic system’s response to inflammation within human skin is monitored throughout an acne lesion development over 7 days. The demonstrated results promise OLAG as a revolutionary tool in the clinical research and treatment of patients with pathologic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.

  3. Mechanical properties of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High performance aluminosilicate based cementitious materials were produced using calcined gangue as one of the major raw materials.The gangue was calcined at 500℃.The main constituent was calcined gangue, fly ash and slag, while alkali-silicate solutions were used as the diagenetic agent.The structure of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials was studied by the methods of IR, NMR and SEM.The results show that the mechanical properties are affected by the mass ratio between the gangue, slag and fly ash, the kind of activator and additional salt.For 28-day curing time, the compressive strength of the sample with a mass proportion of 2:1:1 (gangue: slag: fly ash) is 58.9 MPa, while the compressive strength of the sample containing 80wt%gangue can still be up to 52.3 MPa.The larger K+ favors the formation of large silicate oligomers with which Al(OH)4- prefers to bind.Therefore, in Na-K compounding activator solutions more oligomers exist which result in a stronger compressive strength of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials than in the case of Na-containing activator.The reasons for this were found through IR and NMR analysis.Glauber's salt reduces the 3-day compressive strength of the paste, but increases its 7-day and 28-day compressive strengths.

  4. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride-induced visual hallucinations%盐酸莫西沙星导致视幻觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 孙锋钢

    2008-01-01

    1名47岁女性患者,因泌尿系感染服用盐酸莫西沙星400 mg,2~3 h后患者出现恶心和多汗,5~6 h后发生视幻觉,眼前出现人和动物,持续3 h左右.次日再服同剂量莫西沙星2 h后,又出现上述视幻觉.脑电图示较多的β快波节律.停服莫西沙星并予对症治疗,症状消失.半年后随访,无神经系统症状、体征,脑电图基本正常.

  5. The effects of freezing on faecal microbiota as determined using MiSeq sequencing and culture-based investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Fouhy

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has enabled detailed insights into complex microbial environments, including the human gut microbiota. The accuracy of the sequencing data however, is reliant upon appropriate storage of the samples prior to DNA extraction. The aim of this study was to conduct the first MiSeq sequencing investigation into the effects of faecal storage on the microbiota, compared to fresh samples. Culture-based analysis was also completed.Seven faecal samples were collected from healthy adults. Samples were separated into fresh (DNA extracted immediately, snap frozen on dry ice and frozen for 7 days at -80°C prior to DNA extraction or samples frozen at -80°C for 7 days before DNA extraction. Sequencing was completed on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Culturing of total aerobes, anaerobes and bifidobacteria was also completed.No significant differences at phylum or family levels between the treatment groups occurred. At genus level only Faecalibacterium and Leuconostoc were significantly different in the fresh samples compared to the snap frozen group (p = 0.0298; p = 0.0330 respectively. Diversity analysis indicated that samples clustered based on the individual donor, rather than by storage group. No significant differences occurred in the culture-based analysis between the fresh, snap or -80°C frozen samples.Using the MiSeq platform coupled with culture-based analysis, this study highlighted that limited significant changes in microbiota occur following rapid freezing of faecal samples prior to DNA extraction. Thus, rapid freezing of samples prior to DNA extraction and culturing, preserves the integrity of the microbiota.

  6. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mira; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Myung Jin; Kim, In-Shik; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm(2) at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eye-Directed Overpressure Airwave-Induced Trauma Causes Lasting Damage to the Anterior and Posterior Globe: A Model for Testing Cell-Based Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Hines-Beard, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of the response of the Balb/c mouse to an eye-directed overpressure airwave, with the hypothesis that this mouse strain and model is useful for testing potential therapeutics for the treatment of traumatic eye injury. The left eyes of adult Balb/c mice were exposed to an eye-directed overpressure airwave. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured and eyes were inspected for gross pathology changes. Optical coherence tomography and histology were used to examine the structural integrity of the retina and optic nerve. Immunohistochemistry, in vivo molecular fluorophores, and a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized to identify changes in cell death, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. This model induced a transient increase in IOP, corneal injuries, infrequent large retinal detachments, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) vacuolization, glial reactivity, and retinal cell death. Both the corneal damage and RPE vacuolization persisted with time. Optic nerve degeneration occurred as early as 7 days postinjury and persisted out to 60 days. Retinal cell death, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and neuroinflammation were detected at 7 days postinjury. The injury profile of the Balb/c mouse is consistent with commonly observed pathologies in blast-exposed patients. The damage is throughout the eye and persistent, making this mouse model useful for testing cell-based therapies.

  8. A Case of Skull Base Osteomyelitis with Multiple Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Miyabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skull base osteomyelitis is classically documented as an extension of malignant otitis externa. Initial presentation commonly includes aural symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunctions. Here we present a case that emerged with multiple infarctions in the right cerebrum. A male in his 70s with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure presented with left hemiparesis. Imaging studies showed that blood flow in the carotid artery remained at the day of onset but was totally occluded 7 days later. However, collateral blood supply prevented severe infarction. These findings suggest that artery-to-artery embolization from the petrous and/or cavernous portion of the carotid artery caused the multiple infarctions observed on initial presentation. Osteomyelitis of the central skull base was diagnosed on the basis of the following findings taken together: laboratory results showing high levels of inflammation, presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the otorrhea and blood culture, multiple cranial nerve palsies that appeared later, the bony erosion observed on CT, and the mass lesion on MRI. Osteomyelitis was treated successfully by long-term antibiotic therapy; however, the patient experienced cefepime-induced neurotoxicity during therapy. The potential involvement of the internal carotid artery in this rare and life-threatening disease is of particular interest in this case.

  9. A novel free ammonia based pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Xie, Guo-Jun; Duan, Haoran; Wang, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    This study proposed a novel free ammonia (FA, i.e., NH3 ) pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge for the first time. The solubilization of primary sludge was substantially enhanced following 24 h FA pretreatment (250-680 mg NH3 -N/L), by which the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (i.e., 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS added; VS: volatile solids) was approximately 10 times as much as that without pretreatment (i.e., 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS added). Then, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests demonstrated that FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH3 -N/L was capable of enhancing anaerobic methane production while the digestion time was more than 7 days. Model based analysis indicated that the improved anaerobic methane production was due to an increased biochemical methane potential (B0 ) of 8-17% (i.e., from 331 to 357-387 L CH4 /kg VS added), with the highest B0 achieved at 420 mg NH3 -N/L pretreatment. However, FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH3 -N/L decreased hydrolysis rate (k) by 24-38% compared with control (i.e., from 0.29 d(-1) to 0.18-0.22 d(-1) ), which explained the lower methane production over the first 7 days' digestion period. Economic analysis and environmental evaluation demonstrated that FA pretreatment technology was environmentally friendly and economically favorable. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2245-2252. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Covariate analysis of QTc and T-wave morphology: new possibilities in the evaluation of drugs that affect cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J.; Matz, J;

    2010-01-01

    This study adds the dimension of a T-wave morphology composite score (MCS) to the QTc interval-based evaluation of drugs that affect cardiac repolarization. Electrocardiographic recordings from 62 subjects on placebo and 400 mg moxifloxacin were compared with those from 21 subjects on 160 and 320...

  11. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    . Two types of FGA were treated by the Ferrox-process, which removes the majority of the easily soluble salts in the FGA and provides binding sites for heavy metals in terms of ferrihydrite. Cubes of cement treated base layer materials containing 5% stabilised FGA were cast, sealed and cured for two...... weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...

  12. Alginate/chitosan based bi-layer composite membrane as potential sustained-release wound dressing containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Dong, Yang; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran; Li, Sanming

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and evaluate a novel ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded bi-layer composite membrane based on alginate and chitosan. In vitro antimicrobial activity, drug permeation study, morphology, cytotoxicity, primary skin irritation and in vivo pharmacodynamics were investigated. Results showed that the membranes could inhibit the growth of microorganisms for longer than 7 days. And there was no significant decrease in the metabolic activity of the Hacat fibroblasts cells were treated with the membranes. No edema and erythema were observed after administration of membranes on the rabbit skin after 14 days. Moreover, the results of pharmacodynamics showed that the membranes were more effective in improving the wound healing process. In conclusion, a novel bi-layer composite membrane was developed and results suggested that it could be exploited as sustained-release wound dressings.

  13. Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Supports (MBPBS: Effects on Caregivers and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirbhay N. Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals’ behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof of concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation.

  14. Niobium based coatings for dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, G., E-mail: enggiova@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Arzate, H. [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Olaya, J.J. [Unidad de Materiales, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03 Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.

  15. Participant-level meta-analysis of mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation across different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Jiang, Yannan; Free, Caroline; Abroms, Lorien C; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-08-01

    With meta-analysis, participant-level data from five text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention studies were pooled to investigate cessation patterns across studies and participants. Individual participant data (N=8315) collected in New Zealand (2001-2003; n=1705), U.K. (2008-2009; n=5792), U.S. (2012; n=503; n=164) and Turkey (2012; n=151) were collectively analyzed in 2014. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 4weeks post-quit day. Secondary outcomes were: (1) self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 3months and (2) self-reported continuous abstinence at 6months post-quit day. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to estimate the overall treatment effect, while accounting for clustering within individual studies. Estimates were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, previous quit attempts, and baseline Fagerstrom score. Analyses were intention to treat. Participants lost to follow-up were treated as smokers. Twenty-nine percent of intervention participants and 12% of control participants quit smoking at 4weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.89, 95% CI [2.57, 3.26], p<.0001). An attenuated but significant effect for cessation for those in the intervention versus control groups was observed at 3months (aOR=1.88, 95% CI [1.53, 2.31]) and 6months (aOR=2.24, 95% CI [1.90, 2.64]). Subgroup analyses were conducted but few significant findings were noted. Text messaging-based smoking cessation programs increase self-reported quitting rates across a diversity of countries and cultures. Efforts to expand these low-cost and scalable programs, along with ongoing evaluation, appear warranted.

  16. Resistance-Associated NS5A Variants of Hepatitis C Virus Are Susceptible to Interferon-Based Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Itakura

    Full Text Available The presence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs of hepatitis C virus (HCV attenuates the efficacy of direct acting antivirals (DAAs. The objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility of RAVs to interferon-based therapy.Direct and deep sequencing were performed to detect Y93H RAV in the NS5A region. Twenty nine genotype 1b patients with detectable RAV at baseline were treated by a combination of simeprevir, pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The longitudinal changes in the proportion of Y93H RAV during therapy and at breakthrough or relapse were determined.By direct sequencing, Y93H RAV became undetectable or decreased in proportion at an early time point during therapy (within 7 days in 57% of patients with both the Y93H variant and wild type virus at baseline when HCV RNA was still detectable. By deep sequencing, the proportion of Y93H RAV against Y93 wild type was 52.7% (5.8%- 97.4% at baseline which significantly decreased to 29.7% (0.16%- 98.3% within 7 days of initiation of treatment (p = 0.023. The proportion of Y93H RAV was reduced in 21 of 29 cases (72.4% and a marked reduction of more than 10% was observed in 14 cases (48.7%. HCV RNA reduction was significantly greater for Y93H RAV (-3.65±1.3 logIU/mL/day than the Y93 wild type (-3.35±1.0 logIU/mL/day (p<0.001.Y93H RAV is more susceptible to interferon-based therapy than the Y93 wild type.

  17. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzay Koc-Vural

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Materials and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent, one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply, and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles. Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent, Optidisc (Kerr, and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental (n = 12 per subgroup. One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05. Results Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time (p 0.05. Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage (p < 0.05. Conclusions Discoloration resistance of bulk-fill resin-based composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.

  18. Web-based data delivery services in support of disaster-relief applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.K.; Risty, R.R.; Buswell, M.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center responds to emergencies in support of various government agencies for human-induced and natural disasters. This response consists of satellite tasking and acquisitions, satellite image registrations, disaster-extent maps analysis and creation, base image provision and support, Web-based mapping services for product delivery, and predisaster and postdisaster data archiving. The emergency response staff are on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and have access to many commercial and government satellite and aerial photography tasking authorities. They have access to value-added data processing and photographic laboratory services for off-hour emergency requests. They work with various Federal agencies for preparedness planning, which includes providing base imagery. These data may include digital elevation models, hydrographic models, base satellite images, vector data layers such as roads, aerial photographs, and other predisaster data. These layers are incorporated into a Web-based browser and data delivery service that is accessible either to the general public or to select customers. As usage declines, the data are moved to a postdisaster nearline archive that is still accessible, but not in real time.

  19. Porosity prediction of calcium phosphate cements based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhman, Caroline; Unosson, Johanna; Carlsson, Elin; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The porosity of calcium phosphate cements has an impact on several important parameters, such as strength, resorbability and bioactivity. A model to predict the porosity for biomedical cements would hence be a useful tool. At the moment such a model only exists for Portland cements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a first porosity prediction model for calcium phosphate cements. On the basis of chemical reaction, molar weight and density of components, a volume-based model was developed and validated using calcium phosphate cement as model material. 60 mol% β-tricalcium phosphate and 40 mol% monocalcium phosphate monohydrate were mixed with deionized water, at different liquid-to-powder ratios. Samples were set for 24 h at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Thereafter, samples were dried either under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h or in air at 37 °C for 7 days. Porosity and phase composition were determined. It was found that the two drying protocols led to the formation of brushite and monetite, respectively. The model was found to predict well the experimental values and also data reported in the literature for apatite cements, as deduced from the small absolute average residual errors (brushite, monetite and apatite cements. The model gives a good estimate of the final porosity and has the potential to be used as a porosity prediction tool in the biomedical cement field.

  20. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira [Department of Organic Materials & Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Jin; Kim, In-Shik [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yong, E-mail: parkb@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm{sup 2} at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. - Highlights: • Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels were examined for wound healing process. • Human hair-based hydrogel is superior to wool-based hydrogel in wound healing. • Discarded keratin-based hydrogels are expected more eco-friendly therapeutic agents.

  1. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc-Vural, Uzay; Baltacioglu, Ismail; Altinci, Pinar

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness) were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent), one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply), and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr) resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles). Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent), Optidisc (Kerr), and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental) (n = 12 per subgroup). One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE) were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05). Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time (p 0.05). Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage (p composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.

  2. Formation of Porous Apatite Layer during In Vitro Study of Hydroxyapatite-AW Based Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Sooksaen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed the fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of composites based on the mixture of hydroxyapatite powder and apatite-wollastonite (AW based glass. AW based glass was prepared from the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2 glass system. This study focuses on the effect of composition and sintering temperature that influences the properties of these composites. Microstructural study revealed the formation of apatite layer on the composite surfaces when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF solution at 37°C. Composites containing ≥50 wt% AW based glass showed good bioactivity after 7 days of immersion in the SBF. A porous calcium phosphate (potentially hydroxycarbonate apatite, HCA layer formed at the SBF-composite interface and the layer became denser at longer soaking period, for periods ranging from 7 to 28 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES analysis showed that early stage of soaking occurred with the release of Ca and Si ions from the composites and the decrease of P ions with slow exchange rate.

  3. Physical activity in daily life in physically independent elderly participating in community-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Nidia A; Probst, Vanessa S; Da Silva, Rubens A; Januário, Renata S B; Pitta, Fabio; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether participation in exercise programs specifically developed for elderly translates into a more active lifestyle. To compare the objectively measured level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) between physically independent elderly who participate or do not participate in community-based exercise programs; and to evaluate which factors are associated with the higher level of PADL in these subjects. 134 elderly participants in community-based exercise programs (PG) and 104 non-participants (NPG) had their level of PADL measured using pedometers during 7 days. 6-minute walking test (6MWT), incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT), muscle strength, flexibility and balance. The PG had higher 1-week mean daily step count than NPG (8314 [IQR 5971-10060] vs. 6250 [IQR 4346-8207] steps/day, p8000 steps/day) in PG than in NPG (37% vs. 16%, respectively; pexercise programs, 6MWT and ISWT explained a higher daily steps count (model r(2)=0.56, pelderly, a higher level of physical activity in daily life occurs in those who participate in community-based exercise programs, regardless of the weekday and including non-program days. Participation of elderly in community-based exercise programs should be more systematically available and encouraged due to its close link to higher activity levels and better exercise capacity.

  4. SOL-GEL SILICA-BASED Ag–Ca–P COATINGS WITH AGRESSIVE PRETREATMENT OF TITANIUM SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA BORSHCHEVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was the obtaining of thin silica coatings on titanium by sol-gel method, using mechanical (SiC - paper No.180 and chemical (leaching in HF pretreatments of the titanium substrates. The solutions were based on TEOS. For the sol-gel dipping process 4 different solutions were prepared: silica, silica with AgNO3 and silica + AgNO3 with brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O or monetite (CaHPO4 powders. The solutions were aged for 7 and 14 days at laboratory temperature. After sol-gel dip-coating process the samples were dried and fired. The adhesion of fired coatings was measured by tape test according to ASTM procedure and the bioactivity of the coatings was tested using in vitro test. The surfaces of the samples after firing, tape test and in vitro test were observed with the optical and electron microscopes. The firing results showed that silica-silver coatings did not change, brushite sol-gel coatings have cracked and the monetite sol-gel coatings have cracked also, but less than brushite ones. In spite of coating´s crackings, the square’s frames made on the surfaces were without any breakdowns after tape tests and the adhesion of all coatings was very good, classified by the highest grade 5. The results of in vitro tests showed that all coatings interacted with simulated body fluid (SBF. After exposition in SBF the new layer formed on substrates. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing brushite the new layer was uniform and compact. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing monetite the new layer was formed by crystals aggregated tightly together. The monetite and brushite coatings prepared from 14 days aged sol were the same as previous ones, but they were thicker. X-ray analyses after in vitro test confirmed dellaite, titanate and hydroxyapatite phases.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements on human monocytes, a colorimetric MTT assay

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    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements at different storage times after mixing. Materials and Methods Capillary tubes were filled with Biodentine (Septodont, Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent, Tech Biosealer Endo (Tech Biosealer and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental. Empty tubes and tubes containing Dycal were used as negative and positive control groups respectively. Filled capillary tubes were kept in 0.2 mL microtubes and incubated at 37℃. Each material was divided into 3 groups for testing at intervals of 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day after mixing. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultered with 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day samples of different materials for 24 and 48 hr. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Results In all groups, the viability of monocytes significantly improved with increasing storage time regardless of the incubation time (p < 0.001. After 24 hr of incubation, there was no significant difference between the materials regarding monocyte viability. However, at 48 hr of incubation, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were less cytotoxic than CEM cement and Biosealer (p < 0.01. Conclusions Biodentine and ProRoot MTA had similar biocompatibility. Mixing ProRoot MTA with PBS in place of distilled water had no effect on its biocompatibility. Biosealer and CEM cement after 48 hr of incubation were significantly more cytotoxic to on monocyte cells compared to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.

  6. Efficacy of rifabutin-based triple therapy as second-line treatment to eradicate helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Isabel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifabutin has been found to be effective in multi-resistant patients after various treatment cycles for Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, but it has not been analysed as a second-line treatment. Therefore, we seek to compare the effectiveness of a treatment regimen including rifabutin versus conventional quadruple therapy (QT. Methods Open clinical trial, randomised and multi-centre, of two treatment protocols: A Conventional regime -QT- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, bismuth citrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid and metronidazole 500 mg tid; B Experimental one -OAR- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 gr bid, and rifabutin 150 mg bid, both taken orally for 7 days, in patients with HP infection for whom first-line treatment had failed. Eradication was determined by Urea Breath Test (UBT. Safety was determined by the adverse events. Results 99 patients were randomised, QT, n = 54; OAR, n = 45. The two groups were homogeneous. In 8 cases, treatment was suspended (6 in QT and 2 in OAR. The eradication achieved, analysed by ITT, was for QT, 38 cases (70.4%, and for OAR, 20 cases (44.4%; p = 0.009, OR = 1.58. Of the cases analysed PP, QT were 77.1%; OAR, 46.5%; p = 0.002. Adverse effects were described in 64% of the QT patients and in 44% of the OAR patients (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 7-day rifabutin-based triple therapy associated to amoxicillin and omeprazole at standard dose was not found to be effective as a second-line rescue therapy. The problem with quadruple therapy lies in the adverse side effects it provokes. We believe the search should continue for alternatives that are more comfortably administered and that are at least as effective, but with fewer adverse side effects. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81058036

  7. A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle;

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone deficient (GHD) patients are currently effectively treated with daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of hGH in the evening, but alternative routes would be attractive. An oral formulationulation of hGH, using an amino-caprilic acid derivative (5-CNAC, Emisphere's eligen® technology...

  8. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2016-10-01

    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  9. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunyoung; Kim, Dohyeong; Woo, Hyekyung; Cho, Youngtae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals’ smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20–49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends) using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users’ smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries. PMID:27626273

  10. Fluoroquinolone interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase: Enhancing drug activity against wild-type and resistant gyrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Katie J.; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant source of global morbidity and mortality. Moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant infections. To guide the development of new quinolone-based agents, it is critical to understand the basis of drug action against M. tuberculosis gyrase and how mutations in the enzyme cause resistance. Therefore, we characterized interactions of fluoroquinolones and related drugs with WT gyrase and enzymes carrying mutations at GyrAA90 and GyrAD94. M. tuberculosis gyrase lacks a conserved serine that anchors a water–metal ion bridge that is critical for quinolone interactions with other bacterial type II topoisomerases. Despite the fact that the serine is replaced by an alanine (i.e., GyrAA90) in M. tuberculosis gyrase, the bridge still forms and plays a functional role in mediating quinolone–gyrase interactions. Clinically relevant mutations at GyrAA90 and GyrAD94 cause quinolone resistance by disrupting the bridge–enzyme interaction, thereby decreasing drug affinity. Fluoroquinolone activity against WT and resistant enzymes is enhanced by the introduction of specific groups at the C7 and C8 positions. By dissecting fluoroquinolone–enzyme interactions, we determined that an 8-methyl-moxifloxacin derivative induces high levels of stable cleavage complexes with WT gyrase and two common resistant enzymes, GyrAA90V and GyrAD94G. 8-Methyl-moxifloxacin was more potent than moxifloxacin against WT M. tuberculosis gyrase and displayed higher activity against the mutant enzymes than moxifloxacin did against WT gyrase. This chemical biology approach to defining drug–enzyme interactions has the potential to identify novel drugs with improved activity against tuberculosis. PMID:26792518

  11. Fluoroquinolone interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase: Enhancing drug activity against wild-type and resistant gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Katie J; Blower, Tim R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-02-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant source of global morbidity and mortality. Moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant infections. To guide the development of new quinolone-based agents, it is critical to understand the basis of drug action against M. tuberculosis gyrase and how mutations in the enzyme cause resistance. Therefore, we characterized interactions of fluoroquinolones and related drugs with WT gyrase and enzymes carrying mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94). M. tuberculosis gyrase lacks a conserved serine that anchors a water-metal ion bridge that is critical for quinolone interactions with other bacterial type II topoisomerases. Despite the fact that the serine is replaced by an alanine (i.e., GyrA(A90)) in M. tuberculosis gyrase, the bridge still forms and plays a functional role in mediating quinolone-gyrase interactions. Clinically relevant mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94) cause quinolone resistance by disrupting the bridge-enzyme interaction, thereby decreasing drug affinity. Fluoroquinolone activity against WT and resistant enzymes is enhanced by the introduction of specific groups at the C7 and C8 positions. By dissecting fluoroquinolone-enzyme interactions, we determined that an 8-methyl-moxifloxacin derivative induces high levels of stable cleavage complexes with WT gyrase and two common resistant enzymes, GyrA(A90V) and GyrA(D94G). 8-Methyl-moxifloxacin was more potent than moxifloxacin against WT M. tuberculosis gyrase and displayed higher activity against the mutant enzymes than moxifloxacin did against WT gyrase. This chemical biology approach to defining drug-enzyme interactions has the potential to identify novel drugs with improved activity against tuberculosis.

  12. Color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to beverages and food dye: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjari, Anil K; Bhatnagar, Vishrut M; Basavaraju, Ravi M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to tea, coffee, cola, and food dye. Two provisional crown and bridge resins, one DPI self-cure tooth molding powder (PMMA) (Group A), and one Protemp 4 Temporization Material (bis-acrylic composite) (Group B) were used. Disk-shaped specimens for color stability testing (n = 30 for each material) and bar-shaped specimens for flexural strength testing (n = 30 for each material) were fabricated using a metal mold. The specimens were immersed in artificial saliva, artificial saliva + tea, artificial saliva + coffee, artificial saliva + cola, and artificial saliva + food dye solutions and stored in an incubator at 37°C. Color measurements were taken before immersion, and then after 3 and 7 days of immersion. Flexural strength was evaluated after 7 days of immersion. Group A showed significantly higher color stability as compared to Group B, and artificial saliva + coffee solution had the most staining capacity for the resins. Test solutions had no effect on the flexural strength of Group A, but Group B specimens immersed in artificial saliva + cola showed significantly lower flexural strength values as compared to the control group. The findings of the study showed that for materials used in the study, PMMA was more color stable than bis-acrylic composite based resin. Also, material based on PMMA was more resistant to damage from dietary beverages as compared to bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge resin.

  13. Single-center, noninterventional clinical trial to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of a dimeticone-based medical device in facilitating the removal of scales after topical application in patients with psoriasis corporis or psoriasis capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengge UR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich R Hengge,1 Kristina Röschmann,2 Henning Candler3 1Skin Center, Düsseldorf, 2Department of Clinical Research, 3Department of Medical Affairs, G. Pohl‑Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, Hohenlockstedt, Germany Introduction: Psoriasis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease affecting ~2%–3% of the population in western countries. Scaling of the psoriatic lesions is the most impairing symptom in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to conventional keratolytic treatment concepts containing salicylic acid or urea, a dimeticone-based medical device (Loyon® removes scales in a physical way without any pharmacological effect.Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a dimeticone-based medical device in removal of scales in patients with psoriasis corporis/capitis under real-life conditions.Methods: Forty patients with psoriasis capitis or corporis were included and received once-daily treatments for 7 days. Clinical assessment of the psoriasis area severity index score (psoriasis corporis and the psoriasis scalp severity index score (psoriasis capitis was performed and evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Baseline scaling scores and redness scores were calculated for two target lesions of the scalp or the body on a 5-point scale each.Results: For the primary efficacy variable scaling score, a statistically significant decrease was observed after treatment, with a relative reduction in scaling of 36.8% after 7 days of treatment within patients affected by psoriasis capitis. Treatment success was achieved in 76.8% of patients with psoriasis capitis, and time to treatment success was evaluated to be 4.14 days for these patients and 4.33 days for patients suffering from psoriasis corporis.Conclusion: In conclusion, this trial demonstrated that the dimeticone-based medical device is a safe, well-tolerated, practicable, and efficient keratolytic compound, which can be well implemented in and recommended for standard therapy

  14. Creep behaviour of a polymer-based underground support liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    All underground excavations (tunnels, mines, caverns, etc.) need a form of support to ensure that excavations remain safe and stable for the designed service lifetime. In the last decade, a new support material, thin spray-on liner (TSL) has started to take place of traditional underground surface supports of bolts and shotcrete. TSLs are generally cement, latex, polymer-based and also reactive or non-reactive, multi-component materials applied to the rock surface with a layer of few millimeter thickness. They have the advantages of low volume, logistics, rapid application and low operating cost. The majority of current TSLs are two-part products that are mixed on site before spraying onto excavation rock surfaces. Contrary to the traditional brittle supports, the high plastic behaviour of TSLs make them to distribute the loads on larger lining area. In literature, there is a very limited information exist on the creep behavior of TSLs. In this study, the creep behavior of a polymer-based TSL was investigated. For this purpose, 7-day cured dogbone TSL specimens were tested under room temperature and humidity conditions according to ASTM-D2990 creep testing standard. A range of dead weights (80, 60, 40, and 20 % of the tensile strength) were applied up to 1500 hours. As a result of this study, the time-dependent strain behavior of a TSL was presented for different constant load conditions. Moreover, a new equation was derived to estimate tensile failure time of the TSL for a given loading condition. If the tensile stress acting on the TSL is known, the effective permanent support time of the TSL can be estimated by the proposed relationship.

  15. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Main outcome measure(s) Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Results Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03–2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67–21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95

  16. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  17. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120...... such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable...... developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk....

  18. Biodegradable polyester-based microcarriers with modified surface tailored for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalova, A; Markvicheva, E; Sevrin, Ch; Drozdova, M; Kottgen, C; Gilbert, B; Ortiz, M; Grandfils, Ch

    2015-03-01

    Microcarriers have been proposed in tissue engineering, namely for bone, cartilage, skin, vascular, and central nervous system. Although polyester-based microcarriers have been already used for this purpose, their surface properties should be improved to provide better cell growth. The goal of this study was to prepare microbeads based on poly(D,L-lactide) acid, poly(L-lactide) acid, and to study cell behavior (adhesion, spreading, growth, and proliferation) in function of microbead topography and surface chemistry. To improve L-929 fibroblasts adhesion, microbead surface has been modified with three polycations: chitosan, poly(2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA), or chitosan-g-oligolactide copolymer (chit-g-OLA). Although modification of the microbead surface with chitosan and PDMAEMA was performed through physical adsorption on the previously prepared microbeads, chit-g-OLA copolymer was introduced directly during microbead processing. This simple approach (1) bypass the use of an emulsifier (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA); (2) avoid surface "contamination" with PVA molecules limiting a control of the surface characteristics. In vitro study of the growth of mouse fibroblasts on the microbeads showed that both surface topography and chemistry affected cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Cultivation of L-929 fibroblasts for 7 days resulted in the formation of a 3D cell-scaffold network.

  19. Accurate diagnoses, evidence based drugs, and new devices (3 Ds in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang B. Siswanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure becomes main problem in cardiology because of increasing of heart failure patients, rehospitalization rate, morbidity, and mortality rate. The main causes of increasing heart failure problems are: (1 Successful treatment of acute myocardial infarction can be life saving, but its sequelae can cause heart failure. (2 Increasing life expectancy rate grows along with incidences of ageing related heart failure. (3 High prevalence of infection in Indonesia can cause rheumatic heart disease post Streptococcal beta hemolyticus infection, viral myocarditis, infective endocartitis, and tuberculoid pericarditis. (4 Many risk factors for coronary heart disease are often found in heart failure patients, for examples smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. Indonesia joined international multicentered registry in 2006. Acute Decompensated HEart failure REgistry is a web based international registry to record patient with acute decompensated heart failure treated in emergency room. It was found that heart failure patients in 5 big hospitals in Java and Bali island that joined this registry are younger, sicker and late to seek treatment. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days and in hospital mortality rate was 6.7%. The aim of this article is to give summary about essential things in diagnosing and treating heart failure patients. 3D (accurate diagnoses, evidence based drugs, and new devices are the most important but what to do and what not to do in dealing with heart failure is also useful for your daily practice. (Med J Indones 2012;21:52-8Keywords: Devices, diagnostic, drugs, heart failure

  20. Effect of early progressive resistance training compared with home-based exercise after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    /week). The IG trained with loads of 10 repetition maximum from week 1 to 10 after THR. Before surgery and after the intervention, performance was evaluated by leg extension power (primary outcome), isometric strength (hip abduction + flexion), sit-to-stand test (STS), stair test and 20 meter walking speed....... Results 62 patients completed the trial (31 in each group). Leg extension power improved significantly in both groups with no between-group difference: IG (baseline-follow up): 0.28 [0.1;0.3] Watt/kg, CG: 0.26 [0.0;0.5] Watt/kg, p=0.91. 20-m walk performance improved more in IG (2.98 [1.8;4.2] sec) than...... in CG (1.58 [0.8;2.4] sec) (p=0.05). No significant differences were found in stair test; yet, borderline significance (p=0.06-0.09) favoured IG in STS and isometric strength. Conclusion 7 days/week of home-based exercise was just as effective as 5 days/week of home-based exercise plus 2 days...

  1. Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

    1985-07-01

    Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry: benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota.

  2. Glycerol salicylate-based containing α-tricalcium phosphate as a bioactive root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Collares, Fabrício M; Dos Santos, Luís A; dos Santos, Bruno P; Camassola, Melissa; Leitune, Vicente C B; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-11-01

    The use of bioactive materials instead of inert materials to fill the root canal space could be an effective approach to achieve a hermetic seal and stimulate the healing of periapical tissues. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize an endodontic sealer based on a glycerol salicylate resin and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) at physical and chemical properties. Different sealers were formulated using 70% of a glycerol salicylate resin and 30% of a mixture of calcium hydroxide and αTCP (0, 5, 10, or 15%, in weight). Sealers formulated were characterized based on setting time, in vitro degradation over time, pH, cytotoxicity, and mineral deposition. Sealers presented setting time ranging from 240 to 405 min, and basic pH over 8.21 after 28 days. Higher αTCP concentration leads to sealers with low solubility. Cell viability after 48 h in direct contact with sealers was similar to a commercial sealer used as reference. The 10% and 15% αTCP sealers exhibited a calcium-phosphate layer on the surface after immersion in water and SBF for 7 days. Glycerol salicylate sealers with 10% and 15% α-tricalcium phosphate showed reliable physical-chemical properties and apatite-forming ability.

  3. Conversion of borate-based glass scaffold to hydroxyapatite in a dilute phosphate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Pan, Haobo; Fu, Hailuo; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Huang, Wenhai

    2010-02-01

    Porous scaffolds of a borate-based glass (composition in mol%: 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5), with interconnected porosity of approximately 70% and pores of size 200-500 microm, were prepared by a polymer foam replication technique. The degradation of the scaffolds and conversion to a hydroxyapatite-type material in a 0.02 M K2HPO4 solution (starting pH = 7.0) at 37 degrees C were studied by measuring the weight loss of the scaffolds, as well as the pH and the boron concentration of the solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that a hydroxyapatite-type material was formed on the glass surface within 7 days of immersion in the phosphate solution. Cellular response to the scaffolds was assessed using murine MLO-A5 cells, an osteogenic cell line. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the scaffolds supported cell attachment and proliferation during the 6 day incubation. The results indicate that this borate-based glass could provide a promising degradable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  4. Law enforcers recognition level emerging threats based on physical appearance and behavior signs the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzievskiy R.M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: examine the effectiveness of the training method of differential approach to the choice of means of influence on the action of law enforcers opponent with different levels of aggressiveness. Material : the experiment involved 15 students of the Kyiv National Academy of Internal Affairs and the 15 employees of the State Guard of Ukraine. Results : presented curriculum for special physical and tactical training. The program details the conceptual apparatus of THREATS and DANGERS manifestations of different levels of aggressiveness opponent (case analysis of its motor behavior. The study participants underwent 7 day course focused training. The basis of the course is an advanced theoretical base. The base is aimed at developing knowledge and skills of employees in determining the level of danger. Including threats from testing and modeling episodes of extreme situations the options cadets. Conclusions : In the simulated collision situations with aggressive opponent to the students significantly improved the adequacy of the response to the threat of execution time and within the legal grounds. Recognition was determined by the level of aggressiveness manifest manners enemy, his emotions, motivation, motor behavior, positional arrangement for 2 - 3 seconds. The program contributed to the development of qualities: attention, orientation, perception, motor lead.

  5. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-05

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments.

  6. Staining susceptibility of methacrylate and silorane-based materials: influence of resin type and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The color stability of composite resins is a fundamental factor in their clinical behavior. Objective: To evaluate the color stability of composite resins of different colors exposed to a cola-based soft drink after different storage periods. Additionally, three methacrylate-based materials and one silorane-based material were evaluated. Material and methods: Specimens of three methacrylate-based materials (Opallis EA3, DA3 and T-Neutral; Filtek Supreme XT A3E, A3D and CT; 4 Seasons A3 Enamel, A3 Dentin and High Value and one silorane-based material (Filtek P90 A3 were prepared, light-cured for 40 s, and manually polished with Sof-Lex discs. Samples were stored for 1 h, 24 h or 7 days. The color was evaluated by CIE-Lab system before and after immersion for 10 min in a cola-based soft drink. Color variation (∆E was calculated from individual values of L*, a* and b*, being considered imperceptible when < 1, clinically acceptable when ≤ 3.3, and clinically inacceptable when higher than 3.3. Data were evaluated by two-way Anova and Dunnett’s T3 tests (α = 0.05. Results: There were differences among the resins (p < 0.001, with an interaction effect being also observed (p < 0.001. Storage time was not significant (p = 0.246. P90 showed a ∆E smaller than one unit at all studied times. Supreme XT CT and 4 Seasons High Value showed higher ∆E, but not above the critical value of 3.3. The only material that showed ∆E higher than 3.3 was Opallis DA3 after 1 h of storage. Conclusion: The silorane-based composite resin showed smaller ∆E at the times studied.

  7. Touch BASE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In a recent Nature article (see here), the BASE collaboration reported the most precise comparison of the charge-to-mass ratio of the proton to its antimatter equivalent, the antiproton. This result is just the beginning and many more challenges lie ahead.   CERN's AD Hall, where the BASE experiment is set-up. The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) was approved in June 2013 and was ready to take data in August 2014. During these 14 months, the BASE collaboration worked hard to set up its four cryogenic Penning traps, which are the heart of the whole experiment. As their name indicates, these magnetic devices are used to trap antiparticles – antiprotons coming from the Antiproton Decelerator – and particles of matter – negative hydrogen ions produced in the system by interaction with a degrader that slows the antiprotons down, allowing scientists to perform their measurements. “We had very little time to set up the wh...

  8. Performance comparison of constructed wetlands with gravel- and rice husk-based media for phenol and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, H C; Seng, C E; Noor, A Md; Lim, P E

    2009-05-15

    This study aims to compare the performance of planted and unplanted constructed wetlands with gravel- and raw rice husk-based media for phenol and nitrogen removal. Four laboratory-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units, two of which planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) were operated outdoors. The units were operated at a nominal hydraulic retention time of 7 days and fed with domestic wastewater spiked with phenol concentration at 300 mg/L for 74 days and then at 500 mg/L for 198 days. The results show that planted wetland units performed better than the unplanted ones in the removal and mineralization of phenol. This was explained by the creation of more micro-aerobic zones in the root zone of the wetland plants which allow a faster rate of phenol biodegradation, and the phenol uptake by plants. The better performance of the rice husk-based planted wetland compared to that of the gravel-based planted wetland in phenol removal could be explained by the observation that more rhizomes were established in the rice husk-based wetland unit thus creating more micro-aerobic zones for phenol degradation. The role of rice husk as an adsorbent in phenol removal was considered not of importance.

  9. A national evaluation of community-based youth cessation programs: end of program and twelve-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Susan J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Emery, Sherry L; Sporer, Amy K; Berbaum, Michael L; Campbell, Richard T; Flay, Brian; Warnecke, Richard B

    2013-03-01

    Most youth cessation treatment research consists of efficacy studies in which treatments are evaluated under optimal conditions of delivery. Less is known about the effectiveness of youth cessation treatments delivered in real-world, community based settings. A national sample of 41 community-based youth cessation programs participated in a longitudinal evaluation to identify site, program, and participant characteristics associated with successful cessation. Validated quit rates were comparable to those in randomized controlled trials; 7-day abstinence at the end of program averaged 14% and 30-day abstinence at 12 months averaged 12%. Multivariate GEE models explored predictors of smoking cessation at the end of the programs and at 12 months. Results showed correlates of both short- and long-term cessation. Findings point to the importance of both individual and community-level variables, including motivation, opportunities for and encouragement to engage in activities outside of academics, having youth participate in treatment before they become highly dependent smokers, and community norms and ordinances that discourage youth purchase, use and possession of tobacco. Providing evidence-based treatment to youth in community-based settings results in successful cessation.

  10. Web based foundry knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

  11. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  12. Low rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Jossy; Semvua, Hadija H; van Ingen, Jakko; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; van der Laan, Tridia; van Soolingen, Dick; Kibiki, Gibson S; Boeree, Martin J; Aarnoutse, Rob E

    2011-08-01

    Fluoroquinolones are used in second-line treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and have a potential role in shortening TB treatment duration. The wide use of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of other infections, including respiratory tract infections in patients with (undiagnosed) active TB, could result in fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Tanzanian patients and linked this to previous fluoroquinolone exposure and mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. A total of 291 M. tuberculosis isolates were obtained between April 2009 and June 2010 from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB and tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin and isoniazid. Information on previous fluoroquinolone use was obtained by interviewing patients and checking their medical files. Only 2 (0.7%) of the 291 M. tuberculosis isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; 1 of which was intermediately resistant to moxifloxacin as well. These two isolates were susceptible to rifampicin and isoniazid. Twenty-two (8%) of the 291 patients had a history of fluoroquinolone use (median: 7 days; interquartile range: 5-10 days). The patients from whom the fluoroquinolone-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were obtained had no known history of previous fluoroquinolone use. Our findings indicate that the rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant M. tuberculosis in Tanzanian patients with TB is low and not related to previous, brief episodes of exposure to fluoroquinolones. The findings favour future application of fluoroquinolones in TB treatment regimens of shorter duration.

  13. Toxicodynamics of rigid polystyrene microparticles on pulmonary gas exchange in mice: Implications for microemboli-based drug delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, H.L. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gao, D.; Li, S. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Massa, C.B.; Cervelli, J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Deshmukh, M. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Joseph, L.B.; Laskin, D.L. [UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, P.J., E-mail: sinko@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The toxicodynamic relationship between the number and size of pulmonary microemboli resulting from uniformly sized, rigid polystyrene microparticles (MPs) administered intravenously and their potential effects on pulmonary gas exchange were investigated. CD-1 male mice (6–8 weeks) were intravenously administered 10, 25 and 45 μm diameter MPs. Oxygen hemoglobin saturation in the blood (SpO{sub 2}) was measured non-invasively using a pulse oximeter while varying inhaled oxygen concentration (F{sub I}O{sub 2}). The resulting data were fit to a physiologically based non-linear mathematical model that estimates 2 parameters: ventilation–perfusion ratio (V{sub A}/Q) and shunt (percentage of deoxygenated blood returning to systemic circulation). The number of MPs administered prior to a statistically significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q was dependent on particle size. MP doses that resulted in a significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q one day post-treatment were 4000, 40,000 and 550,000 MPs/g for 45, 25 and 10 μm MPs, respectively. The model estimated V{sub A}/Q and shunt returned to baseline levels 7 days post-treatment. Measuring SpO{sub 2} alone was not sufficient to observe changes in gas exchange; however, when combined with model-derived V{sub A}/Q and shunt early reversible toxicity from pulmonary microemboli was detected suggesting that the model and physical measurements are both required for assessing toxicity. Moreover, it appears that the MP load required to alter gas exchange in a mouse prior to lethality is significantly higher than the anticipated required MP dose for effective drug delivery. Overall, the current results indicate that the microemboli-based approach for targeted pulmonary drug delivery is potentially safe and should be further explored. -- Highlights: ► Murine pulmonary gas exchange after microembolization was non-invasively studied. ► A physiologically based model quantified impairment of pulmonary gas exchange.

  14. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil); Dulce de Almeida Soares, Glória [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowisk, s/n. Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21900-000 (Brazil); Anselme, Karine [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS LRC7228, 15, Jean Starcky Street, BP 2488, 68054 Mulhouse cedex (France); Almeida, Luís Eduardo, E-mail: lealmeida2009@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2 ± 0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7 ± 2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of 3D-scaffolds based on CHI, with or without addition of SF and HA. • Scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structure (pore size superior to 50 μm). • The tripolyphosphate did not induce any significant cytotoxic response. • The CHI/SF/HA composite showed a higher cell growth and ALP activity.

  15. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Fernanda Carvalho Rezende; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Silveira, Rodrigo Richard; Pereira, Carolina Nemésio Barros; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Claudia Silami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured); aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE); diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent); aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply). Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n = 20) and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n = 10) were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n = 10) and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p polishing system (p = 0.309). For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p = 0.033). Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  16. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  17. Self-healing of Early Age Cracks in Cement-based Materials by Mineralization of Carbonic Anhydrase Microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang eQian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the self-healing potential of early age cracks in cement-based materials incorporating the bacteria which can produce carbonic anhydrase. Cement-based materials specimens were pre-cracked at the age of 7, 14, 28, 60 days to study the repair ability influenced by cracking time, the width of cracks were between 0.1 and 1.0 mm to study the healing rate influenced by width of cracks. The experimental results indicated that the bacteria showed excellent repairing ability to small cracks formed at early age of 7 days, cracks below 0.4 mm was almost completely closed. The repair effect reduced with the increasing of cracking age. Cracks width influenced self-healing effectiveness significantly. The transportation of CO2 and Ca2+ controlled the self-healing process. The computer simulation analyses revealed the self-healing process and mechanism of microbiologically precipitation induced by bacteria and the depth of precipitated CaCO3 could be predicted base on valid Ca2+.

  18. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Rezende Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured; aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE; diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent; aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply. Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n=20 and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n=10 were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n=10 and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05. Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p<0.0001. For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p=0.309. For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p=0.033. Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  19. A hybrid predictive model for acoustic noise in urban areas based on time series analysis and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Claudio; Quartieri, Joseph; Tepedino, Carmine

    2017-06-01

    The dangerous effect of noise on human health is well known. Both the auditory and non-auditory effects are largely documented in literature, and represent an important hazard in human activities. Particular care is devoted to road traffic noise, since it is growing according to the growth of residential, industrial and commercial areas. For these reasons, it is important to develop effective models able to predict the noise in a certain area. In this paper, a hybrid predictive model is presented. The model is based on the mixing of two different approach: the Time Series Analysis (TSA) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The TSA model is based on the evaluation of trend and seasonality in the data, while the ANN model is based on the capacity of the network to "learn" the behavior of the data. The mixed approach will consist in the evaluation of noise levels by means of TSA and, once the differences (residuals) between TSA estimations and observed data have been calculated, in the training of a ANN on the residuals. This hybrid model will exploit interesting features and results, with a significant variation related to the number of steps forward in the prediction. It will be shown that the best results, in terms of prediction, are achieved predicting one step ahead in the future. Anyway, a 7 days prediction can be performed, with a slightly greater error, but offering a larger range of prediction, with respect to the single day ahead predictive model.

  20. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  1. Testing a vapour-fed PBI-based direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M.A.; Linares, J.J. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This work is focused on the application and performance of a high temperature PBI-based direct ethanol fuel cell, studying the influence of some operating variables such as the temperature, ethanol concentration and oxygen partial pressure. An increase in the temperature resulted in an improvement of the cell performance due to the enhanced electrodic kinetic and electrolyte conductivity. An ethanol/water weight ratio between 0.25 and 0.5 was found to be suitable for providing both enough water and fuel availability to make the ethanol oxidation possible. Measurements of the ethanol crossover at different temperatures and concentrations were carried out. An intermittent lifetime test showed that the cell, after several hours, was able to reach stability. Moreover, its performance was completely reversible with no perceptible losses for 7 days. Finally, tests using bio-ethanol as fuel were performed, with no significant power losses. This final feature is of special interest from a practical 'green' point of view. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160 mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650 mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

  3. Peak load forecasting using Bayesian regularization, Resilient and adaptive backpropagation learning based artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Lalit Mohan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India)

    2008-07-15

    Up to 7 days ahead electrical peak load forecasting has been done using feed forward neural network based on Steepest descent, Bayesian regularization, Resilient and adaptive backpropagation learning methods, by incorporating the effect of eleven weather parameters and past peak load information. To avoid trapping of network into a state of local minima, the optimization of user-defined parameters viz., learning rate and error goal has been performed. The sliding window concept has been incorporated for selection of training data set. It was then reduced as per relevant selection according to the day type and season for which the forecast is made. To reduce the dimensionality of input matrix, the Principal Component Analysis method of factor extraction or correlation analysis technique has been used and their performance has been compared. The resultant data set was used for training of three-layered neural network. In order to increase the learning speed, the weights and biases were initialized according to Nguyen and Widrow method. To avoid over fitting, early stopping of training was done at the minimum validation error. (author)

  4. Benefits of Sealed-Curing on Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no standardized procedure for producing geopolymers; therefore, many researchers develop their own procedures for mixing and curing to achieve good workability and strength development. The curing scheme adopted is important in achieving maximum performance of resultant geopolymers. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sealed and unsealed curing on mechanical strength of geopolymers. Fly ash-based geopolymers cured in sealed and unsealed moulds clearly revealed that retention of water during curing resulted in superior strength development. The average compressive strength of sealed-cured geopolymers measured after 1 day of curing was a modest 50 MPa, while after 7 day curing the average compressive strength increased to 120~135 MPa. In the unsealed specimens the average compressive strength of geopolymers was lower; ranging from 60 to 90 MPa with a slight increase as the curing period increased. Microcracking caused by dehydration is postulated to cause the strength decrease in the unsealed cured samples. These results show that water is a crucial component for the evolution of high strength three-dimensional cross-linked networks in geopolymers.

  5. Evaluation Clinical Effects of Anti-Septic Solution Based on Propolis in Caries-Active Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Vanessa Dantas de ALMEIDA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed validate the action of one anti-septic solution based on propolis against the clinical indexes and levels of S. mutans. Method: The antimicrobial activity of the extract was done on solid plates to determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC using sorts of S. mutans. With the MIC of the extract, was made a mouthrinse solution of propolis (6.25%, which was used clinically as a test solution and compared with positive control solution, the chlorexidine (0.12%. Through the crossover design, fifteen children used the mouthrinse solution of propolis during 15 consecutive days and after a break of 21 days, they used daily mouthrinse with the chlorexidine. Were collected indexes for accumulation of oral biofilm (OHI-S and for gun disease (GBI before (T0 and 24 hours after (T1 the use of the solutions, besides of the couting of the S. mutans from saliva's samples before (T0 and 24 hours (T0, 7 days (T7, 15 days (T15 e 21 days (T21 after the end of both mouthrinses. Results: The results demonstrated significative reduction of the S. mutans levels 24 hours (p0.05. Conclusion: The propolis extract showed satisfactory antimicrobial activity and close to the chlorexidine's action, besides of act against clinical conditions of oral biofilm's presence and gun disease what becomes it useful as therapeutic agent.

  6. Toxicity of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate-Based Induction Therapy in Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Tihana; Bottomley, Christian; Loyse, Angela; Brouwer, Annemarie E; Muzoora, Conrad; Taseera, Kabanda; Jackson, Arthur; Phulusa, Jacob; Hosseinipour, Mina C; van der Horst, Charles; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; White, Nicholas J; Wilson, Douglas; Wood, Robin; Meintjes, Graeme; Harrison, Thomas S; Jarvis, Joseph N

    2015-12-01

    Amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) is the recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Its use is hampered by toxicities that include electrolyte abnormalities, nephrotoxicity, and anemia. Protocols to minimize toxicity are applied inconsistently. In a clinical trial cohort of AmBd-based CM induction treatment, a standardized protocol of preemptive hydration and electrolyte supplementation was applied. Changes in blood counts, electrolyte levels, and creatinine levels over 14 days were analyzed in relation to the AmBd dose, treatment duration (short course of 5 to 7 days or standard course of 14 days), addition of flucytosine (5FC), and outcome. In the 368 patients studied, the hemoglobin levels dropped by a mean of 1.5 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 1.9 g/dl) following 7 days of AmBd and by a mean of 2.3 g/dl (95% CI, 1.1 to 3.6 g/dl) after 14 days. Serum creatinine levels increased by 37 μmol/liter (95% CI, 30 to 45 μmol/liter) by day 7 and by 49 μmol/liter (95% CI, 35 to 64μmol/liter) by day 14 of AmBd treatment. Overall, 33% of patients developed grade III/IV anemia, 5.6% developed grade III hypokalemia, 9.5% had creatinine levels that exceeded 220 μmol, and 6% discontinued AmBd prematurely. The addition of 5FC was associated with a slight increase in anemia but not neutropenia. Laboratory abnormalities stabilized or reversed during the second week in patients on short-course induction. Grade III/IV anemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.3; P = 0.028) and nephrotoxicity (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11; P = 0.001) were risk factors for 10-week mortality. In summary, routine intravenous saline hydration and preemptive electrolyte replacement during AmBd-based induction regimens for HIV-associated CM minimized the incidence of hypokalemia and nephrotoxicity. Anemia remained a concerning adverse effect. The addition of flucytosine was not associated with increased neutropenia. Shorter AmBd courses

  7. Comparative in-vitro efficacy of fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from bacterial keratitis as determined by E-test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The advent of new fluoroquinolones has drawn the attention for reliable methods on the in-vitro susceptibility testing of Streptococccus pneumoniae. This study attempts to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of second-generation (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, third-generation (levofloxacin and the fourth-generation (moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae recovered from bacterial keratitis. Materials and Methods: In retrospect, the MICs of 50 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from the corneal scrapes of patients with bacterial keratitis were determined against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin using E-tests. The National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS susceptibility patterns and the potencies of the MICs were statistically compared. Results: The median MIC of ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml was found to be lower than the median MICs of ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.449 and levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001. The median MICs of gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml was lower than the median MICs of ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml (P < 0.001, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.001 and levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001. Moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml had showed lower median MICs than gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml (P < 0.001 levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.001 and ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml (P < 0.001. Moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml had a lower MIC50 (μg/ml than gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml, levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml, ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml and ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml. MIC90 (μg/ml of moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml was found to be lower than the MIC90 (μg/ml of gatifloxacin (0.5μg/ml, levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml and ciprofloxacin (0.5μg/ml. Conclusion: Based on in-vitro testing, the five portrayed fluoroquinolones 100% sensitivity to S. pneumoniae. However, the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin appeared to be more

  8. A thorough QT study in the context of an uptitration regimen with selexipag, a selective oral prostacyclin receptor agonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoch M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Hoch,1 Borje Darpo,2,3 Tatiana Remenova,4 Randall Stoltz,5 Meijian Zhou,2 Priska Kaufmann,1 Shirin Bruderer,1 Jasper Dingemanse1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2iCardiac Technologies Inc, Rochester, New York, NY, USA; 3Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd’s Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Drug Safety Department, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland; 5Covance Clinical Research Unit, Evansville, IN, USA Abstract: The effects of selexipag and its active metabolite ACT-333679 on cardiac repolarization were assessed in a thorough QT study as per International Conference on ­Harmonisation E14 guidance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo/positive-controlled, parallel-group study, healthy male and female subjects were randomized to receive escalating doses of selexipag (n=91 or placebo/moxifloxacin (n=68. Ascending multiple doses of selexipag in the range of 400-1,600 µg or placebo were administered twice daily for 21 days. Following a nested crossover design, subjects in the moxifloxacin/placebo treatment group received a single oral 400 mg dose of moxifloxacin on day 2 or 24. The primary endpoint (QT interval correction using individualized formula [QTcI] was chosen based on a prospectively defined test applied to on-treatment data. The mean baseline-adjusted placebo-corrected ΔQTcI (ΔΔQTcI for selexipag was small at all time points and never exceeded 1.4 msec (upper bound of 90% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 msec on 800 µg or –0.7 msec (upper bound of 90% CI, 2.1 msec on 1,600 µg. The mean ΔΔQTcI peak effect for moxifloxacin was 7.5 msec (lower bound of 90% CI, 4.8 msec. The exposure-response analysis did not demonstrate a relevant relationship between plasma concentrations of selexipag or ACT-333679 and ΔΔQTcI but, in contrast, a positive slope within the expected range

  9. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  10. Rapid detection of listeria spp. using an internalin A aptasensor based on carbon-metal nanohybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Rong, Yue; Schwalb, N.; Hills, K. D.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes continue to raise major public health concerns worldwide. In the United States alone, the centers for disease control and prevention have confirmed the occurrence of 183 cases of listeriosis with 39 fatalities within the last 3 years. Standard methods for the detection of pathogenic strains require up to 7 days to yield results, thus faster techniques with the same level of reliability for bacteria detection are desirable. This study reports on the development of a rapid, accurate, and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for rapid testing of Listeria spp. based on the selective binding of InlA aptamers to internalins in the cell membrane of the target bacteria. Hybrid nanomaterial platforms based on reduced graphene oxide and nanoplatinum were deposited onto Pt/Ir electrodes for enhancing electrochemical transduction during the recognition events. InlA aptamers were immobilized onto the nanomaterial platforms via metal-thiol adsorption. Aptamer loading onto different platform nanostructures was investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The detection mechanism was evaluated by recording the electrochemical response to several bacterial dilutions in PBS buffer using the non-pathogenic species Listeria innocua. These preliminary results show that the aptasensor can be tuned for detection of Listeria concentrations as low as 100 CFU/ml in less than 3 hours (including incubation time and data analysis). The developed aptasensor opens a promising direction for rapid testing of Listeria monocytogenes in food products.

  11. Effects of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on motivational interviewing among low-motivated smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei Fei; Jiao, Na Na; Zhang, Liu Yi; Lei, Yang; Zhang, Jing Ping

    2015-08-01

    To test the efficacy of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational interviewing (MI) among low-motivated Chinese smokers. A two-armed randomized controlled trial study design was utilized. 159 Smoker-supporter pairs were randomly allocated to the intervention (a family-assisted MI intervention-77) or control (an intensity-matched health education-82) group (IG & CG). Change in smoking characteristics, communication characteristics, Partner Intervention Questionnaire (PIQ), Decisional Balance Scale (DBL), and Situational Temptations Scale (STP) were measured at baseline, post-intervention, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Compared to CG, IG had more significant increase over time in self-report quitting attempts of at least 24h, biochemically verified 7-day smoking abstinence, the Positive dimension of PIQ and the Cons in DBL, whereas the daily cigarettes smoked, the Pros in DBL and STP were showed more significant decrease over time in IG (Peffective in changing the smoking behaviors and increasing the communication between smokers and family, than health education. Using the family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on MI, community health service providers can influence and empower low-motivated smokers positively for quit smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical ocular drug delivery system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Jhan, Yong-Yu; Chiu, Allen Wen-hsiang; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-lin

    2016-06-25

    Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Frequent and long-term application of latanoprost often causes undesirable local side effects, which are a major cause of therapeutic failure due to loss of persistence in using this glaucoma medical therapy. In the present study, we developed a thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical eye drop formulation for the sustained release of latanoprost to control ocular hypertension. The developed formulation without preservatives may improve compliance and possibly even efficacy. The results of this study support its biocompatibility and sustained-release profile both in vitro and in vivo. After topical application of latanoprost-loaded hydrogel, triamcinolone acetonide-induced elevated intraocular pressure was significantly decreased within 7 days and remained at a normal level for the following 21 days in rabbit eyes. This newly developed chitosan-based hydrogel may provide a non-invasive alternative to traditional anti-glaucoma eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  13. Cumulative effect of disinfection procedures on microhardness and tridimensional stability of a poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Evandro Afonso; Schmidt, Caroline Bom; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Hirakata, Luciana Mayumi; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai

    2008-08-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for disinfection of dentures instead of chemical solutions; yet, its effect on resin properties after repeated procedures still is unclear. This study evaluated the cumulative effect of two disinfection methods on Knoop microhardness and tridimensional stability of a poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin. For the microhardness measurement, 24-resin discs received mechanical polishing and were submitted to the following treatments: (1) control (no disinfection), (2) chemical disinfection (immersion in 100ppm chloride solution for 24h), or (3) microwave disinfection (irradiation at 690 W for 6 min). Disinfection procedures were performed twice (T1, T2) with a 7-day interval. Knoop microhardness was recorded after polishing (T0) and after T1 and T2. For the dimensional stability test (measured by the adaptation of the denture bases), 36-maxillary denture bases were obtained from type III dental stone casts duplicated from a metallic master model and submitted to the disinfection treatment. Adaptation of denture bases was measured at baseline (T0) and after T1 and T2 by weighing a vinyl polysiloxane film reproducing the gap between resin base and master model. Data were analyzed by ANOVA GLM for repeated measures and Bonferroni's test, alpha = 0.05. Knoop microhardness was not modified by any disinfection procedure but decreased over time. Denture resin bases submitted to microwave disinfection had gradual increase of distortion over time, while bases immersed in chloride solution did not differ from the control group and remained dimensionally stable from T1 to T2.

  14. High-dose rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and SQ109 for treating tuberculosis: a multi-arm, multi-stage randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeree, M.J.; Heinrich, N.; Aarnoutse, R.; Diacon, A.H.; Dawson, R.; Rehal, S.; Kibiki, G.S.; Churchyard, G.; Sanne, I.; Ntinginya, N.E.; Minja, L.T.; Hunt, R.D.; Charalambous, S.; Hanekom, M.; Semvua, H.H.; Mpagama, S.G.; Manyama, C.; Mtafya, B.; Reither, K.; Wallis, R.S.; Venter, A.; Narunsky, K.; Mekota, A.; Henne, S.; Colbers, A.; Balen, G.P. van; Gillespie, S.H.; Phillips, P.P.; Hoelscher, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the world's leading infectious disease killer. We aimed to identify shorter, safer drug regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, open-label trial with a multi-arm, multi-stage design. The trial was done in seven sites in South A

  15. One case of language barrier caused by Moxifloxacin Injection%莫西沙星注射液致语言障碍1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 张磊; 蒋燕

    2009-01-01

    患者,男,83岁,因“反复头昏三十余年,浮肿三年”入院。入院诊断:高血压病,肾动脉硬化症,慢性肾功能不全(尿毒症期)。患者维持血液透析17个月,每周三次。既往对青霉素、头孢类抗生素过敏。入院查体:体温36℃,心率65次/分,呼吸21次/分,血压130/65mmHg。2008年11月17日患者因肺部感染静脉滴注莫西沙星注射液(商品名:拜复乐,400mg:250mL,拜耳医药保健公司,批号BXCD4AD11),qd,无不良反应。

  16. Diameter of the ovulatory follicle at timed artificial insemination as a predictor of pregnancy status in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Behrouzi, A; Ambrose, D J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    Ovulation of an early-stage dominant follicle induced by exogenous GnRH reportedly results in a reduced ovulatory follicle size and fertility in beef and dairy cattle. Objectives were to examine factors associated with ovulatory follicle diameter and the relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based programs for timed artificial insemination (TAI). A total of 1048 ovulations from 1576 breedings of cows that had or had not been presynchronized and subjected to a 5- or a 7-day GnRH-based protocol with or without progesterone supplementation between initial GnRH and PGF2α were analyzed. Ultrasonography was used to determine cyclicity, ovulation, and pregnancy status and to measure diameter of the ovulatory follicle at the time of TAI. Mean (±standard error) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was 16.4 ± 0.1 mm (range, 11-25 mm; n = 1048); the most common diameters were 15 (n = 170), 16 (n = 169), and 17 mm (n = 170). Multiparous cows and those subjected to a 7-day protocol had larger ovulatory follicles (P < 0.05). On average, multiparous cows that did not ovulate after the initial GnRH had the largest ovulatory follicles (17.0 ± 0.1 mm; n = 290), whereas all cows that ovulated after the initial GnRH and were subjected to a 5-day GnRH-based protocol had the smallest ovulatory follicles (15.6 ± 0.2 mm; n = 207). The associations between ovulatory follicle diameter and P/AI at 32 and 60 days after TAI were not significant. However, a significant linear relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 days after TAI was observed, with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of pregnancy loss in cows with an ovulatory follicle greater than 20 mm in diameter. In summary, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle preceding TAI was affected by interactions between ovulatory response to initial GnRH and parity and between

  17. Comparison of microscopy and Alamar blue reduction in a larval based assay for schistosome drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha R Mansour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In view of the current widespread use of and reliance on a single schistosomicide, praziquantel, there is a pressing need to discover and develop alternative drugs for schistosomiasis. One approach to this is to develop High Throughput in vitro whole organism screens (HTS to identify hits amongst large compound libraries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have been carrying out low throughput (24-well plate in vitro testing based on microscopic evaluation of killing of ex-vivo adult S. mansoni worms using selected compound collections mainly provided through the WHO-TDR Helminth Drug Initiative. To increase throughput, we introduced a similar but higher throughput 96-well primary in vitro assay using the schistosomula stage which can be readily produced in vitro in large quantities. In addition to morphological readout of viability we have investigated using fluorometric determination of the reduction of Alamar blue (AB, a redox indicator of enzyme activity widely used in whole organism screening. A panel of 7 known schistosome active compounds including praziquantel, produced diverse effects on larval morphology within 3 days of culture although only two induced marked larval death within 7 days. The AB assay was very effective in detecting these lethal compounds but proved more inconsistent in detecting compounds which damaged but did not kill. The utility of the AB assay in detecting compounds which cause severe morbidity and/or death of schistosomula was confirmed in testing a panel of compounds previously selected in library screening as having activity against the adult worms. Furthermore, in prospective library screening, the AB assay was able to detect all compounds which induced killing and also the majority of compounds designated as hits based on morphological changes. CONCLUSION: We conclude that an HTS combining AB readout and image-based analysis would provide an efficient and stringent primary assay for schistosome

  18. Enhancing community-based rehabilitation for stroke survivors: creating a discharge link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstaff, Caryn; Martin, Cally; Brown, Gwen; McGuinness, Don; Mather, Jo; Loshaw, Jennifer; Jones, Nancy; Fletcher, Kim; Paterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Intensive poststroke rehabilitation is critical to maximizing outcomes, improving inpatient flow, and decreasing long-term costs. This regional initiative investigated the impact of improving access to timely intensive home-based stroke rehabilitation follow-up care on hospital length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates. The enhanced service was made available across the region's rural geography to new stroke survivors transitioning home who were unable to access outpatient care. All new stroke survivors with ongoing rehabilitation needs being discharged from the hospital and eligible for home care received timely enhanced intensity of home-based rehabilitation services from existing community rehabilitation providers for 2 months after discharge. Five hundred twenty-four stroke survivors received this service over a 3-year period. The service priority rating was increased to reduce wait times to less than 5 days. Collaborative planning across sectors occurred through discharge link meetings. Comparative analysis was used to investigate health system measures before and after service implementation. A 15.7-day decrease in hospital LOS and decreased hospital readmission rates were observed after enhanced service implementation. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) efficiency improved for those discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Average wait time for community rehabilitation services decreased from 44 days to 4.4 days. The mean total number of community therapy visits more than doubled to an average of 12 per client. The provision of timely more intensive home-based rehabilitation services for new stroke survivors transitioning home and unable to access outpatient care was associated with decreased hospital LOS and decreased readmission rates.

  19. Novel spiropiperidine-based stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 inhibitors: Identification of 1'-{6-[5-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyridazin-3-yl}-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3,4-dihydrospiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Yoshikazu; Kiyotsuka, Yohei; Ueno, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yuriko; Kurata, Hitoshi; Ogata, Tsuneaki; Deguchi, Tsuneo; Yamada, Makiko; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Konishi, Masahiro; Kurikawa, Nobuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Wakimoto, Satoko; Kono, Keita; Ohsumi, Jun

    2010-01-15

    Cyclization of the benzoylpiperidine in lead compound 2 generated a series of novel and highly potent spiropiperidine-based stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 inhibitors. Among them, 1'-{6-[5-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyridazin-3-yl}-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3,4-dihydrospiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine] (19) demonstrated the most powerful inhibitory activity against SCD-1, not only in vitro but also in vivo (C57BL/6J mice). With regard to the pharmacological evaluation, 19 showed powerful reduction of the desaturation index in the plasma of C57BL/6J mice on a non-fat diet after a 7-day oral administration (q.d.) without causing notable abnormalities in the eyes or skin up to the highest dose (3mg/kg) in our preliminary analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A home-based physical activity intervention using activity trackers in survivors of childhood cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Alyssa; Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Zheng, Daniel J; Rotatori, Jaime; Fahey, John T; Ness, Kirsten K; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2017-02-01

    Over 70% of childhood cancer survivors develop late complications from therapy, many of which can be mitigated by physical activity. Survivors engage in exercise at similar or lower rates than their sedentary healthy peers. We piloted a novel home-based exercise intervention with a motivational activity tracker. We evaluated (i) feasibility, (ii) impact on activity levels and physical fitness, and (iii) barriers, preferences, and beliefs regarding physical activity. Childhood cancer survivors currently 15 years or older and not meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention physical activity guidelines were enrolled and instructed to wear the Fitbit One, a 4.8 cm × 1.8 cm motivational activity tracker, daily for 6 months. Baseline and follow-up evaluations included self-report surveys, an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days, and a VO2 maximum test by cardiac stress test. Nineteen participants were enrolled (13.4% participation rate) with a mean age of 24.3 ± 5.8 years (range 15-35). Four participants withdrew with a 79% retention rate. Participants wore the Fitbit an average of 19.0 ± 4.7 days per month during months 1-3 and 15.0 ± 7.9 days per month during months 4-6. Total weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity increased from 265.6 ± 117.0 to 301.4 ± 135.4 min and VO2 maximum increased from 25.7 ± 7.7 to 27.2 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min. These changes were not statistically significant (P = 0.47 and 0.30, respectively). Survey responses indicated no change in barriers, preferences, and beliefs regarding physical activity. This pilot study of a motivational activity tracker demonstrated feasibility as measured by participant retention, receptivity, and belief of utility. Future studies with a large sample size are needed to demonstrate the efficacy and sustainability of this intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  2. First ground-based observations of mesopause temperatures above the Eastern-Mediterranean Part I: Multi-day oscillations and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael; Pecora, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    The mesopause region ( 90 km altitude) is the coldest region of our atmosphere, and is found at the boundary between the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Ground-based spectrometers, which are sensitive to the emissions from the hydroxyl (OH*) airglow layer (lying at 87 km altitude), are used to monitor the temperature variability within the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT), at high temporal resolution. The variability of the MLT region of the atmosphere is driven by momentum deposition from gravity waves, atmospheric tides and planetary waves. The displacement of air caused by these waves can produce strong temperature, wind and species concentration perturbations. In this study we present an analysis of 4-years of OH* rotational temperature data, acquired with the German Aerospace Center (DLR) GRIPS-10 (Ground Based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) instrument, which was installed in Israel in November 2011. This instrument provided the first long-term ground-based observations of airglow emissions in the Eastern Mediterranean. We show the nocturnal mean temperature analysis, which includes time series as well as spectral analysis of the data. In addition, we obtain (migrating) tidal oscillation estimates from the high resolution (1 min) data, by using harmonic fitting, and we analyze the variability of planetary wave signatures in the residual temperature data, which are retrieved after the removal of the tidal harmonic fits from the data. In this analysis of the residual data we find a dominant quasi-5-7 day planetary wave influence on the mesopause temperatures above the Eastern Mediterranean.

  3. Copula-Based Bivariate Flood Frequency Analysis in a Changing Climate-A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Duan; Yadong Mei; Liping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Copula-based bivariate frequency analysis can be used to investigate the changes in flood characteristics in the Huai River Basin that could be caused by climate change. The univariate distribu-tions of historical flood peak, maximum 3-day and 7-day volumes in 1961–2000 and future values in 2061–2100 projected from two GCMs (CSIRO-MK3.5 and CCCma-CGCM3.1) under A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios are analyzed and compared. Then, bivariate distributions of peaks and volumes are constructed based on the copula method and possible changes in joint return periods are characterized. Results indicate that the Clayton copula is more appropriate for historical and CCCma-CGCM3.1 simu-lating flood variables, while that of Frank and Gumbel are better fitted to CSIRO-MK3.5 simulations. The variations of univariate and bivariate return periods reveal that flood characteristics may be more sensi-tive to different GCMs than different emission scenarios. Between the two GCMs, CSIRO-MK3.5 evi-dently predicts much more severe flood conditions in future, especially under B1 scenario, whereas CCCma-CGCM3.1 generally suggests contrary changing signals. This study corroborates that copulas can serve as a viable and flexible tool to connect univariate marginal distributions of flood variables and quantify the associated risks, which may provide useful information for risk-based flood control.

  4. Hydrological response to climate change in the Lesse and the Vesdre catchments: contribution of a physically based model (Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bauwens

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meuse is an important rain-fed river in North-Western Europe. Nine million people live in its catchment, split over five countries. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature characteristics due to climate change would have a significant impact on the Meuse River and its tributaries. In this study, we focused on the impacts of climate change on the hydrology of two sub-catchments of the Meuse in Belgium, the Lesse and the Vesdre, placing the emphasis on the water-soil-plant continuum in order to highlight the effects of climate change on plant growth, and water uptake on the hydrology of two sub-catchments. These effects were studied using two climate scenarios and a physically based distributed model, which reflects the water-soil-plant continuum. Our results show that the vegetation will evapotranspirate between 10 and 17 % less at the end of the century because of water scarcity in summer, even if the root development is better under climate change conditions. In the low scenario, the mean minimal 7 days discharge value could decrease between 19 and 24 % for a two year return period, and between 20 and 35 % for a fifty year return period. It will lead to rare but severe drought in rivers, with potentially huge consequences on water quality.

  5. Residual Monomer Content and Its Release into Water from the Denture Base Nanocomposite Using Organic Montmorillonite as Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongbo; ZHANG Chao; LI Zhian; WANG Yining; XIAO Qun

    2008-01-01

    A novel kind of denture base nanocomposite was prepared by polymethyl methyacrylate(PMMA) and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide modified organic montmorillonite (OMMT).The dispersion of montmorillonite in the polymer matrix was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transimission electron microscope (TEM).The content of residual MMA in nanocomposites and the amount of MMA released to water from nanocomposites were determined by gas chromatography (GC).The analysis of TEM and XRD showed that exfoliated-intercalated and intercalated nanocomposites were formed when the content of OMMT was 3% and 5% in the PMMA powder respectively.The results of GC showed that the residual MMA increased with the increase of OMMT content in the polymer matrix.After 7 days in water,the amount of MMA released into water from the nanocomposites tended to be stable.The results of one-way ANOVA and t-test showed that OMMT gave a significant increase of residual MMA concentration (p<0.05) in nanocomposites.

  6. Identification of food spoilage in the smart home based on neural and fuzzy processing of odour sensor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoffrey C; Chan, Adrian D C; Goubran, Rafik A

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the use of real-time odour monitoring in the smart home has the potential to alert the occupant of unsafe or unsanitary conditions. In this paper, we measured (with a commercial metal-oxide sensor-based electronic nose) the odours of five household foods that had been left out at room temperature for a week to spoil. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was trained to recognize the age of the samples (a quantity related to the degree of spoilage). For four of these foods, median correlation coefficients (between target values and MLP outputs) of R > 0.97 were observed. Fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) was applied to the evolving odour patterns of spoiling milk, which had been sampled more frequently (4h intervals for 7 days). The FCM results showed that both the freshest and oldest milk samples had a high degree of membership in "fresh" and "spoiled" clusters, respectively. In the future, as advancements in electronic nose development remove the present barriers to acceptance, signal processing methods like those explored in this paper can be incorporated into odour monitoring systems used in the smart home.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Mahmud, Toslim; Rahman, Zillur; Mustafiz, Munshi; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jung, Danielle; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013-2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds of hand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients.

  8. Use of a similarity index based on microbial fatty acid (MFA) analysis to monitor biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K S; Hall, E R

    2003-09-01

    Estimating the stability of microbial community structures may be useful in advanced biological wastewater treatment system design and operation. In this research, a monitoring method using fatty acid profiles was evaluated for detecting changes in microbial community structures. For the evaluation, the operating parameters such as pH, organic loading, and chlorine addition were varied in two identical laboratory scale conventional activated sludge systems. A similarity index based on microbial fatty acid analysis was used to express the stability of microbial community structures in the systems. Experiments using a model microbial community showed that microbial compositions changed daily even under constant operating conditions and that the rate of change increased under dynamic operating conditions. Substrate changes brought about a relatively large change in a microbial community structure, eventually resulting in a very different microbial community. After only 7 days following a substrate change in a lab-scale bioreactor, the biomass exhibited only 45% similarity to the original structure. The analysis of microbial fatty acids conveys additional information, in that it could be used for the calculation of biomass concentrations in a wastewater treatment system if microbial fatty acid analyses are executed on a routine basis as a monitoring tool for biological wastewater treatment systems. The total fatty acid concentrations were about 0.61% of the biomass concentration as mixed liquor volatile suspended solid concentrations in this research.

  9. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibe, Dandy Ahamefula; Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

    2015-12-01

    Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus.

  10. Reliability of a Cycle Ergometer Peak Power Test in Running-based Team Sport Athletes: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P

    2015-07-01

    Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.

  11. Tests of an extension of the dual pathway model of bulimic symptoms to the state-based level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Millicent; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn

    2014-04-01

    The dual pathway model proposes that trait body dissatisfaction leads to bulimic symptoms via two distinct pathways: dieting and trait negative affect. As many of these modelled variables have state-based equivalents, the present study evaluated the generalisability of this model to predict associations between state body dissatisfaction and instances of disordered eating. 124 women aged 18 to 40 years completed an online survey (accessed via a mobile phone device with web access) over a 7-day period. The mobile phone device prompted participants at random intervals seven times daily to self-report their state body dissatisfaction, current mood experiences, dieting attempts, and disordered eating practices. Multi-level mediation modelling revealed that both negative mood states and dieting significantly mediated the state body dissatisfaction-disordered eating relationships, although the strength of these associations depended on the aspect of disordered eating measured and individual differences in trait body dissatisfaction, internalization of appearance standards, tendency towards dieting, and BMI. Collectively, these results not only support adapting the dual pathway model to the state-level, but also suggest that several of the model implied pathways may be more relevant for individuals with more pathological eating- and body-related concerns and behaviours.

  12. Experimentally Approaching the ICU: Monitoring Outcome-Based Responses in the Two-Hit Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Drechsler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To simulate and monitor the evolution of posttraumatic sepsis in mice, we combined a two-hit model of trauma/hemorrhage (TH followed by polymicrobial sepsis with repetitive blood sampling. Anesthetized mice underwent femur fracture/sublethal hemorrhage and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP 48 h later. To monitor outcome-dependent changes in circulating cells/biomarkers, mice were sampled daily (facial vein for 7 days and retrospectively divided into either dead (DIE or surviving (SUR by post-CLP day 7. Prior to CLP, AST was 3-fold higher in DIE, while all other post-TH changes were similar between groups. There was a significant post-CLP intergroup separation. In SUR, RBC and Hb were lower, platelets and neutrophils higher, and lymphocytes mixed compared to DIE. In DIE, all organ function markers except glucose (decrease were few folds higher compared to SUR. In summary, the combination of daily monitoring with an adequate two-hit model simulates the ICU setting, allows insight into outcome-based responses, and can identify biomarkers indicative of death in the acute posttraumatic sepsis in mice.

  13. Development of a passive sampler based on a polymer inclusion membrane for total ammonia monitoring in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M Inês G S; Silva, Adélia M L; Coleman, Rhys A; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-01

    A passive sampler for determining the time-weighted average total ammonia (i.e. molecular ammonia and the ammonium cation) concentration (C TWA) in freshwaters, which incorporated a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a semi-permeable barrier separating the aqueous source solution from the receiving solution (i.e. 0.8 mol L(-1) HCl), was developed for the first time. The PIM was composed of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNS) as a carrier, poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a base polymer and 1-tetradecanol as a modifier. Its optimal composition was found to be 35 wt% commercial DNNS, 55 wt% PVC and 10 wt% 1-tetradecanol. The effect of environmental variables such as the water matrix, pH and temperature were also studied using synthetic freshwaters. The passive sampler was calibrated under laboratory conditions using synthetic freshwaters and exhibited a linear response within the concentration range 0.59-2.8 mg L(-1) NH4(+) (0.46-2.1 mg N L(-1)) at 20 °C. The performance of the sampler was further investigated under field conditions over 7 days. A strong correlation between spot sampling and passive sampling was achieved, thus providing a proof-of-concept for the passive sampler for reliably measuring the C(TWA) of total ammonia in freshwaters, which can be used as an indicator in tracking sources of faecal contamination in stormwater drains.

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate-based endodontic sealer stimulates hydroxyapatite nucleation in human osteoblast-like cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Loise Pedrosa; Gomes-Cornélio, Ana Lívia; Guimarães, Felipe Coutinho; Herrera, Bruno Schneider; Bao, Sonia Nair; Rossa-Junior, Carlos; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and bioactivity of a new mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based endodontic sealer, MTA Fillapex (MTA-F; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), in human cell culture. Human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) were exposed for 1, 2, 3, and 7 days to MTA-F, Epiphany SE (EP-SE; SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (ZOE). Unexposed cultures were the control group (CT). The viability of the cells was assessed by MTT assay and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bioactivity of MTA-F was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and the detection of calcium deposits in the culture with alizarin red stain (ARS). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to chemically characterize the hydroxyapatite crystallites (HAP). Saos-2 cells were cultured for 21 days for ARS and SEM/EDS. ARS results were expressed as the number of stained nodules per area. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests (P CT > EP-SE > ZOE). SEM/EDS analysis showed hydroxyapatite crystals only in the MTA-F and CT groups. In the MTA-F group, crystallite morphology and chemical composition were different from CT. After setting, the cytotoxicity of MTA-F decreases and the sealer presents suitable bioactivity to stimulate HAP crystal nucleation. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the stability of chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogels for cell delivery using transglutaminase and controlled release of doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, Christian J; Abraham, Carol; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2015-12-01

    Although local cell delivery is an option to repair tissues, particularly using chitosan-based hydrogels, significant attrition of injected cells prior to engraftment has been a problem. To address this problem, we explored the possibility of stabilizing the chitosan-gelatin (CG) injectable hydrogels using (1) controlled release of doxycycline (DOX) to prevent premature degradation due to increased gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and (2) transglutaminase (TG) to in situ cross-link gelatin to improve the mechanical stability. We prepared DOX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, loaded into the CG hydrogels, measured DOX release for 5 days, and modeled using a single-compartmental assumption. Next, we assessed the influence of TG and DOX on hydrogel compression properties by incubating hydrogels for 7 days in PBS. We evaluated the effect of these changes on retention of fibroblasts and alterations in MMP-2/MMP-9 activity by seeding 500,000 fibroblasts for 5 days. These results showed that 90 % of DOX released from cross-linked CG hydrogels after 4 days, unlike CG hydrogels where 90 % of DOX was released within the first day. Addition of TG enhanced the CG hydrogel stability significantly. More than 60 % of seeded fibroblasts were recovered from the CG-TG hydrogels at day 5, unlike 40 % recovered from CG-hydrogels. Inhibition of MMP-2/MMP-9 were observed. In summary, controlled release of DOX from CG hydrogels cross-linked with TG shows a significant potential as a carrier for cell delivery.

  16. Application of visible light-based projection stereolithography for live cell-scaffold fabrication with designed architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Zhang, Dongning; Alexander, Peter G; Yang, Guang; Tan, Jian; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Tuan, Rocky S

    2013-01-01

    One-step scaffold fabrication with live cell incorporation is a highly desirable technology for tissue engineering and regeneration. Projection stereolithography (PSL) represents a promising method owing to its fine resolution, high fabrication speed and computer-aided design (CAD) capabilities. However, the majority of current protocols utilize water-insoluble photoinitiators that are incompatible with live cell-fabrication, and ultraviolet (UV) light that is damaging to the cellular DNA. We report here the development of a visible light-based PSL system (VL-PSL), using lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP) as the initiator and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) as the monomer, to produce hydrogel scaffolds with specific shapes and internal architectures. Furthermore, live human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were suspended in PEGDA/LAP solution during the PSL process, and were successfully incorporated within the fabricated hydrogel scaffolds. hADSCs in PEG scaffolds showed high viability (>90%) for up to 7 days after fabrication as revealed by Live/Dead staining. Scaffolds with porous internal architecture retained higher cell viability and activity than solid scaffolds, likely due to increased oxygen and nutrients exchange into the interior of the scaffolds. The VL-PSL should be applicable as an efficient and effective tissue engineering technology for point-of-care tissue repair in the clinic.

  17. Push-out bond strength of MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emmanuel Jnl; Carvalho, Nancy Kudsi; Zanon, Mayara; Senna, Plínio Mendes; DE-Deus, Gustavo; Zuolo, Mário Luis; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to investigate the resistance to dislodgment provided by MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement. Biodentine and White MTA Angelus were used as reference materials for comparison. Three discs 1 ± 0.1 mm thick were obtained from the middle third of the roots of 5 maxillary canines. Three 0.8-mm-wide holes were drilled on the axial surface of each root disc. Standardized irrigation was performed. Then the holes were dried with paper points and filled with one of the three tested cements. The filled dental slices were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.2) for 7 days before the push-out assessment. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to assess the effect of each endodontic cement on the push-out bond strength. Mann-Whitney with Bonferroni correction was used to isolate the differences. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. All specimens had measurable push-out values and no premature failure occurred. There were significant differences among the materials (p MTA HP had significantly higher bond strength than White MTA (p MTA HP showed better push-out bond strength than its predecessor, White MTA; however, Biodentine had higher dislodgment resistance than both MTA formulations.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K.M.; Mahmud, Toslim; Rahman, Zillur; Mustafiz, Munshi; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J.; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jung, Danielle; Sack, R. Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013–2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds of hand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients. PMID:26811968

  19. Stroke Risk After Non-Stroke ED Dizziness Presentations: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Fendrick, A. Mark; McLaughlin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute stroke is a serious concern in Emergency Department (ED) dizziness presentations. Prior studies, however, suggest that stroke is actually an unlikely cause of these presentations. Lacking are data on short- and long-term follow-up from population-based studies to establish stroke risk after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations. Methods From 5/8/2011 to 5/7/2012, patients ≥ 45 years of age presenting to EDs in Nueces County, Texas, with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance were identified, excluding those with stroke as the initial diagnosis. Stroke events after the ED presentation up to 10/2/2012 were determined using the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study, which uses rigorous surveillance and neurologist validation. Cumulative stroke risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results 1,245 patients were followed for a median of 347 days (IQR 230- 436 days). Median age was 61.9 years (IQR, 53.8-74.0 years). After the ED visit, fifteen patients (1.2%) had a stroke. Stroke risk was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 2 days; 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 7 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 30 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 90 days; and 1.42% (95% CI, 0.85%-2.36%) at 12 months. Interpretation Using rigorous case ascertainment and outcome assessment in a population-based design, we found that the risk of stroke after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations is very low, supporting a non-stroke etiology to the overwhelming majority of original events. High-risk subgroups likely exist, however, because most of the 90-day stroke risk occurred within 2-days. Vascular risk stratification was insufficient to identify these cases. PMID:24788511

  20. Biocompatibility of a novel cyanoacrylate based tissue adhesive: cytotoxicity and biochemical property evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ju Lee

    Full Text Available Cyanoacrylate (CA is most widely used as a medical and commercial tissue adhesive because of easier wound closure, good cosmetic results and little discomfort. But, CA-based tissue adhesives have some limitations including the release of cytotoxic chemicals during biodegradation. In previous study, we made prepolymerized allyl 2-CA (PACA based tissue adhesive, resulting in longer chain structure. In this study, we investigated a biocompatibility of PACA as alternative tissue adhesive for medical application, comparing with that of Dermabond® as commercial tissue adhesive. The biocompatibility of PACA was evaluated for short-term (24 hr and long-term (3 and 7 days using conventional cytotoxicity (WST, neutral red, LIVE/DEAD and TUNEL assays, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Masson trichrome (MT staining. Besides we examined the biochemical changes in cells and DNA induced by PACA and Dermabond® utilizing Raman spectroscopy which could observe the denaturation and conformational changes in protein, as well as disintegration of the DNA/RNA by cell death. In particular, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machine (SVM. As a result, PACA and Dermabond® tissue adhesive treated cells and tissues showed no difference of the cell viability values, histological analysis and Raman spectral intensity. Also, the classification analysis by means of PCA-SVM classifier could not discriminate the difference between the PACA and Dermabond® treated cells and DNA. Therefore we suggest that novel PACA might be useful as potential tissue adhesive with effective biocompatibility.

  1. Evaluation of tetrazolium-based semiautomatic colorimetric assay for measurement of human antitumor cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, D.S.; Park, J.G.; Hata, K.; Day, R.; Herberman, R.B.; Whiteside, T.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-06-15

    A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based colorimetric assay was developed and compared with 51Cr release from different adherent tumor cell targets (human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck established in our laboratory, melanoma, and colorectal carcinoma) using 5-7-day human lymphokine-activated killer cells and monocyte-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes as effectors. With adherent tumor cell targets, MTT colorimetry was more sensitive than the 51Cr release assay in measuring the antitumor activity of effectors: median, 4385 (range, 988-8144) versus median, 1061 (range, 582-7294) lytic units (the number of effector cells required to lyse 20% of 5 x 10(3) targets)/10(7) effectors (P less than 0.01). Background effects (without effector cells) were comparable in 4-h assays (9% versus 10%) between MTT colorimetry and 51Cr release. In 24-h assays, MTT colorimetry showed higher antitumor activity (70-100% versus 40-60% lysis at 1:1 effector:target cell ratio) but lower background effects (6% versus 38%) than 51Cr release assay. Thus, MTT colorimetry was more sensitive, did not use radiolabeled targets, required fewer effector cells, and was easier, less expensive, and better adaptable to serial monitoring of effector cell function in cancer patients. This colorimetric assay is especially well suited to adherent tumor cell targets. The use of adherent tumor cell monolayers, as opposed to trypsinized single cell suspensions, provides an opportunity to measure interactions of effector cells with enzymatically unaltered solid tumor targets. Because of the greater sensitivity of the colorimetric assay, the transformation of MTT data into lytic units, as commonly used for 51Cr release assays, required an adjustment to avoid the extrapolation based on the exponential fit equation.

  2. Strategies for classifying patients based on office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Ting-Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines propose home or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as indispensable after office measurement. However, whether preference should be given to home or ambulatory monitoring remains undetermined. In 831 untreated outpatients (mean age, 50.6 years; 49.8% women), we measured office (3 visits), home (7 days), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressures. We applied hypertension guidelines for cross-classification of patients into normotension or white-coat, masked, or sustained hypertension. Based on office and home blood pressures, the prevalence of white-coat, masked, and sustained hypertension was 61 (10.3%), 166 (20.0%), and 162 (19.5%), respectively. Using daytime (from 8 am to 6 pm) instead of home blood pressure confirmed the cross-classification in 575 patients (69.2%), downgraded risk from masked hypertension to normotension (n=24) or from sustained to white-coat hypertension (n=9) in 33 (4.0%), but upgraded risk from normotension to masked hypertension (n=179) or from white-coat to sustained hypertension (n=44) in 223 (26.8%). Analyses based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were confirmatory. In adjusted analyses, both the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (+20.6%; confidence interval, 4.4-39.3) and aortic pulse wave velocity (+0.30 m/s; confidence interval, 0.09-0.51) were higher in patients who moved up to a higher risk category. Both indexes of target organ damage and central augmentation index were positively associated (P≤0.048) with the odds of being reclassified. In conclusion, for reliably diagnosing hypertension and starting treatment, office measurement should be followed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Using home instead of ambulatory monitoring misses the high-risk diagnoses of masked or sustained hypertension in over 25% of patients.

  3. Risk stratification in motor area-related glioma surgery based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Tizian; Grittner, Ulrike; Acker, Güliz; Schwarzer, Vera; Kulchytska, Nataliia; Vajkoczy, Peter; Picht, Thomas

    2016-06-03

    OBJECTIVE Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a noninvasive method for preoperatively localizing functional areas in patients with tumors in presumed motor eloquent areas. The aim of this study was to establish an nTMS-based risk stratification model by examining whether the results of nTMS mapping and its neurophysiological data predict postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery. METHODS Included in this study were prospectively collected data for 113 patients undergoing bihemispheric nTMS examination prior to surgery for gliomas in presumed motor eloquent locations. Multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to test for any association between preoperative nTMS-related variables and postoperative motor outcome. RESULTS A new motor deficit or deterioration due to a preexisting deficit was observed in 20% of cases after 7 days and in 22% after 3 months. In terms of tumor location, no new permanent deficit was observed when the distance between tumor and corticospinal tract was greater than 8 mm and the precentral gyrus was not infiltrated (p = 0.014). New postoperative deficits on Day 7 were associated with a pathological excitability of the motor cortices (interhemispheric resting motor threshold [RMT] ratio 110%, p = 0.031). Interestingly, motor function never improved when the RMT was significantly higher in the tumorous hemisphere than in the healthy hemisphere (RMT ratio > 110%). CONCLUSIONS The proposed risk stratification model, based on objective functional-anatomical and neurophysiological measures, enables one to counsel patients about the risk of functional deterioration or the potential for recovery.

  4. [PRIMARY STUDY ON IMPLANT COVERAGE WITH LOCAL SOFT TISSUE IN IMMEDIATE IMPLANT-BASED BREAST RECONSTRUCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangxue; Mu, Lan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Kai; Peng, Zhe; Bi, Ye

    2016-03-01

    To explore the method of implant coverage with local soft tissue in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction and to evaluate the early effectiveness. Between April 2014 and August 2015, 11 patients with breast cancer underwent immediate breast reconstruction with implants after mastectomy, and the clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. The age ranged 29-48 years (mean, 36 years). The disease duration was from 7 days to 12 months (median, 3 months). According to tumor staging, 3 cases were rated as T(is)N0M0, 4 cases as T1N0M0, and 4 cases as T2N0M0. The implants were covered with local soft tissue according to the volume of mastectomy and contralateral breast size, including pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with inframammary adipofasical flaps (3 cases), with serratus anterior fascial flap (5 cases), with rectus sheath fascial flap (1 case), and with serratus anterior fascial flap and rectus sheath fascial flap (2 cases). The size of pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps ranged from 15 cm x 9 cm to 20 cm x 15 cm, and the serratus anterior fascial flaps from 10 cm x 8 cm to 15 cm x 10 cm, and the rectus sheath fascial flap from 8 cm x 6 cm to 10 cm x 8 cm. One patient had partial nipple necrosis postoperatively and was cured, and no other postoperative complications of hematoma, infection, or implant exposure was found. The patients were followed up 4-13 months (median, 8 months). The reconstructive outcomes were excellent in 10 cases and good in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 100%. During follow-up, no rupture or exposure of the implant was observed; capsular contracture (Baker grade II) occurred in 1 case. Adequate coverage of implants with different local soft tissue flaps can achieve satisfactory early effectiveness in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

  5. Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Antonella Napolitano

    Full Text Available Metformin, a biguanide derivate, has pleiotropic effects beyond glucose reduction, including improvement of lipid profiles and lowering microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These effects have been ascribed to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in the liver and skeletal muscle. However, metformin effects are not attenuated when AMPK is knocked out and intravenous metformin is less effective than oral medication, raising the possibility of important gut pharmacology. We hypothesized that the pharmacology of metformin includes alteration of bile acid recirculation and gut microbiota resulting in enhanced enteroendocrine hormone secretion. In this study we evaluated T2DM subjects on and off metformin monotherapy to characterize the gut-based mechanisms of metformin. Subjects were studied at 4 time points: (i at baseline on metformin, (ii 7 days after stopping metformin, (iii when fasting blood glucose (FBG had risen by 25% after stopping metformin, and (iv when FBG returned to baseline levels after restarting the metformin. At these timepoints we profiled glucose, insulin, gut hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP and bile acids in blood, as well as duodenal and faecal bile acids and gut microbiota. We found that metformin withdrawal was associated with a reduction of active and total GLP-1 and elevation of serum bile acids, especially cholic acid and its conjugates. These effects reversed when metformin was restarted. Effects on circulating PYY were more modest, while GIP changes were negligible. Microbiota abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was positively correlated with changes in cholic acid and conjugates, while Bacteroidetes abundance was negatively correlated. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes representation were also correlated with levels of serum PYY. Our study suggests that

  6. Multi-model ensemble-based probabilistic prediction of tropical cyclogenesis using TIGGE model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Neeru; Kishtawal, C. M.; Bhomia, Swati; Pal, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    An extended range tropical cyclogenesis forecast model has been developed using the forecasts of global models available from TIGGE portal. A scheme has been developed to detect the signatures of cyclogenesis in the global model forecast fields [i.e., the mean sea level pressure and surface winds (10 m horizontal winds)]. For this, a wind matching index was determined between the synthetic cyclonic wind fields and the forecast wind fields. The thresholds of 0.4 for wind matching index and 1005 hpa for pressure were determined to detect the cyclonic systems. These detected cyclonic systems in the study region are classified into different cyclone categories based on their intensity (maximum wind speed). The forecasts of up to 15 days from three global models viz., ECMWF, NCEP and UKMO have been used to predict cyclogenesis based on multi-model ensemble approach. The occurrence of cyclonic events of different categories in all the forecast steps in the grided region (10 × 10 km2) was used to estimate the probability of the formation of cyclogenesis. The probability of cyclogenesis was estimated by computing the grid score using the wind matching index by each model and at each forecast step and convolving it with Gaussian filter. The proposed method is used to predict the cyclogenesis of five named tropical cyclones formed during the year 2013 in the north Indian Ocean. The 6-8 days advance cyclogenesis of theses systems were predicted using the above approach. The mean lead prediction time for the cyclogenesis event of the proposed model has been found as 7 days.

  7. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  8. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

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    Canan Bural

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1 at 74ºC for 9 h, (2 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC for 30 min, (3 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4 at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05. RESULTS: [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001 higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01 lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05 for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. CONCLUSION: Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in

  9. Effectiveness of app-based relaxation for patients with chronic low back pain (Relaxback) and chronic neck pain (Relaxneck): study protocol for two randomized pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödt, Susanne; Pach, Daniel; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-12-15

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are highly prevalent conditions resulting in high economic costs. Treatment guidelines recommend relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation, as adjuvant therapies. Self-care interventions could have the potential to reduce costs in the health care system, but their effectiveness, especially in a usual care setting, is unclear. The aim of these two pragmatic randomized studies is to evaluate whether an additional app-delivered relaxation is more effective in the reduction of chronic LBP or NP than usual care alone. Each pragmatic randomized two-armed study aims to include a total of 220 patients aged 18 to 65 years with chronic (>12 weeks) LBP or NP and an average pain intensity of ≥ 4 on a numeric rating scale (NRS) in the 7 days before recruitment. The participants will be randomized into an intervention and a usual care group. The intervention group will be instructed to practice one of these 3 relaxation techniques on at least 5 days/week for 15 minutes/day over a period of 6 months starting on the day of randomization: autogenic training, mindfulness meditation, or guided imagery. Instructions and exercises will be provided using a smartphone app, baseline information will be collected using paper and pencil. Follow-up information (daily, weekly, and after 3 and 6 months) will be collected using electronic diaries and questionnaires included in the app. The primary outcome measure will be the mean LBP or NP intensity during the first 3 months of intervention based on daily pain intensity measurements on a NRS (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). The secondary outcome parameters will include the mean pain intensity during the first 6 months after randomization based on daily measurements, the mean pain intensity measured weekly as the average pain intensity of the previous 7 days over 3 and 6 months, pain acceptance, 'LBP- and NP-related' stress, sick leave days, pain medication

  10. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

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    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days

  11. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of some fluoroquinolone antibiotics in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations

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    S. Abou Taleb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolonea antibiotics; gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride and gatifloxacin in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 20 min for gemifloxacin and 15 min for moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin. The absorbance of the coloured manganate ion was measured at 610 nm. The absorbance–concentration plots were rectilinear over the ranges of 2.0-20, 4.0-24 and 4.0-40 µg mL−1 for gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, respectively. The concentrations of the studied drugs were calculated using the corresponding calibration equations for the fixed-time method. The determination of the studied drugs by the fixed concentration and rate constant methods was also feasible with the calibration equations obtained but the fixed time method has been found to be more applicable. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the colors were carefully studied and optimized. The proposed method was applied to the determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.2

  12. INVOLUTIVE BASES UNDER COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailiang TANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviors of involutive bases under composition operation are studied.For two kinds of involutive bases, i.e., Pommaret bases, Janet bases, we study their behavior problems under composition. Some further problems are also proposed.

  13. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

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    Yun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65 were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33 and control (no intervention groups (n = 32. In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002 and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0% (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26 in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  14. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

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    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  15. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study

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    Navneet Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. Design: In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization. Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Results: Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Conclusion: Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  16. Freeze-Thaw Performance and Moisture-Induced Damage Resistance of Base Course Stabilized with Slow Setting Bitumen Emulsion-Portland Cement Additives

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    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT cycles and moisture susceptibility are important factors influencing the geotechnical characteristics of soil-aggregates. Given the lack of published information on the behavior of cement-bitumen emulsion-treated base (CBETB under environmental conditions, especially freezing and thawing, this study investigated the effects of these additives on the CBETB performance. The primary goal was to evaluate the resistance of CBETB to moisture damage by performing FT, Marshall conditioning, and AASHTO T-283 tests and to evaluate the long-term stripping susceptibility of CBETB while also predicting the liquid antistripping additives to assess the mixture’s durability and workability. Specimens were stabilized with Portland cement (0%–6%, bitumen emulsion (0%–5%, and Portland cement-bitumen emulsion mixtures and cured for 7 days, and their short- and long-term performances were studied. Evaluation results of both the Marshall stability ratio and the tensile strength ratio show that the additions of additives increase the resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage. Results of durability tests performed for determining the resistance of compacted specimens to repeated FT cycles indicate that the specimen with the 4% cement-3% bitumen emulsion mixture significantly improves water absorption, volume changes, and weight losses. This indicates the effectiveness of this additive as a road base stabilizer with excellent engineering properties for cold regions.

  17. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    interventions were predominantly text messaging-based, although several paired text messaging with in-person visits or initial assessments. Two studies gave pre-paid mobile phones to low-income human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive populations - one solely for phone counselling, the other also included text messaging. One study used text messages to link to video messages. Control programmes varied widely. Studies were pooled according to outcomes - some providing measures of continuous abstinence or repeated measures of point prevalence; others only providing 7-day point prevalence abstinence. All 12 studies pooled using their most rigorous 26-week measures of abstinence provided an RR of 1.67 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.90; I(2) = 59%). Six studies verified quitting biochemically at six months (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.19). The current evidence supports a beneficial impact of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions on six-month cessation outcomes. While all studies were good quality, the fact that those studies with biochemical verification of quitting status demonstrated an even higher chance of quitting further supports the positive findings. However, it should be noted that most included studies were of text message interventions in high-income countries with good tobacco control policies. Therefore, caution should be taken in generalising these results outside of this type of intervention and context.

  18. High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India

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    McPherson Sam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs, and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7% had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2% reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73, no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98, being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04, and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70 were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9% had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8% had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher

  19. Cytotoxic effects of new MTA-based cement formulations on fibroblast-like MDPL-20 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Santos, Alailson Domingos dos; Moraes, João Carlos Silos; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effects of a novel cement called CER on periodontal fibroblast-like cells of mice (MDPL-20), in comparison with different formulations of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), by means of the cell viability test (MTT) and cell morphology analysis. Thirty-two round-shaped samples were fabricated with the following cements: white MTA, white and gray CER and experimental white MTA. The samples were immersed in serum-free culture medium for 24 hours or 7 days (n = 16). The extracts (culture medium + components released from the cements) were applied for 24 hours to previously cultured cells (40.000 cells/cm2) in the wells of 24-well plates. Cells seeded in complete culture medium were used as a negative control. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Two samples of each cement were used for cell morphology analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The extracts obtained at the 7-day period presented higher cytotoxicity compared with the 24-hour period (p MTA presented the lowest, similar to the control (p > 0.05). However, at the 7-day period, the experimental white MTA presented no significant difference in comparison with the other cements (p > 0.05). At the 7-day period, CER cement presented cytotoxic effects on fibroblast-like cells, similar to different MTA formulations. However, the immersion period in the culture medium influenced the cytotoxicity of the cements, which was greater for CER cement at 24 hours.

  20. Randomized trial of an internet-based computer-tailored expert system for physical activity in patients with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert D; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Kocourek, Jana; McDonnell, Lisa; Slovinec D'Angelo, Monika E; Tulloch, Heather; Suskin, Neville; Unsworth, Karen; Blanchard, Chris; Pipe, Andrew L

    2012-12-01

    The CardioFit Internet-based expert system was designed to promote physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who were not participating in cardiac rehabilitation. This randomized controlled trial compared CardioFit to usual care to assess its effects on physical activity following hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes. A total of 223 participants were recruited at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute or London Health Sciences Centre and randomly assigned to either CardioFit (n = 115) or usual care (n = 108). The CardioFit group received a personally tailored physical-activity plan upon discharge from the hospital and access to a secure website for activity planning and tracking. They completed five online tutorials over a 6-month period and were in email contact with an exercise specialist. Usual care consisted of physical activity guidance from an attending cardiologist. Physical activity was measured by pedometer and self-reported over a 7-day period, 6 and 12 months after randomization. The CardioFit Internet-based physical activity expert system significantly increased objectively measured (p = 0.023) and self-reported physical activity (p = 0.047) compared to usual care. Emotional (p = 0.038) and physical (p = 0.031) dimensions of heart disease health-related quality of life were also higher with CardioFit compared to usual care. Patients with CHD using an Internet-based activity prescription with online coaching were more physically active at follow up than those receiving usual care. Use of the CardioFit program could extend the reach of rehabilitation and secondary-prevention services.

  1. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bager, Dirch H

    2003-02-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filler in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration. Two types of FGA were treated by the Ferrox-process, which removes the majority of the easily soluble salts in the FGA and provides binding sites for heavy metals in terms of ferrihydrite. Cubes of cement treated base layer materials containing 5% stabilised FGA were cast, sealed and cured for two weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals would leach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete slab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and leaching from the base layer.

  2. Silicon microfluidic flow focusing devices for the production of size-controlled PLGA based drug loaded microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Griffin, Brendan T

    2014-06-05

    The increasing realisation of the impact of size and surface properties on the bio-distribution of drug loaded colloidal particles has driven the application of micro fabrication technologies for the precise engineering of drug loaded microparticles. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach for producing size controlled drug loaded PLGA based microparticles using silicon Microfluidic Flow Focusing Devices (MFFDs). Based on the precise geometry and dimensions of the flow focusing channel, microparticle size was successfully optimised by modifying the polymer type, disperse phase (Qd) flow rate, and continuous phase (Qc) flow rate. The microparticles produced ranged in sizes from 5 to 50 μm and were highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation <5%). A comparison of Ciclosporin (CsA) loaded PLGA microparticles produced by MFFDs vs conventional production techniques was also performed. MFFDs produced microparticles with a narrower size distribution profile, relative to the conventional approaches. In-vitro release kinetics of CsA was found to be influenced by the production technique, with the MFFD approach demonstrating the slowest rate of release over 7 days (4.99 ± 0.26%). Finally, MFFDs were utilised to produce pegylated microparticles using the block co-polymer, PEG-PLGA. In contrast to the smooth microparticles produced using PLGA, PEG-PLGA microparticles displayed a highly porous surface morphology and rapid CsA release, with 85 ± 6.68% CsA released after 24h. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of silicon MFFDs for the precise control of size and surface morphology of PLGA based microparticles with potential drug delivery applications.

  3. Nicotine dependence as a moderator of a quitline-based message framing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Latimer, Amy E; Carlin-Menter, Shannon; Salovey, Peter; Cummings, K Michael; Makuch, Robert W; Toll, Benjamin A

    2011-04-01

    High nicotine dependence is a reliable predictor of difficulty quitting smoking and remaining smoke-free. Evidence also suggests that the effectiveness of various smoking cessation treatments may vary by nicotine dependence level. Nicotine dependence, as assessed by Heaviness of Smoking Index baseline total scores, was evaluated as a potential moderator of a message-framing intervention provided through the New York State Smokers' Quitline (free telephone based service). Smokers were exposed to either gain-framed (n=810) or standard-care (n=1222) counseling and printed materials. Those smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day and medically eligible were also offered a free 2-week supply of nicotine patches, gum, or lozenge. Smokers were contacted for follow-up interviews at 3 months by an independent survey group. There was no interaction of nicotine dependence scores and message condition on the likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the 3-month follow-up contact. Among continuing smokers at the 3-month follow-up, smokers who reported higher nicotine dependence scores were more likely to report smoking more cigarettes per day and this effect was greater in response to standard-care messages than gain-framed messages. Smokers with higher dependence scores who received standard-care messages also were less likely to report use of nicotine medications compared with less dependent smokers, while there was no difference in those who received gain-framed messages. These findings lend support to prior research demonstrating nicotine dependence heterogeneity in response to message framing interventions and suggest that gain-framed messages may result in less variable smoking outcomes than standard-care messages.

  4. Mg-Zn based composites reinforced with bioactive glass (45S5) fabricated via powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic implants are shifting from bio-inert to bioactive and biodegradable materials. These changes are made in order to improve the stress shielding effect and bio-compatibility and also avoid the second surgery procedure. Second surgery procedure is required if the patient experienced infection and implant loosening. An implant is predicted to be well for 15 to 20 years inside patient body. Currently, magnesium alloys are found to be the new biomaterials because of their properties close to the human bones and also able to degrade in the human body. In this work, magnesium-zinc based composites reinforced with different content (5, 15, 20 wt. %) of bioactive glass (45S5) were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The composites were sintered at 450˚C. Density and porosity of the composites were determined using the gas pycnometer. Microstructure of the composites was observed using an optical microscope. In-vitro bioactivity behavior was evaluated in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the apatite forming on the samples surface. The microstructure of the composite showed that the pore segregated near the grain boundaries and bioglass clustering was observed with increasing content of bioglass. The true density of the composites increased with the increasing content of bioglass and the highest value of porosity was indicated by the Mg-Zn reinforced with 20 wt.% of bioglass. The addition of bio-glass to the Mg-Zn has also induced the formation of apatite layer after soaking in SBF solution.

  5. Steel Fibre Reinforcing Characteristics on the Size Reduction of Fly Ash Based Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sounthararajan Vallarasu Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of glued steel fibres in high strength concrete with size reduction properties of concrete has been attempted. Glued steel fibres with both ends hooked having length to diameter ratio of 70 was added at a dosage level of 0.5% to 1.5% by volume fraction. The study was carried out to analyze the effects of fibre addition on the thickness reduction of concrete element. A high strength concrete mixture was designed and various thicknesses of concrete prisms were casted for different volume fraction of steel fibres. The hardened concrete properties were determined based on the mix constituents such as water to binder ratio 0.3 (w/b, superplasticizer dosage, fine to coarse aggregate ratio 0.6 (F/c, and fly ash replacement level at 25% and 50% by weight of binder content. The experimental test results showed that the flexural strength varies with respect to the depth of concrete specimen. It can be observed that the reduction in size up to 10% size containing 25% fly ash with 1.5% steel fibres showed better strength enhancement of 4.70 MPa and 6.69 MPa for 7 days and 28 days, respectively. Also, the addition of steel fibres at higher percentage of fly ash containing 50% showed better improvement in the flexural strength for the size reduction at 5%, when compared to plain concrete beam which exhibited higher stress carrying capacity of 6.08 MPa at 28 days and showed an increase of 7.99%.

  6. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a climate change base scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two typical Mediterranean soils, either coarse- or fine-textured, was here investigated. Soil samples, spiked with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs, were incubated in a climate chamber at stable conditions of temperature (20 °C) and light (9.6 W m(-2)) for 28 days, simulating a climate change base scenario. PAH concentrations in soils were analyzed throughout the experiment, and correlated with data obtained by means of Microtox(®) ecotoxicity test. Photodegradation was found to be dependent on exposure time, molecular weight of each hydrocarbon, and soil texture. Fine-textured soil was able to enhance sorption, being PAHs more photodegraded than in coarse-textured soil. According to the EC50 values reported by Microtox(®), a higher detoxification was observed in fine-textured soil, being correlated with the outcomes of the analytical study. Significant photodegradation rates were detected for a number of PAHs, namely phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(123-cd)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene, commonly used as an indicator for PAH pollution, was completely removed after 7 days of light exposure. In addition to the PAH chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity tests, a hydrogen isotope analysis of benzo(a)pyrene was also carried out. The degradation of this specific compound was associated to a high enrichment in (2)H, obtaining a maximum δ(2)H isotopic shift of +232‰. This strong isotopic effect observed in benzo(a)pyrene suggests that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may be a powerful tool to monitor in situ degradation of PAHs. Moreover, hydrogen isotopes of benzo(a)pyrene evidenced a degradation process of unknown origin occurring in the darkness.

  7. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group.

  8. Design of novel injectable cationic microspheres based on aminated gelatin for prolonged insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Chono, Sumio; Kosai, Tadashi; Seki, Toshinobu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare two types of injectable cationized microspheres based on a native gelatin (NGMS) and aminated gelatin with ethylenediamine (CGMS) to prolong the action of insulin. Release of rhodamin B isothiocyanate insulin from CGMS was compared with that from NGMS under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. Lower release of insulin from CGMS compared with that from NGMS was caused by the suppression of initial release. The disappearance of 125I-insulin from the injection site after intramuscular administration by NGMS and CGMS had a biphasic profile in mice. Almost all the 125I-insulin had disappeared from the injection site one day after administration by NGMS. The remaining insulin at the injection site after administration by CGMS was prolonged, with approximately 59% remaining after one day and 16% after 14 days. The disappearance of CGMS from the injection site was lower than that of NGMS. However, the difference in these disappearance rates was not great compared with those of 125I-insulin from the injection site by NGMS and CGMS. The time course of disappearance of 125I-CGMS from the injection site was similar to that of 125I-insulin by CGMS. The initial hypoglycaemic effect was observed 1 h after administration of insulin by NGMS, thereafter its effect rapidly disappeared. The hypoglycaemic effect was observed 2-4 h after administration by CGMS and continued to be exhibited for 7 days. The prolonged hypoglycaemic action by CGMS depended on the time profiles of the disappearance of insulin from muscular tissues, which occurs due to the enzymatic degradation of CGMS.

  9. Care seeking for fatal illness episodes in Neonates: a population-based study in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor neonatal health is a major contributor to under-five mortality in developing countries. A major constraint to effective neonatal survival programme has been the lack of population level data in developing countries. This study investigated the consultation patterns of caregivers during neonatal fatal illness episodes in the rural Matlab sub-district of eastern Bangladesh. Methods Neonatal deaths were identified through a population-based demographic surveillance system in Matlab ICDDR,B maternal and child health (MCH project area and an adjoining government service area. Trained project staff administered a structured questionnaire on care seeking to mothers at home who had experienced a neonatal death. Univariate, bivariate and binary multivariate logistic regressions were performed to describe care seeking during the fatal illness episode. Results Of the 365 deaths recorded during 2003 and 2004, 84% died in the early (0-7 days neonatal period, with the remaining deaths occurring over the subsequent 8 to 28 days. The first resort of care by parents was a qualified doctor or paramedic in 37% of cases, followed by traditional and unqualified health care providers in 25%, while 38% sought no care. Thus, almost two thirds (63% of neonates who died received only traditional and unqualified care or no care at all during their final illness episode. About 22% sought care from more than one provider, including 6% from 3 or more providers. Such plurality in care seeking was more likely among male infants, in the late neonatal period, and in the MCH project area. Conclusions The high proportion of neonatal deaths that had received traditional care or no medical care in a rural area of Bangladesh highlights the need to develop community awareness about prompt medical care seeking for neonatal illnesses and to improve access to effective health care. Integration of traditional care providers into mainstream health programs should

  10. Perinatal mortality in eastern Uganda: a community based prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nankabirwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome and survival of their children until 7 days after delivery. Mother's residence, age, parity, bed net use and whether delivery took place at home were included in multivariable regression analyses to identify risk factors for perinatal death. RESULTS: The stillbirth risk was 19 per 1,000 pregnancies and the early neonatal death risk 22 per 1,000 live births. Overall, the perinatal mortality risk was 41 [95%CI: 27, 54] per 1,000 pregnancies. Of the deaths, 47% followed complicated deliveries and 24% preterm births. Perinatal mortality was 63/1,000 pregnancies among teenage mothers, 76/1,000 pregnancies among nulliparous women and 61/1,000 pregnancies among women delivering at home who, after controlling for potential confounders, had a 3.7 (95%CI: 1.8, 7.4 times higher perinatal mortality than women who gave birth in a health facility. This association was considerably stronger among nulliparous women [RR 8.0 (95%CI: 2.9, 21.6] than among women with a previous live birth [RR 1.8 (95%CI: 0.7, 4.5]. All perinatal deaths occurred among women who did not sleep under a mosquito net. Women living in urban slums had a higher risk of losing their babies than those in rural areas [RR: 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4, 5.3]. CONCLUSION: Our findings strengthen arguments for ensuring that pregnant women have access to and use adequate delivery facilities and bed nets.

  11. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A dynamic knowledge base based search engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-jin; HU Hua; LI Qing

    2005-01-01

    Search engines have greatly helped us to find thedesired information from the Intemet. Most search engines use keywords matching technique. This paper discusses a Dynamic Knowledge Base based Search Engine (DKBSE), which can expand the user's query using the keywords' concept or meaning. To do this, the DKBSE needs to construct and maintain the knowledge base dynamically via the system's searching results and the user's feedback information. The DKBSE expands the user's initial query using the knowledge base, and returns the searched information after the expanded query.

  13. Analysing the fate of nanopesticides in soil and the applicability of regulatory protocols using a polymer-based nanoformulation of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Machinski, Patrick; Koerner, Petra; Tiede, Karen; Grillo, Renato; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, regulatory protocols defined in the OECD guidelines were applied to determine the fate properties of a nanopesticide in two agricultural soils with contrasting characteristics. The nanoformulation studied had no effect on the degradation kinetics of atrazine indicating that (1) the release of atrazine from the polymer nanocarriers occurred rapidly relative to the degradation kinetics (half-lives 36-53 days) and/or that (2) atrazine associated with the nanocarriers was subject to biotic or abiotic degradation. Sorption coefficients, derived from a batch and a centrifugation technique at a realistic soil-to-solution ratio, were higher for the nanoformulated atrazine than for the pure active ingredient. Results indicate that the nanoformulation had an effect on the fate of atrazine. However, since the protocols applied were designed to assess solutes, conclusions about the transport of atrazine loaded onto the nanocarriers should be made extremely cautiously. The centrifugation method applied over time (here over 7 days) appears to be a useful tool to indirectly assess the durability of nanopesticides under realistic soil-to-solution ratios and estimate the period of time during which an influence on the fate of the active ingredient may be expected. More detailed investigations into the bioavailability and durability of nanopesticides are necessary and will require the development of novel methods suitable to address both the "nano" and "organic" characteristics of polymer-based nanopesticides.

  14. Prospective population-based cohort study of maternal obesity as a source of error in gestational age estimation at 11-14weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Geske S; Sperling, Lene; Källén, Karin

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionAn impact of maternal obesity on ultrasound dating of pregnancy at 11-14 gestational weeks is possible and was investigated. Material and methodsA prospective cohort study based on the Danish national population during a 4-year period in which we entered all mothers with singleton...... pregnancies who had a known last menstrual period (LMP), a recorded booking of body mass index (BMI), and a late first trimester ultrasound dating scan using crown-rump-length measurement (gestational age 11(+0)-13(+6)weeks). Almost all scans were performed transabdominally. Transvaginal ultrasound was only.......8% were overweight and 12.3% obese. Ultrasound EDD was 7days later than by LMP in 5.8% of normal-weight w