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Sample records for 7-day supplementation study

  1. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearse, R.M.; Moreno, R.P.; Bauer, P.; Pelosi, P.; Metnitz, P.; Spies, C.; Vallet, B.; Vincent, J.L.; Hoeft, A.; Rhodes, A.; Pickkers, P.; Bouw, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an intern

  2. Effect of Broiler Breeder Age and Glutamine Supplementation on the Development of the Intestinal Mucosa of 7-Day-Old Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of glutamine and broiler breeder age on the development of intestinal mucosa in broiler chicks during first week of age. For this purpose, 32 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two broiler breeder ages (30 and 60 weeks and two dietary glutamine supplementation levels (0% and 1%. The morphological development of intestinal mucosa, particularly villus height and crypt depth, was evaluated. The results showed that the supplementation with 1% of glutamine influenced the development of villus height in the duodenum (p=0.009, jejunum (p = 0.006, and ileum (p = 0.001, as well as crypt depth in the jejunum (p = 0.037 of 7-day-old broilers. These results suggest that the presence of glutamine influenced the development of intestinal mucosa during the first week of age, when these tissues are highly influenced by dietary components, especially by trophic agents. The results show that broiler breeder age (30 or 60 weeks did not influence the evaluated parameters.

  3. Norfloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. A summary of 3-day and 7-day therapy studies in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R; Deaney, N B; Round, E M; VandenBurg, M J; Currie, W J

    1984-05-01

    The results of clinical trials in which norfloxacin was used for 7 days compared with amoxycillin or cotrimoxazole, or for 3 days compared with citrated nalidixic acid, are presented. Additionally, the results of a concurrent open study of 3 days of norfloxacin in the management of simple urinary tract infections are discussed. Resistance to norfloxacin was only encountered in 0.2% of pathogens isolated. Norfloxacin was as effective in eradicating bacteriuria as amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole or citrated nalidixic acid. The response to 3 days of norfloxacin was similar to that seen after 7 days therapy with this compound, or to 7 days of cotrimoxazole. The incidence of adverse experiences to norfloxacin in 758 patients was below 10%.

  4. Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar Lala M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%, Moraxella catarrhalis (100%, Staphylococcus aureus (80%, and Legionella spp. (100%. The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%. In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1% and nausea (5.8%. Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

  5. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkies, Krystyna, E-mail: kserkies@wp.pl [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  6. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice.

  7. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Association Between 7 Days Per Week Rehabilitation and Functional Recovery of Patients With Acute Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study Based on the Japan Rehabilitation Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Momosaki, Ryo; Kakuda, Wataru; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that functional outcome of patients with stroke who receive 7d/wk of rehabilitation is generally better than that of similar patients who undergo 5 or 6d/wk of rehabilitation. Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals. From the Japan Rehabilitation Database, which includes data on 8033 patients with acute stroke collected between January 2005 and December 2013, we included 3072 patients with stroke who were admitted to the acute hospitals and received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Seven days per week of rehabilitation was defined as rehabilitation therapy administrated by a physical or occupational therapist on every weekday, Saturday, and Sunday. Favorable functional independence in daily living, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at the time of discharge. A total of 1075 (35.0%) patients received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference in favorable functional recovery between the 7d/wk rehabilitation group and non-7d/wk rehabilitation group (43.3% vs 37.6%, respectively; P=.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using the generalized estimating equations method showed that 7d/wk of rehabilitation was independently associated with favorable functional recovery. Our cohort analysis demonstrated that 7d/wk of rehabilitation in early rehabilitation for patients with acute stroke can lead to functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  10. Decreased gastrointestinal toxicity associated with a novel capecitabine schedule (7 days on and 7 days off): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoo, Karen A; Gajria, Devika; Suh, Emily; Patil, Sujata; Theodoulou, Maria; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Traina, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine is widely used in the management of metastatic breast cancer; however, drug delivery is limited by gastrointestinal and other toxicity. We employed mathematical modeling to rationally design an optimized dose and schedule for capecitabine of 2,000?mg twice daily, flat dosing, 7 days on, 7 days off. Preclinical data suggested increased efficacy and tolerability with this novel dosing, and three early-phase clinical trials have suggested a favorable toxicity profile. To further def...

  11. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  12. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  14. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  15. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  16. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  17. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  18. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  19. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  20. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  1. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  2. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  3. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  4. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  5. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  6. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Cheryl L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR. Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

  7. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A.H. Lentjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users (SU make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK. Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that at equal protein content, milk, but not meat, decreased bone turnover in boys. This suggested that milk-derived components are important for bone metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized that milk-derived proteins (whey and casein) affect bone turnover during...... growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount...... of whey and casein was identical to their content in 1.5 L of milk. We measured serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (immunoassay) and estimated dietary intake (3-day weighed food record) at baseline and after 7 days. Only s...

  9. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    Full Text Available Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, in the form of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides, was evaluated in HIV-1 uninfected persons in both long-term (7 day and 24 hour, commercially available QuantiFERON TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT, whole blood assays. Our findings showed differences in the IFN-gamma response between 24 hour and 7 day cultures, with recombinant proteins inducing a significantly higher response than the peptide pools in 7 day whole blood assays. The activity of peptides and recombinant proteins did not differ in 24 hour whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assays, nor in the ELISpot assay. Further analysis by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the peptides are degraded over the course of 7 days of incubation in whole blood whilst the recombinant proteins remain intact. This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity.

  10. Blood pressure circadian pattern and physical exercise assessment by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Ibáñez-Jalón, Elisa; González-Viejo, Natividad; Guenaga-Saenz, Nahia; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55 ± 14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; ρ = 0.19 to 0.11; P Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  11. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  12. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  13. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A;

    1990-01-01

    as a double-blind randomized controlled study in which 11 women were allocated to magnesium and 7 to placebo treatment. The treatment comprised a 48-hour intravenous magnesium/placebo infusion followed by daily oral magnesium/placebo intake until one day after delivery. Magnesium supplement increased birth....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...... unable to demonstrate any significant difference between the magnesium, placebo and control groups....

  14. How to understand the results of studies of glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2015-11-03

    The lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind possible beneficial and possible harmful effects of glutamine supplementation makes the design of interventional studies of glutamine supplementations difficult, perhaps even hazardous. What is the interventional target, and how might it relate to outcomes? Taking one step further and aggregating results from interventional studies into meta-analyses does not diminish the difficulties. Therefore, conducting basic research seems to be a better idea than groping in the dark and exposing patients to potential harm in this darkness.

  15. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  16. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  17. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  18. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  19. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  20. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  1. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  2. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  3. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 1- versus 7-day manipulation following collagenase injection for dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Dayne T; Noland, Shelley S; Watt, Andrew J; Kollitz, Kathleen M; Vedder, Nicholas B; Huang, Jerry I

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of manual manipulation at day 7 to day 1 following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Eligible patients were randomized to manipulation at day 1 versus day 7 following CCH injection. Preinjection, premanipulation, postmanipulation, and 30-day follow-up metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures were measured. Pain scores were recorded at each time point. Data were stratified per cohort based on primary joint treated (MCP vs PIP). Means were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Forty-three patients with 46 digits were eligible and were randomized to 1-day (22 digits) and 7-day (24 digits) manipulation. For MCP joints, there were no significant differences in flexion contractures between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (47° vs 46°), postmanipulation (0° vs 2°), or 30-day follow-up (1° vs 2°) measurements. Premanipulation, the residual contracture was significantly lower in the 7-day group (23° vs 40°). For PIP joints, there were no significant differences between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (63° vs 62°), premanipulation (56° vs 52°), postmanipulation (13° vs 15°), or 30-day (14° vs 16°) measurements. There were no significant differences in pain or skin tears between the 2 groups. No flexor tendon ruptures were observed. The effectiveness of CCH in achieving correction of Dupuytren contractures was preserved when manipulation was performed on day 7, with no differences in correction, pain, or skin tears. These data suggest that manipulation can be scheduled at the convenience of the patient and surgeon within the first 7 days after injection. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational...

  5. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.; Hollis, P.; Allen, G. A.; Roberts, G. T.; Tuttle, S.; Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Brescianini, C.; Buttsworth, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Oueensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 8 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  6. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  7. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skeie, G.; Braaten, T.; Hjartaker, A.; Lentjes, M.; Amiano, P.; Jakszyn, P.; Pala, V.; Palanca, A.; Niekerk, E. M.; Verhagen, H.; Avloniti, K.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Nimptsch, K.; Haubrock, J.; Walker, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Roswall, N.; Olsen, A.; Wallstrom, P.; Nilsson, S.; Casagrande, C.; Deharveng, G.; Hellstrom, V.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Joensen, A. M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Martinez, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Frasca, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Linseisen, J.; Schienkiewitz, A.; Welch, A. A.; Manjer, J.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the

  8. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sadahiro, Sotaro, E-mail: sadahiro@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Chieko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  9. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal Samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Robert G; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011-2012, respectively. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  10. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  11. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A;

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...

  12. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...... after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40min of exercise was larger (P=0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher...

  13. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  14. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16.13 kg, height 1.73 ± 6.49 m, body fat 16.37% ± 5.92% were randomly assigned to CrM (4 × 5 g/day, n = 15 or placebo (PL: 4 × 5 g/day of maltodextrine powder; n = 16 to investigate the effect of 7 days CrM on serum p53 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentration after acute incremental AE test to exhaustion. Subjects performed AE before (test 1 and after 7 days of supplementation (test 2. Results: Before supplementation, AE to exhaustion induced a significant increase in serum p53 and IGF-1 concentrations at both CrM and PL groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation with CrM prevents apoptosis, as measured by decreases in p53 concentration, induced by AE to exhaustion in young athletes. However, CrM had no effect on IGF-1 concentration after AE to exhaustion in young athletes.

  15. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (PHolter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  16. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial: a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijper Ed J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. Methods/Design A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febrile urinary tract infection will be randomly allocated to a short treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded placebo or standard treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded ciprofloxacin. The study is performed in the Leiden region in which one university hospital, 6 general hospitals and 32 primary health care centers are clustered. Patients eligible for randomization are competent patients aged 18 years or above with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as defined by the combination of fever, one or more symptoms of urinary tract infection and a positive urine nitrate test and/or the presence of leucocyturia. Exclusion criteria are known allergy to fluoroquinolones, female patients who are pregnant or lactating, polycystic kidney disease, permanent renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant causal uropathogen, renal abscess, underlying chronic bacterial prostatitis, metastatic infectious foci and inability to obtain follow-up. The primary endpoint is the clinical cure rate through the 10- to 18-day post-treatment visit. Secondary endpoints are the microbiological cure rate 10- to 18-day post-treatment, the 30- and 90-day overall mortality rate, the

  17. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning decimals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Decimals. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning decimals super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their chag

  18. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  19. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  20. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rouse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  1. Effect Of Iron Supplementation In Breastfed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    seyma Kayali; Nilgun Caylan; Gonca Yilmaz; Selim Gokce; Candemir Karacan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of daily iron supplementation for prevention of iron-deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in healthy exclusively breast-fed infants and the factors affecting development of iron-deficiency anemia. Methods This study was conducted with 65 infants (35 in the iron supplemented group and 30 in the non-supplemented controls) between January 2009-March 2010. Detailed physical examination of all infants was carried out at ages...

  2. Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation and Exercise Performance in COPD: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomised Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J Curtis

    Full Text Available Dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance exercise performance in healthy people, but it is not clear if it is beneficial in COPD. We investigated the hypotheses that acute nitrate dosing would improve exercise performance and reduce the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise in people with COPD.We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose study. Subjects were randomised to consume either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing 12.9 mmoles nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice 3 hours prior to endurance cycle ergometry, performed at 70% of maximal workload assessed by a prior incremental exercise test. After a minimum washout period of 7 days the protocol was repeated with the crossover beverage.21 subjects successfully completed the study (age 68 ± 7 years; BMI 25.2 ± 5.5 kg/m2; FEV1 percentage predicted 50.1 ± 21.6%; peak VO2 18.0 ± 5.9 ml/min/kg. Resting diastolic blood pressure fell significantly with nitrate supplementation compared to placebo (-7 ± 8 mmHg nitrate vs. -1 ± 8 mmHg placebo; p = 0.008. Median endurance time did not differ significantly; nitrate 5.65 (3.90-10.40 minutes vs. placebo 6.40 (4.01-9.67 minutes (p = 0.50. However, isotime oxygen consumption (VO2 was lower following nitrate supplementation (16.6 ± 6.0 ml/min/kg nitrate vs. 17.2 ± 6.0 ml/min/kg placebo; p = 0.043, and consequently nitrate supplementation caused a significant lowering of the amplitude of the VO2-percentage isotime curve.Acute administration of oral nitrate did not enhance endurance exercise performance; however the observation that beetroot juice caused reduced oxygen consumption at isotime suggests that further investigation of this treatment approach is warranted, perhaps targeting a more hypoxic phenotype.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN66099139.

  3. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......' to Aalborg University Hospital (H.I.N). G.V.D.H. is an external senior scientific consultant to Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain). H.A. has provided scientific input and presentations for Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain) on several occasions. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. TRIAL...

  4. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  5. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 34 CFR...

  6. Probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. RESULTS: Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. CONCLUSION: The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.

  7. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception.

  8. FGF23 is correlated with iron status but not with inflammation and decreases after iron supplementation: a supplementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Vickie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have described relationships between iron status and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 but the possible confounding effects of inflammation on iron status have not been considered. The aims of this study were a to consider a relationship between FGF23 and inflammation b to identify relationships between iron status and FGF23 whilst correcting for inflammation and c to assess the relationship between changes in FGF23 and iron status after supplementation. Study design and methodology Blood samples from an iron supplementation study in children (n=79 were collected at baseline and after 3 months supplementation with iron sulphate. The children were from a rural Gambian population where rates of iron deficiency and infection/inflammation are high. This study identified cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between FGF23, inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP and iron status (ferritin, haemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin. CRP ≥ 5 mg/dL was used to indicate inflammation and FGF23 ≥ 125 RU/mL was considered elevated. Results FGF23 was not significantly correlated with CRP. At baseline, all markers of iron status were significantly correlated with FGF23. Ferritin was the strongest independent inverse predictor of FGF23 in subjects with and without elevated CRP (coefficient (SE: All subjects=−0.57 (0.12, R2=22.3%, P≤0.0001; subjects with CRP 2=38.9%, P≤0.0001. FGF23 was elevated in 28% of children at baseline and 16% post supplementation (P=0.1. Improved iron status was associated with a decrease in FGF23 concentration in univariate (ferritin =−0.41 (0.11, R2=14.1%, P=0.0004; haemoglobin=−2.22 (0.64, R2=12.5%, P=0.0008; zinc protoporphyrin=1.12 (0.26, R2=18.6%, P≤0.0001 and multivariate analysis (R2=33.1%; ferritin=−0.36 (0.10, P=0.0007, haemoglobin = −1.83 (0.61, P=0.004, zinc protoporphyrin=0.62 (0.26, P=0.02. Conclusions Iron status rather than inflammation is a negative predictor of

  9. The development of nutritional-supplement fact sheets for Irish athletes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate L; Madigan, Sharon M; Wood-Martin, Ruth E; Flanagan, Richelle; Roche, Noreen

    2012-06-01

    The use of sport supplements presents a dilemma for many of those involved in supporting athletes, including coaches, families, support staff, and the athletes themselves. Often the information that they source can be incorrect and promote a biased view regarding the use of nutritional supplements. The aim of this case study was to describe the process that occurred around the development of a series of targeted educational fact sheets on a range of nutritional supplements for Irish athletes. It describes the initiation and support of the process by the Irish Sports Council; one of its subgroups, the Food and Food Supplements Committee; and the Irish Institute of Sport. A needs assessment through questionnaires was carried out to establish the most commonly used sport nutrition supplements by athletes age 16 or over in Ireland. Respondents completed 105 questionnaires over a 4-mo period in 2008-09 that led to the production of 20 supplement fact sheets. These supplement fact sheets will enable Irish athletes to access high-quality, up-to-date, scientific information about the supplements they have reported consuming. Since personal reading had a strong influence over athletes' decision-making process for taking nutritional supplements, as did scientific research, fact sheets available on the Internet from a reliable source are an ideal way to educate Irish athletes.

  10. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  11. An interventional study (calcium supplementation & health education) on premenstrual syndrome - effect on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Shailesh Sutariya, Nitiben Talsania, Chintul Shah

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to study the effect of calcium supplementation on Premenstrual and Menstrual Symptoms. It was a one year follow-up prospective, randomized controlled interventional study. After the initial 2-cycle screening phase, a total of 215 healthy premenopausal women were enrolled in the study group calcium supplementation(500 BD) of the trial and 140 subjects either the relatives or neighbors of the study population were enrolled as control group health, nutrition, hygiene educ...

  12. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  13. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  14. Vitamin, mineral and iron supplementation in pregnancy: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the use of vitamin, mineral and iron supplements during pregnancy in Zagreb and Novi Sad. Methods. The study was conducted by use of a structured standardized questionnaire consisting of two parts, i. e. data obtained by maternal interview and hospital records. It is designed as a cross-sectional study in two countries (Croatia and Serbia. The study included 893 pregnant women from Zagreb and 6099 pregnant women from Novi Sad. Results. In Zagreb, pregnant women reported highest utilization of vitamin-mineral supplements (n = 508; 56.9 %, whereas in Novi Sad these supplements ranked third (n = 408; 20.3 %, following tocolytics and iron supplements. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of congenital malformations between neonates at in utero exposure to vitamins, minerals and iron supplements and those without such exposure in either Zagreb or Novi Sad arm, with the exception of iron and calcium supplementation in the Zagreb arm. Conclusions. In spite of certain study limitations, the results obtained pointed to the unreasonable and potentially harmful use of these supplements in pregnant women from Zagreb.

  15. Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Molfino, A; Lacaria, M T; Canelli, A; De Leo, S; Preziosa, I; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients, and prevents obesity in animals fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in humans. Obese and overweight female patients (n=6) were enrolled in a pilot, cross-over study. After recording anthropometric (that is, body weight, waist circumference) and metabolic (that is, glycemia, insulinemia, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) characteristics, patients were randomly assigned to 4-week supplementation with glutamine or isonitrogenous protein supplement (0.5 g/KgBW/day). During supplementation, patients did not change their dietary habits nor lifestyle. At the end, anthropometric and metabolic features were assessed, and after 2 weeks of washout, patients were switched to the other supplement for 4 weeks. Body weight and waist circumference significantly declined only after glutamine supplementation (85.0±10.4 Kg vs 82.2±10.1 Kg, and 102.7±2.0 cm vs 98.9±2.9 cm, respectively; P=0.01). Insulinemia and HOMA-IR declined by 20% after glutamine, but not significantly so. This pilot study shows that glutamine is safe and effective in favoring weight loss and possibly enhancing glucose metabolism.

  16. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia—A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Wu Wen; Yanfang Guo; Marc Rodger; Ruth Rennicks White; Qiuying Yang; Smith, Graeme N.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurren...

  17. Effects of 7-day continuous D-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice. In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32mg/kg/h). During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. The present subchronic treatment results support the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  19. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  20. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (PDoxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (PDoxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (PDoxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein supplements consumption: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, A.; Mammina, C.; Thomas, E.; Ciulla, F.; Pupella, U; Gagliardo, F; Bellafiore, M; G. Battaglia; Paoli, A.; Palma, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein supplements are extensively used among commercial gym users and athletes. Although demographic information amongst such consumption has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to compare protein supplement consumption in commercial gym users, both from the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire has been administered to 561 subjects. 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Protein ...

  2. The impact of chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus on liver function in a 7-day ultramarathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chou

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Compared to their counterparts, runners who are HBV carriers had significantly greater increases in levels of ALT, AST, and T-BIL during a 7-day ultramarathon, indicating that the liver function of carriers is more highly impacted in these races.

  3. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  4. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  5. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered.

  6. Iron supplementation and mortality in incident dialysis patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Zitt

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting.In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP levels (800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality.Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels are associated with increased mortality in the setting of concomitant inflammation.

  7. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Lieke; Dower, James I; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Hollman, Peter C H; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2015-11-14

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95% CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers.

  8. A study of impact of cost-effective nutritional supplement in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rangarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis is always of concern as malnutrition predisposes to excess morbidity and mortality. Most of the nutritional supplements available in the market are expensive. We explored the possibility of improving nutrition of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis by supplementation of calories and proteins that can be given in the form of a palatable and economical gruel in this prospectively designed, open labeled study. Patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis (twice a week for a period of at least 6 months were divided into two groups. The study group was given the gruel supplement and the control group was not given the gruel supplement. Nutritional status was assessed in the study group and controls at 0 and 3 months by the following parameters: percentage body fat, mid arm muscle circumference and serum albumin. Analysis of results revealed that there was a significant decline in the protein intake at the end of the 3 rd month in the control group (P = 0.01. Other parameters did not show significant change at the end of the study period in both groups. The nutritional supplement can be assumed to have helped at least in the maintenance of protein intake over this short period and could possibly in the long run contribute to improvement of nutritional parameters.

  9. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  10. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  11. Diabetes, hypertension, overweight and hyperlipidemia and 7-day case-fatality in first myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: In this population-based inception cohort study, diabetes but not hypertension and hyperlipidemia were associated with MI fatality. This further emphasizes the importance of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor and the need for close surveillance of diabetic patients. Overweight was however associated with decreased MI fatality.

  12. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  13. Sevoflurane exposure in 7-day-old rats affects neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and neurocognitive function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; Zhanggang Xue; Jing Cang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sevoflurane is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and former studies showed that it causes neurodegeneration in the developing brain.The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and behavior.Methods We administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine,an S-phase marker,before,during,and after 4 h of sevoflurane given to rats on postnatal day 7 to assess dentate gyrus progenitor proliferation and Fluoro-Jade staining for degeneration.Spatial reference memory was tested 2 and 6 weeks after anesthesia.Results Sevoflurane decreased progenitor proliferation and increased cell death until at least 4 days after anesthesia.Spatial reference memory was not affected at 2 weeks but was affected at 6 weeks after sevoflurane administration.Conclusion Sevoflurane reduces neurogenesis and increases the death of progenitor cells in developing brain.This might mediate the lateonset neurocognitive outcome after sevoflurane application.

  14. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  15. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  16. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  17. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth

  18. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  19. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  20. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    Outer membrane vesicle BALB/c mice s.c. 1026b i.n. 5 x 10 3 0% at d 14 86 Outer ...6.6 x 10 5 30% at d 42 80 Bip proteins BALB/c mice i.p. Ashdown i.p. 970 0% at d 5 81 Omp3 and Omp7 ( Outer membrane ...proteins) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10 6 50% at d 21 82 Omp85 ( Outer membrane protein) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10

  1. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  2. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  3. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-10-09

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum.

  4. Effect of a Perioperative Nutritional Supplementation with Oral Impact® in Patients undergoing Hepatic Surgery for Liver Cancer: A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Philippe; Locher, Clara; Boudjema, Karim; Hamon, Catherine; Mouchel, Catherine; Malledant, Yannick; Bellissant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition with supplements containing L-arginine, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and nucleotides could boost liver function recovery, immune response, and resistance to infection after hepatic resection. We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to assess the effect of a perioperative nutritional supplementation with Oral Impact® in patients undergoing hepatic surgery for liver cancer. Treatment was given three times daily for 7 days before and 3 days after surgery. Primary outcome was factor V, 3 days after surgery. Thirty-five patients (placebo: 17; Oral Impact: 18) were included. Five patients (placebo: three; Oral Impact: two) were not operated and five (placebo: two; Oral Impact: three) did not undergo hepatic resection. Factor V (mean ± SD) was 70 ± 27% and 79 ± 25% (P = 0.409) 3 days after surgery and 90 ± 30% and 106 ± 16% (P = 0.066) 5 days after surgery, in placebo and Oral Impact groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups on other outcomes assessing liver function recovery (bile production, γ-glutamyl transferase, α-fetoprotein), immune response (CD3, CD4, CD8 cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, natural killer cells, B lymphocytes), number of infections, and tolerance. A 10-day perioperative nutritional supplementation with Oral Impact does not improve hepatic function, immune response, and resistance to infection in patients undergoing hepatic surgery for liver cancer.

  5. Pilot study on the bioactivity of vitamin d in the skin after oral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Tang, Jean Y; Einspahr, Janine G; Bermudez, Yira; Hsu, Chiu Hsieh; Rezaee, Melika; Lee, Alex H; Tangrea, Joseph; Parnes, Howard L; Alberts, David S; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D (VD) supplementation inhibits skin carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies report mixed findings in the association between circulating VD levels and skin cancer risk. We conducted a clinical study to determine whether oral cholecalciferol supplementation would exert direct bioactivity in human skin through modulation of the VD receptor (VDR). We enrolled 25 individuals with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels skin photodamage to take 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol biweekly for 8 to 9 weeks. Then, we obtained baseline and end-of-study skin biopsies from photodamaged (PD) and photoprotected (PP) skin, and from benign nevi (BN) and tested for mRNA expression of VDR and cytochrome P450-24 (CYP24), and markers of keratinocytic differentiation. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation significantly elevated circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (P skin showed minimum changes after supplementation. CYP24 expression in PD- and PP-skin was increased after supplementation by 186%, P = 0.08, and 134%, P = 0.07, respectively. In BNs from 11 participants, a trend for higher VDR and CYP24 expression was observed (average of 20%, P = 0.08, and 544%, P = 0.09, respectively). Caspase-14 expression at the basal layer in PD skin samples was the only epidermal differentiation marker that was significantly increased (49%, P skin. Our findings of significant variability in the range of VDR and CYP24 expression across study samples represent an important consideration in studies evaluating the role of VD as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  7. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... weight and placental weight significantly. Light microscopic study of the placentae and the umbilical cord arteries showed no difference between the three groups concerning the occurrence of infarctions, cytotrophoblastic hyperplasia, vasculo-syncytial membranes, basement membrane thickening, stromal...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls...

  8. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  9. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  10. Estimating children's eating habits. Validity of a questionnaire measuring food frequency compared to a 7-day record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, L; Lundmark, K; Dahlquist, G; Persson, L A

    1989-11-01

    A questionnaire measuring food frequency was validated against 7-day records of food intake in a group of 30 children, 2-16 years of age. Special emphasis was given to the ability of the questionnaire to estimate frequency of intake of foods of particular interest in diabetes mellitus. Fifteen children had insulin-dependent diabetes; 15 were healthy. Comparison of the two methods regarding frequency of foods with high content of sucrose, protein, fat, fibres, nitrite or vitamin C showed a correlation of 0.52-0.76. The frequency of intake of some staple foods was often overestimated by the questionnaire, while the frequency of meat, sausage and some sweet snacks was underestimated. The use of the questionnaire to identify high or low consumers of the mentioned nutrients showed a rather low sensitivity (0.38-0.50), but a high specificity (0.86-1.0) when compared with results of the 7-day record. In our limited sample of subjects no systematic differences were found comparing sexes or diabetic and healthy children. A food frequency questionnaire may, in spite of some important reservations, be a useful tool for screening purposes when more time-consuming and resource-demanding methods cannot be used.

  11. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch.

  12. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomasiri, Wilai; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Saichandee, Pisut

    2004-09-01

    This study demonstrated the effect of low dose creatine supplement (10 g. per day) on the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition, as well as the effect on exertion. Nineteen swimmers in the experimental group received creatine monohydrate 5 g with orange solution 15 g, twice per day for 7 days and nineteen swimmers in the control group received the same quantity of orange solution. The results showed that the swimmers who received creatine supplement lessened the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition than the control group. (pcreatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.

  13. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  14. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie I. Siebler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55% and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%; modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86% and sleeping problems (35.56%. There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms.

  15. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections.

  16. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-04

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  17. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  18. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  19. Dairy Intake Is Protective against Bone Loss in Older Vitamin D Supplement Users: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-04-01

    Background: Previous studies showed beneficial effects of specific dairy foods on bone health in middle-aged adults.Objective: We examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes with bone mineral density (BMD) and 4-y percentage of change in BMD [▵%BMD; femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS)]. We further assessed whether these associations were modified by vitamin D supplement use in this cohort of older adults.Methods: Food-frequency questionnaire responses, baseline BMD (hip and spine, n = 862 in 1988-1989), and follow-up BMD (n = 628 in 1992-1993) were measured in the Framingham study, a prospective cohort study of older Caucasian men and women aged 67-93 y. Outcomes included baseline BMD and ▵%BMD. Dairy-food intakes (servings per week) were converted to energy-adjusted residuals, and linear regression was used, adjusting for covariates. These associations were further examined by vitamin D supplement use.Results: The mean age of the participants was 75 y. In the full sample, dairy-food items were not associated with BMD (P = 0.11-0.99) or with ▵%BMD (P = 0.29-0.96). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were associated with higher LS BMD (P = 0.011-0.009). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were protective against trochanter BMD loss (P = 0.009).Conclusions: In this population of older adults, higher intakes of milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese were associated with higher LS BMD, and a higher intake of milk + yogurt + cheese was protective against trochanter BMD loss among vitamin D supplement users but not among nonusers. These findings underscore that the benefits of dairy intake on the skeleton may be dependent on vitamin D intake.

  20. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  1. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brant César Q

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG [n = 27], Education Group (EG [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC, biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count, CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating, MMSE (Mini-mental state examination, as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p = Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status.

  2. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  3. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  4. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave

  5. Effects of zinc supplementation on obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Silva, KDRR; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is escalating alarmingly worldwide, and it is now becoming a rapidly growing epidemic in developing countries. Recent studies have reported that zinc has been implicated in altered lipid markers, insulin resistance and some obesity markers. There is a lack of evidence on zinc as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce weight and improve metabolic parameters in obese adults. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on ob...

  6. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  7. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  8. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. [b][/b]Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Peel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011–2012, respectively. [b]Results[/b]. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  10. Study on Anti-fatigue Food Supplement Scheme for Badminton Athletes based on Body Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Badminton is a sports item, its competitive feature is quite strong, therefore, the timely recovery of fatigue for badminton players is very important, which is related to the improvement of athlete's ability. This study is based on the interpretation of motion fatigue, taking it as the breakthrough point, by means of analyzing the parts that caused the fatigue, combined with the characteristics of badminton, it discusses the recovery method of nutrition supplement for badminton athletes.

  11. Trends in vitamin, mineral and dietary supplement use in Switzerland. The CoLaus study

    OpenAIRE

    Marques-Vidal, P; Vollenweider, P.; Waeber, G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin/mineral (VMS) and dietary supplements (DS) use is common in Switzerland, but nothing is known regarding the factors associated with their initiation, discontinuation or continuation of intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective study conducted between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 in Lausanne, Switzerland among 4676 participants (2525 women, age range 35-75 years). VMS were defined as single or multivitamin/multimineral preparations; DS were defined as any dietary suppl...

  12. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  13. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446 and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372. Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90. Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements. Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable.

  14. Effect of Intravenous Iron Supplementation on Acute Mountain Sickness: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuewen; Zhang, Qiuying; Wang, Hao; Man, Chunyan; Hong, Heng; Chen, Li; Li, Tanshi; Ye, Ping

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of intravenous iron supplementation in the prevention of AMS. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Forty-one (n=41) healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants living in Beijing, China (altitude of about 50 meters) were randomly assigned into intravenous iron supplementation (ISS group; n=21) and placebo (CON group; n=20) groups. Participants in the ISS group received iron sucrose supplement (200 mg) before flying to Lhasa, China (altitude of 4300 meters). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) severity was assessed with the Lake Louise scoring (LLS) system within 5 days after landing on the plateau (at high altitude). Routine check-ups, clinical biochemistry, and blood tests were performed before departure and 24 h after arrival. A total of 38 participants completed the study (ISS group: n=19; CON group: n=19). The rate of subjects with AMS (LLS>3) was lower in the ISS group compared with the CON group, but no significant differences were obtained (P>0.05). There were no differences in patients' baseline characteristics. The physiological indices were similar in both groups except for serum iron concentrations (19.44±10.02 vs. 85.10±26.78 μmol/L) and transferrin saturation rates (28.20±12.14 vs. 68.34±33.12%), which were significantly higher in the ISS group (Piron supplementation has no significant protective effect on AMS in healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants.

  15. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  16. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST

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    Kurtzberg Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid (FA added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6% of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00, compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97. Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49. Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses.

  17. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  18. Liver regeneration with l-glutamine supplemented diet: experimental study in rats

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    Cibelle Ribeiro Magalhães

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess liver regeneration in rats after 60% hepatectomy with and without supplementation of L-glutamine through liver weight changes, laboratory parameters and histological study. METHODS: 36 male rats were divided into two groups: glutamine group and control group. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups, with death in 24h, 72h and seven days. The glutamine group received water and standard diet supplemented with L-glutamine, and the control recieved 0.9% saline. In all subgroups analysis of liver regeneration was made by the Kwon formula, study of liver function (AST, ALT, GGT, total bilirubin, indirect and indirect bilirubin and albumin and analysis of cell mitosis by hematoxylin-eosin. RESULTS: In both groups there was liver regeneration by weight gain. Gamma-GT increased significantly in the control group (p < 0.05; albumin increased in the glutamine group. The other indicators of liver function showed no significant differences. Histological analysis at 72h showed a higher number of mitoses in the glutamine group, with no differences in other subgroups. CONCLUSION: Diet supplementation with L glutamine is beneficial for liver regeneration.

  19. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  20. A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja P Dawsey

    Full Text Available We examined the association of use of multivitamins or single vitamin/mineral supplements with risk of four upper gastrointestinal cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort with 11 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 490,593 persons were included in our analytic cohort and 1780 upper gastrointestinal cancers were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using Cox models with adjustment for potential confounders. We observed no significant associations between multivitamin use and risk for the four cancer outcomes in crude or adjusted models. Among individual vitamin or mineral supplements, use of iron supplements was associated with significantly lower risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.94 and a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.05. For gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, we saw associations with zinc use (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.62 and vitamin C use (HR = 0.79 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.96. Calcium use, some of which was reported as antacids and used to treat reflux disease, was associated with higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.52 and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.56 cancers. We saw no evidence that multivitamin use was associated with reduced risk of four highly fatal upper gastrointestinal cancers, but there were some differences in risk with reported use of individual supplements.

  1. A pilot study: bovine colostrum supplementation and hormonal and autonomic responses to competitive cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, C M; Peake, J M; Suzuki, K; Jenkins, D G; Coombes, J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this pilot investigation was to examine the influence of bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC) supplementation on salivary hormones, salivary IgA and heart rate variability over consecutive days of competitive cycling. Ten highly-trained male road cyclists (mean±SEM; age=22.2±4.7 yr; mass=70.5±4.5 kg; VO2max=72.9±3.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) were randomly assigned to a control (N.=6, 10g whey protein concentrate/day) or bovine CPC group (N.=4, 10 g bovine CPC/day). Cyclists provided a baseline saliva sample before commencing eight weeks of supplementation, and competing in a five day cycle race. Cyclists provided saliva samples and measured heart rate variability (HRV) each day of the race. Saliva samples were analysed for cortisol, testosterone and IgA concentrations. Bovine CPC supplementation was associated with increased morning cortisol concentration on the first day of racing when compared to the control group (P=0.004) and significantly prevented a decrease in testosterone concentration over the race period (P≤0.05). Across the race period parasympathetic indices of HRV were elevated in the bovine CPC group and reduced in the control group (P≤0.05), while there were no significant differences in salivary IgA between groups. Bovine CPC supplementation maintained salivary testosterone concentration and modulated autonomic activity over consecutive days of competitive cycling. This pilot study provides justification to explore the effects of bovine CPC on recovery in endurance athletes further.

  2. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation. The study includes different bone sites (femur, tibia, humerus, vertebral rib) in an effort to explore possible differences among the sites. We evaluate the following parameters: mineral-to-matrix ratio, carbonate content, and non-apatitic species (labile acid phosphate and labile carbonate) contribution to bone mineral. Results show that a relatively high dose of calcium or calcium with vitamin D supplementation increases the bone mineralization index significantly. On the other hand, vitamin D alone is not as effective in promoting mineralization even with high intake. Mature B-type apatite was detected for the group with calcium supplementation similar to that of aged bone. High vitamin D intake led to increased labile species concentration revealing bone formation. This is directly associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines linked to induced inflammation. The latter is known to adversely alter bone metabolism, contributing to the aetiopathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, a high intake of vitamin D under inflammation-induced osteoporosis does not promote mineralization but suppresses bone resorption and restores metabolic balance.

  3. Study on Maize-water Model for Supplemental Irrigation in Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing LI; Mangmang GOU

    2015-01-01

    The Loess Plateau has a typical semi-arid climate, and the area suffers from very harsh ecological environment, severe soil erosion and water runoff, and uneven distributed precipitation. Due to the relatively low holding capacity, current rainwater-col ecting and conservation facilities can only supplement a maximum of 18 mm of water for crop production in each irrigation. In this study, mathematical models were constructed to identify the water requirement critical period of maize crop by evaluating response of each individual developmental stage to supplemen-tal irrigation with harvested rainwater. In the transformed Jensen model, ETmin/Eta was used as the index of relative evapotranspiration. The use of relative yield and relative crop evapotranspiration was able to eliminate influences from unintended en-vironmental factors. A BP neural network crop-water model for extreme water deficit condition was constructed using the index of relative evapotranspiration as the input and the index of relative yield as the output after iterative training and adjustment of weight values. Comparison of measured maize yields to those predicted by the two models confirmed that the BP neural network crop-water model is more accu-rate than the transformed Jensen model in predicting the sensitivity index to water-deficit at various growth stages and maize yield when provided with supplemen-tal irrigation with harvested rainwater.

  4. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Eliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n=5 were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4 versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p<=0.10, and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p<=0.10. Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  5. [The fructose induced "glycogenosis". I. Ultrastructural and morphometric analysis of rat hepatocytes 7 days after fructose overload (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, U N; Uhl, H; Seufer, G; Robausch, T; Böhm, N; Sasse, D

    1975-01-01

    Infusion of fructose has been shown to stimulate the SER and to reduce the RER in rat liver cells. After feeding fructose of 7 days a glycogenosis of unknown pathogenesis occurs, which was analysed morphometrically. 60% fructose in water, was given as drinking water to animals deprived of other food. Controls had free access to Altromin-R-standard diet and drinking water. Liver tissue was analysed morphometrically according to the methods described by Weibel. Rat hepatocytes accumulate a material with histochemical properties of glycogen. The enlargement of hepatic nuclei is probably due to a pathological edema. The SER is decreased suggesting a drop of glycogen catabolizing enzymes. The drastic reduction of the RER and the non-membrane bound ribosomes are signs of inpeeded protein synthesis. According to this, the peroxisomes, which arise from the RER, are decreased in volume and number. The hepatocellular chondrioma is transformed morphometrically in a smaller number of larger, pleomorphic and cup-shaped mitochondria. The ATP level drops while, on the other hand, the cristeal membranes increase. This might be caused by a negative feed back mechanism. The hepatocellular cytoarchitecture described is similar to the one found in glycogenosis type I and in the cerebrohepato-renal syndrom.

  6. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

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    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  7. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  8. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  9. Effects of single dose and regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on DNA damage, DNA repair, and heme oxygenase-1 expression in a randomized controlled human supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cyrus K; Choi, Siu-wai; Siu, Parco M; Benzie, Iris F F

    2014-06-01

    Regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) lowers DNA damage in humans, but molecular mechanisms of genoprotection are not clear. Protection could be via direct antioxidant effects of tea catechins, but, paradoxically, catechins have pro-oxidant activity in vitro, and it is hypothesized that mechanisms relate to redox-sensitive cytoprotective adaptations. We investigated this hypothesis, focusing particularly on effects on the DNA repair enzyme human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), and heme oxygenase-1, a protein that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. A randomized, placebo-controlled, human supplementation study of crossover design was performed. Subjects (n = 16) took a single dose (200 mL of 1.5%, w/v) and 7-days of (2 × 200 mL 1%, w/v per day) green tea (with water as control treatment). Lymphocytic DNA damage was ∼30% (p tea supplementation. Lymphocytic hOGG1 activity was higher (p tea ingestion. Significant increases (p green tea, and contribute to the observed genoprotective effects of green tea.

  10. An interventional study (calcium supplementation & health education on premenstrual syndrome - effect on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Sutariya, Nitiben Talsania, Chintul Shah, Mitesh Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to study the effect of calcium supplementation on Premenstrual and Menstrual Symptoms. It was a one year follow-up prospective, randomized controlled interventional study. After the initial 2-cycle screening phase, a total of 215 healthy premenopausal women were enrolled in the study group calcium supplementation(500 BD of the trial and 140 subjects either the relatives or neighbors of the study population were enrolled as control group health, nutrition, hygiene education of the trial. By the second and third treatment months, all symptoms except for fatigue and insomnia showed a significant response to calcium. For the symptom of low backache, the mean screening score was significantly higher than the control group score (0.82±0.74 vs 0.69±0.66,p=0.033 and became significantly lower than the control group score by the end of third treatment cycle. (0.30±0.45 vs 0.49±0.59,p<0.01. Nearly half (55% of the women in the study group reported ?50% improvement and one-third (30% of the women in study group reported ?75% improvement. Significantly lower symptoms score was detected in the urban sites during the first treatment phase with calcium and during the final treatment phase

  11. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Pereira, Suzette L.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Erdman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions. PMID:28075370

  12. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  13. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N A; Greenwood, D C; Simpson, N A B; McArdle, H J; Cade, J E

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. A prospective birth cohort. Leeds, UK. One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18-45 years. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Regular multivitamin-mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries.

  14. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  15. Anthranoid-containing medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, C; Corthout, J

    2014-06-01

    Medicines and food supplements containing anthranoid herbal drug preparations were verified on identity of the herbal substance, content of total hydroxyanthracene glycosides and microbiological quality. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. The food supplements showed a large variability in quality and content.

  16. Compliance to Iron Supplementation Among Pregnant Women: a Cross Sectional Study in Urban Slum.

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    Alpanarani J Dutta, Prakash Patel, R K Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Every six out of ten pregnant women were found taking iron supplement pills. As number of antenatal visits and knowledge of dose and duration of iron supplementation pills are independently affecting compliance to iron pills, increasing number of antenatal visits and imparting knowledge about dose and duration of iron supplementation pills will improve compliance to iron pills."

  17. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  18. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  19. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  20. A study on the effects of zinc supplementation during lactation on the infant growth and development

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    M. Khademloo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite the vital effects of zinc on infant growth, the low zinc store of mothers especially in poor communities may lead to low content of zinc in their newborns. In the first 6 months of life, the young infant has a relatively high zinc requirement to support the very rapid growth of early infancy and growth retarding continues to be highly prevalent among children in low-Income countries. In this study we evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on the infant growth and development.Materials and methods: In a randomized double blind controlled field trial, 500 lactating women were identified and enrolled into the study within 2 week of delivery. They were enrolled only if they intended to exclusively breast feed for 6 to 12 months. Height (Ht, head circumference HC, weight and development milestone were evaluated monthly to 12 months. Data were analyzed using spss 10 software.Results: WT. HT. and HC in infants of trial group were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05.Development milestone in trial group was seen earlier than in control group (p<0.05. There were negative correlations between birth WT and increasing WT in each month in trial and control groups. Conclusion: the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal zinc intake on infant growth and development. Further researches is needed, to evaluate the zinc supplementation for lactating women or infant.

  1. An exploratory study evaluating the effects of macular carotenoid supplementation in various retinal diseases

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    Crosby-Nwaobi R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi, Philip Hykin, Tunde Peto, Sobha Sivaprasad NIHR Clinical Research Facility, NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of daily oral supplementation with Macushield (10 mg/d meso-zeaxanthin, 10 mg/d lutein, and 2 mg/d zeaxanthin on eye health in patients with retinal diseases by assessing the macular pigment (MP profile, the visual function, and the quality of life. Methods: Fifty-one patients with various retinal diseases were supplemented daily and followed up for 6 months. The MP optical density was measured using the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and dual-wavelength autofluorescence. Visual function was evaluated by assessing the change in best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare sensitivity in mesopic and photopic conditions. Vision-related and general quality of life changes were determined using the National Eye Insititute- Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25 and EuroQoL-5 dimension questionnaires. Results: A statistically significant increase in the MP optical density was observed using the dual-wavelength autofluorescence (P=0.04 but not with the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Statistically significant (P<0.05 improvements in glare sensitivity in low and medium spatial frequencies were observed at 3 months and 6 months. Ceiling effects confounded other visual function tests and quality of life changes. Conclusion: Supplementation with the three carotenoids enhances certain aspects of visual performance in retinal diseases. Keywords: macular pigment optical density, diabetes, central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration

  2. Probiotic supplementation promotes calcification in Danio rerio larvae: a molecular study.

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    Francesca Maradonna

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2, Sp7 transcription factor (sp7, matrix Gla protein (mgp, and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla protein (bglap as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost, a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3, which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders.

  3. Alpha -tocopherol supplementation on chromium toxicity : a study on rat liver and kidney cell membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Membrane damage is one of the important consequence of chromium, an environmental toxicant, to produce cytotoxicity. α-tocopherol, a membrane protectant can be used to reduce the chromium-induced membrane damage. In the present study, the impact of chromium in presence and absence of α-tocopherol was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80 - 100g body weight). Significant increase in membrane cholesterol level as well as significant decrease in membrane phospholipid level in chromium exposed ( 0.8 mg /100g body weight/d, i.p., for 4 weeks) animals suggest structural alteration of both liver and kidney plasma memebrane. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of plasma membrane were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment. However, α-tocopherol (30 mg / 100g diet) supplementation can restrict the changes in these membrane-bound enzyme activities. Thus, the usefulness of dietary supplementation of α-tocopherol to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage is suggested.

  4. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Probiotic Supplementation Promotes Calcification in Danio rerio Larvae: A Molecular Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Falcinelli, Silvia; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Olivotto, Ike; Carnevali, Oliana

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish). The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2), Sp7 transcription factor (sp7), matrix Gla protein (mgp), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (bglap) as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost), a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3), which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf) and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders. PMID:24358259

  6. The hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Starakis, Ioannis K; Papadomanolaki, Maria G; Mavroeidi, Niki G; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-02-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a filamentous cyanobacterium used as a food supplement. The objective of the study was to determine the lipid-lowering effects of Spirulina in Cretan Greek dyslipidaemic patients, and to document its effectiveness as a possible alternative treatment for dyslipidaemia. Fifty-two adultCretan outpatients (32 men, 20 women), median age 47 (range, 37-61) years, with recently diagnosed dyslipidaemia, consumed orally 1 g Spirulina (Greek production) per day for 12 weeks. The full lipid profile was measured in fasting blood samples at the beginning and end of the study period. Anthropometric measurements including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, height, weight and body mass index were also recorded. At the end of the 3-month intervention period the mean levels of triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteincholesterol were significantly decreased: 16.3% (P Spirulina supplementation at a dose of 1 g daily has powerful hypolipidaemic effects, especially on the triglyceride concentration in dyslipidaemic Cretan outpatients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  8. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal and cognitive function: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yazigi Solis

    Full Text Available Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1 and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2.In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation, with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task being performed before and after exercise on each occasion.In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99 or omnivores (p = 0.27; nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19. Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27. In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P 0.05 of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise.28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists.

  9. Comparison of abuse, suspected suicidal intent, and fatalities related to the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal patch versus other opioid analgesics in the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Paul M; Sessler, Nelson E; Harikrishnan, Venkatesh; Singh, Richa; Perkel, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Prescription opioid related abuse, suicide and death are significant public health problems. This study compares rates of poison center calls categorized as intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent or fatality for the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal system/patch (BTDS) with other extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids indicated for chronic pain. Retrospective 24-month cohort study using National Poison Data System data from July 2012 through June 2014. BTDS was introduced in the United States in January 2011. Numbers and rates of calls of intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent and fatalities were evaluated for BTDS, ER morphine, ER oxycodone, fentanyl patch, ER oxymorphone and methadone tablets/capsules, using prescription adjustment to account for community availability. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Absolute numbers and prescription-adjusted rates of intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent with BTDS were significantly lower (p opioid analgesics examined. No fatalities associated with BTDS exposure were reported. This post-marketing evaluation of BTDS indicates infrequent poison center calls for intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent events, suggesting lower rates of these risks with BTDS compared to other ER/LA opioids.

  10. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

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    Shi Wu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  11. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  12. Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Zahra; Rahimlou, Mehran; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Ebrahimi-Daryani, Naser; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-06-01

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management.

  13. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, E; Moreira, E A; Goes, J E; Faintuch, J

    1999-01-01

    Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n = 5) were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4) versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS IN SOUTH INDIAN ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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    Geetha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. It is a major public health problem particularly among pregnant women with adverse effects on the mother and the new born. Iron supplementation is universally recommended to correct or prevent iron deficiency. AIMS & OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of three oral iron preparations in anemic pregnant women of more than 14 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized Control trial, done at Tagore Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. 60 antenatal women were selected; they were divided into three groups, 20 in each group. They were treated with Carbonyl iron, ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate. Hemoglobin estimation was done at 0 day, 30th and 60th day. Adverse effects were monitored. RESULTS: Data analysis showed an increase in haemoglobin levels in all three groups after the 30th day (p<0.05. Carbonyl iron showed highly significant increase (p<0.05 in the haemoglobin level as compared to the other two drugs at the end of the 60th day. CONCLUSION: Carbonyl iron is superior in efficacy when compared to ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate and is better tolerated. So carbonyl iron is safe in pregnancy and can be given as a supplement to treat iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  15. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  16. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

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    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  17. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Chinnatambi Narayanan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is the most widespread nutrition problem in the world and has predominance in developing countries like India, particularly in children and women. The magnitude of anaemia has been well-documented in pregnant women and infants, but there is scarce data on the prevailing occurrence of anaemia in school children. The current study was undertaken to know the point prevalence of anaemia and the comparative effectiveness of twice a week iron supplementation program to daily supplementation program in enhancing the hemoglobin levels in children aged 10-14 years with different grades of anemia in high schools in and around Kakinada, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS A total of 400 children in the age group of 10-14 years were included in this study from both government and private schools by random sampling. After estimating the point prevalence of anaemia by Sahli’s method all the children were given a single dose anti-helminthic and the children who were anaemic were further randomly divided into two subgroups A and B and allotted to either a daily or a twice weekly iron supplementation regimen respectively. The haemoglobin was again assessed after three months. RESULTS Point prevalence of anaemia among these children was 95.75%. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher amongst girls (97.8% as compared to boys (93.9%. Prevalence of anaemia was nearly equal in government (96% and private (95.5% schools. Mean improvement in Hb% of 2.23gm% and 1.98gm% was seen in daily and weekly twice iron groups respectively with no significant difference between two groups. Reduction in prevalence of anemia was 86% in daily iron and 80% in weekly twice iron regimen group. Daily iron group experienced more side effects (15.1% when compared to weekly twice iron group (8.1%. CONCLUSION This study shows that the point prevalence of anaemia in school children is high. Supervised iron and folic acid therapy twice a week is as effective as

  18. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

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    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  19. Clinical value of the VMI supplemental tests: a modified replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; Obler, Doris Richard

    2008-10-01

    To carry out a modified replication of the study performed by Kulp and Sortor evaluating the clinical value of the information provided by Beery's visual-motor supplemental tests of Visual Perception (VP) and Motor Coordination (MC) in normally developed children. The objectives were to (a) estimate the correlations among the three tests scores; (b) assess the predictive power of the VP and MC scores in explaining the variance in Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) scores; and (c) examine whether poor performance on the VMI is related to poor performance on VP or MC. METHODS.: A convenience sample of 71 children ages 4 and 5 years (M = 4.62 +/- 0.43) participated in the study. The supplemental tests significantly (F = 9.59; dF = 2; p VMI performance. Only VP was significantly related to VMI (beta = 0.39; T = 3.49) accounting for the total amount of explained variance. Using the study population norms, 11 children (16% of total sample) did poorly on the VMI; of those 11, 73% did poorly on the VP, and none did poorly on the MC. None of these 11 did poorly on both the VP and MC. Nine percent of total sample who did poorly on the VP performed within the norm on the VMI. Thirteen percent who performed poorly on the MC performed within the norm on the VMI. Using the VMI published norms, 14 children (20% of total sample) who did poorly on the VP performed within the norm on the VMI. Forty-eight percent who did poorly on MC performed within the norm on the VMI. Findings supported Kulp and Sortor's conclusions that each area should be individually evaluated during visual-perceptual assessment of children regardless of performance on the VMI.

  20. Predictors of preconceptional folic acid or multivitamin supplement use: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners

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    Cueto HT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heidi T Cueto,1 Anders H Riis,1 Elizabeth E Hatch,2 Lauren A Wise,2,4 Kenneth J Rothman,2,3 Ellen M Mikkelsen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Compliance with the Danish preconceptional folic acid (FA recommendation – a daily supplement of 400 µg – is reported to be poor. Uncertainty remains, however, about the prevalence of compliers and health-related predictors of compliance in the preconceptional period.Methods: We used self-reported baseline data from 5383 women, aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study of Danish pregnancy planners during 2007–2011. We estimated the prevalence proportions of FA or multivitamin (MV use in relation to selected sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and medical characteristics. Multivariate binomial regression was used to obtain prevalence proportion differences with 95% confidence intervals for each level of study predictors, adjusted for all other predictors.Results: Overall, 7.7% of women used FA supplements, 20.4% used MV supplements, 34.0% used both, 1.5% used other single vitamins or minerals, and 36.4% did not use any dietary supplements. The prevalence of FA or MV supplement use was higher among older women, women with higher education and income, and women with healthy lifestyle factors such as being a nonsmoker, nondrinker, physically active, maintaining a normal body mass index and having regular pap smears. Greater intercourse frequency and a history of spontaneous abortion were also positively associated with FA or MV supplement use. We found no clear association between use of FA or MV supplements and a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, or

  1. Chronic probiotic supplementation with or without glutamine does not influence the eHsp72 response to a multi-day ultra-endurance exercise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Hannah; Chrismas, Bryna Catherine Rose; Suckling, Craig Anthony; Roberts, Justin D; Foster, Josh; Taylor, Lee

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS). eHsp72 concentration in the plasma was measured at baseline, 7 days pre-race, 6-8 h post-race, and 7 days post-race. The MDS increased eHsp72 concentrations by 124% (F[1,3] = 22.716, p 0.05). In conclusion, the MDS caused a substantial increase in eHsp72 concentration, indicating high levels of systemic stress. However, chronic PRO or PGLn supplementation did not affect eHsp72 compared with control pre- or post-MDS. Given the role of eHsp72 in immune activation, the commercially available supplements used in this study are unlikely to influence this cascade.

  2. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness : a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J. I.; Mensink, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre) hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low

  3. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

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    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  4. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

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    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  6. EFFECTS OF OMEGA-3 AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRITIONAL AND INFLAMMATORY INDICES IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS – A PILOT STUDY.

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    Azuan Mat Daud Zulfitri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervention to correct malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients is often impeded by poor compliance due to medical and socioeconomic barriers. Therefore we performed a pilot study to investigate the technical feasibility of “directly observed treatment” of nutritional supplementation (protein and omega-3 fatty acids and its effects on nutritional and inflammatory markers in low socio-economic status hemodialysis population. Sixty-three eligible patients agreed to participate. Two intervention groups received 30 mL of a liquid protein supplement plus either 2.4 gm omega-3 (1.8 gm eicosapentaenoic acid + 0.6 gm docosahexaenoic acid or a placebo, three times per week after their routine dialysis session for 6 months. Serum albumin, plasma lipids, and other indicators of nutritional and inflammatory status were measured. Statistical differences after treatment and between groups were determined using paired t-test and independent t-test, respectively. Directly observed nutritional supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the LDLC/HDLC ratio in the omega-3 group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.043. For the omega-3 group, serum albumin was also marginally higher after 6 months as compared to baseline (P = 0.07. Other nutritional and inflammatory markers were unaffected by intervention. In conclusion, “Directly observed treatment” is technically feasible with an omega-3 based supplement (as opposed to a pure protein supplement showed beneficial effects on the lipid profile.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of 7-day-Holter monitoring alone or in combination with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Felix; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Gröschel, Klaus; Mostardt, Sarah; Biermann, Janine; Edelmann, Frank; Liman, Jan; Wasem, Jürgen; Goehler, Alexander; Wachter, Rolf; Neumann, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Prolonged Holter monitoring of patients with cerebral ischemia increases the detection rate of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); this leads to improved antithrombotic regimens aimed at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes. The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day-Holter monitoring (7-d-Holter) alone or in combination with prior selection via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to a standard 24-h-Holter using a cost-utility analysis. Lifetime cost, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for a cohort of patients with acute cerebral ischemia and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. A Markov model was developed to simulate the long-term course and progression of cerebral ischemia considering the different diagnostic algorithms (24-h-Holter, 7-d-Holter, 7-d-Holter after preselection by TTE). Clinical data for these algorithms were derived from the prospective observational Find-AF study (ISRCTN 46104198). Predicted lifelong discounted costs were 33,837 for patients diagnosed by the 7-d-Holter and 33,852 by the standard 24-h-Holter. Cumulated QALYs were 3.868 for the 7-d-Holter compared to 3.844 for the 24-h-Holter. The 7-d-Holter dominated the 24-h-Holter in the base-case scenario and remained cost-effective in extensive sensitivity analysis of key input parameter with a maximum of 8,354 /QALY gained. Preselecting patients for the 7-d-Holter had no positive effect on the cost-effectiveness. A 7-d-Holter to detect PAF in patients with cerebral ischemia is cost-effective. It increases the detection which leads to improved antithrombotic regimens; therefore, it avoids recurrent strokes, saves future costs, and decreases quality of life impairment. Preselecting patients by TTE does not improve cost-effectiveness.

  8. Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Hagve, Tor-Arne;

    2007-01-01

    Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement and nonsuppl......Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement...

  9. A randomised study of the effects of supplemental exercise sessions after a 7-week chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Rasmussen, Mathilde; Buch, Tove Fedder;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation programs tend to attenuate with time. We aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental exercise sessions following an initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program with regard...... to exercise capacity and disease-specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: We performed a 7-week COPD rehabilitation program in 140 COPD patients. Patients (n = 118) who completed the initial program were randomised for additional six supervised supplemental exercise sessions or three follow-up examinations...... in the intervention group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the observed changes in QoL or ESWT at any time point. Conclusions: In conclusion, a program of six supplemental exercise sessions following the initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program did not have any...

  10. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, A.; Mammina, C.; Thomas, E.; Bellafiore, M; G. Battaglia; Moro, T.; Paoli, A.; Palma, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  11. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-04-17

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

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    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  13. Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High-Energy Fracture Surgery (OXYGEN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼToole, Robert V; Joshi, Manjari; Carlini, Anthony R; Sikorski, Robert A; Dagal, Armagan; Murray, Clinton K; Weaver, Michael J; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Stall, Alec C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Agel, Julie; Zadnik, Mary; Bosse, Michael J; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Supplemental perioperative oxygen (SPO) therapy has been proposed as one approach for reducing the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Current data are mixed regarding efficacy in decreasing SSI rates and hospital inpatient stays in general and few data exist for orthopaedic trauma patients. This study is a phase III, double-blind, prospective randomized clinical trial with a primary goal of assessing the efficacy of 2 different concentrations of perioperative oxygen in the prevention of SSIs in adults with tibial plateau, pilon (tibial plafond), or calcaneus fractures at higher risk of infection and definitively treated with plate and screw fixation. Patients are block randomized (within center) in a 1:1 ratio to either treatment group (FiO2 80%) or control group (FiO2 30%) and stratified by each study injury location. Secondary objectives of the study are to compare species and antibacterial sensitivities of the bacteria in patients who develop SSIs, to validate a previously developed risk prediction model for the development of SSI after fracture surgery, and to measure and compare resource utilization and cost associated with SSI in the 2 study groups. SPO is a low cost and readily available resource that could be easily disseminated to trauma centers across the country and the world if proved to be effective.

  14. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation...

  15. Iron supplementation among pregnant women: results from a population-based survey study

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    Juraci Almeida Cesar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To measure the prevalence and risk factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Methods: All mothers living in this municipality who had children in 2007 were surveyed for demographic, socioeconomic and health care received during pregnancy and childbirth. The statistical analysis consisted of Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance, and the measure of effect was prevalence ratio (PR. Results: Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed (99% of total, 59% were supplemented with iron during pregnancy period. After adjusting for various confounding factors, a higher PR to iron supplementation was observed among teenagers, women with black skin color, primigravidae, who had six or more antenatal visits, who performed prenatal care in public sector and received vitamin during pregnancy. Conclusion: There is a clear need to increase the iron supplementation coverage of all pregnant women, especially among those currently considered with low gestational risk.

  16. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  17. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060

  18. Supplemental studies for cardiovascular risk assessment in safety pharmacology: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Sandra; Goineau, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Henry, Joël; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Rouet, René

    2011-12-01

    Safety Pharmacology studies for the cardiovascular risk assessment, as described in the ICH S7A and S7B guidelines, appear as being far from sufficient. The fact that almost all medicines withdrawn from the market because of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias (torsades-de-pointes) were shown as hERG blockers and QT interval delayers led the authorities to focus mainly on these markers. However, other surrogate biomarkers, e.g., TRIaD (triangulation, reverse-use-dependence, instability and dispersion of ventricular repolarization), have been identified to more accurately estimate the drug-related torsadogenic risk. In addition, more attention should be paid to other arrhythmias, not related to long QT and nevertheless severe and/or not self-extinguishing, e.g., atrial or ventricular fibrillation, resulting from altered electrical conduction or heterogeneous shortening of cardiac repolarization. Moreover, despite numerous clinical cases of drug-induced pulmonary hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, or heart valvular failure, few safety investigations are still conducted on drug interaction with cardiac and regional hemodynamics other than changes in aortic blood pressure evaluated in conscious large animals during the core battery mandatory studies. This critical review aims at discussing the usefulness, relevance, advantages, and limitations of some preclinical in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models, with high predictive values and currently used in supplemental safety studies.

  19. Study of the effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on the nutritional status of psycho-geriatric nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Wouters, A.E.J.; Kleijer, C.N.; Bindels, J.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the acceptance of a multinutrient liquid nutrition supplement in psycho-geriatric nursing home patients and the effect on weight, plasma nutrients and activities of daily life. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week intervention study. Setting: Two nursing homes in

  20. Teacher's Supplement to Unit on U.S.S.R. Grade Eleven. [Unit II.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is a subunit to one of four resource units for an eleventh grade course on area studies. This subunit is a teacher's supplement to the unit on the U.S.S.R. A pretest on the Soviet Union, supplementary readings on the Soviet economy, foreign policy, constitution, government, Soviet attitudes toward the United States, and comparative statistics…

  1. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  2. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

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    Somayeh Sadat Tavafzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise. Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  3. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  4. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzuddin Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone, Control (laminectomy with SCI, and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis. A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord.

  5. Should antioxidant vitamin supplementation be applied in patients with metabolic syndrome? A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Godala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : All cells in the human body are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS, which disturb the metabolic reactions in the organism. The antioxidant system in the human body consists of enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms, among which vitamins A, C, and E play a major role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the supply of vitamins A, C, and E from daily food rations (DFR in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS in relation to current nutrition standards. Material and methods: The study involved 184 women with MS, aged 45-68 years (mean 57.38 ±8.17 years. The control group comprised 90 women, aged 41-65 years (mean 57.48 ±5.79 years without MS. The food intake was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Results: The evaluation of intake of vitamins measured with daily food rations (DFR demonstrated that the optimal level of 90-110% according to standards was achieved only in 3.62% of women with metabolic syndrome for vitamin A, in 8.88% for vitamin C, and in 11.41% for vitamin E, which was significantly less often found than in the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Women with MS are characterised by diversified intake of vitamins A, C and E, and a subgroup of this patients present low level of antioxidant vitamins intake. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins should be prescribed individually to postmenopausal women with MS.

  6. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

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    Gal eDubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, natural, therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period.Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  7. Allium vegetables and garlic supplements do not reduce risk of colorectal cancer, based on meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Beibei; Zou, Li; Qi, Lu; Zhong, Rong; Miao, Xiaoping

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory studies have provided evidence that allium vegetables and garlic supplements might protect against colorectal cancer (CRC), but epidemiologic studies have produced inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluating the associations between allium vegetables, garlic supplements, and CRC risk. We pooled effect measures using fixed- or random-effect models, assessing the highest vs the lowest intakes. We used a dose-response regression model to evaluate the relationship between allium vegetable intake and CRC risk. Our analysis included 8 studies with 20 reports of the effects of allium vegetables (5458 patients with CRC including 7,125,067 person-years) and 5 studies with 11 reports of the effects of garlic supplements (2685 patients with CRC including 2,304,439 person-years). We found no association between higher intake of allium vegetables and CRC risk (relative risk [RR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.17; P = .26). Intake of allium vegetables did not correspond to CRC risk (P for nonlinear = .24, P for linear = .20). In subgroup analysis, a higher consumption of allium vegetables was associated marginally with increased risk of colon cancer among women (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.50; P = .05). Use of garlic supplements was associated significantly with an increased risk of CRC (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36; P = .03). In a meta-analysis, we found no evidence that higher intake of allium vegetables reduced the risk for CRC. We observed that garlic supplements increased the risk for CRC, but this finding requires external validation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrione Paolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65% out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at

  9. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  10. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  11. A clinical study of the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation during total parenteral nutrition: influence on mesenteric mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aosasa, S; Mochizuki, H; Yamamoto, T; Ono, S; Ichikura, T

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is a well-known insult during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and a high incidence of morbidity has been reported in septic patients receiving TPN. Inflammatory cytokines were shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of critical complications following sepsis. Previous studies have indicated that supplementation of TPN with glutamine is effective in preventing BT in animals, but its effectiveness in humans is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation to patients receiving TPN in suppressing cytokine production of mesenteric blood mononuclear cells (M-MNC). Fifteen colorectal cancer patients were divided into 3 groups according to preoperative nutrition management. (1) TPN group: TPN with conventional glutamine-free amino acid solution. (2) Gln group: TPN with oral glutamine supplementation of 30 g/d. (3) CONTROL GROUP: oral intake of normal food. M-MNC were obtained immediately after laparotomy and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of M-MNC was evaluated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. TNF-alpha and IL-10 production by LPS-stimulated M-MNC was increased in the TPN group and suppressed in the Gln group. In conclusion, oral glutamine supplementation to patients with TPN was shown to be effective for the prevention of M-MNC activation to avoid excessive production of cytokines.

  12. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness of iron-folate supplementation and anthelminthic therapy against anemia in pregnancy--a study in the plantation sector of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukorala, T M; de Silva, L D; Dechering, W H; Dassenaeike, T S; Perera, R S

    1994-08-01

    Intervention measures against anemia available to plantation workers during pregnancy include fortified food supplements (thriposha) and iron-folate supplements containing 60 mg elemental Fe. The effectiveness of these intervention measures was studied in 195 subjects whose iron and nutritional status were assessed at 32 wk of gestation. Taking thriposha conferred no significant benefit on maternal nutritional status, probably because sufficient amounts were not consumed. An increase in the duration of iron-folate supplementation to > 17 wk caused a significant positive change (P < 0.01) in hemoglobin, whereas an increase in the dose frequency had no significant benefit. Anthelminthic therapy in addition to iron-folate supplements caused a significant positive change in hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and serum ferritin (P < 0.005) compared with no supplementation. Thus, anthelminthic therapy significantly increased the beneficial effects of iron supplementation on hemoglobin concentration and iron status.

  14. Effects of Vitamin-E Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Responses in Female Athletes during Endurance Exercise in Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Chatterjee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ability to perform strenuous physical work is largely dependent on the efficiency of cardiorespiratory system to take up, transport and give off oxygen for its utilization by the working muscles. Cardiorepsiratory responses to exercise and alteration in physical work capacity of females during different phases of menstrual cycle have been reported. It is well established that Vitamin E (Vit-E supplementation improves aerobic performance due to its antioxidant nature. Objectives: The present study was aimed to determine the effects of Vit-E supplementation on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise in different phases of menstrual cycle in female athletes. Methods: Twenty five unmarried adult female athletes (21–25 years were recruited in this placebo-control double-blind randomized experimental trial. Their average duration of menstrual cycle was 28–32 days. Vit-E was supplemented at a dose of 400mg.day-1 for 7 days. Results: The pre-exercise heart rate and peak heart rate were significantly higher in the flow phase than the follicular and luteal phases during pre and post-supplemental trials. The post-supplementation values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max, O2 pulse, maximum pulmonary ventilation and endurance capacity were significantly (P<0.001 higher than the pre-supplementation values in all the phases of menstrual cycle. As far as the comparison of these parameters between the different phases of menstrual cycle is concerned, all these parameters were significantly different in the flow phase than their corresponding values in the follicular and luteal phases. From the present investigation it is concluded that Vit-E supplementation at a dose of 400 mg.day-1 for 7 days significantly improved the VO2max, maximum voluntary ventilation, O2 pulse and endurance capacity in female athletes during different phases of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Therefore, such supplementation may be recommended to improve the

  15. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  16. A pilot study of website information regarding aromatase inhibitors: dietary supplement interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Cara L; Hsieh, Angela A; Sweet, Erin S; Tippens, Kimberly M; McCune, Jeannine S

    2011-11-01

    Patients who have hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and who are taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) should understand the benefits and risks of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) use. The International Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) encourages patients to discuss DS use with their health care practitioners. The objective was to conduct a pilot study rating Internet websites from the perspective of health care practitioners for information about AI-DS interactions. Five (5) Internet websites suggested by SIO were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument rating tool. The available AI-DS information on these websites was rated by 4 evaluators: 2 naturopathic doctors, 1 oncology pharmacy resident, and a pharmacy student. The overall rankings ranged from 1.6 to 3.9, with considerable variability in the type of information available from the websites. The interevaluator rankings of the websites ranged from 0.44 to 0.89. The evaluators consistently found the most reliable, unbiased, and comprehensive information on AI-DS interactions at the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center websites. However, more than one database was needed for provision of optimal patient information on AI-DS interactions. In order to effectively advise patients regarding AI-DS interactions, more than one website should be evaluated to assess the potential efficacy and safety of DS in women whose breast cancer is being treated with an AI. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  17. STUDY OF GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY PO CATTLE IN SUBANG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Gustiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of population and productivity of beef cattle due to low of post partus reproduction capability. Feeding at the last of pregnancy and early lactation period has not appropriate with the needs of cattle that caused this condition. Need the right strategy and technology to support that condition. Improvement of feed quality intake at the period is one attempt to increase of productivition capability. Assessment aims to determine the performance of beef cattle productivity capability through the improvement of feed quality. Research was conducted at Family Jaya livestock farmers group in Ponggang Village, Serangpanjang District, Subang Regency, and carried out from June to November 2013. Feed quality improvement by introduction feed supplementation (concentrates and UMB that is given at the last of pregnancy period and the early lactation period during 2 months before partus and 2 months after partus(flushing. While animal control / comparison fed in accordance with the habits of farmers is only given forage and agricultural waste which is not given every day. Provision of drinking water is done ad-libitum. Livestock productivity parameters measured were body weight calf; daily weight gain of cattle calf and post-partum estrus parent. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed by t-test. The study showed that cattle treated with additional feed gives a better effect on birth weight, weight gain of cattle and post-partum estrus.

  18. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p amaranth (p amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  19. Effect of Probiotic Supplement on Cytokine Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Falasca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation persists in patients infected with HIV. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and microbial translocation might be one way that this could be managed. Purpose: The anti-inflammatory properties of certain probiotic strains prompted us to investigate whether a probiotic could reduce the inflammatory index of HIV-infected patients. Methods: The study involved 30 HIV+ males on antiretroviral therapy, who were given one bottle of fermented milk Yakult Light® containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS twice a day for four weeks. Results: The probiotic LcS was associated with an increase of T lymphocytes and a significant increase of CD56+ cells (p = 0.04. There was also a significant decrease of mRNA levels of TGFβ, IL-10 and IL-12 (p < 0.001 and IL-1β expression (p < 0.001 and an increase of serum IL-23 (p = 0.03. In addition, decreased inflammation and cardiovascular risk were observed, as shown by a reduction of cystatin C (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These data provide preliminary evidence that probiotic supplementation may modulate certain immunological parameters and some of the cytokines that were analyzed. Thus, we propose that LcS may be an inexpensive and practical strategy to support the immune function of HIV+ patients.

  20. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (p<0.001). In MTX-Vimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported.

  1. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  2. Health benefits of deer and elk velvet antler supplements: a systematic review of randomised controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbey, Andrew; Perezgonzalez, Jose D

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from RCTs of velvet antler supplements for any condition, using the QUOROM statement as a guiding framework. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Academic search premier, via the bibliographical platform, Endnote) and two review articles were searched for all randomised clinical trials of velvet antler supplements. Retrieved trials were evaluated according to standardised criteria. Seven RCTs were identified as satisfying all inclusion criteria and examined the effectiveness of velvet antler for rheumatoid arthritis (2), osteoarthritis (1), sexual function (1), and sporting performance enhancement (3). Their methodological quality ranged from 3-5, as measured on the Jadad scale. Two RCTs reported some positive effects of velvet antler supplements, but neither were convincing while the remaining five RCTs found no effect of velvet antler supplements. Claims made for velvet antler supplements do not appear to be based upon rigorous research from human trials, although for osteoarthritis the findings may have some promise.

  3. An assessment of food supplementation to chronically sick patients receiving home based care in Bangwe, Malawi : a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misiri Humphrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of food supplementation provided by the World Food Programme to patients and their families enrolled in a predominantly HIV/AIDS home based care programme in Bangwe Malawi is assessed. Methods The survival and nutritional status of patients and the nutritional status of their families recruited up to six months before a food supplementation programme started are compared to subsequent patients and their families over a further 12 months. Results 360 patients, of whom 199 died, were studied. Food supplementation did not improve survival but had an effect (not statistically significant on nutritional status. Additional oil was given to some families; it may have improved survival but not nutritional status. Conclusion Food supplementation to HIV/AIDS home based care patients and their families does not work well. This may be because the intervention is too late to affect the course of disease or insufficiently targeted perhaps due to problems of distribution in an urban setting. The World Food Programme's emphasis on supplementary feeding for these families needs to be reviewed.

  4. Effects of watermelon supplementation on aortic blood pressure and wave reflection in individuals with prehypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-01-01

    Oral L-citrulline is efficiently converted to L-arginine, the precursor for endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Oral L-arginine supplementation reduces brachial blood pressure (BP). We evaluated the effects of watermelon supplementation on aortic BP and arterial function in individuals with prehypertension. Heart rate (HR), brachial systolic BP (bSBP), brachial pulse pressure (bPP), aortic SBP (aSBP), aortic PP (aPP), augmentation index (AIx), AIx adjusted for HR of 75 beats/min (AIx@75), amplitude of the first (P1) and second (P2) systolic peaks, reflection time (Tr), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were evaluated in the supine position in nine subjects (four men/five women, age 54 ± 3 years) with prehypertension (134/77 ± 5/3 mm Hg). Subjects were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of watermelon supplementation (L-citrulline/L arginine, 2.7 g/1.3 g/day) or placebo followed by a 4-week washout period and then crossover. There was a significant treatment effect (change in the value of watermelon minus placebo from baseline to 6 weeks) on bPP (-8 ± 3 mm Hg, P 0.05) on bSBP, brachial diastolic BP (DBP), aortic DBP, Tr, P1, HR, and carotid-femoral PWV. This pilot study shows that watermelon supplementation improves aortic hemodynamics through a decrease in the amplitude of the reflected wave in individuals with prehypertension.

  5. Prognostic value of severity by various visceral proteins in critically ill patients with SIRS during 7 days of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharras-El Idrissi, Hicham; Molina-López, Jorge; Herrera-Quintana, Lourdes; Domínguez-García, Álvaro; Lobo-Támer, Gabriela; Pérez-Moreno, Irene; Pérez-de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells-Del Pozo, Elena

    2016-11-29

    Critically ill patients typically develop a catabolic stress state as a result of a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) that alters clinical-nutritional biomarkers, increasing energy demands and nutritional requirements. To evaluate the status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in critically ill patients and the association between these clinical-nutritional parameters with the severity during a seven day stay in intensive care unit (ICU). Multicenter, prospective, observational and analytical follow-up study. A total of 115 subjects in critical condition were included in this study. Clinical and nutritional parameters and severity were monitored at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. A significant decrease in APACHE II and SOFA (p < 0.05) throughout the evolution of critically ill patients in ICU. In general, patients showed an alteration of most of the parameters analyzed. The status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were below reference levels both at admission and the 7th day in ICU. A high percentage of patients presented an unbalanced status of albumin (71.3%), prealbumin (84.3%) and transferrin (69.0%). At admission, 27% to 47% of patients with altered protein parameters had APACHE II above 18. The number of patients with altered protein parameters and APACHE II below 18 were significantly higher than severe ones throughout the ICU stay (p < 0.01). Regarding the multivariate analysis, low prealbumin status was the best predictor of severity critical (p < 0.05) both at admission and 7th day of the ICU stay. The results of the present study support the idea of including low prealbumin status as a severity predictor in APACHE II scale, due to the association found between severity and poor status of prealbumin.

  6. E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leistner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  8. The effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that dietary phytase enhance the growth rate of pigs fed P-adequate diets. This may be due to an increased N digestibility and/or improved protein gain. The aim was to study the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs upon protein limiting condition. A total of 24 hybrid individually kept barrows (25kg BW were assigned into 4 treatments. Diet in AP0 (AP: adequate protein contained 190g/kg crude protein and no phytase supplementation, diets in RP0, RP500 and RP1000 (RP: reduced protein contained 160g/kg crude protein and 0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation, respectively. The balance trial consisted of 7 days adaptation and 5 days collection, during which the feces and urine were collected quantitatively. Additional phytase to low protein diets increased the N-retention of the pigs (P0.05. Dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of protein, however, 500 FTU/kg phytase supplementation increased the efficiency of N-retention. Our results show that the protein content of the feed for pigs of 20-30kg can be reduced from 190 to 160 g/kg if the diet is supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase without weakening the N-balance of pigs.

  9. Folic acid supplement use and menstrual cycle characteristics: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Heidi T; Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Sørensen, Henrik T; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2015-10-01

    To examine the association between folic acid (FA) supplementation obtained through either single FA tablets or multivitamins (MVs) and menstrual cycle characteristics among 5386 women aged 18-40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based study of Danish women attempting pregnancy during 2007-2011. In a cross-sectional study, we used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of FA supplementation with menstrual cycle regularity; short (cycle lengths; and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. Compared with nonuse, FA supplementation was associated with reduced odds of short cycle length (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94) and a trend toward increased odds of very long cycle length (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.87-1.68) compared with cycle length of 27-29 days. The inverse association with short cycle length was stronger among 18- to 30-year-old women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.53-0.87), nulliparous women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.84), and women who used both FA and MVs (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60-0.95). We found no clear association between FA supplementation and cycle regularity and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. FA supplementation was inversely associated with short menstrual cycle length. This association was strongest among women aged 18-30 years, nulliparous women, and women who used both FA and MVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  11. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    resulted in improvements in insulin action in the absence of weight loss. Glucose disposal rates during the euglycemic clamp were significantly increased at both hyperinsulinemic stages after training (40 mU: 1.84 +/- 0.32 to 2.67 +/- 0.37 mg.kg(-1).min(-1), P ...The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...

  12. [Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-bearing in an experiment with 7-day immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Zhuravleva, O A; Morukov, B V; Zabolotskaia, I V; Vostrikova, L V; Kuzichkin, D S

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-loading were studied in three groups of 21-30 y.o. volunteers for 7-d dry immersion. Blood serum was investigated for 38 biochemical parameters that characterize myocardium, skeletal musculature, hepatobiliary system, kidney, pancreas, GI tract, prostate, and protein-nucleic, carbohydrate, electrolyte and mineral metabolism. Seven-day DI w/o countermeasures (n = 5) increased concentration of conjugated bilirubin, suppressed activities of muscular (creatine phosphokinase MM) and myocardial enzymes (CPK MB, OBDH), and caused an upward trend in cholesterol, its atherogenic LDP fraction and triglycerides. Mechanic sole stimulation (n = 6) intensified, within the physiological norm, erythrocyte hematolysis raising total bilirubin and potassium. Despite the stimulation, activity of muscle and myocardial enzymes made a decrease. Blood creatinine decreased to a less extent than in the immersed group w/o stimulation, however, lipid parameters did not rise. High-frequency stimulation of the lower leg and hip muscles in the course of immersion (n = 5) was noted to heighten the activity of muscle enzymes and potassium level in blood beyond the physiological norm. Change in creatinine did not reach a statistical significance and lipid metabolism parameters were not different from baseline values. Application of these physical methods of counteracting deficiency of weight bearing did not interfere with redistribution of body liquids due to immersion. Values of the parameters under study were mostly within the normal limits throughout the experimental exposure suggesting absence of pathological developments during DI or in consequence of physical stimulation. Therefore, the reactions were obviously of normal adaptive character.

  13. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  14. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  15. Phylogenetic and functional alterations in bacterial community compositions in broiler ceca as a result of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A; de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R A

    2015-05-15

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time-course of this effect of Epo are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the cognitive improvement reflects direct neurobiological actions or is secondary to hematological effects. We therefore assessed the actions of single administration of Epo (40,000 IU) vs. saline to healthy volunteers on cognitive and neural measures of executive function using a verbal fluency task and N-back working memory (WM) paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on day 3 and 7 after administration in two separate cohorts of subjects. Epo modulated neuronal response in a fronto-parietal network during WM performance at both time points; on day 3 after administration, activation was increased in left-hemisphere frontal and cingulate cortex and reduced in the right parietal cortex; in contrast, neural response was enhanced in a right-lateralized fronto-parietal network and reduced in left-side regions 1 week post-administration. In addition, Epo-treated volunteers displayed improved verbal fluency performance 1 week post-administration. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in hematological measures suggesting that they reflect direct neurobiological actions of Epo. The findings are consistent with enduring effects of Epo on neurotrophic signaling and induction of neurochemical changes over time in neural networks typically affected in neuropsychiatric illness. The present study supports the notion that Epo may have clinical applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Effect of a 7-day treatment with idazoxan and its 2-methoxy derivative RX 821002 [correction of RX 821001] on alpha 2-adrenoceptors and non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M.; Reverte, M.; Langin, D.; Senard, J. M.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study investigates the influence of a 7-day treatment with 2 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily of RX 821002 (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist which binds only to alpha 2-adrenoceptors) or idazoxan (alpha 2-antagonist which binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors and also to non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites: NAIBS) on alpha 2-adrenoceptor (labelled with [3H]-RX 821002) and NAIBS (labelled with [3H]-idazoxan) number in three tissues (adipocytes, colocytes and platelets) in the rabbit. 2. Acute administration of RX 821002 or idazoxan increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and catecholamine levels with no change in plasma glucose levels. 3. The 7-day treatment with RX 821002 or idazoxan failed to influence food intake, total body weight or perirenal adipose tissue weight. 4. RX 821002 and idazoxan increased the number of [3H]-RX 821002 binding sites in adipose tissue with no change in colocytes or platelets. 5. RX 821002 and idazoxan failed to modify [3H]-idazoxan binding sites on adipocytes and colocytes. No significant [3H]-idazoxan binding was detected on rabbit platelets. 6. The results show that a 7-day treatment with alpha 2-antagonists induces an up-regulation in adipocyte alpha 2-adrenoceptors. In contrast, this phenomenon does not involve all the tissues since colocytes and platelets escape the effects of alpha 2-antagonists. The data suggest a differential regulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors according to their location. 7. The fact that NAIBS did not vary suggests that alpha 2-adrenoceptors and NAIBS are two different entities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1686202

  18. PDGF supplementation alters oxidative events in wound healing process: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule; Tugcu-Demiroz, Fatmanur; Celebi, Nevin

    2013-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), an important stimulant, plays a role in almost all stages of wound healing process. In various studies, it has been shown that PDGF has healing effects in this process. In the present study, we especially focused on investigating the effects of exogenous PDGF administration on oxidative events during cutaneous wound healing process. Experiments were performed on 42 female Wistar-albino rats. Animals were divided into four groups: control, untreated, chitosan-treated and chitosan + PDGF-treated. Two uniform full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made under anesthesia in all animals except control group. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with a single daily dose PDGF-BB (7 ng/ml) after wounding. In the chitosan-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with equal amount of blank chitosan gel. After that, on the 3rd and 7th days of wound healing, the animals were killed. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NOx), ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured spectrophotometrically in the wound tissues. PDGF significantly increased TBARS levels in early phase of wound healing. In contrast, it significantly decreased TBARS levels in later phase of healing. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated group, NOx levels decreased on days 3 and 7 when compared with the chitosan-treated groups. Non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were increased by PDGF administration and this may have contributed to increase in wound tissue antioxidant capacity. In the light of these findings, PDGF supplementation may have altering effects on oxidative events depending on the time in wound healing process.

  19. Comparison Between Different Intramuscular Vitamin B12 Supplementation Regimes: a Retrospective Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Said, M; Berghuis, K A; Boer, A K; Smulders, J F

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency after bariatric surgery can range from 26 to 70 %. There is no consensus on optimal vitamin B12 supplementation in postbariatric patients. The objective of this study was to compare three different regimes. In this retrospective matched cohort study, we included 63 patients with methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels ≥300 nmol/L. Group A (n = 21) received 6 intramuscular (im) vitamin B12 injections including a loading dose, group B (n = 21) received 3 im vitamin B12 injections without loading dose and group C (n = 21) received no im vitamin B12 injections. The total post-bariatric patient population consisted of 14 males (22.2 %) and 49 women (77.8 %) with a mean current body mass index of 30.6 ± 8.0 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in vitamin B12 and MMA levels between 3 groups at baseline. There was a significant difference in follow-up vitamin B12 levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02) and group A compared to group C (p = 0.03). In the follow-up results, there is also a significant decrease in MMA levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02), group A compared to group C (p vitamin B12 deficiency. An injection regime with 6 injections recovered all vitamin B12 deficiencies biochemically. MMA levels cannot recover spontaneously over time without additional im injection regime.

  20. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bird

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been gaining popularity exponentially. Introduced to the general public in the early 1990s, shortly after the Barcelona Olympic Games, creatine (Cr has become one of the most widely used nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids, with loading doses as high as 20-30 g·day-1 for 5-7 days typical among athletes. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation (CrS on exercise performance and training adaptations. Short-term CrS has been reported to improve maximal power/strength, work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions, single-effort sprint performance, and work performed during repetitive sprint performance. During training CrS has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and exercise performance primarily of high intensity tasks. However, not all studies demonstrate a beneficial effect on exercise performance, as CrS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. CrS appears to pose no serious health risks when taken at doses described in the literature and may enhance exercise performance in individuals that require maximal single effort and/or repetitive sprint bouts

  1. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  2. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  3. Effect Of Iron Supplementation In Breastfed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyma Kayali

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion Consumption of iron rich complementary foods together with routine iron supplementation of term, breast-fed infants from 4 months of age can improve their iron status. Receiving sufficient iron in diet is an effective way prevent iron-deficiency anemia. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 165-172

  4. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims.

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of creatine monohydrate supplementation to Duroc and Landrace pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette F.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2007-01-01

    . The abundance of insulin-like growth factor I and myostatin mRNA was decreased by CMH supplementation while that of type 1 IGF-receptor and creatine transporter was unaffected. Protein synthesis, increased in the myotubes from both breeds, indicating protein accretion, but no effect was observed on the m...

  6. ANAEMIA ERADICATION IN ADOLESCENTS- A NEW HOPE WITH WEEKLY IRON FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION (WIFS (PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is perceived to be a major public health problem especially among adolescent females .Findings from National Family Health Survey NFHS (2005-06 indicate that 56% of the adolescent girls in India are anaemic and, of these 17% suffer from moderate to severe anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia in female adolescent age group is still an understudied subject. The aims of this study were to evaluate the recently initiated WIFS program for government school girls with respect to implementation and impact on trends in prevalence of Anaemia among adolescent girls in a Bengaluru rural school. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross-sectional, descriptive exploratory research study was used. The choice of the school was based on commitment to administration of weekly iron-folic acid supplements (WIFS programme. All the girl students from class 6 th to 10th of Government High and Senior Secondary school (age group, 11-19 years who were a part of WIFS were enrolled as study participants. Qualitative data on anaemia awareness and diet history, compliance, side effects were taken from these girls. General information on age, height, weight were collected and BMI calculated. Hb estimation was done by Haemocue method. Statistical Analysis- Analysis were prepared by IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. RESULTS Out of the 95girls in the school, there were 81 girls (85.26% reported to consume one tablet of Iron folic acid (IFA weekly in the past 1 year, with no major side effects. The girls had knowledge about symptoms of anaemia and iron-rich diet. Hb estimates indicated 79.01% non anaemic, prevalence of anaemia was 20.99%; none of the girls had severe anaemia, 1.2% had moderate anaemia and the remaining 19.8% belonged to mild anaemia category, indicating a significant decline. The mean BMI of the study sample was 17.53 kg/m2 with 67.9% underweight and 6.2% overweight. CONCLUSION Overall, in this school, the WIFS program was found to be well implemented with good

  7. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men.

  8. Real-world experiences of folic acid supplementation (5 versus 30 mg/week with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Koh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability of methotrexate in two different regimes of folic acid (FA supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional observational cohort study on 240 RA patients with 120 patients each in 5 mg of FA weekly and 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation. There were no significant differences for side effects (14.2 versus 22.5%, P=0.523 and discontinuation of methotrexate (3.6 versus 13.3%, P=0.085. RA patients given 5 mg of FA weekly supplementation had a lower disease activity score 28 compared to 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation [3.44 (1.10 versus 3.85 (1.40, P=0.014]. FA supplementation of 5 mg per week and 30 mg per week was associated with similar tolerability of methotrexate in RA patients.

  9. Newspaper design – processes, routines and product: a study of Segundo Caderno, the Zero Hora cultural supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Lopes Damasceno; Ana Gruszynski

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the graphic design of Segundo Caderno supplement  from the newspaper Zero Hora (ZH). The study identifies and analyses witch graphical elements e what compositional strategies are used by the periodic, verifying how these area articulated with the editorial process and the values of the journalistic field. The methodological procedures utilized were bibliographical research; qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a corpus composed by 24 editions of the months of June...

  10. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  11. Time to detection of positive BacT/Alert blood cultures and lack of need for routine subculture of 5- to 7-day negative cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, D J; Hulbert, B B; Migneault, P C

    1992-01-01

    Consecutive BacT/Alert blood cultures which were instrument negative following a 7-day incubation were subcultured. Eighteen (0.2%) of 11,476 bottles had growth on subculture. Eleven of these eighteen isolates were considered contaminants on the basis of the identity of the organism and lack of other positive blood cultures from the same patient. In addition, analysis of time to instrument detection for approximately 2,900 positive blood cultures indicates that 5 or 6 days of incubation is su...

  12. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  13. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (P<.05). The rate of increase in the Schirmer value was greater in the supplementation group. No adverse events occurred. Supplementation improved objective and subjective dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  15. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  16. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  17. Could vitamin D supplements be a new therapy for heart failure? Possible pathogenic mechanisms from data of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeni, Andrea; Delva, Pietro; Minuz, Pietro

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF), but whether giving patients supplements to raise vitamin D into the normal range improves their survival is not clear. It has been demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with HF, especially the elderly, in obese and in dark skinned people, and that low vitamin D levels are associated with adverse outcome. The epidemiological data have been confirmed by experimental data, which show that knockout mice for the vitamin D receptor developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction. Data from interventional studies are scarce and discordant, and more research is urgently needed to confirm whether add-on supplementation therapy with vitamin D has a role in the management of patients with chronic HF.

  18. Urinary hepcidin identifies a serum ferritin cut-off for iron supplementation in young athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, P; Spaccamiglio, A; Rizzo, M; Termine, A; Chierto, E; Campostrini, N; Quaranta, F; Di Gianfrancesco, A; Pigozzi, F

    2011-01-01

    The use of iron supplements should be a judicious choice, primarily when considering the possible risks deriving from an unjustified treatment. In trained athletes, levels of ferritin between 15 and 30 microg/L are frequently observed. Within this ferritin range, the usefulness of iron supplementation is still controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of hepcidin assessment in the analysis of the iron status of young non-anemic athletes. Fifty young athletes were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their ferritin levels. No statistically significant difference was found regarding hepcidin levels between athletes with ferritin lower than 15 microg/L and those in the 15-30 microg/L range. Similarly, no difference was found between athletes with ferritin higher than 50 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between athletes with ferritin levels ranging from 15 to 30 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. The present study suggests that serum ferritin levels below 30 microg/L indicate an asymptomatic iron deficiency status inhibiting hepcidin expression and that 30 microg/L should be considered the ferritin cut-off when considering an iron supplementation in young athletes.

  19. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  20. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Wu Wen; Josee Champagne; Ruth Rennicks White; Doug Coyle; William Fraser; Graeme Smith; Dean Fergusson; Walker, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Copyright © 2013 Shi Wu Wen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recrui...

  2. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Henley-Einion, Josie; Barnett, Amanda; Edwards, Darren; Heidi Seage, C

    2011-06-01

    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants (n=8, all female) kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline matching was assessed by comparing all dream reports to all diary records for days that occurred after the dream. A significant dream-lag effect for the 5-7 day period, compared to baseline and compared to the 2-4 day period, was found. This may indicate a memory processing function for sleep, which the dream content may reflect. Participants' and three independent judges' mean ratings also confirmed a significant day-residue effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Case Study: Symptomatic Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia in an Endurance Runner Despite Sodium Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Myers, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2-10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer's). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH.

  4. Response of sheep to supplementation of Probio-catalytic in the diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Haryanto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available biotic and catalytic supplement, on the productive performances of sheep fed Pennisetum purpuphoides (King grass. The concentrate was made of rice bran, molasses-coated palm kernel cake, minerals and salt. Probio-catalytic supplements were added either at 0.5% or 1.0% of the concentrate. The probiotic in the probio-catalytic supplements was either Probion (produced by Balitnak and assigned as probio-catalytic supplement A, or a mixture of rumen microbes of buffaloes which was assigned as probio-catalytic B. The catalytic supplement consisted of gelatinized sago, Zn, Co, urea and sulfur. Twenty heads of male young sheep with an average liveweight of 18.8 ± 1.7 kg were divided into 4 groups based on the bodyweight and allocated to 5 feeding treatments. The treatments were (1 Control (without probio-catalytic supplement, (2 R1 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 0.5%, (3 R2 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 1.0%, (4 R3 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 0.5%, and (5 R4 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 1.0%. The experiment was carried out by a randomized block design. A four-week adaptation period was then followed by a 12-week feed intake data collection and growth trial. An intake and digestibility study of the feed was carried out for 7 days. Rumen fluids were taken for analysis of pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids and microbial population. Results indicated a significantly greater weight gain in the group received R1 than that of the other treatments. Feed dry matter intakes were less in the groups supplemented with probio-catalytic resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. The pH and concentration of ammonia of rumen fluid were not significantly different among treatments. While the acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not different among treatments, the butyric acid was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the groups received R3 and R4, whereas those received R2 and R3 was not

  5. Rationale and design of a study using a standardized locally procured macronutrient supplement as adjunctive therapy to HIV treatment in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztam, Kevin A; Ndirangu, Murugi; Sheriff, Muhsin; Arpadi, Stephen M; Hawken, Mark; Rashid, Juma; Deckelbaum, Richard J; El Sadr, Wafaa M

    2013-01-01

    Poor nutritional status at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is predictive of mortality. Decreased dietary intake is a major determinant of weight loss in HIV. Despite a biological rationale to treat undernutrition in adults receiving ART, few studies have provided data on feasibility, safety, effectiveness, and sustainability of specific macronutrient supplements with HIV treatment in adults, especially supplements such as a food basket, a supplement approach seldom evaluated in spite of its wide use. We present the rationale and design for a study of a locally procured macronutrient supplement given to HIV-infected patients initiating ART with a body mass index (BMI) ≤20.0 kg/m(2). The objective was to determine feasibility of procurement, distribution, safety and to obtain preliminary effectiveness data for a locally procured supplement. The design was a comparative study for 200 adult participants at two Kenya government-supported clinics. The primary outcome was BMI at 24 weeks. Supplement duration was 24 weeks, total follow-up was 48 weeks, and the study included a comparison site. Novel aspects of this study include use of a standardized macronutrient supplement to protect the participant against household food sharing, and a complementary micronutrient supplement. Comprehensive data collected included dietary intake, HIV-related quality-of-life, food security, neuropsychiatric assessments, laboratory studies, and household geomapping. Assessments were made at baseline, at 24 weeks, and at 48 weeks post-ART initiation. Challenges included establishing a partnership with local millers, distribution from the HIV clinic, food safety, and tracking of participants. These findings will help inform nutrition support programming in Kenya and similar settings, and provide needed data regarding use of macronutrient supplements as an adjunctive intervention with ART.

  6. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-05-11

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  7. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW, three of which included whey protein (WP supplementation combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15 or food protein sources (FP, n = 15 for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12. Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05, with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure were significantly improved (p < 0.05 to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  8. Supplementation with carnitine reduces the severity of constipation: a retrospective study of patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shinya; Inoue, Keisuke; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Yoden, Atsushi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Carnitine is an essential nutrient for the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency causes a variety of symptoms in multiple organs. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities often have carnitine deficiency. This study aimed to determine the correlation between constipation and carnitine deficiency in them. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between level of free carnitine and severity of constipation was examined. Constipation and non-constipation groups were compared for age; sex; body mass index; bed rest period; use of anti-epileptic drugs, valproate sodium, or enteral nutrition; and serum levels of albumin, pre-albumin, totalcholesterol, free carnitine, folic acid, and trace elements. Moreover, severity of constipation before and after carnitine supplementation was assessed. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Of these, 14 were assigned to the constipation group and 13 to the non-constipation group. The free carnitine level was significantly correlated with severity of constipation (R = 0.7604, pcarnitine was significantly lower in the constipation compared with the non-constipation group (pcarnitine supplementation (pcarnitine supplementation could reduce the severity of constipation.

  9. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  10. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

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    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  11. Trans-atlantic data harmonization in the classification of medicines and dietary supplements: a challenge for epidemiologic study and clinical research.

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    Moyers, Susan; Richesson, Rachel; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    As international scientific collaboration increases, there is a growing requirement for research data to be comparable among countries. Despite the importance of medication and dietary supplement data in research, there are no international standards for the collection and storage of these data. In the absence of such standards, we needed to adopt a strategy for classification and coding of medications and dietary supplements to meet demands of our multi-national study. Given the inter-country variations in nomenclature that characterize prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, traditional herbal medicines, and dietary supplements, we adopted RxNorm as a data standard for medication data, and developed an independent system that extends this standard and allows for flexible and scalable data collection for dietary supplements. RxNorm was implemented in May 2005 and as of July 2006, coverage has been 99%, at the level of active ingredients, of all the medications reported in our study. Development of a dietary supplement database began in August 2005, and has thus far coded some 1200 dietary supplements and 650 infant formula products and forms from the four countries in our study. The methods we have used to collect, store, and manage medication and dietary supplement data serve as interim solutions until international standards are developed. It is hoped that such standards will ultimately emerge, and that our strategy and data model will be of value in other research environments in the immediate future.

  12. The Effect of One-week Glutamine Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Indices in Healthy Young Men

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    Rasool Javanamani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background &objectives: Glutamine has antioxidant properties and can be used to treat some diseases. This study was conducted to assess the effect of one-week glutamine supplementation on oxidative stress indices in young healthy men.   Methods: Nineteen active healthy men volunteered for this study. This study was conducted in biochemistry lab of Ardabil branch of Islamic Azad University in Spring 2014. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled method into two groups: Glutamine (n = 9 and placebo group (n = 10. The participants took supplement (0.15 g/kg glutamine + 15g sweetener + 250ml water or placebo (15g sweetener + 250ml water daily for 7 days before main trial.Fasting blood samples were taken before and after supplementation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma, reduced glutathione (GHS level of serum, and malondialdehyde (MDA of plasma were measured.   Results: GHS significantly increased after treatment compared with pre-treatment in Glutamine group (p0.05.   Conclusions: These results showed that one-week daily oral supplementation of glutamine has been able to increase GHS probably because of greater glutamine availability .

  13. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Al Balushi, Ruqaiya M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of organ

  14. Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D; Leon, C; Kolev, S; Murray, V

    1997-11-01

    Since 1991, the Medical Toxicology Unit (MTU) at Guys' Hospital, London, has been assessing the toxicological problems associated with the use of traditional and herbal remedies and dietary supplements. This assessment was carried out by evaluating reports to the National Poisons Information Service (London) [NPIS(L)] which provides emergency information to medical professionals. Relevant telephone enquiries to NPIS(L) were identified. Further case details were obtained by follow-up questionnaire, clinical consultation, toxicological analysis of samples from patients and/or products and botanical identification of plant material. Of 1297 symptomatic enquiries evaluated there was a possible/confirmed association in 785 cases. Case series have been identified which substantiate previous reports, including liver problems following the use of Chinese herbal medicine for skin disorders, allergic reactions to royal jelly and propolis and heavy metal poisoning caused by remedies from the Indian subcontinent. Although the overall risk to public health appears to be low, certain groups of traditional remedies have been associated with a number of potentially serious adverse effects. Considering the extent of use of herbal remedies and food supplements a comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring the adverse health effects of these products is essential. Surveillance of a large population is needed for the complex task of identifying the uncommon and unpredictable adverse effects which are potentially serious. In the UK, the Medicines Control Agency responded to the MTU report by recognising the need for vigilance and by incorporating adverse reactions reporting on unlicensed herbal remedies into their drug reaction monitoring function. As a further step to safeguard the patients/consumers an effective single regulatory system is required which would ensure the safety and quality of all herbal remedies and food supplements available in the UK.

  15. Comparative study of levamisole-selenium supplementation effect on CD4 increase in HlV / AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Feizollah; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Hosseinpor, Farzaneh; Mahdavian, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given to the abundant incidence of malnutrition in HIV+ patients and its effect on progress of AIDS disease, several studies have recommended supplementation therapy (such as Selenium, Levamisole, Zinc). Methods: This clinical trial was prefunded on patient's with HIV + in Behavior Diseases Consulting Center, Kermanshah, Iran 2006-2007. One hundred-seventy eight out of all patients with CD4 1ess than 350 cell/mm3 who did not receive antiretroviral drugs were in this study. They were divided into four groups: the first group received 200 micg selenium per day, the second group received levamisole 50 mg every other day, and third group received both two drugs. The fourth group was the control group. All four groups were studied for six months. Patients' baseline CD4 and other data were recorded in a form. CD4 was rechecked after six months and collected values were compared with basic values. CD4 changes were compared among all groups, either. Results: One hundred-seventy eight patients initiated treatment and 108 cooperated in the 6-month follow up assessment. Niuety-two (85%) were males and 15% were female. CD4 decreased in control group and Levamisole group during the study which was significant, but 13 units increase was seen in Selenium-Levamisole group. CD4 count decreased 36 units in Selenium group. Comparing CD4 count change among 4 study groups showed that only CD4 change between Selenium-Levamisole group and control group was significant. Conclusion: Regarding to collected results, Selenium-Levamisole supplementation can be used as a supplementation therapy besides antiretroviral therapies. PMID:24024019

  16. Supplementation with bio-calcium from shells Pinctada maxima in postmenopausal women with decreased mineral bone density: Pilot study

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    Vujasinović-Stupar Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Treatment of osteoporosis, in addition to a specific antiresorptive or anabolic treatment, requires supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Widespread cultivation of pearl shells has made pearls available for commercial use for a very reasonable price. The main chemical compound of pearls from shells Pinctada maxima is calcium-carbonate (CaCO3. Recently developed technologies applied in a micronisation process have provided increased gastrointestinal resorption of calcium, estimated at over 90% of calcium intake. Objective The paper is aimed at monitoring of efficacy and tolerance of six-month bio-calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. Methods Group I (30 patients received, three times a day, capsules of pearl powder from shells Pinctada maxima (it is equal to 260 mg of elementary calcium; group II (20 patients received a daily dose of 500 mg inorganic CaCO3. Both groups received 666 IU of cholecalciferol per day. In all patients, bone mineral density (BMD of the spine or hip, serum blood and urine levels of Ca, phosphates and alkaline phosphatase, were measured before and after six months of the treatment. Results Group I/Group II: average age 61.7/61.7 years; beginning of menopause: 48.32 /48 years; menopause duration 13.4/13.7 years; average body mass index 27.2/27 kg/m2 . These two groups did not different significantly before supplementation. Six-month supplementation with CaCO3 of the biological origin led to the increase of BMD from 0.901 g/cm2 to 0.948 g/cm2 (p=0.067, while BMD remained the same in the group supplemented with inorganic CaCO3. Gastrointestinal tolerability of bio-calcium was excellent, without any adverse events. Conclusion These data could not strongly support the hypothesis of better efficacy of bio-calcium taking into account a small number of patients and a short follow-up period in this pilot study. Tolerance of CaCO3 of the biological origin was excellent

  17. Vitamin and mineral supplements in pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case-control study

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    Skegg David CG

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earlier case-control study from Western Australia reported a protective effect of maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. The present study tested that association. Methods A national case-control study was conducted in New Zealand. The mothers of 97 children with ALL and of 303 controls were asked about vitamin and mineral supplements taken during pregnancy. Results There was no association between reported folate intake during pregnancy and childhood ALL (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.5–2.7. Combining our results with the study from Western Australia and another study from Québec in a meta-analysis gave a summary OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.8–1.1. Conclusion Our own study, of similar size to the Australian study, does not support the hypothesis of a protective effect of folate on childhood ALL. Neither do the findings of the meta-analysis.

  18. Vitamin and mineral supplements in pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockerty, John D; Herbison, Peter; Skegg, David C G; Elwood, Mark

    2007-07-03

    An earlier case-control study from Western Australia reported a protective effect of maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The present study tested that association. A national case-control study was conducted in New Zealand. The mothers of 97 children with ALL and of 303 controls were asked about vitamin and mineral supplements taken during pregnancy. There was no association between reported folate intake during pregnancy and childhood ALL (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-2.7). Combining our results with the study from Western Australia and another study from Québec in a meta-analysis gave a summary OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1). Our own study, of similar size to the Australian study, does not support the hypothesis of a protective effect of folate on childhood ALL. Neither do the findings of the meta-analysis.

  19. Effects of a supplement designed to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and endurance

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    Stout Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study examined the acute effects of a nutritional supplement intended to improve adenosine triphosphate (ATP concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance. Methods Twenty-four healthy men (mean age ± SD = 23 ± 4 yrs, stature = 181 ± 7 cm, and body mass = 82 ± 12 kg volunteered to complete a familiarization trial plus 2 randomly-ordered experimental trials separated by a 7-day washout period. Participants received either 6 (body mass Results There were no differences between the TR and PL trials for CVJ height (P > 0.05, isometric MVC peak torque (P > 0.05, maximal concentric isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05, percent decline during the leg extension endurance tests (P > 0.05, or repetitions to exhaustion during the forearm flexion endurance tests (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings indicated no improvements in the measured variables as a result of ingesting this nutritional supplement. Future studies should examine whether chronic supplementation or a loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of this supplement.

  20. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

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    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  1. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  3. Use of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplements among breast cancer survivors: the black women's health study

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    Palmer Julie R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use, including herbals and multivitamin supplements, is quite common in the U.S., and has been shown to be highest in breast cancer survivors. However, limited data are currently available for CAM usage among African Americans. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplement usage in African American breast cancer survivors, and to compare the characteristics of users and nonusers. Methods A cohort study of breast cancer survivors, who completed the 1999 Black Women's Health Study questionnaire and self-reported having been diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1999, comprised the study population. In this study, the intake of natural herbs, multivitamins and folic acid at least three days per week within the past two years was used as a proxy for typical usage of this complimentary alternative medicine (CAM modality. Results A total of 998 breast cancer survivors were identified. Overall, 68.2% had used either herbals or multivitamin supplements or both. The three most frequently used herbals were garlic (21.2%, gingko (12.0%, and echinacea (9.4%. The multivariate analysis determined that single marital status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.04-2.41, and alcohol consumption of 1-3 drinks per week (OR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.28-2.68 were significantly associated with increased herbal use. Multivitamin use was significantly lower among obese women (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.94 and current smokers (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82. Conclusions A significant number of African American breast cancer survivors are using herbals and multivitamins as CAM modality. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of herbals and multivitamins in African American breast cancer survivors.

  4. A study of oxidative stress, thiol proteins and role of vitamin E supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

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    Anita M. Raut

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxide plays an important role in inflammatory lung disease. Increased epithelial permeability produced by cigarette smoke is likely to be mediated through depletion of thiol proteins. Imbalance between oxidants and thiol proteins is also an established fact in these patients. Materials & methods: In the present study 30 healthy non-smokers were served as controls and 20 patients with stable COPD were included. Their base line clinical examination, Malondialdehyde (MDA as an oxidant, alpha tocopherol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD as an antioxidants and thiol proteins levels were measured. All above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Results: We observed that the mean malondialdehyde levels in these patients at base line were high (p<0.001 than Control Plasma alpha-tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins levels were low (p<0.001 in the patients compared to controls. Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU twice daily Supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and vitamin E. But slight increase in the plasma thiol proteins levels was seen. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA levels were high antioxidant (alpha- tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins were low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E increases slightly thiol proteins levels and brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the existence of oxidative stress and and the augmentation of antioxidant defenses as shown by slight increase in thiol proteins level. The antioxidant therapy is adjunct in lung disease patients and opens a promising field in prevention of oxidative stress related complications in these patients.

  5. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

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    Mohammad Shafi Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69 or no Vitamin D (n = 68. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4% in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%. Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7 and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16 were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25 at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels.

  6. Movardol® (N-acetylglucosamine, Boswellia serrata, ginger) supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results from a 6-month registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, G; Belcaro, G; Feragalli, B; Cornelli, U; Cotellese, R; Hu, S; Dugall, M

    2016-12-01

    Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease caused by the deterioration of cartilage in joints, which results in activation of the inflammatory response, pain, and impaired movement. Complementary therapies, particularly supplementation, in the management of moderate/severe knee OA have been gaining attention. This registry study aimed at evaluating the synergistic effect of Movardol®, a supplementation containing active ingredients with recognized anti-inflammatory activities on symptoms and levels of circulating biomarkers of knee OA. 54 subjects with symptomatic, moderate knee OA freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) (n = 26) or SM plus oral supplementation with Movardol® (n = 28). Movardol® supplementation containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, ginger, and Boswellia Serrata extract was taken at the following dosage: 3 tablets/day for one week and then 2 tablets/day. Several parameters were assessed at inclusion and after 1, 3 and 6 months: functional impairment by the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index; pain, stiffness, physical, social and emotional functions by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC); total and pain-free walking distance; circulating biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant improvements in the functional outcomes and pain-free walking distance were observed after 1, 3 and 6 months in OA patients supplemented with Movardol®. Moreover, all the signs/symptoms of disease assessed by the WOMAC tended to regress over a 6-month period in patients following SM+supplementation. Inflammatory markers and plasmatic content of reactive oxygen species decreased over 6 months, in supplemented patients. Movardol® supplementation resulted to be safe and well tolerated, also showing the beneficial effect in term of a decrease in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments and, consequently, reduction in management costs. These preliminary results indicate the efficacy and

  7. Modulation of inflammation by vitamin E and C supplementation prior to anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

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    Barker, Tyler; Leonard, Scott W; Trawick, Roy H; Martins, Thomas B; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Hill, Harry R; Traber, Maret G

    2009-03-01

    Muscle atrophy commonly follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and surgery. Proinflammatory cytokines can induce and exacerbate oxidative stress, potentiating muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prior antioxidant (AO) supplementation on circulating cytokines following ACL surgery. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in men undergoing ACL surgery, who were randomly assigned to either: (1) AO (200 IU of vitamin E (50% d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and 50% d-alpha-tocopherol) and 500 mg ascorbic acid), or (2) matching placebos (PL). Subjects took supplements twice daily for 2 weeks prior to and up to 12 weeks after surgery. Each subject provided five blood samples: (1) baseline (Bsl, prior to supplementation and approximately 2 weeks prior to surgery), (2) presurgery (Pre), (3) 90 min, (4) 72 h, and (5) 7 days postsurgery. Following surgery, inflammation and muscle damage increased in both groups, as assessed by increased circulating IL-6, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase. During AO supplementation, plasma alpha-T and AA increased while gamma-T concentrations decreased significantly (PACL surgery.

  8. Laxative Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Japanese Adult Women with Functional Constipation: A Case Study

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    Nlandu Roger Ngatu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM on constipation on 12 Japanese adult women. Data are from a four-week dietary intervention study on the health effects of daily Sujiaonori supplementation on cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal health in which 32 adult Japanese volunteers (age range: 20–54 years participated. They underwent clinical and laboratory investigations, and completed two study questionnaires (the brief diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the current health questionnaire before and after dietary intervention. Of the 12 women volunteers with functional constipation, there were six SBM-supplemented subjects who received 3 g of Sujiaonori powder twice daily during meal, whereas the six others (controls were from the group of those who took 3 g of a power made of 70% corn starch and 30% Japanese spinach mixture. The analysis of data on daily nutrient intake showed no significant dietary changes for nutrients (minerals, proteins, fiber, fat and calorie intake (except alcohol intake that was reduced in both groups. In SBM group, a significant reduction of the proportion of women with constipation was observed (p < 0.001, whereas no significant change was noted within the control group (p > 0.05. When both groups were compared, SBM was more effective than the control product; 66.7% (4/6 of SBM-supplemented women had their constipation relieved, whereas only one control (16.7% controls benefited from dietary intervention (p < 0.001. In addition, no adverse effect was reported in the SBM group, whereas two controls reported nausea at post-survey. These results suggest that Sujiaonori contains compounds that can improve gastrointestinal function and relieve constipation.

  9. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  10. Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis (EVIDIMS Trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Dörr Jan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in young adults. Despite the fact that numerous lines of evidence link both the risk of disease development and the disease course to the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D it still remains elusive whether multiple sclerosis patients benefit from boosting the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mainly because interventional clinical trials that directly address the therapeutic effects of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis are sparse. We here present the protocol of an interventional clinical phase II study to test the hypothesis, that high-dose vitamin D supplementation of multiple sclerosis patients is safe and superior to low-dose supplementation with respect to beneficial therapeutic effects. Methods/Design The EVIDIMS trial is a German multi-center, stratified, randomized, controlled and double-blind clinical phase II pilot study. Eighty patients with the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome who are on a stable immunomodulatory treatment with interferon-β1b will be randomized to additionally receive either high-dose (average daily dose 10.200 IU or low-dose (average daily dose 200 IU cholecalciferol for a total period of 18 months. The primary outcome measure is the number of new lesions detected on T2-weighted cranial MRI at 3 tesla. Secondary endpoints include additional magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography parameters for neuroinflammation and -degeneration, clinical parameters for disease activity, as well as cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Safety and tolerability of high-dose vitamin D supplementation are further outcome parameters. Discussion In light of the discrepancy between existing epidemiological and preclinical data on the one hand and available clinical data on the other the EVIDIMS trial will substantially contribute to the evaluation

  11. Intake of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Longitudinal Association with HbA1c Levels in the General Non-Diabetic Population--Results from the MONICA/KORA S3/F3 Study.

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    Sigrid Schwab

    Full Text Available Lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the association between the use of 11 vitamins and minerals (vitamins E, C, D, B1, folic acid, carotenoids, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium and change in HbA1c levels over 10 years in non-diabetic individuals drawn from the general population.Baseline data were available from 4447 subjects included in the population-based "Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases" (MONICA Augsburg S3 survey (1994/95. Follow-up data were derived from 2774 participants in the follow-up survey named "Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg" (KORA F3 (2004/05. Vitamin/mineral intake from supplements and medications was assessed in a personal interview, where participants were asked to bring product packages of preparations that had been ingested during the last 7 days prior to the examination. Associations between regular vitamin/mineral intake amounts and HbA1c levels measured at baseline and follow-up were investigated using generalized estimating equation models. For carotenoids, analyses were stratified by smoking status.None of the investigated nutrients except for carotenoids was significantly associated with changes in HbA1c levels after 10 years. Regular intake of carotenoids from supplements and medications in amounts > 6.8 mg/d (upper tertile was associated with an absolute -0.26% (95% CI: -0.43 to -0.08 lower increase in HbA1c levels compared with no intake of carotenoids. An inverse association was observed in those who never smoked but not in (former smokers.Larger prospective and intervention studies in non-diabetic/non-smoking individuals are needed to confirm the results and to assess whether the observed associations between carotenoid intake and change in HbA1c levels are causal. If our results are

  12. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

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    Fanian F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferial Fanian,1,2 Sophie Mac-Mary,3 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Rafat Messikh,1,2 Jean-Paul Ortonne,4 Jean-Marie Sainthillier,3 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Alexandre Guichard,1,2 Kamran Hejazi Kenari,1,2 Philippe Humbert1,2,5,61Center for Studies and Research on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 2Clinical Investigation Center, CIC-BT 506, CHRU Besançon, France; 3SKINEXIGENCE, University Hospital of Jean Minjoz, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of L'archet, Nice, France; 5University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 6INSERM 1098, Structure Fédérative de Recherche, Besançon, FranceBackground: Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments.Methods: This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5. The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment.Results: For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0

  13. Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Older Women after a Fracture: Rationale, Design and Study of the Feasibility of a Randomized Controlled Study

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    Lockwood Keri A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a problem for many older people recovering from a hip and other major fractures. Oral supplementation with high calorie high protein nutrients is a simple intervention that may help older people with fractures to improve their recovery in terms of rehabilitation time, length of hospital stay and mortality. This paper reports a pilot study to test the feasibility of a trial initiated in a hospital setting with an oral supplement to older people with recent fractures. Method A randomized controlled trial with 44 undernourished participants admitted to a hospital following a fracture. The intervention group (n = 23 received a high calorie high protein supplement for forty days in addition to their diet of choice. The control group (n = 21 received high protein milk during their hospital stay in addition to their diet of choice and their usual diet when discharged from hospital. Results All participants were women and their mean age was 85.3 (± 6.1 years. Twenty nine (65% participants had a hip fracture. At baseline no differences were measured between the two groups regarding their nutritional status, their cognitive ability or their abilities in activities of daily living. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control group with reference to nutritional or functional parameters at 40 day and 4 month follow-ups. Median length of stay in hospital was 18.0 days, with 12 participants being readmitted for a median of 7.0 days. Conclusion It is feasible to perform a randomised trial in a hospital and community setting to test the effect of an oral high energy high protein supplement for older people. Due to the limited number of participants and incomplete adherence with use of the supplements no conclusion can be drawn about the efficacy or effectiveness of this intervention.

  14. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive resistance training and dietary supplements in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients - the DAHANCA 25A study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    ) increases muscle mass among healthy individuals and groups of cancer patients, but it has not been investigated in HNSCC patients. Furthermore, studies in healthy subjects show an additive effect of protein and creatine supplementation following PRT. Objectives. Firstly, to investigate the feasibility of 12...... weeks of PRT ± protein and creatine supplementation among HNSCC patients. Secondly, to investigate group changes over time and group differences regarding lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength and functional performance following PRT ± dietary supplementation. Material and methods. Thirty patients were...... randomized into two groups: a PROCR group undergoing a seven-day pre-trial creatine loading protocol followed by 12 weeks of PRT with creatine and protein supplementation and a PLA group undergoing a seven-day pre-trial placebo ingestion protocol followed by an identical PRT protocol with placebo...

  15. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  16. Enhanced muscle strength with carbohydrate supplement two hours before open cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study.

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    Gava, Marcella Giovana; Castro-Barcellos, Heloísa Michelon; Caporossi, Cervantes; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo de

    2016-02-01

    to investigate the effects of preoperative fasting abbreviation with oral supplementation with carbohydrate in the evolution of grip strength in patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy. we conducted a clinical, randomizeddouble blind study with adult female patients, aged 18-60 years. Patients were divided into two groups: Control Group, with fasting prescription 6-8h until the time of operation; and Intervention Group, which received prescription of fasting for solids 6-8h before surgery, but ingested an oral supplement containing 12.5% carbohydrate, six (400ml) and two (200ml) hours before theprocedure. The handgrip strength was measured in both hands in both groups, at patient's admission (6h before surgery), the immediate pre-operative time (1h before surgery) and 12-18h postoperatively. we analyzed 27 patients, 14 in the intervention group and 13 in the control group. There was no mortality. The handgrip strength (mean [standard deviation]) was significantly higher in the intervention group in the three periods studied, in at least one hand: preoperatively in the dominant hand (27.8 [2.6] vs 24.1 [3.7] kg; p=0.04), in the immediate preoperative in both hands, and postoperatively in the non-dominant hand (28.5 [3.0] vs 21.3 [5.9] kg; p=0.01). the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with drink containing carbohydrate improves muscle function in the perioperative period.

  17. Enhanced muscle strength with carbohydrate supplement two hours before open cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Giovana Gava

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effects of preoperative fasting abbreviation with oral supplementation with carbohydrate in the evolution of grip strength in patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy. Methods : we conducted a clinical, randomizeddouble blind study with adult female patients, aged 18-60 years. Patients were divided into two groups: Control Group, with fasting prescription 6-8h until the time of operation; and Intervention Group, which received prescription of fasting for solids 6-8h before surgery, but ingested an oral supplement containing 12.5% carbohydrate, six (400ml and two (200ml hours before theprocedure. The handgrip strength was measured in both hands in both groups, at patient's admission (6h before surgery, the immediate pre-operative time (1h before surgery and 12-18h postoperatively. Results : we analyzed 27 patients, 14 in the intervention group and 13 in the control group. There was no mortality. The handgrip strength (mean [standard deviation] was significantly higher in the intervention group in the three periods studied, in at least one hand: preoperatively in the dominant hand (27.8 [2.6] vs 24.1 [3.7] kg; p=0.04, in the immediate preoperative in both hands, and postoperatively in the non-dominant hand (28.5 [3.0] vs 21.3 [5.9] kg; p=0.01. Conclusion : the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with drink containing carbohydrate improves muscle function in the perioperative period.

  18. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

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    Paddock Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls were included in analyses. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with total phytoestrogens, as well as isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and glycitein, lignans (matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and coumestrol. Results No statistically significant associations were found with any of the phytoestrogens under evaluation. However, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with total phytoestrogen consumption (from foods and supplements, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-1.00; p for trend: 0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of consumption, after adjusting for reproductive covariates, age, race, education, BMI, and total energy. Further adjustment for smoking and physical activity attenuated risk estimates (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08. There was little evidence of an inverse association for isoflavones, lignans, or coumestrol. Conclusions This study provided some suggestion that phytoestrogen consumption may decrease ovarian cancer risk, although results did not reach statistical significance.

  19. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

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    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  20. Effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite in exercise-trained men

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    McCarthy Cameron G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine, beetroot juice, and supplemental nitrate have recently been reported to improve certain aspects of exercise performance, which may be mechanistically linked to increased nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite, a surrogate marker or nitric oxide, in exercise-trained men. Methods We used three different study designs (acute intake of betaine at 1.25 and 5.00 grams, chronic intake of betaine at 2.5 grams per day for 14 days, and chronic [6 grams of betaine per day for 7 days] followed by acute intake [6 grams], all involving exercise-trained men, to investigate the effects of orally ingested betaine on plasma nitrate/nitrite. Blood samples were collected before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after ingestion of 1.25 and 5.00 grams of betaine (Study 1; before and after 14 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 2.5 grams (Study 2; and before and after 7 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 6 grams, followed by acute ingestion of 6 grams and blood measures at 30 and 60 min post ingestion (Study 3. Results In Study 1, nitrate/nitrite was relatively unaffected and no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.99, dosage (p = 0.69, or time (p = 0.91 effects were noted. Similar findings were noted in Study 2, with no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.57, condition (p = 0.98, or pre/post intervention (p = 0.17 effects noted for nitrate/nitrite. In Study 3, no statistically significant changes were noted in nitrate/nitrite between collection times (p = 0.97. Conclusion Our data indicate that acute or chronic ingestion of betaine by healthy, exercise-trained men does not impact plasma nitrate/nitrite. These findings suggest that other mechanisms aside from increasing circulating nitric oxide are likely responsible for any performance enhancing effect of betaine supplementation.

  1. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  2. A Study on the effect of iron folic acid supplementation and deworming among college going adolescent girls in urban Agra.

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    Ratandeep Lamba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spaced IFA Supplementation is recognized as an efficacious public health program and effective preventive approach in combating anemia in adolescent girls, is cost effective and results in fewer side effects. Aim: To study the effect of: bi-weekly supplementation of IFA with and without Albendazole administration on the status of hemoglobin level in college going adolescent girls. Material and methods:  An interventional study was conducted among college going girls in Agra in the age group of 16-19 years (n=300 who were randomly selected. Their Hemoglobin levels were estimated before and after intervention by the Cynmeth-hemoglobin method using Drabkin’s solution. Three groups [two study A and B and one control] of hundred girls each were randomly constituted. To the study groups, supervised bi-weekly IFA with and without Albendazole were administered respectively for three months. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical tools. Results &Discussion: The overall prevalence of anemia was 65.3%.The initial prevalence in study group  reduced significantly from 80.7% to 35.5% whereas in study group B it reduced from 73.5% to 58.8% and in control it remained almost same 84.3% and 81.2% pre and post intervention respectively. The mean Hemoglobin rise observed in the study group A and B was 2.5gm/dl and 2.3 gm/dl respectively while in control group fall in the mean Hb was observed (0.1gm/dl. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls is high. Supervised IFA therapy twice a week is an effective strategy to lower the prevalence of anemia either combined or uncombined with Albendazole.

  3. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

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    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  4. Evaluation of oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis patients following systemic antioxidant supplementation: A clinical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Manasa; Rani, Koduganti Rekha; Reddy, Panthula Veerendranath; Suryaprasanna, Jammula; Dasari, Rajashree; Gireddy, Himabindu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of many systemic diseases including chronic periodontitis. Periodontal pathogen activated neutrophils liberate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes the destruction of periodontal tissues. Antioxidants modulate the ROS production and inhibit the tissue destruction. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in chronic periodontitis patients following scaling and root planing (SRP) after systemic lycopene supplementation. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional single arm study. Twenty systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Clinical parameters modified gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss were recorded, and serum MDA levels were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. Patients were supplemented with 8 mg lycopene daily for 2 months following SRP treatment. All the parameters were assessed at pretreatment and 2 months and 6 months posttreatment. Results: From pretreatment to posttreatment at 2 months, the mean values of all parameters were reduced. While from 2 to 6 months when lycopene was not administered, an increase in the mean values of all the parameters was observed; however, these values were still below baseline values. Conclusion: There was a reduction in oxidative stress and improvement in clinical parameters following systemic antioxidant therapy along with SRP, which was maintained up to 4 months after discontinuation of lycopene treatment. PMID:28250683

  5. Efficacy of early neonatal vitamin A supplementation in reducing mortality during infancy in Ghana, India and Tanzania: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Bahl Rajiv

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A supplementation of 6-59 month old children is currently recommended by the World Health Organization based on evidence that it reduces mortality. There has been considerable interest in determining the benefits of neonatal vitamin A supplementation, but the results of existing trials are conflicting. A technical consultation convened by WHO pointed to the need for larger scale studies in Asia and Africa to inform global policy on the use of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Three trials were therefore initiated in Ghana, India and Tanzania to determine if vitamin A supplementation (50,000 IU given to neonates once orally on the day of birth or within the next two days will reduce mortality in the period from supplementation to 6 months of age compared to placebo. Methods/Design The trials are individually randomized, double masked, and placebo controlled. The required sample size is 40,200 in India and 32,000 each in Ghana and Tanzania. The study participants are neonates who fulfil age eligibility, whose families are likely to stay in the study area for the next 6 months, who are able to feed orally, and whose parent(s provide informed written consent to participate in the study. Neonates randomized to the intervention group receive 50,000 IU vitamin A and the ones randomized to the control group receive placebo at the time of enrolment. Mortality and morbidity information are collected through periodic home visits by a study worker during infancy. The primary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 6 months of age. The secondary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 12 months of age. The three studies will be analysed independent of each other. Subgroup analysis will be carried out to determine the effect by birth weight, sex, and timing of DTP vaccine, socioeconomic groups and maternal large-dose vitamin A supplementation. Discussion The three ongoing studies are the

  6. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  7. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  8. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

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    Susan A. Ropacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline, 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance.

  9. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  10. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  11. Instituting a standards-based K--12 science curriculum supplement program at the National Institutes of Health: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherly, Jeffre

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based learning tools for science classrooms as part of a "voluntary curriculum." One problem facing federal entities, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the need to create science-learning tools that conform to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for curriculum materials and, therefore, are standards-based and applicable to the K-12 curriculum. This case study sought to better understand the change process at one federal agency as it went from producing K-12 learning tools that were educational in nature to a program that produced K-12 standards-based learning tools: the NIH Science Curriculum Supplement Program (NIH SCSP). The NIH SCSP was studied to gain insight into how this change in educational approach occurred, what factors enabled or inhibited the change process, and what the long-term benefits of the NIH SCSP are to the NIH. Kurt Lewin's three-step theory of change guided data gathering and data analysis. Semi-structured interviews and programmatic document review served as the major data gathering sources. Details describing the process of organizational change at the NIH were revealed during analysis of these data following the coding of interview transcripts and written record documents. The study found the process of change at the NIH proceeded in a manner generally predicted by the Lewinian change model. Enablers to the change were cost-sharing with individual institutes, support of senior leadership, and crediting the role of individual institutes prominently in each supplement. The cost of creating a supplement was reported as the single inhibitor to the program. This case study yielded a

  12. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states.

  13. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  14. L-carnitine supplementation in patients with advanced cancer and carnitine deficiency: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Ricardo A; Dvorkin, Ella; Homel, Peter; Culliney, Bruce; Malamud, Stephen; Lapin, Jeanne; Portenoy, Russell K; Esteban-Cruciani, Nora

    2009-04-01

    Carnitine deficiency is prevalent in populations with chronic illness, including cancer. In a recent open-label study, L-carnitine supplementation was well tolerated and appeared to improve fatigue and other outcomes in cancer patients. To further evaluate this finding, adult patients with advanced cancer, carnitine deficiency (free carnitine more than 35 micromol/L for males or less than 25 micromol/L for females, or acyl/free carnitine ratio of more than 0.4), moderate to severe fatigue, and a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of 50 or more, were randomly assigned to receive either L-carnitine (0.5 g/day for two days, followed by 1g/day for two days, and then 2g/day for 10 days) or placebo. This double-blind phase was followed by an open-label phase, during which all patients received L-carnitine supplementation for two weeks. Outcomes included the fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An), the Linear Analog Scale Assessments (LASA), the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and the KPS. Twenty-nine patients (12 placebo, 17 L-carnitine) were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. From baseline to the end of the double-blind phase, serum total and free L-carnitine increased from 32.9+/-3.8 to 56.6+/-20.5 (P=0.004), and from 22.9+/-19.4 to 45.3+/-17.2 (P=0.004), respectively, in the L-carnitine-treated group, and from 28.2+/-10.2 to 36.2+/-8.7 (P=ns), and from 22.6+/-7.9 to 28.7+/-8.6 (P=ns) in the placebo group, respectively. The planned ITT analysis revealed no significant improvement in any of the study's endpoints, and these negative findings were not different when data from two patients who did not adhere to the protocol were eliminated. However, an exploratory covariate analysis that excluded these two protocol violators and included outcome data from both the double-blind and open-label phases demonstrated significantly improved fatigue on the FACT-An fatigue subscale (Pcarnitine during the double-blind phase

  15. Make vitamin D while the sun shines, take supplements when it doesn't: a longitudinal, observational study of older adults in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Jane K; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Beckett, Jeffrey M; Bird, Marie-Louise; Robertson, Iain K; Ball, Madeleine J

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with a number of chronic conditions, particularly in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify how best to maintain optimum vitamin D status throughout the year in this high-risk population. The main objectives of the study were to assess seasonal vitamin D status; identify the main determinants of vitamin D status; determine if taking part in the study led to alterations in participant behaviour and vitamin D status. A longitudinal design across four consecutive seasons observed ninety-one 60-85 year old community-dwelling adults in Tasmania (41π S) over 13 consecutive months, with a follow-up assessment at next winter's end. Associations between solar UVB exposure, sun protection behaviours, dietary and supplemental vitamin D with serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. Variation in serum 25(OH)D demonstrated an identical pattern to solar UVB, lagging 8-10 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with summer UVB (mean 15.9 nmol/L; 95%CI 11.8-19.9 nmol/L, p<0.001) and vitamin D supplementation (100-600 IU/day: 95%CI 10.2 nmol/L; 0.8-19.6 nmol/L; p = 0.03; 800 IU/day: 21.0 nmol/L; 95%CI 8.1-34.0 nmol/L; p = 0.001). Seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D was greatly diminished in supplement users. The most common alteration in participant behaviour after the study was ingesting vitamin D supplements. Post-study vitamin D supplementation ℘800 IU/day was seven times more likely than during the study resulting in mean difference in serum 25(OH)D between supplement and non-supplement users of 30.1 nmol/L (95%CI 19.4-40.8 nmol/L; p<0.001). The main limitation was homogeneity of participant ethnicity. Solar exposure in summer and ingestion of vitamin D supplements in other seasons are the most effective ways of achieving and maintaining year-round vitamin D sufficiency in older adults in the Southern hemisphere. Vitamin D supplementation has greatest effect on vitamin D status if ingested during and

  16. Effects of different doses and duration of iron supplementation on curing iron deficiency anemia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Wen, Xiaosha; Mo, Fengfeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-12-01

    Many controversies persist with respect to the dosage and therapeutic duration concerning iron deficiency anemia (IDA) treatment. To identify the most suitable cure, this study evaluated the effect of iron supplementation with different doses and for different time periods in rats with iron deficiency anemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups [normal control (NC), low- iron diet control (LC), normal doses of iron group (NI), middle dose of iron group (MI), and high dose of iron group (HI)]. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (2 and 4 weeks). The rats were maintained on low-iron diets and treated with oral iron dextran at different dosages. Finally, we investigated red blood cell parameters, iron absorption and metabolism, oxidative stress, and the antioxidant capacity. Our study indicated that through the administration of normal dose iron by gavage to IDA rats, the levels of the red blood cell parameters can be restored in only 2 weeks. In the HI group, iron absorption and transferrin receptor expressions were markedly reduced after 2 weeks. However, the iron content, ferritin and hepcidin expressions were notably increased, and the changes were more apparent after 4 weeks. With increasing doses of iron supplementation and durations of treatment, the liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the LC, MI, and HI groups was markedly increased, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were obviously reduced. This study demonstrated that the dose of iron treatment for IDA should be controlled in a safe range, and a reasonable duration is also critical for IDA therapeutics.

  17. Genistein Supplementation and Cardiac Function in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Pilot Strain-Echo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare de Gregorio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone, may improve cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS, but few literature data on its cardiac effects in humans are available. The aim of this sub-study of a randomized double-blind case-control study was to analyze the effect on cardiac function of one-year genistein dietary supplementation in 22 post-menopausal patients with MetS. Participants received 54 mg/day of genistein (n = 11 or placebo (n = 11 in combination with a Mediterranean-style diet and regular exercise. Left ventricular (LV systolic function was assessed as the primary endpoint, according to conventional and strain-echocardiography measurements. Also, left atrial (LA morphofunctional indices were investigated at baseline and at the final visit. Results were expressed as median with interquartile range (IQ. A significant improvement of LV ejection fraction (20.3 (IQ 12.5 vs. −1.67 (IQ 24.8; p = 0.040, and LA area fractional change (11.1 (IQ 22.6 vs. 2.8 (9.5; p = 0.034 were observed in genistein patients compared to the controls, following 12 months of treatment. In addition, body surface area indexed LA systolic volume and peak LA longitudinal strain significantly changed from basal to the end of the study in genistein-treated patients. One-year supplementation with 54 mg/day of pure genistein improved both LV ejection fraction and LA remodeling and function in postmenopausal women with MetS.

  18. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain – a pilot study of gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Kanzaki,1 Yuta Otsuka,1 Takayuki Izumo,1 Hiroshi Shibata,1 Hideyuki Nagao,2 Keita Ogawara,3 Hiroshi Yamada,3 Seiji Miyazaki,3 Yutaka Nakamura3 1Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Institute of Sports Medical Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan; 3School of Physical Education, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan Background: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods: An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 µg of vitamin D (GCQID. The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5. To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results: GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in

  19. Effect of food-based iron supplementation on the physical work performance of adolescent girls in Banasthali campus: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder, which affects about 20% of the world population. Iron is an essential element for blood production. About 70% of body′s iron is found in the red blood cells of our blood called haemoglobin (Hb and in muscle cells called myoglobin. Hb level and Physical Work Capacity (PWC are directly proportional to each other. Decrease in Hb level leads to the decrease in physical work performance. Hence, the strategies are needed to study the effect of iron supplementation on Hb levels and physical work performance. Aim: The study was carried out to assess the impact of daily food-based iron supplementation along with Vitamin C on physical work capacity (PWC and haemoglobin (Hb level of adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out on 85 subjects of three different hostels of Banasthali University, where pre and post supplementation data was collected using Modified Harvard′s Step Test. Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analysed with student′s t test. Results: Out of three study groups the supplemented one, i.e., Anaemic Experimental group had shown a significant improvement in the steps taken while compared to group Anaemic Control with higher Hb gain (0.9 g/dl. No significant difference was observed regarding recovery time (RT. Conclusion : The food-based iron supplementation had shown satisfactory results in increasing haemoglobin (Hb levels and physical work capacity.

  20. We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD. This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality. What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival.

  1. A case study of discordant overlapping meta-analyses: vitamin d supplements and fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bolland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16 led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention

  2. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, M.; Marangoni, D.; Minnella, A. M.; Savastano, M. C.; Valentini, P.; Ambrosio, L.; Capoluongo, E.; Maccarone, R.; Bisti, S.; Falsini, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010)), it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years) with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day) over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2) months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG-) derived macular (18°) flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010)) every three months over a followup of 14 (±2) months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P < 0.01), and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P < 0.01). These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup. PMID:22852021

  3. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  4. Oral L-carnitine supplementation in low-birth-weight newborns: a study on neonates requiring combined parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegh, B; Kerner, J; Sándor, A; Vincellér, M; Kispál, G

    1986-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma ketone body (KB) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations was studied in ten premature infants requiring combined enteral and parenteral nutrition. At the second week of life (9 to 14 days of age) the infants were randomly divided into two groups. Five of them (plasma carnitine value, 33.77 +/- 2.48 mumol/l; mean +/- SEM) received oral L-carnitine supplementation (60 mumol/kg daily) added to pasteurized pooled human milk for seven consecutive days; additional five (plasma carnitine value, 36.70 +/- 5.19 mumol/l) served as controls. Composition of the daily diet was nearly constant in the study period. On the seventh day, prior to an Intralipid infusion, plasma carnitine and ketone body levels were significantly increased in the supplemented group as compared to controls or to previous values of the same group. In response to lipid infusion the fat load induced ketone body production was significantly higher in the supplemented group as compared to controls, whereas the triglycerides reached higher levels in the control group. It is suggested that L-carnitine supplementation in low-weight newborns promotes ketone body formation from endogenous stores as well as from exogenous fat supply, and thus may enhance triglyceride utilization.

  5. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

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    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune

  6. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross...... in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total...... nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age...

  7. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  8. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain larg

  9. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  10. A SWOT Analysis of the Development of 7 Days Inn%7天连锁酒店发展的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴; 彭保发; 吴云超; 黄佳

    2015-01-01

    since the luxury hotel is beyond the accept scope of most people ,the economic hotels are more welcomed by many people,although the present market situation is sound and the market prospects are broad, but along with the rapid development of economic hotels ,there are also a lot of problems.This paper is started from the current situation of economic hotels in our country and took the typical representative 7 Days Inn for example. it the pointed out rea-sons why the economic hotels are developing rapidly and the main problems existing in development with the contrasive analysis and comparative analysis,data analysis and other analysis methods Comprehensively,and proposed the development prospect and strategies in this industry, ,like to lay emphasis on theme culture,to carry out the differential management, to select the optimal franchisees ,to establish perfect management system and so on,hoping to provide reference for the development of ecomonic hotel in our country.%由于高档酒店超出了多数人的接受范围,使得经济型酒店受到了很多人的欢迎,虽然目前市场形势较好,市场前景广阔,但在经济型酒店发展迅速同时,也存在着不少的问题。文章就是从我国经济型酒店的现状入手,以极具代表性的7天连锁酒店为例。综合运用对比分析、数据分析等不同分析方法,指出了近几年我国经济型酒店迅猛发展的原因和发展过程中存在的主要问题,提出了这个行业未来的发展前景和发展战略,如重视主题文化、实行差异化管理、择优选择加盟店、建立完善的管理系统等等,希望对我国经济型酒店的发展提供参考价值。

  11. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.

  12. Patterns of weight loss and supplement consumption of male wrestlers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the weight loss behavior of male wrestlers in Tehran Methods This study was a population-based cross sectional survey. Subjects were 436 wrestlers randomly selected from the wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. Subjects were interviewed based on a designed questionnaire. Body fat levels were measured based on skin fold measurements. Results Weight loss methods practiced by 62% of all subjects during the previous year employing rapid (≤7 days before the matches and gradual (>7 days before the matches weight reduction methods (73% and 34% of wrestlers who reduced their weight respectively. In addition, opinions on weight reduction, the methods of weight loss used, and the side effects of the weight loss practices as well as consumption of supplements among the subjects were reported in this study. The mean percentage of body fat of subjects was 15.9%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches and the use of unsafe methods of weight reduction such as fasting, and fluid reduction methods as well as acute side effects of weight loss were prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Some preventive measures including education and new rules such as scheduling weigh-ins immediately prior to the competitions and mat-side weigh-in are needed to prevent these unhealthy practices. The weight loss behaviors of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss.

  13. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55–92 Years: a double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with a significant reduction in skeletal muscle carnosine which has been linked with a reduction in the buffering capacity of muscle and in theory, may increase the rate of fatigue during exercise. Supplementing beta-alanine has been shown to significantly increase skeletal muscle carnosine. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the effects of ninety days of beta-alanine supplementation on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT in elderly men and women. Methods Using a double-blind placebo controlled design, twenty-six men (n = 9 and women (n = 17 (age ± SD = 72.8 ± 11.1 yrs were randomly assigned to either beta-alanine (BA: 800 mg × 3 per day; n = 12; CarnoSyn™ or Placebo (PL; n = 14 group. Before (pre and after (post the supplementation period, participants performed a discontinuous cycle ergometry test to determine the PWCFT. Results Significant increases in PWCFT (28.6% from pre- to post-supplementation were found for the BA treatment group (p Conclusion We suggest that BA supplementation, by improving intracellular pH control, improves muscle endurance in the elderly. This, we believe, could have importance in the prevention of falls, and the maintenance of health and independent living in elderly men and women.

  14. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  15. Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of nutritional supplements among athletes is poorly understood. The prevalence of supplement intake and users' knowledge have been researched independently leading to useful, but disconnected, information on supplement use. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [φ], to discover observed incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results are given for test pairs between 'motive for use' [doctor's advice, avoiding sickness, overcoming injuries and enhancement of diet] and each supplement used and these were categorized as strong (φ > .7, intermediate (7 φ > .3 and weak (φ Results The use of selected supplements varied widely as follows: multivitamin (72.7%, vitamin C (70.4%, echinacea (30.8%, iron (29.8%, magnesium (11.0% and ginseng (8.3%. Associations with motive were found in 8 of the 10 test pairs which were expected from literature precedents, however only weak associations exist. Of these, four were associated with avoidance of sickness [iron (χ2 = 11.94, p χ2 = 6.43, p φ = .11, p = .011, vitamin C (χ2 = 54.67, p φ = .32, p χ2 = 40.34, p φ = .28, p χ2 = 7.64, p = .006; φ = .12, p = .006 and multivitamin (χ2 = 9.103, p = .003; φ = .13, p = .003; overcoming injuries with magnesium (χ2 = 6.99, p = .008; φ = .11, p = .008; doctors' advice and iron (χ2 = 35.00, p φ = .25, p = .001. Conclusion These results suggest a lack of understanding regarding supplements and health maintenance, except for vitamin C and echinacea. Furthermore, supplement use is apparently independent of physicians/dieticians' advice, except for iron. This may suggest a widespread circumvention of expert advice in the growing area of supplement use and therefore should be addressed to underscore potential health risks.

  16. The effect of 7 days of letrozole pretreatment combined with misoprostol on the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic factors of placental and decidual tissues from first-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Sofie Shuk Fei; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Chiu, Philip Chi Ngong; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate if letrozole-induced suppression of estradiol reduces progesterone receptor expression and apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 20 women requesting first-trimester abortion with gestation up to 63 days to receive either letrozole 10 mg daily or placebo pretreatment for 7 days before administrating 400 mcg of vaginal misoprostol followed by suction abortion. We collected the placental and decidual tissues on which we performed immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers (active caspase 3, caspase 3, Bcl2, CD95, fas ligand) and determined H-scores of each based on the intensities of staining. We performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in the samples of four women to confirm the findings from apoptotic markers. We excluded one woman in the letrozole group from the analysis because she had passage of abortus after taking letrozole, leaving 19 women (9 in the letrozole group, 10 in the placebo group) for analysis. There was no significant difference in the H-scorings of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers, as well as proportion of apoptotic cells on TUNEL assay between the two groups. The H-scores for the progesterone receptor were 8.17 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) in the letrozole group and 9.01 ± 2.82 in the placebo group (p=0.36). We did not detect a difference in the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers in placental and decidual tissues after letrozole pretreatment for 7 days in first-trimester abortion. We did not confirm the hypothesis that letrozole reduces progesterone receptor expression and induces apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. Further studies are required to allow better understanding of the mechanism by which estrogen suppression following the use of letrozole can lead to improved abortion rate in the first

  17. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  18. Effects of Pomegranate Extract Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Function in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Fitschen, Peter J; Kistler, Brandon M; Jeong, Jin Hee; Chung, Hae Ryong; Aviram, Michael; Phillips, Shane A; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with pomegranate extract on cardiovascular risk, physical function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-three HD subjects were randomized to the pomegranate (POM) or placebo (CON) group. Patients in POM ingested a 1000 mg capsule of a purified pomegranate polyphenol extract 7 days/week for 6 months. Individuals in CON ingested a noncaloric placebo capsule using the same protocol. Measurements were conducted at baseline and repeated 6 months following the start of the intervention. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was obtained using an automatic digital BP monitor. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using ultrasound and arterial tonometry. Blood samples were collected for the measurements of circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Muscle strength and physical function were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry, a validated shuttle walk test, and a battery of tests to assess functional fitness. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by 24 ± 13.7 and 10 ± 5.3 mmHg, respectively, in POM (P pomegranate supplementation had no effect on other markers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation and oxidative stress, or measures of physical function and muscle strength. While pomegranate extract supplementation may reduce BP and increase the antioxidant activity in HD patients, it does not improve other markers of cardiovascular risk, physical function, or muscle strength.

  19. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data

  20. Role of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. C. Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2 separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr or a placebo (P for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise, at the end of exercise (postexercise, and the day following exercise (post24 h. Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030. However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations, resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C. Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

  1. Pre-pregnancy habitual intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements in relation to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Yiqing; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tobias, Deirdre K; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mills, James L; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-10-04

    Vitamin D may play a pivotal role in regulating insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the impact of vitamin D intake either from diet or from supplements on the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. We prospectively examined the association of pre-pregnancy habitual intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements with risk of incident GDM in a well-established cohort. We included 21,356 singleton pregnancies from 15,225 women in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Diet information, including vitamin D intakes from food sources and supplements, was assessed in 1991 and every four years thereafter by validated food frequency questionnaires. We used log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We documented 865 incident GDM cases during 10 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, dietary and lifestyle factors, and body mass index, the RRs (95% CIs) of GDM risk associated with supplemental vitamin D intake of 0, 1-399, ≥ 400 IU/d were 1.00 (reference), 0.80 (0.67-0.96), and 0.71 (0.56-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Dietary and total vitamin D intakes were also inversely associated with GDM risk, but the associations were not statistically significant. Pre-pregnancy supplemental vitamin D intake was significantly and inversely associated with risk of GDM. Our study indicates potential benefits of increasing vitamin D intake from supplements in the prevention of GDM in women of reproductive age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Supplementing consumer insights at Electrolux by mining social media: An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of text mining social media, for consumer insights from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory, single case embedded case study with inductive approach and partially mixed, concurrent, dominant status mixed method research design. The case study contains three different studies to try to triangulate the research findings and support research objective of using social media for consumer insights...

  3. Supplementing consumer insights at Electrolux by mining social media: An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of text mining social media, for consumer insights from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory, single case embedded case study with inductive approach and partially mixed, concurrent, dominant status mixed method research design. The case study contains three different studies to try to triangulate the research findings and support research objective of using social media for consumer insights...

  4. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS USED ON THE ACTIVITY OF KINETIC ENDURANCE CHARAKTER APPLIED AS A CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DIČE, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to compare food supplements used on the activity of endurance character and their influence on the cardiovascular system. The teoretical part is pursued to the basic food components and their metabolism and to kinetic activities splitting. The practical part gives information about splitting of sports supplements used on the activity of endurance character, their usage and effects. It deals with the question of human organism behaviour during the strain of endurance ...

  6. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive resistance training and dietary supplements in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients - the DAHANCA 25A study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    ) increases muscle mass among healthy individuals and groups of cancer patients, but it has not been investigated in HNSCC patients. Furthermore, studies in healthy subjects show an additive effect of protein and creatine supplementation following PRT. Objectives. Firstly, to investigate the feasibility of 12...

  7. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture - A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. 366 men and 59...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are often referred to as dry AMD and wet AMD respectively. In a separate study, published online today ... a reduction in the number of neovascular, or wet, AMD cases—over the next five years, compared with ...

  4. Factors associated with dietary supplement use among healthy adults of five ethnicities: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foote, Janet A; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2003-01-01

    Participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, California, a representative sample of African-American, Native Hawaiian, Latino, Japanese-American, and White adults, completed...

  5. Study of KAP with regard to taking folic acid supplements and factors affecting the recommendation and prescription of those supplements among obstetricians and specialists in women's health in six provinces of Northern China, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Ziqian; Wang, Yanping; Liang, Juan; Yuan, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Taking folic acid (FA) supplements reduces the risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) in early pregnancy. Obstetricians and specialists in women's health play important roles in promoting FA intake. However, surveys on their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behavior regarding giving FA to pregnant women are limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,860 obstetricians and specialists in women's health using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of and attitudes toward and practices related to taking FA supplements. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparison while logistic regression analysis was performed to predict influencing factors. For items on knowledge about FA and taking FA supplements the overall correct response rate was 60.3% (24,235/40,173). Questions about related practices and attitudes were correctly answered for the most part (more than 90%), but participants were less likely to follow the practice of prescribing FA tablets to women planning a pregnancy while working (77.2%). Statistical analysis indicated that the "Level of facility where the participant works" and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' recommendation to take FA while "Job title", "Amount of professional work experience", and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' prescription of FA. In conclusion, participants had a good deal of knowledge about NTDs and FA but the lack of some knowledge possibly led to the relatively low rate of correct behaviors. Therefore, educating obstetricians and specialists in women's health in this regard is crucial.

  6. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danwilai K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kwanjit Danwilai,1,2 Jitprapa Konmun,2,3 Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai,4 Suphat Subongkot,2,4,5 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, 3Department of Pharmacy, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, 5Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo.Patients and methods: Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (GSH/GSSG, lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA and NO2-/NO3-, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance.Results: A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2-/NO3- levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001. When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01, while the blood levels of

  7. Feasibility of a Supplemental Phonological Awareness Intervention via Telepractice for Children with Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S; Hall, Brittany; Sancibrian, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the feasibility of a telepractice intervention to improve phonological awareness skills in children with hearing loss as compared to a conventional in-person intervention. Twenty children with hearing loss participated in this study. Two groups of ten children each received a supplemental phonological awareness intervention either via telepractice or an in-person service delivery model. Within each of the two groups, five children were enrolled in preschool or kindergarten and five children were enrolled in first or second grade. The two groups of children demonstrated similar phonological awareness, non-verbal IQ, and vocabulary skills during pre-tests. After a 12-week intervention children with hearing loss showed improved phonological awareness skills as measured by a standardized post-test. No significant differences were found between the performance of the telepractice group and in-person group. Nor was a significant interaction found between the two age groups (PreK/K vs. 1st /2nd grade) and the two types of service delivery models (in-person vs. telepractice). The results suggest that a telepractice service delivery model is feasible for young children with hearing loss, and that telepractice may be as effective as in-person intervention in improving phonological awareness skills.

  8. Successes and challenges to implementing an early childhood supplemental feeding program in rural Honduras: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennillo, Haran A; El Rayess, Fadya

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood illness, stunted growth and death worldwide. A supplemental nutrition program for young children was implemented in Guachipilincito, Honduras. This study explores early successes and challenges to implementing this program. We conducted a qualitative, semi-structured, key informant interview study in 2012. Two researchers analyzed interview transcripts using the immersion/crystallization method of qualitative analysis. The program evolved from addressing macronutrient deficiency in 2010, to targeting micronutrient deficiency. Successes include: consistent food distribution, positive community feedback and establishment of a Honduran community oversight committee. Challenges include: tracking growth data, sharing of food among family members, and long-term sustainability. Next steps include: obtaining stable funding, utilizing local food suppliers, and increasing crop diversity. Participants identified cultural and economic factors contributing to challenges with these steps. While the feeding program is having successes, it still faces many challenges. Additional interviews with Honduran-based staff, community leaders and program recipients may identify the best ways to address these challenges.

  9. [Medical novels as a supplement to medical literature in the (postgraduate) study of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landex, Nadia Lander

    2011-12-05

    Medically relevant fiction and biographies are thought to possibly improve the reader's emotional competences, thus contributing to the (postgraduate) study of medicine. This paper evaluates whether medical novels might be relevant in the (postgraduate) study of medicine. The contents of four medical novels were evaluated qualitatively as regard to the professional and cultural contents and relevance. The medical novels were composed uniformly and considered to be both professional and cultural subjects. The professional subjects were mostly described correctly, and milieu and cultural subjects were realistic. The contents of the medical novels were relevant, but briefly described. Students of medicine and junior doctors may identify with the environment and the cultural subjects. It is not ruled out that medical novels can be used to acquire cultural competences, but - as regards professional knowledge - the study of professional literature will be more time-effective.

  10. Therapeutic Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in a Pilot Study of Crohn's Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Linlin; Weaver, Veronika; Smith, Jill P.; Bingaman, Sandra; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cantorna, Margherita T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low vitamin D status may be associated with Crohn's disease. A pilot study was performed in patients with mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease to determine the dose of vitamin D needed to raise serum vitamin D levels above 40 ng/ml. METHODS: Patients were evaluated for severity of symptoms using the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and patients with mild-to-moderate (150–400 CDAI scores) Crohn's disease were entered into the study (n=18). Vitamin D3 oral therapy was initiated at ...

  11. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  12. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  13. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  14. Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Sue; Weaver, Mark A; Harris, Janine C; Dee, Phillipa; Hunter, John

    2004-03-01

    Colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, leading to pseudomembranous colitis, is a common complication of antibiotic therapy, especially in elderly patients. It has been suggested that non-pathogenic probiotic bacteria might prevent the development and recurrence of C. difficile infection. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examines the role of probiotic administration in the prevention of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in elderly patients receiving antibiotic therapy. Consecutive patients (150) receiving antibiotic therapy were randomised to receive either a probiotic containing both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium or placebo for 20 days. Upon admission to hospital, bowel habit was recorded and a faecal sample taken. Trial probiotic or placebo was taken within 72 h of prescription of antibiotics, and a second stool sample was taken in the event of development of diarrhoea during hospitalisation or after discharge. Of the randomised patients, 138 completed the study, 69 with probiotics in conjunction with antibiotics and 69 with antibiotics alone. On the basis of development of diarrhoea, the incidence of samples positive for C. difficile-associated toxins was 2.9% in the probiotic group compared with 7.25% in the placebo-control group. When samples from all patients were tested (rather than just those developing diarrhoea) 46% of probiotic patients were toxin-positive compared with 78% of the placebo group.

  15. Young Coconut Juice Supplementation Results in Greater Bone Mass and Bone Formation Indices in Ovariectomized Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Yuko; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause.

  16. XAS and XFM studies of selenium and copper speciation and distribution in the kidneys of selenite-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekley, Claire M; Shanu, Anu; Aitken, Jade B; Vogt, Stefan; Witting, Paul K; Harris, Hugh H

    2014-09-01

    Dietary selenium has been implicated in the prevention of cancer and other diseases, but its safety and efficacy is dependent on the supplemented form and its metabolites. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) have been used to investigate the speciation and distribution of Se and Cu in vivo. In kidneys isolated from rats fed a diet containing 5 ppm Se as selenite for 3 weeks, Se levels increased 5-fold. XFM revealed a strong correlation between the distribution of Se and the distribution of Cu in the kidney, a phenomenon that has previously been observed in cell culture (Weekley et al., JBIC, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00775-014-1113-x). However, X-ray absorption spectra suggest that most of the Se in the kidney is found as Se-Se species, rather than Cu-bound, and that most of the Cu is bound to S and N, presumably to amino acid residues in proteins. Furthermore, SOD1 expression did not change in response to the high Se diet. We cannot rule out the possibility of some Cu-Se bonding in the tissues, but our results suggest mechanisms other than the formation of Cu-Se species and SOD1 upregulation are responsible for the highly correlated distributions of Se and Cu in the kidneys of rats fed high selenite diets.

  17. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwilai, Kwanjit; Konmun, Jitprapa; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Subongkot, Suphat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo. Patients and methods Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day) or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH/GSSG), lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO2−/NO3−, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2−/NO3− levels were significantly decreased (P ginger extract started 3 days prior to chemotherapy has been shown to significantly elevate antioxidant activity and reduce oxidative marker levels in patients who received moderate-to-high emetogenic potential chemotherapy compared to placebo. PMID:28203106

  18. [Animal experiment studies on the changes in lipid and protein metabolism in L-carnitine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhles, H; Segerer, H; Fekl, W; Stehr, K

    1983-02-01

    The influence of i.v. L-carnitine on parameters of lipid- and nitrogen metabolism was studied during total parenteral nutrition of mini pigs (x: 4077; n = 9). The infusion protocol was divided into isocaloric and isonitrogenous 48-hour-periods. Amino acids (3 g/kg/day) were administered throughout all three periods. 140 Cal/kg/day were given as non-protein calories, consisting only of glucose during period 1. During periods 2 and 3 an amount of glucose calorically equivalent to 4 g fat/kg/day was substituted with a lipid emulsion. In period 3, L-carnitine (1,5 mg/kg/day) was added. During the entire regime key parameters of fat and nitrogen metabolism were determined. During all three periods indirect calorimetry was performed and the respiratory quotient calculated. The results demonstrate a more effective lipolysis and oxydation of fatty acids during L-carnitine supplementation. This results in an increased energy gain from exogenously administered fat and a distinct improvement of nitrogen balance.

  19. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  20. In vivo study of propolis supplementation effects on antioxidative status and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasprica, Ivona; Mornar, Ana; Debeljak, Zeljko; Smolcić-Bubalo, Asja; Medić-Sarić, Marica; Mayer, Ljiljana; Romić, Zeljko; Bućan, Kajo; Balog, Tihomir; Sobocanec, Sandra; Sverko, Visnja

    2007-04-04

    In vivo study has been conducted on 47 healthy women and men in order to investigate whether daily intake of powdered propolis extract during 30 days has any influence on the following blood parameters: activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, concentration of plasma malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, uric acid, ferritin and transferrin, together with routine red blood cell parameters. The effect of daily propolis intake seems to be time and gender related. For the men test group after the initial 15 days of propolis treatment, 23.2% (p=0.005) decrease in concentration of malondialdehyde was observed. After 30 days of treatment, statistically significant (p=0.010) 20.9% increase in superoxide dismutase activity and change in some of the red blood cell parameters were detected. For the women test group, the propolis treatment did not induce a change in any of the measured parameters.

  1. Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieping eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that gut microbiota is altered in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM patients. Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS on the gut microbiota in both healthy and prediabetic (Pre-DM subjects, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in Pre-DM. Subjects/Methods: Pre-DM (n = 13 or healthy (n = 16 subjects were randomized to receive 2 g / day XOS or placebo for 8-weeks. In Pre-DM subjects, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done at baseline and week 8. Stool from Pre-DM and healthy subjects at baseline and week 8 was analyzed for gut microbiota characterization using Illumina MiSeq sequencing.Results: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa. Among them, the abundance of the genera Enterorhabdus, Howardella and Slackia was higher in Pre-DM. XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects. Abundance of the species Blautia hydrogenotrophica was lower in pre-DM subjects, while XOS increased its abundance. In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13, but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones and TNFα. Conclusion: This is the first clinical observation of modifications of the gut microbiota by XOS in both healthy and Pre-DM subjects in a pilot study. Prebiotic XOS may be beneficial in reversing changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes.

  2. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc s...

  3. Adequacy of nutritional intake from food and supplements in a cohort of pregnant women in Québec, Canada: the 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bédard, Brigitte; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Tremblay, Richard E; Fraser, William D

    2017-08-01

    Background: Assessments of the dietary intakes in various populations suggest that pregnant women have difficulty meeting all their nutritional requirements through diet alone. Few large-scale studies have considered both food sources and supplements in assessing the adequacy of nutritional intakes during pregnancy.Objective: Our study aimed to assess nutritional intakes during pregnancy by examining dietary sources and supplements. It then compared these findings with Dietary Reference Intakes.Design: We conducted a nutrition study in a large pregnancy cohort using a 3-d food record during the second trimester of pregnancy. Detailed information about supplement consumption was obtained by interview at each prenatal visit. We estimated the distribution of total usual intakes for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients for 1533 pregnant women.Results: A third of the participants had total fat intakes that exceeded the Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Range. A majority of women (85%) had sodium intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Median intakes for fiber and potassium were lower than Adequate Intakes. Dietary intakes of vitamin B-6, magnesium, and zinc were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for 10-15% of the women. A majority of the women had dietary intakes below the EARs for iron (97%), vitamin D (96%), and folate (70%). When we considered micronutrient intakes from both food and supplements, we found that the prevalence of inadequate intake was Supplement use reduces the risk of inadequate intake for many micronutrients, but diet-related issues during pregnancy remain and deserve to be addressed in public health interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03113331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Tocotrienol rich fraction supplementation improved lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older adults: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Yasmin Anum

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin E supplements containing tocotrienols are now being recommended for optimum health but its effects are scarcely known. The objective was to determine the effects of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF supplementation on lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older individuals at a dose of 160 mg/day for 6 months. Methods Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two age groups: 35-49 years (n = 31 and above 50 years (n = 31, and randomly assigned to receive either TRF or placebo capsules for six months. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 3rd and 6th months. Results HDL-cholesterol in the TRF-supplemented group was elevated after 6 months (p 50 year-old group (p 50 year-old group after receiving 6 months of TRF supplementation. Changes in enzyme activities were only observed in the > 50 year-old group. SOD activity was decreased after 3 (p Conclusion The observed improvement of plasma cholesterol, AGE and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as the reduced protein damage may indicate a restoration of redox balance after TRF supplementation, particularly in individuals over 50 years of age.

  5. A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F for knee osteoarthritis: A randomised, placebo controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskowski Michael A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a slowly destructive process that may be influenced by a nutritional mineral balance in the body. Methods This small, double blind, placebo controlled pilot study investigated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin on 6 minute walking distance (6 MWD, range of motion (ROM, and pain and joint mobility measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index in subjects with moderate to severe OA of the knee during gradual withdrawal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs that were being used daily for pain management. Subjects (n = 29 with moderate to severe OA of the knee were randomised to receive either Aquamin (2400 mg/d or Placebo for up to 12 weeks. Results Of the 29 subjects initially randomized, only 22 subjects proceeded to treatment due to 7 subjects not meeting study selection criteria at baseline. Fourteen subjects completed the study and an ITT analysis (n = 22 of the data showed no significant differences in WOMAC scores however, the data did reveal significant improvements in passive and active extension ROM (0.83° ± 1.54 vs. -1.54° ± 2.43; difference, 5.2° ± 2.2, p = 0.028 and 6 MWD (150 ± 48 ft vs. 12.5 ± 31.5 ft; difference, 136 ± 57 ft, p = 0.03 in the Aquamin group compared to the placebo group; respectively, following a 50% reduction in NSAID use. The treatments were well tolerated and the adverse event profiles were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion This small preliminary study suggests Aquamin may increase range of motion and walking distances in subjects with OA of the knee and may allow partial withdrawal of NSAIDs over 12 weeks of treatment. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Trial registration NCT00755482

  6. Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-07-01

    Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated.

  7. Cruciferous vegetable supplementation in a controlled diet study alters the serum peptidome in a GSTM1-genotype dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with the risk of several cancers. Isothiocyanates (ITC are hypothesized to be the major bioactive constituents contributing to these cancer-preventive effects. The polymorphic glutathione-S-transferase (GST gene family encodes several enzymes which catalyze ITC degradation in vivo. Methods We utilized high throughput proteomics methods to examine how human serum peptides (the "peptidome" change in response to cruciferous vegetable feeding in individuals of different GSTM1 genotypes. In two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding studies (EAT and 2EAT participants consumed a fruit- and vegetable-free basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with cruciferous vegetables. Serum samples collected at the end of the feeding period were fractionated and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry spectra were obtained. Peak identification/alignment computer algorithms and mixed effects models were used to analyze the data. Results After analysis of spectra from EAT participants, 24 distinct peaks showed statistically significant differences associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Twenty of these peaks were driven by their GSTM1 genotype (i.e., GSTM1+ or GSTM1- null. When data from EAT and 2EAT participants were compared by joint processing of spectra to align a common set, 6 peaks showed consistent changes in both studies in a genotype-dependent manner. The peaks at 6700 m/z and 9565 m/z were identified as an isoform of transthyretin (TTR and a fragment of zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, respectively. Conclusions Cruciferous vegetable intake in GSTM1+ individuals led to changes in circulating levels of several peptides/proteins, including TTR and a fragment of ZAG. TTR is a known marker of nutritional status and ZAG is an adipokine that plays a role in lipid mobilization. The results of this study present evidence that the GSTM1

  8. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  9. A pilot study of rhythm and timing training as a supplement to occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie; Dunn, Leah; Dunning, Kari; Page, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability. A need exists for an effective intervention to enhance upper extremity (UE) motor abilities and activities of daily living (ADL) performance. The objectives of this pilot study were to (1) determine the feasibility of adding Interactive Metronome (IM) to an occupational therapy (OT) program; and (2) determine changes in UE impairments, function, quality of life, and perceived physical performance ability and satisfaction using a combined IM + OT regimen compared with OT alone for adults with chronic stroke. This pilot study (n=10) used a 2-group (OT or IM+OT) pretest-posttest design. The intervention involved 60 minutes of IM + OT or OT alone, 3 days a week for 10 weeks. Outcome measures included the UE Fugl-Meyer (impairment), the Arm Motor Ability Test (function), the Box and Block Test (function), Stroke Impact Scale (quality of life), and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (perceived performance ability and satisfaction). It was feasible to add IM to OT. The IM+OT group demonstrated decreased impairment and increased quality of life. However, the OT-alone group demonstrated greater gains in function, perceived physical performance ability, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that rhythm and timing training using the IM is a feasible intervention to consider as part of therapy treatment. However, IM may fit best for prefunctional treatment, as it seemed to primarily decrease impairment. It may also serve as a supplement before or after treatment in order to maximize rehabilitation potential. Clinical implications and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  10. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  11. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  12. Supplementation of soybean lecithin-based semen extender by antioxidants: complementary flowcytometric study on post-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Akbari Sharif, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cysteine (C) and glutathione (G) on the post-thawed ram sperm quality. Collected semen samples from four mature rams were diluted with five soybean lecithin (SL)-based extenders containing: no antioxidant (SL-0), 5 mM cysteine (SL-C5), 10 mM cysteine (SL-C10), 5 mM glutathione (SL-G5) and 10 mM glutathione (SL-G10). After freeze-thawing process, motion and velocity parameters, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, morphological abnormality, lipid peroxidation, acrosomal status, mitochondria activity, and apoptosis status of post-thawed ram spermatozoa were assessed. The results showed that SL-C10 increased the total motility and plasma membrane integrity (p ram spermatozoa (55.86 ± 1.37 and 60.57 ± 1.34 %) compared to other extenders. Progressive motility was significantly higher in SL-C10 (24.71 ± 1.13 %) compared to SL-0 (20 ± 1.13 %) and SL-G10 (15 ± 1.13 %). Mitochondrial activity was significantly higher in SL-C10 (56.83 ± 2.29 %) compared to SL-G10 (38.75 ± 2.29 %). Capacitation and acrosomal status, lipid peroxidation, and the percentage of dead spermatozoa were not affected by different extenders. The percentage of live spermatozoa was higher in SL-C10 (56.33 ± 1.35 %) compared to other extenders. Also, SL-C10 resulted in a lower percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa (14.17 ± 0.53 %) compared to other extenders. The results of this study showed that supplementation of SL-based ram semen extender with 10 mM cysteine resulted in an improved quality of post-thawed ram spermatozoa.

  13. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  14. The hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias E.; Papadomanolaki, Maria G.; Fousteris, Andreas A.; Kotsiris, Dimitrios A.; Lampadakis, Ioannis M.; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background A pilot study was conducted to determine the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on Cretan patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacterium taken as a dietary supplement. Methods Fifteen adult Cretan outpatients (13 men), median age 48 (range: 29-62) years, with NAFLD were orally supplemented with 6 g of Spirulina (Greek production) per day for six months. Anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, waist circumference), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, complete blood count, biochemical assessments, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, health-related quality of life and abdominal sonographic findings were recorded and measured, before and after Spirulina supplementation. Results At the end of the 6-month intervention period, the mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased: 38.5%, 37.5%, 26.7%, 24.8%, 9.6%, 9.1%, and 13.5% respectively, whereas the mean levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and hemoglobin were significantly increased: 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. Spirulina supplementation resulted also in a significant reduction in weight and HOMA-IR index (8.1% and 19.6% respectively) and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life scale. No changes in sonographic findings were observed. Conclusion Spirulina supplementation at a high dosage of 6 g daily in NAFLD patients has strong and multiple beneficial metabolic effects and improves their health-related quality of life. PMID:25331487

  15. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  16. Academic Effectiveness of Podcasting: A Comparative Study of Integrated versus Supplemental Use of Podcasting in Second Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; Facer, Betty Rose; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    With podcasting gaining more mainstream adoption in higher education, it's critical to examine its effectiveness in improving the student learning experience. To this end, this paper examines the effectiveness of podcasts integrated into the curriculum (PIC) versus podcasts as supplemental material (PSM). Considering recent empirical work on the…

  17. Effects of Glutamine Supplementation on Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-ping Fan; Jian-chun Yu; Wei-ming Kang; Qun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of supplementation of glutamine (GLN) on maintaining glutathione (GSH) level, immune system function, liver function, and clinical outcome of patients receiving abdominal operation. Methods Forty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgical treatment were randomly divided into 2 groups: study group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20). All patients received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for up to 7 days during perioperative period. The study group received TPN supplemented with GLN dipeptide while the control group received TPN without GLN dipeptide. Patients in both groups received equivalent nitrogen and caloric intake. Blood sample was taken on preoperative day, and the 1st, 3rd, 6th postoperative day to measure GSH level, immune indexes, and liver function indexes. Results The decrease of GSH level in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) in study group was less than that in control group during postoperative period. Ratio of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in plasma in study group was higher than that in control group on the 3rd postoperative day (52.53 ± 11.46 vs. 31.43 ± 7.27, P = 0.001). Albumin level in study group was higher than that in control group on the 3rd postoperative day (37.7 ± 3.8 g/L vs. 33.8 ± 4.2 g/L, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the levels of immunoglobin (IgG, IgM, IgA) or T lymphocyte subgroup (CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8) in both groups during postoperative period. There was one case with infectious complication in control group, while none in study group. A trend of shortened hospital stay was observed in study group compared with control group (22.3 ± 2.1 d vs. 24.9 ± 1.7 d, P = 0.32). Conclusions Supplementation of GLN-enriched TPN has beneficial effects on maintaining GSH levels in plasma and RBC, sustaining GSH/GSSG ratio and albumin level, and keeping antioxidant abilities during postoperative period in patients with abdominal operation, with the trends of decreasing incidence of

  18. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  19. Relationship between Sport Nourishment Supplement and Athletes' Sports Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the athlete's body recovery and rehabilitation to have sport nourishment supplement. In this study, it analyzed the effect of sport nourishment supplement with the overview of sport nourishment supplements, discussing the influence of sports nutrition supplement on sports abilities of athletes.

  20. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  1. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  2. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  3. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  4. Effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks in migraine patients with aura: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sadeghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a chronic disease that affects nearly 6% of men and 18% of women worldwide. There are various drugs, which can successfully decrease migraine symptoms and frequency of migraine attacks, but these drugs usually are expensive. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks as well as headache diary results (HDR.This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 66 patients with migraine with aura (MA in Khorshid and Emam Mosa Sadr clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either pyridoxine supplements (80 mg pyridoxine per day or placebo. Severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks and HDR were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Mean age of patients was 34.24 ± 9.44 years old. Pyridoxine supplementation led to a significant decrease in headache severity (-2.20 ± 1.70 compared with -1 ± 1.50; P = 0.007, attacks duration (-8.30 ± 12.60 compared with -1.70 ± 9.60; P = 0.030 and HDR (-89.70 ± 134.60 compared with -6.10 ± 155.50; P = 0.040 compared with placebo, but was not effective on the frequency of migraine attacks (-2.30 ± 4 compared with -1.20 ± 7.80; P = 0.510.Pyridoxine supplementation in patients with MA was effective on headache severity, attacks duration and HDR, but did not affect the frequency of migraine attacks.

  5. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  6. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pacitti

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins, which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism.In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5-8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques.The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1 and longer times of exposure (10 weeks, regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1 for 10 weeks.Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a dietary supplementation of Sel

  7. A summary of the iodine supplementation study protocol (I2S2): a UK multicentre randomised controlled trial in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Fiona; Hume, Robert; Ogston, Simon; Brocklehurst, Peter; Morgan, Kayleigh; Juszczak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the study protocol for the randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in preterm infants. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine, and thyroxine is essential for normal brain development in utero and for the first 2-3 years of life. The recommended iodine intake in parenteral nutrition regimens is 1 μg/kg/day and commercially available parenteral solutions for infants reflect these recommendations. In the absence of other iodine sources, infants are vulnerable to negative iodine balance and insufficiency. As many preterm infants are fed parenterally for prolonged periods with solutions which have been shown to be iodine-deficient, the I2S2 Trial was designed to establish whether iodine supplementation of preterm infants benefits neurodevelopment.

  8. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  9. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik,1 Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro,1 Nicolás Alejandre-Alba,1 Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Statistics, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain Background: Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods: We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds. Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1 TBUT; (2 Schirmer I test; (3 Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; (4 MG expression; (5 evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6 interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results: After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively. The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per

  10. Use of iron supplements in children aged 1-2 years with iron deficiency anemia: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezik, Handan Atsiz; Can, Huseyin; Kurnaz, Mehmet Ali; Tuna, Mine; Ay, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional problem in the world and is the most common cause of childhood anemia. In this study, our aim was to find out about the state of usage of iron preparation, which is distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health, for the infants between 4-12 months in our country, as well as detecting the awareness degree of families those who are informed about iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), prophylaxis of the drug and to determine the drug’s effectiveness. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey. The laboratory values from the files of the children aged 1-2 those who visited our hospital’s department of pediatrics, between January 2010 to August 2013, were collected. The survey included families who have children diagnosed with IDA. Questions included about families’ sociodemographic characteristics, the state of the usage of the iron drug, how much information received in terms of the side effects- consumption period and dosage. Results: A total of 139 children were enrolled in our study. While 77.7% of the families who participated stated that (n = 108) iron medicine was prescribed other 43.2% of families stated (n = 60) was prescribed and they were informed about iron pills and IDA. 25.9% of families had received information about drug’s side effects, 74.8% of them had information about period of consumption and 77.7% said they were given information about the drug dose. The average duration of use of iron medicine was 6.98±4.52 (min: 1, max: 24) months. It has been noted that; parent’s education level, mother’s occupation, child’s gender, how the child was born and receiving information about how to use the medicine had no effects on usage of the drug in children. Nevertheless, it has been noticed that, when the families were given proper information the drug use increased and the patients compliance with medications also increased. Conclusion: We believe that, due to frequent diagnosis of

  11. Effects of a Pre-workout Energy Drink Supplement on Upper Body Muscular Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGRINI, MITCHEL A.; COLQUHOUN, RYAN J.; DAWES, J. JAY; SMITH, DOUG B.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pre-workout beverages is becoming an increasingly common method of improving performance during exercise in athletic and recreationally active populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink on exercise performance. Thirty-one healthy males (n=23) and females (n=8) participated in this study and were separated into two groups: supplement (SU; n=16) or placebo (PL; n=15). Subjects visited the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by no more than 7 days. The first visit consisted of completing a push up to fatigue protocol (PUFP) without ingesting the pre-workout energy drink supplement (PWEDS). The second visit consisted of ingesting either a placebo or the PWEDS 30 minutes prior to completing the PUFP. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded following each set of pushups on both testing days. Also, participant’s height, weight, and body composition were collected. There was no significant differences at baseline in any variable between groups (p = >.05). After the second testing session, both groups significantly improved total push-ups (PL Pre: 133.3 ±39.4, PL Post: 155.3 ± 54.1; SU Pre: 139.3 ± 58.5, SU Post: 161.3 ± 79.4; p=ergogenic effects when compared to the placebo. PMID:27990227

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  13. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  14. Physical activity does not influence the effect of antioxidant supplementation at nutritional doses on the incidence of impaired fasting glucose: a 7.5 year post-hoc analysis from the SU.VI.MAX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezeu, L; Henegar, A; Kesse-Guyot, E; Julia, C; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; Ristow, M; Czernichow, S

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation with high doses of antioxidant vitamins prevents the insulin-sensitizing effects of physical exercise. However, little is known whether antioxidant supplementation affects the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Data from 8938 subjects included in a randomized controlled trial on supplementation with antioxidants vitamins and trace elements at nutritional doses (SU.VI.MAX) were used to examine the effects of antioxidants on incident IFG after 7.5 years of follow-up, with and without stratification for daily physical exercise. The odds-ratio (95% CI) for developing an IFG among study participants receiving antioxidant supplementation was 1.34 (0.90-1.97) (p=0.33), in comparison to placebo. This risk did not vary significantly according to physical activity level (p for homogeneity=0.10). Supplementation with trace elements and antioxidants at nutritional doses apparently does not affect the incidence of IFG irrespective of self-reported physical exercise habits.

  15. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma P. Polyviou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of carbohydrate (CHO in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala. Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01 after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05 increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala.

  16. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, s...

  17. Supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Emma J; Davies, Andrew R.; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, David J.; McGuinness, Shay; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition is one of the fundamentals of care provided to critically ill adults. The volume of enteral nutrition received, however, is often much less than prescribed due to multiple functional and process issues. To deliver the prescribed volume and correct the energy deficit associated with enteral nutrition alone, parenteral nutrition can be used in combination (termed “supplemental parenteral nutrition”), but benefits of this method have not been firmly established. A multi-cent...

  18. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life.

  19. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension in pregnancy stand alone or with proteinuria is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy though the effect varies based on baseline calcium intake and pre-existing risk factors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. Data were extracted into a standardized excel sheet. Identified studies were graded based on strengths and limitations of studies. All the included studies were from developing countries. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study for an outcome. Primary outcomes were maternal mortality, eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. Neonatal outcomes like neonatal mortality, preterm birth, small for gestational age and low birth weight were also evaluated. We followed standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG to generate estimates of effectiveness of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Results Data from 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction of 45% in risk of gestational hypertension [Relative risk (RR 0.55; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.36-0.85] and 59% in the risk of pre-eclampsia [RR 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69] in developing countries. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction

  20. Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects during resistance training:A randomized controlled pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Wankhede; Vishwaraman Mohan; Prasad Thakurdesai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiologi-cal parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods: Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (1 capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline) and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results: Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplemen-tation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion: Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.

  1. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use

  2. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1 a single intramuscular (im injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2 daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3 injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.

  3. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these di...

  4. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  5. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  6. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  7. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  8. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  9. Determination of Coenzyme Q10 Content in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV: Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Steven; Roman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubidecarenone) in raw materials and dietary supplements. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the total CoQ10 content in 8 blind duplicate samples. Sample materials included CoQ10 raw material and 4 finished product dietary supplements representing softgels, hardshell gelatin capsules, and chewable wafers. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with CoQ10 at low and high levels to determine recovery. Materials were extracted with an acetonitrile–tetrahydrofuran–water mixture. Ferric chloride was added to the test solutions to ensure all CoQ10 was in the oxidized form. The HPLC analyses were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 275 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.94 to 5.05%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 3.08 to 17.1%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.26 to 5.17. Recoveries ranged from 74.0 to 115%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of CoQ10 in raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing CoQ10 at a concentration of >100 mg CoQ10/g test material. PMID:18727527

  10. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  11. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-03-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.

  12. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  13. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

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    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  14. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  15. SHORT AND LONGER-TERM EFFECTS OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE

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    John Rosene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d. Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage

  16. Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Emerson, Nadia S; Scanlon, Tyler C; Warren, Ashlee M; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Robinson, Edward H; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of an oral nutritional supplement fortified with two different doses of beta-alanine on body composition, muscle function and physical capacity in older adults. Using a double-blind placebo controlled design, 60 men and women (age ± SD = 70.7 ± 6.2 yrs) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) oral nutritional supplement (ONS; n = 20) (8 oz; 230 kcal; 12 g PRO; 31 g CHO; 6 g FAT), 2) ONS plus 800 mg beta-alanine (ONS800; n = 19), and 3) ONS plus 1200 mg beta-alanine (ONS1200; n = 21). Treatments were consumed twice per day for 12 weeks. At pre- and post-supplementation period, participants performed a discontinuous, submaximal cycle ergometry test to determine physical working capacity at fatigue threshold (PWCFT). Fat mass, total body and arm lean soft tissue mass (ALSTM) were measured with DEXA while muscle strength was assessed with handgrip dynamometry (GRIP) and 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) was used to measure lower body functionality. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated with GRIPmax and DEXA derived ALSTM [GRIP (kg)·ALSTM (kg)(-1)]. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare pre- to post-supplementation measures and group differences. There were 16 dropouts over the duration of the study. Final group sizes were ONS = 16 (m = 11, w = 5), ONS800 = 15 (m = 5, w = 10), and ONS1200 = 13 (m = 6, w = 7). No significant changes were observed for body composition or GRIP values pre to post. Significant increases in PW(CFT) were seen in ONS1200 (13.6%) and ONS800 (17.8%) pre- to post-supplementation (p 0.05) in change scores were found between ONS and ONS800. ONS fortified with beta-alanine may improve physical working capacity, muscle quality and function in older men and women. These findings could have importance in the perception of frailty, and the maintenance of health and independent living in older adults.

  17. Exogenous ketone supplements reduce anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats

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    Csilla Ari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM. The groups included standard diet (SD or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE (1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE, high dose ketone ester (HKE (~25 g/kg/day, HKE, beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S (~25 g/kg/day, KS, and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT (~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day. At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats, more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, more distance travelled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats, and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy

  18. Q10 supplementation effects on cardiac enzyme CK-MB and troponin in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moludi, Jalal; Keshavarz, Seyedali; Tabaee, Ali Sadeghpour; Safiri, Saeid; Pakzad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue damage. CoQ10 as an antioxidant has an important role and may have cardio-protective effects after myocardial dysfunction and CABG. We aimed to evaluate whether CoQ10 has a myocardial cardio protective impact on cardiac biomarkers after CABG. In this double-blind study, 80 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent CABG surgery were divided into intervention and control groups and received Q10 supplement or placebo, respectively. The surgical characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The intervention group received 150 mg of Q10 supplement per day for 7 days before the surgery. The control group received placebo capsule. After operation the inter- and intra-group blood levels of CK-MB and troponin, before and after supplementation and 12 hours after the CABG, and postoperative outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were compared. In this study, 40 subjects were located in each group. The participation rate was 97.5% and men and women accounted for 52.5% and 47.5% respectively. The mean age of the subjects was 58.17 ± 8.55. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of basic variables. Within-group comparison showed a significant increase in the level of troponin enzymes over time (P MB (P MB (P = 0.384) and troponin (P = 0.115). In the end, no interaction was observed between the intervention and time on CK-MB (P = 0.095) and troponin (P = 0.198) variables. Q10 supplementation 7 days before surgery was not effective in reducing CK-MB and troponin after CABG.

  19. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  20. Reduction in Thrombosis and Bacterial Adhesion with 7 Day Implantation of S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-Doped Elast-eon E2As Catheters in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Davis, Ryan P.; Jones, Anna M.; Major, Terry C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis and infection are two common problems associated with blood-contacting medical devices such as catheters. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a potent antimicrobial agent as well as an inhibitor of platelet activation and adhesion. Healthy endothelial cells that line the inner walls of all blood vessels exhibit a NO flux of 0.5~4×10−10 mol cm−2 min−1 that helps prevent thrombosis. Materials with a NO flux that is equivalent to this level are expected to exhibit similar anti-thrombotic properties. In this study, NO-releasing catheters were fabricated by incorporating S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in the Elast-eon E2As polymer. The SNAP/E2As catheters release physiological levels of NO for up to 20 d, as measured by chemiluminescence. Furthermore, SNAP is stable in the E2As polymer, retaining 89% of the initial SNAP after ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization. The SNAP/E2As and E2As control catheters were implanted in sheep veins for 7 d to examine the effect on thrombosis and bacterial adhesion. The SNAP/E2As catheters reduced the thrombus area when compared to the control (1.56 ± 0.76 and 5.06 ± 1.44 cm2, respectively). A 90% reduction in bacterial adhesion was also observed for the SNAP/E2As catheters as compared to the controls. The results suggest that the SNAP/E2As polymer has the potential to improve the hemocompatibility and bactericidal activity of intravascular catheters, as well as other blood-contacting medical devices (e.g., vascular grafts, extracorporeal circuits). PMID:25685358

  1. A prospective study on role of supplemental oral calcium and Vitamin D in prevention of postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia

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    Krishnan Ravikumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative transient hypocalcemia is sequelae of total thyroidectomy (TT, which is observed in up to 50% of patients. Routine oral calcium and Vitamin D supplementation have been proposed to prevent symptomatic hypocalcemia preventing morbidity and facilitating early discharge. Patients and Methods: A total of 208 patients with nontoxic benign thyroid disorders, undergoing TT, were serially randomized into four groups: Group A (no supplements were given, Group B (oral calcium - 2 g/day given, Group C (calcium and calcitriol - 1 mcg/day are given, and Group D (calcium, calcitriol, and cholecalciferol - 60,000 IU/day are given. Patients were monitored for clinical and biochemical hypocalcemia (serum calcium, [Sr. Ca] <8 mg/dl, along with serum intact parathormone (Sr. PTH and magnesium 6 h after surgery and Sr. Ca every 24 h. Intravenous (IV calcium infusion was started, if any of the above four groups exhibit frank hypocalcemia. Patients are followed up with Sr. Ca and Sr. PTH at 3 and 6 months. Results: All groups were age and sex matched. Hypocalcemia was observed in 72/208 (34.61% cases. Incidence of hypocalcemia was higher in Group A (57.69% and Group B (50% compared to Group C (15.38% and Group D (15.38%. Hypocalcemia necessitating IV calcium occurred in 31/208 (14.90% patients. IV calcium requirement exceeded in Group A (26.92% and Group B (23.07% compared to Group C (5.76% and Group D (3.84%. There was no statistical difference in basal levels of serum Vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, intact PTH, and 6 h after surgery. Permanent hypoparathyroidism developed in five patients on follow-up. Conclusion: Routine postoperative supplementation of oral calcium and Vitamin D will help in the prevention of postthyroidectomy transient hypocalcemia significantly. Preoperative Vitamin D levels do not predict postoperative hypocalcemia.

  2. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

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    Claudia E. Lazarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA, serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER of the diets and femur weight (FW of the rats were evaluated. Results: During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9, which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001. Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions: In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets.

  3. Effect of fluoride varnish supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate on enamel erosion and abrasion: an in situ/ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, M J; Delbem, A C B; Manarelli, M M; Pessan, J P; Martinhon, C C R

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluoride (F) varnishes supplemented or not with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel erosive wear followed or not by abrasion in situ. Ten volunteers were selected and randomly divided into four groups, according to the varnishes tested: placebo (no F or TMP), 5% NaF (positive control), 2.5% NaF and 2.5% NaF/5% TMP. Enamel blocks (n=4) were mounted in palatal devices and received an application of each test varnish, following a double-blind, crossover protocol. After 6h, varnishes were completely removed and the blocks were subjected to erosive challenges by ex vivo immersion in citric acid (5 min, 4×/dia, 5 days). Following, half of the blocks were subjected to abrasion by brushing with a placebo dentifrice slurry for 15s. Enamel wear (μm), surface hardness (SHf) and cross-sectional hardness (ΔKHN) were assessed after each experimental period. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls's test and Pearson correlation coefficient (pfluoride varnish supplemented with TMP promoted significantly lower wear and ΔKHN when compared to the other groups after erosive challenges, followed or not by abrasion (pfluoride varnish supplemented with TMP promoted similar results to the 5% NaF product, being significantly higher than the remaining groups after erosive and erosive+abrasive challenges (p<0.05). TMP significantly enhanced the effects of F on enamel wear after erosive challenges, followed or not by abrasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonism Abolished the Anti-seizure Effects of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk Rats

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    Zsolt Kovács

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs. Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day applied sub-chronically (for 7 days by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs significantly and similarly decreased after both KE and KSMCT treatment between 3rd and 7th days of gavage. Moreover, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB levels were significantly increased alike after KE and KSMCT gavage, compared to control levels. The SWD number and βHB levels returned to the baseline levels on the first day without ketone supplementation. To determine whether A1Rs can modify ketone supplement-evoked changes in absence epileptic activity, we applied a non-pro-epileptic dose of a specific A1R antagonist DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (intraperitoneal/i.p. 0.2 mg/kg in combination with KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day, gavage. As expected, DPCPX abolished the KSMCT-evoked decrease in SWD number. Thus, we concluded that application of exogenous ketone supplements may decrease absence epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats. Moreover, our results suggest that among others the adenosinergic system, likely via A1Rs, may modulate the exogenous ketone supplements-evoked anti-seizure effects.

  5. Radioiodine-induced oxidative stress in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium (antioxidants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Batista, Kelly Cristina Siqueira; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study, in addition to confirming that therapy with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress, was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium on this phenomenon by measuring plasma 8-epi-PGF2α, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Subjects and methods: Forty patients with thyroid cancer submitted to thyroidectomy, who received 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I after levothyroxine withdrawal, were selected; 20 patients did not receive (control group) and 20 patients received (intervention group) daily supplementation consisting of 2000 mg vitamin C, 1000 mg vitamin E and 400 μg selenium for 21 days before {sup 131}I. Plasma 8-epi-PGF2α was measured immediately before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. Results: A significant increase in plasma 8-epi-PGF2α after {sup 131}I was observed in the two groups. The concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2α were significantly higher in the control group before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. The percentage of patients with elevated 8-epi-PGF2α was also significantly higher in the control group before and after {sup 131}I. Furthermore, the increase (percent) in 8-epi-PGF2α was significantly greater in the control group (average of 112.3% versus 56.3%). Only two patients (10%) reported side effects during supplementation. Conclusions: Ablation with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress which can be minimized by the use of antioxidants. (author)

  6. Impact of maternal dietary fat supplementation during gestation upon skeletal muscle in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Hernan P; Almond, Kayleigh L; Li, Dongfang; Rauch, Cyril; Bikker, Paul; Symonds, Michael E; Mostyn, Alison

    2014-08-27

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a fat supplemented (palm oil) "high fat" diet on skeletal muscle development in a porcine model. Histological and metabolic features of the biceps femoris muscle obtained from 7-day-old piglets born to sows assigned to either a commercial (C, n = 7) or to an isocaloric fat supplementation diet ("high fat" HF, n = 7) during pregnancy were assessed. Offspring exposed to a maternal HF diet demonstrated enhanced muscular development, reflected by an increase in fractional growth rate, rise in myofibre cross-sectional area, increased storage of glycogen and reduction in lipid staining of myofibres. Although both groups had similar intramuscular protein and triglyceride concentrations, the offspring born to HF mothers had a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) and a reduction in α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) compared to C group offspring. The HF group muscle also exhibited a higher ratio of C20:3n6 to C20:4n6 and total n-6 to n-3 in conjunction with up-regulation of genes associated with free fatty acid uptake and biogenesis. In conclusion, a HF gestational diet accelerates the maturation of offspring biceps femoris muscle, reflected in increased glycolytic metabolism and fibre cross sectional area, differences accompanied with a potential resetting of myofibre nutrient uptake.

  7. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  8. The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jacob M; Ryan P. Lowery; Joy, Jordan M; Andersen, J. C.; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Duncan, Nevine; Fuller, John C; Baier, Shawn M.; Naimo, Marshall A.; Rathmacher, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Studies utilizing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in trained populations are limited. No long-term studies utilizing HMB free acid (HMB-FA) have been conducted. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, body composition, strength, and power in trained individuals. We also determined the effects of HMB-FA on muscle damage and performance during an overreaching cycle. Methods A three-phase dou...

  9. Effects of Spirulina platensis supplementation on lipid profile in HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve patients in Yaounde-Cameroon: a randomized trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Matip, Marthe-Elise; Pieme, Constant Anatole; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Biapa, Prosper Cabral Nya; Germaine, Nkenfack; Heike, Englert; Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Emmanuel, Korosky; Philippe, Stefanini; Mbofung, Carl Moses; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2014-12-13

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic alterations are among the majors public health concern that have been reported in people living with HIV infections. Factors contributing to cardio metabolic syndrome in HIV include body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, cardiovascular dysfunction and inflammation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Spirulina platensis (Cyanobacteriaceae) supplementation versus local diet on lipid profile in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients. A prospective single-blind, randomized, multicentre study was conducted from February 2010 to December 2012. A total of 320 HIV antiretroviral-naïve patients were screened and 169 were recruited in this study. Patients were randomized and received either Spirulina supplementation combined with local diet (n=82) or local diet only (n=87). Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, CD4 count, and local food intake variables were assessed on three separate occasions (three, six and twelve months). An average age of the patients was 35.6±9 years. The majority of participants were female 67.1%. Regarding the lipid profile, there is a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol and a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the group of patients who consumed Spirulina platensis. A change in the atherogenic index defined by the ratio CT/HDL-C substitutable by LDL-C/HDL-C and the TC/HDL decreased significantly from 10.83 at baseline to 2.22 after 12 months (p=0.21 and pSpirulina. Nutritional supplementation with Spirulina combined with a quantitative and qualitative balanced diet for at least six months can retard an exposition to lipid abnormalities in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients. Further studies are recommended on a large group of people not infected with HIV and exposed to cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

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    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm(3)) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  11. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

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    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  12. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

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    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  13. Cluster-Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial to Compare Supplement Consumption and Adherence to Different Dosing Regimens for Antenatal Calcium and Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia and Anaemia: Rationale and Design of the Micronutrient Initiative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Chapleau, Gina M; Martin, Stephanie L; Chang, Christopher; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-11-17

    To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca) intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC). WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose) regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 µg folic acid) taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) with IFA taken as above. Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Unit of randomization is the healthcare facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources. Significance for public healthPre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Based on clinical evidence of significant reduction in risk of pre-eclampsia, the WHO recommends including calcium (Ca) supplementation in antenatal care services in settings with inadequate dietary Ca intakes. A

  14. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

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    Völp Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events and acceptance (compliance of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A

  15. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

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    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  16. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country -- a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Pendek, Rokiah; Suboh, Suhaili; Tan Tong Boon, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out.The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the role of vitamin D

  17. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out. The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods/design Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. Discussion This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body

  18. Vitamin-mineral supplement use and nutritional status of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzarre, T L; Scarpino, A; Sigmon, R; Marquart, L F; Wu, S M; Izurieta, M

    1993-04-01

    Dietary, anthropometric, and chronic disease risk factors (CDRF) including blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), were measured in 91 vitamin-mineral supplement users (SU) and nonusers (NU) representing a wide range of athletic interests. Supplements were used by 46 (51%) subjects; 100% of female athletes and 51% of male athletes used supplements while none of a group of 15 control female subjects currently used supplements. Both dietary intake and energy expenditure were measured using 7-day records. Adiposity was determined from body weight, body mass index, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, zinc, copper, and vitamin C were based on 12-hour fasting blood samples. Dietary intake (excluding supplements) for SU tended to be greater than NU for vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, calcium, iron and magnesium. Plasma vitamin C levels were significantly higher among SU than NU of both gender groups (p < 0.05). Although SU may exhibit additional healthy lifestyle practices, lipid profiles for many of these athletes were unfavorable with regard to CDRF.

  19. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8

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    Nobuhiro Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME, supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, an Alzheimer's disease (AD model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+WME supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests – open field, Y-maze, novel object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze – to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+WME supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  20. Is there a reduction of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women after folic acid supplementation? A population-based case-control study.

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    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew A E

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the preventive effect of folic acid for structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CAs]) in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). The occurrence of medically recorded DM-1 in pregnant women who had malformed fetuses/newborns (cases) and delivered healthy babies (controls) with or without folic acid supplementation was compared in the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. The case group included 22,843 offspring, and there were 79 (0.35%) pregnant women with DM-1, while the control group comprised of 38,151 newborns, and 88 (0.23%) had mothers with DM-1. Case mothers with DM-1 associated with a higher risk of total rate of CAs in their offspring (OR with 95% CI: 1.5, 1.1-2.0) compared to the total rate of CAs in the offspring of non-diabetic case mothers. This higher risk can be explained by four specific types/groups of CAs: isolated renal a/dysgenesis; obstructive CA of the urinary tract; cardiovascular CAs; and multiple CAs, namely caudal dysplasia sequence. However, there was no higher rate of total CAs in the children of pregnant women with DM-1 after folic acid supplementation; in addition, neural-tube defect and renal a/dysgenesis did not occur. However, this benefit cannot be explained by the CA reduction effect of folic acid during the critical period of major CAs. In conclusion, there was a certain reduction in maternal teratogenic effect of DM-1 after folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, but the explanation of this effect requires further study.

  1. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

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    Hujaz Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1 were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Results: It showed significantly (p0.05 differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails.

  2. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

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    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  3. The SOS pilot study: a RCT of routine oxygen supplementation early after acute stroke--effect on recovery of neurological function at one week.

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    Christine Roffe

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mild hypoxia is common after stroke and associated with poor long-term outcome. Oxygen supplementatio