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Sample records for 7-day primaquine treatment

  1. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  2. Optimally timing primaquine treatment to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in low endemicity Thai-Myanmar border populations

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    Hungerford Laura L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria control has successfully reduced the malaria burden in many countries, but to eliminate malaria, these countries will need to further improve their control efforts. Here, a malaria control programme was critically evaluated in a very low-endemicity Thai-Myanmar border population, where early detection and prompt treatment have substantially reduced, though not ended, Plasmodium falciparum transmission, in part due to carriage of late-maturing gametocytes that remain post-treatment. To counter this effect, the WHO recommends the use of a single oral dose of primaquine along with an effective blood schizonticide. However, while the effectiveness of primaquine as a gametocidal agent is widely documented, the mismatch between primaquine's short half-life, the long-delay for gametocyte maturation and the proper timing of primaquine administration have not been studied. Methods Mathematical models were constructed to simulate 8-year surveillance data, between 1999 and 2006, of seven villages along the Thai-Myanmar border. A simple model was developed to consider primaquine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, gametocyte carriage, and infectivity. Results In these populations, transmission intensity is very low, so the P. falciparum parasite rate is strongly linked to imported malaria and to the fraction of cases not treated. Given a 3.6-day half-life of gametocyte, the estimated duration of infectiousness would be reduced by 10 days for every 10-fold reduction in initial gametocyte densities. Infectiousness from mature gametocytes would last two to four weeks and sustain some transmission, depending on the initial parasite densities, but the residual mature gametocytes could be eliminated by primaquine. Because of the short half-life of primaquine (approximately eight hours, it was immediately obvious that with early administration (within three days after an acute attack, primaquine would not be present when

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative primaquine regimens to standard treatment in preventing relapses by Plasmodium vivax: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Lina Marcela Zuluaga-Idarraga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax.Methods:A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg / kg / day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated.Results:For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423 were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477. High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found.Conclusion:Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax.

  4. Clindamycin-primaquine versus pentamidine for the second-line treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia.

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    Kim, Tark; Kim, Sung-Han; Park, Ki-Ho; Cho, Oh Hyun; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Choi, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Sang-Oh

    2009-10-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy of alternative regimens for treating patients with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We compared the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine (C-P) with that of pentamidine as a second line treatment for PCP. Among 91 patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as a first-line treatment for PCP, 31 (34%) did not respond and 7 (8%) had adverse reactions. Fourteen patients received C-P and 9 received pentamidine as a second-line regimen because of treatment failure or an adverse reaction to TMP-SMX. The response rate of patients to C-P was higher than the response rate to pentamidine (9/14; 64% vs 1/9; 11%; P = 0.03).

  5. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Angela Devine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings.Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1 giving chloroquine alone and (2 giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar.In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values

  6. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Angela; Parmiter, Minnie; Chu, Cindy S; Bancone, Germana; Nosten, François; Price, Ric N; Lubell, Yoel; Yeung, Shunmay

    2017-05-01

    Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings. Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1) giving chloroquine alone and (2) giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar. In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values, including the

  7. Is a 7-day Helicobater pylori treatment enough for eradication and inactivation of gastric inflammatory activity?

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    Carlos Robles-lara; Carlos Robles-Medranda; Manuel Moncayo; Byron Landivar; Johnny Parrales

    2008-01-01

    AIM- To compare the efficacy of a 7-d vs 10-d triple therapy regarding H pylori eradication, endoscopic findings and histological gastric inflammatory inactivation in the Ecuadorian population. METHODS: 136 patients with dyspepsia and H pylori infection were randomized in 2 groups (68 per group): group 1, 7-d therapy; group 2, t0-d therapy. Both groups received the same medication and daily dosage: omeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin I g bid. Endoscopy was performed for histological assessment and H pylori infection status before and 8 wk after treatment. RESULTS: H pylori was eradicated in 68% of group 1 vs 83. 8% of group 2 for the intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) (P = 0. 03; OR = 2. 48; 95% CI, 1. 1-5. 8), and 68% in group 1 vs 88% in group 2 for the per-protocol analysis (PP) (P = 0. 008; OR = 3. 66; 95% CI, 1. 4-10). Endoscopic gastric mucosa normalization was observed in 56. 9% in group 1 vs 61. 2% in group 2 for ITT, with similar results for the PP, the difference being statistically not significant. The rate of inflammatory inactivation was 69% in group 1 vs 88. 7% in group 2 for ITT (P = 0. 007;OR = 3. 00; 95% CI, 1. 2-7. 5), and 69% in group 1 vs96% in group 2 for PP (P = 0. 0002; OR = 7. 25; 95% CI, 2-26). CONCLUSION: In this Ecuadorian population, the 10-d therapy was more effective than the 7-d therapy for H pylori eradication as well as for gastric mucosa inflammatory inactivation.

  8. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial: a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days

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    Kuijper Ed J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. Methods/Design A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febrile urinary tract infection will be randomly allocated to a short treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded placebo or standard treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical β-lactams ± gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded ciprofloxacin. The study is performed in the Leiden region in which one university hospital, 6 general hospitals and 32 primary health care centers are clustered. Patients eligible for randomization are competent patients aged 18 years or above with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as defined by the combination of fever, one or more symptoms of urinary tract infection and a positive urine nitrate test and/or the presence of leucocyturia. Exclusion criteria are known allergy to fluoroquinolones, female patients who are pregnant or lactating, polycystic kidney disease, permanent renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant causal uropathogen, renal abscess, underlying chronic bacterial prostatitis, metastatic infectious foci and inability to obtain follow-up. The primary endpoint is the clinical cure rate through the 10- to 18-day post-treatment visit. Secondary endpoints are the microbiological cure rate 10- to 18-day post-treatment, the 30- and 90-day overall mortality rate, the

  9. Vivax malaria in children: recurrences with standard total dose of primaquine administered in 3 vs. 7 days Malaria vivax en niños: recurrencias con dosis total estándar de primaquina administrada durante 3 frente a 7 días

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    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Worldwide, the efficacy of cloroquine-primaquine for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malarious attacks has not been thoroughly evaluated. In Latin America such studies are scarce, and in Colombia, almost nonexisting.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of two regimens for administration of primaquine in children aged less than 18 years.

    Methodology: A clinical, controlled, unmasked study was carried out, with randomized administration of two primaquine regimens, namely: 0.50 mg/kg/day for 7 days (0.50-7 vs. 1.17 mg/kg/day for 3 days (1.17-3.

  10. Directly-observed therapy (DOT for the radical 14-day primaquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border

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    Thanyavanich Nipon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax has a dormant hepatic stage, called the hypnozoite, which can cause relapse months after the initial attack. For 50 years, primaquine has been used as a hypnozoitocide to radically cure P. vivax infection, but major concerns remain regarding the side-effects of the drug and adherence to the 14-day regimen. This study examined the effectiveness of using the directly-observed therapy (DOT method for the radical treatment of P. vivax malaria infection, to prevent reappearance of the parasite within the 90-day follow-up period. Other potential risk factors for the reappearance of P. vivax were also explored. Methods A randomized trial was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009 in a low malaria transmission area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Patients aged ≥ 3 years diagnosed with P. vivax by microscopy, were recruited. All patients were treated with the national standard regimen of chloroquine for three days followed by primaquine for 14 days. Patients were randomized to receive DOT or self-administered therapy (SAT. All patients were followed for three months to check for any reappearance of P. vivax. Results Of the 216 patients enrolled, 109 were randomized to DOT and 107 to SAT. All patients recovered without serious adverse effects. The vivax reappearance rate was significantly lower in the DOT group than the SAT group (3.4/10,000 person-days vs. 13.5/10,000 person-days, p = 0.021. Factors related to the reappearance of vivax malaria included inadequate total primaquine dosage received (P. vivax-genotype infection, and presence of P. falciparum infection during the follow-up period. Conclusions Adherence to the 14-day primaquine regimen is important for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria infection. Implementation of DOT reduces the reappearance rate of the parasite, and may subsequently decrease P. vivax transmission in the area.

  11. Failure of Supervised Chloroquine and Primaquine Regimen for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Paul C. F. Graf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of primaquine (PQ and chloroquine (CQ, together, may be responsible for the relatively few, isolated cases of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax (CQRPV that have been reported from South America. We report here a case of P. vivax from the Amazon Basin of Peru that recurred against normally therapeutic blood levels of CQ. Four out of 540 patients treated with combination CQ and PQ had a symptomatic recurrence of P. vivax parasitemia within 35 days of treatment initiation, possibly indicating CQ failure. Whole blood total CQ level for one of these four subjects was 95 ng/ml on the day of recurrence. Based on published criteria that delineate CQRPV as a P. vivax parasitemia, either recrudescence or relapse, that appears against CQ blood levels >100 ng/mL, we document the occurrence of a P. vivax strain in Peru that had unusually high tolerance to the synergistic combination therapy of CQ + PQ that normally works quite well.

  12. 青蒿素哌喹片联合伯氨喹治疗科摩罗无并发症恶性疟临床疗效观察%Clinical Trial of Artequick-Primaquine for the Treatment of 155 Falciparum Malaria Patients in Comoros

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    邓长生; 宋健平; 谈博; Mariata Rahamatou; Ali Silai; Abobacar Soulaiman; Moussa Mohamed; Ahamada MSA Mliva; 李国桥

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Artequick-Piperaquine fixed combination (Artequick-Primaquine) for the treatment offalciparum malaria in Comoros,and to investigate the clinical dosage of Artequick-Primaquine for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa.Methods One hundred and fifty-five falciparum malaria patients without complications were enrolled into the trial.Artequick-Primaquine tablets were administrated for adults orally once daily (2 tablets ),2-day regimen,and the total dosage were 4 tablets (including Artemisinin 320 mg,Piperaquine 1 500 mg,Primaquine 16 mg).Artequick-Primaqine granules were used to for patients under 6 years old.Follow-up was carried out for the observation of cure rate,recrudescence rate,mean parasite recrudescence time,mean fever clearance time and side effects for 28 days.Results Clinical symptoms were alleviated quickly after drug administration.The mean parasite clearance time (PCT) and mean fever clearance time (FCT) were 51.0 ±25.9 hrs and 20.8 ± 11.4 hrs,respectively.Patients were well tolerated to Artequick-Primaquine tablets.Only few of them had adverse reaction of nausea,vomiting and dizziness,and these adverse reactions were self-limited. No obvious toxicity was found in the comparison of indicators of hematological tests,biochemical examination before treatment and 7 days after the drug administration.Conclusion Artequick-Primaquine has advantages of high efficacy,quick action,few side effects and short regiment for the treatment offalciparum malaria in Comoros.%[目的]评价青蒿素哌喹片联合伯氨喹治疗科摩罗恶性疟有效性和安全性,验证青篙素哌喹片—伯氨喹治疗非洲恶性疟的有效临床剂量.[方法]共观察了无并发症恶性疟患者155例.成人口服青蒿素哌喹片—伯氨喹片1次/d,2片/次,连续2d,1个疗程共4片(青蒿素320 mg,哌喹1 500 mg,伯氨喹16 mg);6岁以下儿童使用青蒿素哌喹片—伯氨喹颗粒剂.28 d后观

  13. Effects of 7-day continuous D-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys.

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    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice. In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32mg/kg/h). During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. The present subchronic treatment results support the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

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    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  15. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

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    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (PDoxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (PDoxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (PDoxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers.

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    Horder, Jamie; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J; McCabe, Ciara

    2010-09-01

    Reduced subjective experience of reward (anhedonia) is a key symptom of major depression. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)) antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use and was recently withdrawn from the market because of these adverse effects. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model of reward we hypothesized that rimonabant would impair reward processing. Twenty-two healthy participants were randomly allocated to receive rimonabant (20 mg), or placebo, for 7 d in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavour of chocolate) and aversive (sight of mouldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) stimuli on the final day of drug treatment. Rimonabant reduced the neural response to chocolate stimuli in key reward areas such as the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Rimonabant also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimulus condition in the caudate nucleus and ventral striatum, but increased lateral orbitofrontal activations to the aversive sight and taste of strawberry condition. Our findings are the first to show that the anti-obesity drug rimonabant inhibits the neural processing of rewarding food stimuli in humans. This plausibly underlies its ability to promote weight loss, but may also indicate a mechanism for inducing anhedonia which could lead to the increased risk of depressive symptomatology seen in clinical use. fMRI may be a useful method of screening novel agents for unwanted effects on reward and associated clinical adverse reactions.

  17. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

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    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  18. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

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    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Tarning, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.).

  19. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

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    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.) PMID:25385096

  20. The use of primaquine in malaria infected patients with red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat-Phone-Kyaw; Myint-Oo; Aung-Naing; Aye-Lwin-Htwe

    1994-12-01

    32 subjects with Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, and 31 cases with Plasmodium vivax infection from two military hospitals (Lashio, Mandalay) were treated with quinine 600 mg three times a day for 7 days followed by primaquine 45 mg single dose for gametocytes and 45 mg weekly x 8 weeks for vivax malaria. Although screening of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was done prior to primaquine treatment, G6PD deficient subjects were not excluded from the trial. 20 patients hemizygous for mild G6PD deficiency (GdB- variant), 2 patients hemizygous for severe deficiency (Gd-Myanmar variant) completed the trial. No case of acute hemolysis was observed in all 22 patients with two genotypes of red cell G6PD deficiency status. Therefore, a single dose of primaquine 45 mg and/or weekly for 8 weeks is adequate for the treatment of patients with P. falciparum gametocytes and/or P. vivax malaria ignoring these red cell G6PD enzyme deficient variants in Myanmar.

  1. Co-treatment with the anti-malarial drugs mefloquine and primaquine highly sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells by increasing P-gp inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Choi, Ae-Ran; Kim, Yong Kee; Yoon, Sungpil

    2013-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that will increase the sensitivity of resistant cancer cells to anti-mitotic drugs. Currently, atovaquine (ATO), chloroquine (CHL), primaquine (PRI), mefloquine (MEF), artesunate (ART), and doxycycline (DOY) are the most commonly used anti-malarial drugs. Herein, we tested whether anti-malarial drugs can sensitize drug-resistant KBV20C cancer cells. None of the six tested anti-malarial drugs was found to better sensitize the drug-resistant cells compared to the sensitive KB cells. With an exception of DOY, all other anti-malarial drugs tested could sensitize both KB and KBV20C cells to a similar extent, suggesting that anti-malarial drugs could be used for sensitive as well as resistant cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the effects of anti-malarial drugs in combination with an antimitotic drug, vinblastine (VIN) on the sensitisation of resistant KBV20C cells. Using viability assay, microscopic observation, assessment of cleaved PARP, and Hoechst staining, we identified that two anti-malarial drugs, PRI and MEF, highly sensitized KBV20C-resistant cells to VIN treatment. Moreover, PRI- or MEF-induced sensitisation was not observed in VIN-treated sensitive KB parent cells, suggesting that the observed effect is specific to resistant cancer cells. We demonstrated that the PRI and MEF sensitisation mechanism mainly depends on the inhibition of p-glycoprotein (P-gp). Our findings may contribute to the development of anti-malarial drug-based combination therapies for patients resistant to anti-mitotic drugs.

  2. Safety of a single low-dose of primaquine in addition to standard artemether-lumefantrine regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaiswelo, Richard; Ngasala, Billy E; Jovel, Irina; Gosling, Roland; Premji, Zul; Poirot, Eugenie; Mmbando, Bruno P; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-06-10

    This study assessed the safety of the new World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of adding a single low-dose of primaquine (PQ) to standard artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), regardless of individual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status, for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged ≥1 year with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomized to either standard artemether-lumefantrine (AL) regimen alone or with a 0.25 mg/kg single-dose of PQ. PQ was administered concomitantly with the first AL dose. All drug doses were supervised. Safety was evaluated between days 0 and 28. G6PD status was assessed using rapid test (CareStart™) and molecular genotyping. The primary endpoint was mean percentage relative reduction in haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL) between days 0 and 7 by genotypic G6PD status and treatment arm. Overall, 220 patients, 110 per treatment arm, were enrolled, of whom 33/217 (15.2 %) were phenotypically G6PD deficient, whereas 15/110 (13.6 %) were genotypically hemizygous males, 5/110 (4.5 %) homozygous females and 22/110 (20 %) heterozygous females. Compared to genotypically G6PD wild-type/normal [6.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.67-8.96], only heterozygous patients in AL arm had significant reduction in day-7 mean relative Hb concentration (14.3, 95 % CI 7.02-21.55, p=0.045), however, none fulfilled the pre-defined haemolytic threshold value of ≥25 % Hb reduction. After adjustment for baseline parasitaemia, Hb, age and sex the mean relative Hb reduction was not statistically significant in both heterozygous and hemizygous/homozygous patients in both arms. A majority of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and unrelated to the study drugs. However, six (4.4 %) episodes, three per treatment arm, of acute haemolytic anaemia occurred between days 0 and 7. Three occurred in phenotypically G6PD deficient

  3. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-04-17

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Norfloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. A summary of 3-day and 7-day therapy studies in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R; Deaney, N B; Round, E M; VandenBurg, M J; Currie, W J

    1984-05-01

    The results of clinical trials in which norfloxacin was used for 7 days compared with amoxycillin or cotrimoxazole, or for 3 days compared with citrated nalidixic acid, are presented. Additionally, the results of a concurrent open study of 3 days of norfloxacin in the management of simple urinary tract infections are discussed. Resistance to norfloxacin was only encountered in 0.2% of pathogens isolated. Norfloxacin was as effective in eradicating bacteriuria as amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole or citrated nalidixic acid. The response to 3 days of norfloxacin was similar to that seen after 7 days therapy with this compound, or to 7 days of cotrimoxazole. The incidence of adverse experiences to norfloxacin in 758 patients was below 10%.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Tarning, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  6. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, P.; Pukrittayakamee, S; Ashley, EA; Nosten, F; Hanboonkunupakarn, B; Lee, SJ; Thana, P; Chairat, K; Blessborn, D; Panapipat, S; White, NJ; Day, NP; Tarning, J

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  7. Short report: therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine combined with primaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Wiady, Iwa; Sutanihardja, Awalludin; Suradi; Purnomo; Basri, Hasan; Sekartuti; Ayomi, Ester; Fryauff, David J; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-06-01

    Chloroquine combined with primaquine was evaluated for therapy of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in nonimmune Javanese migrants to northeastern Papua, Indonesia. Subjects were randomized to treatment with standard chloroquine therapy (25 mg/kg in 3 doses over the course of 48 hours) with 30 mg primaquine administered daily for 28 days (n = 25) or a placebo of primaquine (n = 28). The 14-day cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure was 56% with primaquine and 79% with placebo (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-1.3; P = 0.08). Primaquine administered daily created a marginally significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy at day 14, but not at day 7 (20% versus 36%; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-1.8; P = 0.2) or day 28 (82% versus 93%; OR, 0.31; 95% Cl, 0.04-2.1; P = 0.23). This report corroborates studies suggesting that therapeutic doses of primaquine exert no discernible effect on parasitemia by P. falciparum.

  8. Primaquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carry oxygen to the tissues in the body),nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) deficiency (a genetic condition), glucose- ... these symptoms, call your doctor immediately: tiredness pale skin shortness of breath fast heartbeat yellowing of the ...

  9. Effect of a 7-day treatment with idazoxan and its 2-methoxy derivative RX 821002 [correction of RX 821001] on alpha 2-adrenoceptors and non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M.; Reverte, M.; Langin, D.; Senard, J. M.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study investigates the influence of a 7-day treatment with 2 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily of RX 821002 (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist which binds only to alpha 2-adrenoceptors) or idazoxan (alpha 2-antagonist which binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors and also to non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites: NAIBS) on alpha 2-adrenoceptor (labelled with [3H]-RX 821002) and NAIBS (labelled with [3H]-idazoxan) number in three tissues (adipocytes, colocytes and platelets) in the rabbit. 2. Acute administration of RX 821002 or idazoxan increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and catecholamine levels with no change in plasma glucose levels. 3. The 7-day treatment with RX 821002 or idazoxan failed to influence food intake, total body weight or perirenal adipose tissue weight. 4. RX 821002 and idazoxan increased the number of [3H]-RX 821002 binding sites in adipose tissue with no change in colocytes or platelets. 5. RX 821002 and idazoxan failed to modify [3H]-idazoxan binding sites on adipocytes and colocytes. No significant [3H]-idazoxan binding was detected on rabbit platelets. 6. The results show that a 7-day treatment with alpha 2-antagonists induces an up-regulation in adipocyte alpha 2-adrenoceptors. In contrast, this phenomenon does not involve all the tissues since colocytes and platelets escape the effects of alpha 2-antagonists. The data suggest a differential regulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors according to their location. 7. The fact that NAIBS did not vary suggests that alpha 2-adrenoceptors and NAIBS are two different entities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1686202

  10. Artesunate united Primaquine in the treatment of delay or reconnection malaria SUN%青蒿琥酯联用伯氨喹治疗迁延、复燃疟疾的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫华; Afel TRAORE

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To approach the clinical therapeutic effects of artesunate united Primaquine in the treatment of delay or recrudescence malaria.METHODS: 82 patients were randomly divided into two groups.Patients of the treatment group(n=41)were given an initial dose of 2.4 mg/kg artesunate i.v., 12 h later,a second dose of 1.2 mg/kg artesunate was given in the same way.For the succeeding 6 days,a daily dose of 1.2 mg/kg artesunate was given in the same manner to each patient in the treatment group;and each of the patients were given Primaquine tables 22.5 mg/d, p.o..The control group(n=41)were given an initial dose of 20 mg of quinimax i.v.,12 h later,a second dose of 10 mg/kg quinimax was given in the same way.Thereafter,10 mg/kg of quinimax was given q.12.h.In the same manner until the patients could take medicines by mouth.Quinimax tablets in a dose of 10 mg/kg were then given q.8.h.The course of treatment was 7 d.RESULTS: After 7 and 28 d,the cure rates in the treatment and control group were 97.5%, 95.1% ;97.5%,90.2% ,respectively.The changes in the treatment and control group were similar(P>0.05).The defervescence time was 28.0 and 51.6 h, and the clearing time of haemoplasmodium was 30.4 and 59.5 h in the treatment and control group, respectively;the differences was significant (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Artesunate united Primaquine was found to act more quickly in the treatment of pernicious delay or recrudescence malaria, low recurrence rate, with only mild side effects.It is also effective in the treatment of malaria caused by quinine-resistant strains of malaria parasites.It should be the drug of first choice in the treatment of malaria that quinine fails to effect a cure.%目的:探讨青蒿琥酯联用伯氨喹治疗迁延、复燃疟疾的临床疗效.方法:将82例患者随机分成治疗组和对照组各41例.治疗组:给予青蒿琥酯和伯氨喹:青蒿琥酯首剂2.4 mg/kg i.v.,12h后予1.2 mg/kg青蒿琥酯,随后6d每日以1.2 mg/kg青蒿琥酯

  11. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. CONCLUSIONS: The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite

  12. Adding a single low-dose of primaquine (0.25 mg/kg) to artemether-lumefantrine did not compromise treatment outcome of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania: a randomized, single-blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaiswelo, Richard; Ngasala, Billy; Jovel, Irina; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Gosling, Roland; Premji, Zul; Mmbando, Bruno; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-08-26

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the addition of a single low-dose of the gametocytocidal drug primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in low transmission settings as a component of pre-elimination or elimination programmes. However, it is unclear whether that influences the ACT cure rate. The study assessed treatment outcome of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) versus standard AL regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. A randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial was conducted in Yombo, Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients aged ≥1 year, with the exception of pregnant and lactating women, were enrolled and treated with AL plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) or AL alone under supervision. PQ was administered together with the first AL dose. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The primary end-point was a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Secondary outcomes included: fever and asexual parasitaemia clearance, proportion of patients with PCR-determined parasitaemia on day 3, and proportion of patients with Pfmdr1 N86Y and Pfcrt K76T on days 0, 3 and day of recurrent infection. Overall 220 patients were enrolled, 110 were allocated AL + PQ and AL, respectively. Parasite clearance by microscopy was fast, but PCR detectable parasitaemia on day 3 was 31/109 (28.4 %) and 29/108 (26.9 %) in patients treated with AL + PQ and AL, respectively (p = 0.79). Day 28 PCR-adjusted ACPR and re-infection rate was 105/105 (100 %) and 101/102 (99 %) (p = 0.31), and 5/107 (4.7 %) and 5/8 (4.8 %) (p = 0.95), in AL + PQ and AL arm, respectively. There was neither any statistically significant difference in the proportion of Pfmdr1 N86Y or Pfcrt K76T

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial potential of polyphosphazene linked combination therapy of primaquine and dihydroartemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahil; Singh, Rajesh K; Sharma, Rajiv; Murthy, R S R; Bhardwaj, T R

    2015-01-23

    Various polymer drug conjugates (13-16) such as primaquine and dihydroartemisinin conjugated 2-propoxy substituted polyphosphazenes (13), primaquine and dihydroartemisinin conjugated 4-acetamidophenoxy substituted polyphosphazenes (14), primaquine and dihydroartemisinin conjugated 4-formyl substituted polyphosphazenes (15) and primaquine and dihydroartemisinin conjugated 4-aminoethylbenzoate substituted polyphosphazenes (16) were synthesized using substituted polyphosphazenes as polymer and primaquine and dihydroartemisinin as combination antimalarial pharmacophores and formulated to nanoparticles to achieve novel controlled combined drug delivery approach for radical cure of malaria. The polymeric backbone was suitably substituted to impart different physicochemical properties. The polymer-drug conjugates were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR and their molecular weights were determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography. The thermal properties of the conjugates (13-16) were studied by DSC and TGA. The conjugates (13-16) were then formulated to nanoparticles formulations to increase their uptake by hepatocytes and to achieve targeted drug delivery. The nanoparticle formulations were characterized by Zeta Sizer and their morphology were studied by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) imaging. The nanoparticles formulations exhibited biphasic in vitro drug release profile, the initial burst release followed by a sustained release owing to the non-fickian diffusion during first step release and fickian diffusion during second step release. In vivo antimalarial efficacy was tested using Plasmodium berghei (NK65 resistant strain) infected swiss albino mice at different doses. The combination therapy exhibited promising antimalarial efficacy at lower doses in comparison to the standard drug combination. Further, this combination therapy provided protection over 35days without any recrudescence, thus proving to be effective against resistant malaria. The study

  14. Structure-based de novo design, molecular docking and molecular dynamics of primaquine analogues acting as quinone reductase II inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murce, Erika; Cuya-Guizado, Teobaldo Ricardo; Padilla-Chavarria, Helmut Isaac; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Pimentel, Andre Silva

    2015-11-01

    Primaquine is a traditional antimalarial drug with low parasitic resistance and generally good acceptance at higher doses, which has been used for over 60 years in malaria treatment. However, several limitations related to its hematotoxicity have been reported. It is believed that this toxicity comes from the hydroxylation of the C-5 and C-6 positions of its 8-aminoquinoline ring before binding to the molecular target: the quinone reductase II (NQO2) human protein. In this study we propose primaquine derivatives, with substitution at position C-6 of the 8-aminoquinoline ring, planned to have better binding to NQO2, compared to primaquine, but with a reduced toxicity related to the C-5 position being possible to be oxidized. On this sense the proposed analogues were suggested in order to reduce or inhibit hydroxylation and further oxidation to hemotoxic metabolites. Five C-6 substituted primaquine analogues were selected by de novo design and further submitted to docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that all analogues bind better to NQO2 than primaquine and may become better antimalarials. However, the analogues 3 and 4 are predicted to have a better activity/toxicity balance.

  15. Efficacy of three different regimens of primaquine for the prevention of relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Amazon Basin of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Salomón; Cabezas, Cesar; Lescano, Andres G; Galvez, Mariela; Gutierrez, Sonia; Arrospide, Nancy; Alvarez, Carlos; Santolalla, Meddly L; Bacon, David J; Graf, Paul C F

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of three primaquine (PQ) regimes to prevent relapses with Plasmodium vivax through an open-label randomized trial in Loreto, Peru. Vivax monoinfections were treated with chloroquine for 3 days and PQ in three different regimes: 0.5 mg/kg per day for 5 days (150 mg total), 0.5 mg/kg per day for 7 days (210 mg total), or 0.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days (210 mg total). Biweekly fever assessments and bimonthly thick smears were taken for 210 days. Recurrences after 35 days were considered relapses. One hundred eighty cases were enrolled in each group; 90% of cases completed follow-up. There were no group-related differences in age, sex, or parasitemia. Relapse rates were similar in the 7- and 14-day regimes (16/156 = 10.3% and 22/162 = 13.6%, P = 0.361) and higher in the 5-day group (48/169 = 28.4%, P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The 7-day PQ regimen used in Peru is as efficacious as the recommended 14-day regimen and superior to 5 treatment days.

  16. Nature of the main contaminant in the drug primaquine diphosphate: SFC and SFC-MS methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondz, Ilia; Ekeberg, Dag; Bell, David S; Annino, Amy R; Hustad, Jan Arild; Svendsen, Robert; Vlachos, Vaso; Oakley, Paul; Langley, G John; Mohini, Thite; Amaury, Cazenave-Gassiot; Mikhalitsyn, Felix

    2007-02-19

    The drug primaquine diphosphate is used for causative treatment of malaria. Using HPLC-MS and GC-MS, this research group was previously able to show that the main contaminant of primaquine is the positional isomer quinocide [I. Brondz, D. Mantzilas, U. Klein, D. Ekeberg, E. Hvattum, M.N. Lebedeva, F.S. Mikhailitsyn, G.D. Soulimanov, J. Roe, J. Chromatogr. B: Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 800 (2004) 211-223; I. Brondz, U. Klein, D. Ekeberg, D. Mantzilas, E. Hvattum, H. Schultz, F. S. Mikhailitsyn, Asian J. Chem. 17 (2005) 1678-1688]. Primaquine and quinocide are highly toxic substances which can have a number of side effects upon use in medical treatment. A standard for quinocide is not typically commercially available. In the present work, supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) with two different columns was used to achieve a shorter analysis time for the separation between the positional isomers quinocide and primaquine in primaquine diphosphate and to elucidate additional information about differences in their MS fragmentation. Unlike using HPLC-MS, it was possible to achieve the differential fragmentation of positional isomers at branching points using the SFC-MS technique. The desired short analysis time was achieved using SFC equipped with a Discovery HS F5 column and the differential fragmentation of positional isomers during SFC-MS provides information on the differences in the structure of these substances. Using a Chiralpak AD-H chiral column, it was possible to resolve the enantiomers in primaquine and separate quinocide from those enantiomers.

  17. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  18. Decreased gastrointestinal toxicity associated with a novel capecitabine schedule (7 days on and 7 days off): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoo, Karen A; Gajria, Devika; Suh, Emily; Patil, Sujata; Theodoulou, Maria; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Traina, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine is widely used in the management of metastatic breast cancer; however, drug delivery is limited by gastrointestinal and other toxicity. We employed mathematical modeling to rationally design an optimized dose and schedule for capecitabine of 2,000?mg twice daily, flat dosing, 7 days on, 7 days off. Preclinical data suggested increased efficacy and tolerability with this novel dosing, and three early-phase clinical trials have suggested a favorable toxicity profile. To further def...

  19. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  20. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  1. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  2. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  3. Is primaquine useful and safe as true exo-erythrocytic merontocidal, hypnozoitocidal and gametocidal antimalarial drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier López-Antuñano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to make available in a single document, a sequence of events that have been published on the biology of malaria parasites and their interaction with the human host, looking for arguments for effective and save treatment: what we know and what we would like to know about the effects of primaquine in order to justify its use in clinical and public health practice. The practicioner should be aware that the antimalarial activity, hemolytic and methemoglobinemic side effects, and detoxification of primaquine are all thought to depend on various biotransformation products of the drug. In spite of the universal use during over six decades, their site and mechanism of formation and degradation and their specific biologic effects remain very poorly understood in human beings. The mature gametocytes of P. falciparum are naturally resistant to chloroquine and other blood merontocides, but they are usually eliminated with a single dose of 1.315 mg/kg per os (p.o. of primaquine phosphate (equivalent to 0.75 mg-base. Rather than empirically, related with relapses frequency, dosage schedules should only be determined through consideration of the kinetics and dynamics of the drug and its effect on sporozoites, pre and exo-erythrocytic merontes, hypnozoites and gametocytes of P. vivax. Where medical care services are not available or not capable to detect glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenese- (G-6-PD deficiencies and deleterious effects of the drug, we recommend not to use primaquine. Both, P. vivax primary clinical attack and P. vivax relapses, as and when they occur should be treated with a course of 10 mg/kg chloroquine-base p.o. Prevention of relapses is probably related to strain characteristics of P. vivax hypnozoites populations envolved. If well informed and qualified medical care workers decide to use primaquine in the absence of enzime defficiencies and are able to follow-up the clinical, toxicological and parasitic

  4. Urea and carbamate derivatives of primaquine: synthesis, cytostatic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunović, M; Perković, I; Zorc, B; Ester, K; Kralj, M; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; Pontiki, E

    2009-08-01

    The novel urea primaquine derivatives 3 were prepared by aminolysis of primaquine benzotriazolide 2 with several hydroxyamines and ethylendiamine, while carbamates 4 were synthesized from the same precursor 2 and alcohols. All compounds are fully chemically characterized and evaluated for their cytostatic and antioxidant activities. The most prominent antiproliferative activity was obtained by compounds 3c, 3d, 3g, and 5b (IC(50)=9-40 microM). 1-(5-Hydroxypentyl)-3-[4-(6-methoxy-quinolin-8-ylamino)-pentyl]urea (3c) showed extreme selectivity toward SW 620 colon cancer cells (IC(50)=0.2 microM) and a bit less toward lung cancer cells H 460. Hydroxyurea 3h showed the highest interaction with DPPH. Primaquine twin drug 3g showed very significant inhibition on LOX soybean (IC(50)=62 microM). Almost all the tested derivatives highly inhibited lipid peroxidation, significantly stronger than primaquine phosphate.

  5. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  6. G6PD deficiency at Sumba in Eastern Indonesia is prevalent, diverse and severe: implications for primaquine therapy against relapsing Vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Winasti Satyagraha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax requires diagnosis of both the infection and status of erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity because hypnozoitocidal therapy against relapse requires primaquine, which causes a mild to severe acute hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficient patients. Many national malaria control programs recommend primaquine therapy without G6PD screening but with monitoring due to a broad lack of G6PD deficiency screening capacity. The degree of risk in doing so hinges upon the level of residual G6PD activity among the variants present in any given area. We conducted studies on Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia in order to assess the potential threat posed by primaquine therapy without G6PD screening. We sampled 2,033 residents of three separate districts in western Sumba for quantitative G6PD activity and 104 (5.1% were phenotypically deficient (<4.6U/gHb; median normal 10U/gHb. The villages were in two distinct ecosystems, coastal and inland. A positive correlation occurred between the prevalence of malaria and G6PD deficiency: 5.9% coastal versus inland 0.2% for malaria (P<0.001, and 6.7% and 3.1% for G6PD deficiency (P<0.001 at coastal and inland sites, respectively. The dominant genotypes of G6PD deficiency were Vanua Lava, Viangchan, and Chatham, accounting for 98.5% of the 70 samples genotyped. Subjects expressing the dominant genotypes all had less than 10% of normal enzyme activities and were thus considered severe variants. Blind administration of anti-relapse primaquine therapy at Sumba would likely impose risk of serious harm.

  7. G6PD deficiency: global distribution, genetic variants and primaquine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Battle, Katherine E; Satyagraha, Ari W; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a potentially pathogenic inherited enzyme abnormality and, similar to other human red blood cell polymorphisms, is particularly prevalent in historically malaria endemic countries. The spatial extent of Plasmodium vivax malaria overlaps widely with that of G6PD deficiency; unfortunately the only drug licensed for the radical cure and relapse prevention of P. vivax, primaquine, can trigger severe haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient individuals. This chapter reviews the past and current data on this unique pharmacogenetic association, which is becoming increasingly important as several nations now consider strategies to eliminate malaria transmission rather than control its clinical burden. G6PD deficiency is a highly variable disorder, in terms of spatial heterogeneity in prevalence and molecular variants, as well as its interactions with P. vivax and primaquine. Consideration of factors including aspects of basic physiology, diagnosis, and clinical triggers of primaquine-induced haemolysis is required to assess the risks and benefits of applying primaquine in various geographic and demographic settings. Given that haemolytically toxic antirelapse drugs will likely be the only therapeutic options for the coming decade, it is clear that we need to understand in depth G6PD deficiency and primaquine-induced haemolysis to determine safe and effective therapeutic strategies to overcome this hurdle and achieve malaria elimination.

  8. Randomized, parallel placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for malaria prophylaxis in Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Lacy, M D; Basri, H; Barcus, M J; Maguire, J D; Bangs, M J; Gramzinski, R; Sismadi, P; Krisin; Ling, J; Wiady, I; Kusumaningsih, M; Jones, T R; Fryauff, D J; Hoffman, S L

    2001-12-15

    Malaria causes illness or death in unprotected travelers. Primaquine prevents malaria by attacking liver-stage parasites, a property distinguishing it from most chemoprophylactics and obviating 4-week postexposure dosing. A daily adult regimen of 30 mg primaquine prevented malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax for 20 weeks in 95 of 97 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-normal Javanese transmigrants in Papua, Indonesia. In comparison, 37 of 149 subjects taking placebo in a parallel trial became parasitemic. The protective efficacy of primaquine against malaria was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71%-98%); against P. falciparum it was 88% (95% CI 48%-97%), and >92% for P. vivax (95% CI >37%-99%). Primaquine was as well tolerated as placebo. Mild methemoglobinemia (mean of 3.4%) returned to normal within 2 weeks. Blood chemistry and hematological parameters revealed no evidence of toxicity. Good safety, tolerance, and efficacy, along with key advantages in dosing requirements, make primaquine an excellent drug for preventing malaria in nonpregnant, G6PD-normal travelers.

  9. Design and Evaluation of Primaquine-Artemisinin Hybrids as a Multistage Antimalarial Strategy▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, Rita; Cabal, Ghislain G.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Gut, Jiri; Mota, Maria M.; Moreira, Rui; Lopes, Francisca; Prudêncio, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the struggle against malaria depends on the development of new strategies to fight infection. The “magic bullet” thought to be necessary to reach eradication should not only provide treatment for all Plasmodium spp. that infect human red blood cells but should also eliminate the replicative and dormant liver forms of the parasite. Moreover, these goals should ideally be achieved by using different mechanisms of action so as to avoid the development of resistance. To that end, two hybrid molecules with covalently linked primaquine and artemisinin moieties were synthesized, and their effectiveness against the liver and blood stages of infection was compared in vitro and in vivo with those of the parent compounds. Both hybrids displayed enhanced in vitro activities, relative to those of the parent compounds, against Plasmodium berghei liver stages. Both compounds were about as potent as artemisinin against cultured Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], ∼10 nM). When used to treat a murine P. berghei infection, one of the molecules displayed better efficacy than an equimolar mixture of the parent pharmacophores, leading to improved cure and survival rates. These results reveal a novel approach to the design and evaluation of antimalarials based on the covalent combination of molecules acting on different stages of the parasite life cycle. PMID:21807973

  10. Design and evaluation of primaquine-artemisinin hybrids as a multistage antimalarial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, Rita; Cabal, Ghislain G; Rosenthal, Philip J; Gut, Jiri; Mota, Maria M; Moreira, Rui; Lopes, Francisca; Prudêncio, Miguel

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that the struggle against malaria depends on the development of new strategies to fight infection. The "magic bullet" thought to be necessary to reach eradication should not only provide treatment for all Plasmodium spp. that infect human red blood cells but should also eliminate the replicative and dormant liver forms of the parasite. Moreover, these goals should ideally be achieved by using different mechanisms of action so as to avoid the development of resistance. To that end, two hybrid molecules with covalently linked primaquine and artemisinin moieties were synthesized, and their effectiveness against the liver and blood stages of infection was compared in vitro and in vivo with those of the parent compounds. Both hybrids displayed enhanced in vitro activities, relative to those of the parent compounds, against Plasmodium berghei liver stages. Both compounds were about as potent as artemisinin against cultured Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], ∼10 nM). When used to treat a murine P. berghei infection, one of the molecules displayed better efficacy than an equimolar mixture of the parent pharmacophores, leading to improved cure and survival rates. These results reveal a novel approach to the design and evaluation of antimalarials based on the covalent combination of molecules acting on different stages of the parasite life cycle.

  11. Biowaiver monographs for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: primaquine phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2012-03-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing the antimalarial drug primaquine phosphate as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. On the basis of permeability data and solubility studies, primaquine phosphate was found to be "highly soluble" and "highly permeable" API, thus conforming to Class I of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). It has a wide therapeutic index. BCS-conform dissolution studies showed the products to be rapidly dissolving. No data pertaining to BE or bioinequivalence of IR primaquine phosphate products could be located in open literature. On the basis of the available data, a biowaiver-procedure-based approval can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms of primaquine phosphate, provided the generic product contains excipients present in products already approved by the International Conference on Harmonisation or associated countries in similar amounts and the test and reference products meet the dissolution criteria for "rapidly dissolving" (>85% drug release in 30 min in standard media at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8; similarity factor (f(2)) > 50) or "very rapidly dissolving" products (>85% drug release in 15 min in standard media at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8).

  12. Evaluation of antimalarial activity and toxicity of a new primaquine prodrug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Davanço

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent of the five species causing malaria in humans. The current available treatment for P. vivax malaria is limited and unsatisfactory due to at least two drawbacks: the undesirable side effects of primaquine (PQ and drug resistance to chloroquine. Phenylalanine-alanine-PQ (Phe-Ala-PQ is a PQ prodrug with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared to PQ. The toxicity of this prodrug was evaluated in in vitro assays using a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2, a monkey kidney cell line (BGM, and human red blood cells deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD. In addition, in vivo toxicity assays were performed with rats that received multiple doses of Phe-Ala-PQ to evaluate biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters. The activity was assessed by the inhibition of the sporogonic cycle using a chicken malaria parasite. Phe-Ala-PQ blocked malaria transmission in Aedes mosquitoes. When compared with PQ, it was less cytotoxic to BGM and HepG2 cells and caused less hemolysis of G6PD-deficient red blood cells at similar concentrations. The prodrug caused less alteration in the biochemical parameters than did PQ. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney did show differences between the control and Phe-Ala-PQ-treated groups, but they were not statistically significant. Taken together, the results highlight the prodrug as a novel lead compound candidate for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and as a blocker of malaria transmission.

  13. Haemolysis in G6PD Heterozygous Females Treated with Primaquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Nested Cohort in a Trial of Radical Curative Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Htun Htun; Thitipanawan, Niramon; Po, Christina; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Raksapraidee, Rattanaporn; Wilairisak, Pornpimon; Keereecharoen, Lily; Proux, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Background Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine) is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD heterozygous females, because of individual variation in the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (Lyonisation) in erythroid cells, may have low G6PD activity in the majority of their erythrocytes, yet are usually reported as G6PD “normal” by current phenotypic screening tests. Their haemolytic risk when treated with 8-aminoquinolines has not been well characterized. Methods and Findings In a cohort study nested within a randomised clinical trial that compared different treatment regimens for P. vivax malaria, patients with a normal standard NADPH fluorescent spot test result (≳30%–40% of normal G6PD activity) were randomised to receive 3 d of chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in combination with primaquine, either the standard high dose of 0.5 mg base/kg/day for 14 d or a higher dose of 1 mg base/kg/d for 7 d. Patterns of haemolysis were compared between G6PD wild-type and G6PD heterozygous female participants. Between 21 February 2012 and 04 July 2014, 241 female participants were enrolled, of whom 34 were heterozygous for the G6PD Mahidol variant. Haemolysis was substantially greater and a larger proportion of participants reached the threshold of clinically significant haemolysis (fractional haematocrit reduction >25%) in G6PD heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose (9/17 [53%]) compared with G6PD heterozygotes taking the standard high (14 d) dose (2/16 [13%]; p = 0.022). In heterozygotes, the mean fractional haematocrit reductions were correspondingly greater with the higher primaquine dose (7-d regimen): −20.4% (95% CI −26.0% to −14.8%) (nadir on day 5) compared with the standard high (14 d) dose: −13.1% (95% CI −17.6% to −8.6%) (nadir day 6). Two heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose

  14. Scalable Preparation and Differential Pharmacologic and Toxicologic Profiles of Primaquine Enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwani, Babu L.; Herath, H. M. T. Bandara; Sahu, Rajnish; Gettayacamin, Montip; Tungtaeng, Anchalee; van Gessel, Yvonne; Baresel, Paul; Wickham, Kristina S.; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Melendez, Victor; Ohrt, Colin; Reichard, Gregory A.; McChesney, James D.; Rochford, Rosemary; Walker, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Hematotoxicity in individuals genetically deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is the major limitation of primaquine (PQ), the only antimalarial drug in clinical use for treatment of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria. PQ is currently clinically used in its racemic form. A scalable procedure was developed to resolve racemic PQ, thus providing pure enantiomers for the first time for detailed preclinical evaluation and potentially for clinical use. These enantiomers were compared for antiparasitic activity using several mouse models and also for general and hematological toxicities in mice and dogs. (+)-(S)-PQ showed better suppressive and causal prophylactic activity than (−)-(R)-PQ in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Similarly, (+)-(S)-PQ was a more potent suppressive agent than (−)-(R)-PQ in a mouse model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. However, at higher doses, (+)-(S)-PQ also showed more systemic toxicity for mice. In beagle dogs, (+)-(S)-PQ caused more methemoglobinemia and was toxic at 5 mg/kg of body weight/day given orally for 3 days, while (−)-(R)-PQ was well tolerated. In a novel mouse model of hemolytic anemia associated with human G6PD deficiency, it was also demonstrated that (−)-(R)-PQ was less hemolytic than (+)-(S)-PQ for the G6PD-deficient human red cells engrafted in the NOD-SCID mice. All these data suggest that while (+)-(S)-PQ shows greater potency in terms of antiparasitic efficacy in rodents, it is also more hematotoxic than (−)-(R)-PQ in mice and dogs. Activity and toxicity differences of PQ enantiomers in different species can be attributed to their different pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles. Taken together, these studies suggest that (−)-(R)-PQ may have a better safety margin than the racemate in human. PMID:24913163

  15. Scalable preparation and differential pharmacologic and toxicologic profiles of primaquine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L; Herath, H M T Bandara; Sahu, Rajnish; Gettayacamin, Montip; Tungtaeng, Anchalee; van Gessel, Yvonne; Baresel, Paul; Wickham, Kristina S; Bartlett, Marilyn S; Fronczek, Frank R; Melendez, Victor; Ohrt, Colin; Reichard, Gregory A; McChesney, James D; Rochford, Rosemary; Walker, Larry A

    2014-08-01

    Hematotoxicity in individuals genetically deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is the major limitation of primaquine (PQ), the only antimalarial drug in clinical use for treatment of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria. PQ is currently clinically used in its racemic form. A scalable procedure was developed to resolve racemic PQ, thus providing pure enantiomers for the first time for detailed preclinical evaluation and potentially for clinical use. These enantiomers were compared for antiparasitic activity using several mouse models and also for general and hematological toxicities in mice and dogs. (+)-(S)-PQ showed better suppressive and causal prophylactic activity than (-)-(R)-PQ in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Similarly, (+)-(S)-PQ was a more potent suppressive agent than (-)-(R)-PQ in a mouse model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. However, at higher doses, (+)-(S)-PQ also showed more systemic toxicity for mice. In beagle dogs, (+)-(S)-PQ caused more methemoglobinemia and was toxic at 5 mg/kg of body weight/day given orally for 3 days, while (-)-(R)-PQ was well tolerated. In a novel mouse model of hemolytic anemia associated with human G6PD deficiency, it was also demonstrated that (-)-(R)-PQ was less hemolytic than (+)-(S)-PQ for the G6PD-deficient human red cells engrafted in the NOD-SCID mice. All these data suggest that while (+)-(S)-PQ shows greater potency in terms of antiparasitic efficacy in rodents, it is also more hematotoxic than (-)-(R)-PQ in mice and dogs. Activity and toxicity differences of PQ enantiomers in different species can be attributed to their different pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles. Taken together, these studies suggest that (-)-(R)-PQ may have a better safety margin than the racemate in human.

  16. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    Full Text Available Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, in the form of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides, was evaluated in HIV-1 uninfected persons in both long-term (7 day and 24 hour, commercially available QuantiFERON TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT, whole blood assays. Our findings showed differences in the IFN-gamma response between 24 hour and 7 day cultures, with recombinant proteins inducing a significantly higher response than the peptide pools in 7 day whole blood assays. The activity of peptides and recombinant proteins did not differ in 24 hour whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assays, nor in the ELISpot assay. Further analysis by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the peptides are degraded over the course of 7 days of incubation in whole blood whilst the recombinant proteins remain intact. This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Omwoyo, Wesley Nyaigoti; Ogutu, Bernhards; Oloo,Florence; Swai,Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Melariri, Paula; Mahanga, Geoffrey Maroa; Gathirwa, Jeremiah Waweru

    2014-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reduci...

  18. A carbamate-based approach to primaquine prodrugs: antimalarial activity, chemical stability and enzymatic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Graça; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Iley, Jim; Constantino, Luís; Moreira, Rui

    2012-01-15

    O-Alkyl and O-aryl carbamate derivatives of the antimalarial drug primaquine were synthesised as potential prodrugs that prevent oxidative deamination to the inactive metabolite carboxyprimaquine. Both O-alkyl and O-aryl carbamates undergo hydrolysis in alkaline and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers to the parent drug, with O-aryl carbamates being ca. 10(6)-10(10) more reactive than their O-alkyl counterparts. In human plasma O-alkyl carbamates were stable, whereas in contrast their O-aryl counterparts rapidly released the corresponding phenol product, with primaquine being released only slowly over longer incubation periods. Activation of the O-aryl carbamates in human plasma appears to be catalysed by butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which leads to carbamoylation of the catalytic serine of the enzyme followed by subsequent slow enzyme reactivation and release of parent drug. Most of the O-aryl and O-alkyl carbamates are activated in rat liver homogenates with half-lives ranging from 9 to 15 h, while the 4-nitrophenyl carbamate was hydrolysed too rapidly to determine an accurate rate constant. Antimalarial activity was studied using a model consisting of Plasmodium berghei, Balb C mice and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. When compared to controls, ethyl and n-hexyl carbamates were able to significantly reduce the percentage of infected mosquitos as well as the mean number of oocysts per infected mosquito, thus indicating that O-alkyl carbamates of primaquine have the potential to be developed as transmission-blocking antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 1- versus 7-day manipulation following collagenase injection for dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Dayne T; Noland, Shelley S; Watt, Andrew J; Kollitz, Kathleen M; Vedder, Nicholas B; Huang, Jerry I

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of manual manipulation at day 7 to day 1 following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Eligible patients were randomized to manipulation at day 1 versus day 7 following CCH injection. Preinjection, premanipulation, postmanipulation, and 30-day follow-up metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures were measured. Pain scores were recorded at each time point. Data were stratified per cohort based on primary joint treated (MCP vs PIP). Means were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Forty-three patients with 46 digits were eligible and were randomized to 1-day (22 digits) and 7-day (24 digits) manipulation. For MCP joints, there were no significant differences in flexion contractures between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (47° vs 46°), postmanipulation (0° vs 2°), or 30-day follow-up (1° vs 2°) measurements. Premanipulation, the residual contracture was significantly lower in the 7-day group (23° vs 40°). For PIP joints, there were no significant differences between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (63° vs 62°), premanipulation (56° vs 52°), postmanipulation (13° vs 15°), or 30-day (14° vs 16°) measurements. There were no significant differences in pain or skin tears between the 2 groups. No flexor tendon ruptures were observed. The effectiveness of CCH in achieving correction of Dupuytren contractures was preserved when manipulation was performed on day 7, with no differences in correction, pain, or skin tears. These data suggest that manipulation can be scheduled at the convenience of the patient and surgeon within the first 7 days after injection. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  1. Development and validation of a dissolution test for primaquine/polyethylene oxide matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane P. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, specific, repeatable and discriminating dissolution test for primaquine (PQ matrix tablets was developed and validated according to ICH and FDA guidelines. Two UV assaying methods were validated for determination of PQ released in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and water media. Both methods were linear (R²>0.999, precise (R.S.D.<1.87% and accurate (97.65-99.97%. Dissolution efficiency (69-88% and equivalence of formulations (f2 was assessed in different media and apparatuses (basket/100 rpm and paddle/50 rpm tested. Discriminating condition was 900 mL aqueous medium, basket at 100 rpm and sampling times at 1, 4 and 8 h. Repeatability (R.S.D.<2.71% and intermediate precision (R.S.D.<2.06% of dissolution method were satisfactory.

  2. Fast atom bombardment mass spectral analysis of three new oxidative products of primaquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sukesh N.; Dua, V. K.

    2004-03-01

    FAB mass spectrum of 5,5-di-[6-methoxy-8-(4'-amino-1'butyl amino)] quinoline (PI) was recorded in three different concentrations to establish the structure of new oxidative products of primaquine and also the effect of matrix on percentage relative abundance of molecular as well as fragment ions which were demonstrated first time. At three concentrations, three different behaviors of matrix, molecular and fragment ions were observed. At higher concentration (>1 nM) molecular ion behaved as a base peak, but due to side reaction with matrix certain extra peak were also obtained. Thus, the higher concentration was interesting to show the side reaction of analyte with m-nitro-benzyl alcohol (NBA) but not for molecular weight determination. At the lowest concentration (NBA as a matrix was recorded in between 0.6 and 1 nM concentrations for the structural elucidation of new compounds. Molecular ions and fragment ions of 5,5-di-[6-methoxy-8-(4'-amino-1' butyl amino)] quinoline (PI), 6-methoxy-5,8-di-[4'amino-1'-methyl butyl amino] quinoline (PII), and 5,5-di-[7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-8(4'-amino-1'-methyl butyl amino)] quinoline (PIII) were identified. The fragment ions were obtained due to ring cleavages, Retero-Diels-Alder reaction (RDA), loss of side chain, proton transfer and substituted groups of the ring. On the basis of the fragmentation schemes and molecular ion peaks the structure of three new compounds PI, PII and PIII were proposed. In vitro studies showed that the compounds PI and PII had four times more gametocytocidal activity than primaquine but the compound 6-methoxy-5,8-di-[4'-amino-1'-methyl butyl amino] quinoline (PII) was found to have good gametocytocidal activity against Plasmodium yoelli infected mice at 10 mg kg-1 dose in vivo. Therefore, the spectra reported might serve as reference for the development of new molecules for the radical cure of relapsing malaria.

  3. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  4. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Cheryl L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR. Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

  5. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...... after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40min of exercise was larger (P=0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher...

  6. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  7. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......' to Aalborg University Hospital (H.I.N). G.V.D.H. is an external senior scientific consultant to Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain). H.A. has provided scientific input and presentations for Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain) on several occasions. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. TRIAL...

  8. The novel primaquine derivatives of N-alkyl, cycloalkyl or aryl urea: synthesis, cytostatic and antiviral activity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimbeg, G; Zorc, B; Kralj, M; Ester, K; Pavelić, K; Andrei, G; Snoeck, R; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E; Mintas, M

    2008-06-01

    The novel urea primaquine derivatives 3a-i were prepared by aminolysis of benzotriazolide 2 with the corresponding amine in the presence or absence of triethylamine. Compound 2 was prepared by acylation of primaquine with 1-benzotriazole carboxylic acid chloride. Among all compounds evaluated, the pyridine derivative 3h exhibited the best cytostatic activities against colon carcinoma, human T-lymphocyte and murine leukemia. However, this compound showed also rather marked cytotoxicity towards human normal fibroblasts. The highest selectivity in the inhibitory effects on human malignant tumor cell lines vs. normal fibroblasts was found for ureas 3c, 3d and 3g. Results of broad antiviral evaluation showed that pyridine and phenethyl derivatives of urea 3h and 3g exhibited some selective inhibition against cytomegalovirus.

  9. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning decimals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Decimals. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning decimals super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their chag

  10. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  11. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  12. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that at equal protein content, milk, but not meat, decreased bone turnover in boys. This suggested that milk-derived components are important for bone metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized that milk-derived proteins (whey and casein) affect bone turnover during...... growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount...... of whey and casein was identical to their content in 1.5 L of milk. We measured serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (immunoassay) and estimated dietary intake (3-day weighed food record) at baseline and after 7 days. Only s...

  13. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rouse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  14. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  15. Fabrication of highly sensitive gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for nanomolar determination of primaquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Neeta Bachheti; Chiwunze, Tirivashe Elton; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Cherukupalli, Srinivasulu

    2017-05-01

    A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface. Upon investigating the electrochemical behavior of PQ at AuNu/GCE, the developed sensor was found to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PQ. Under optimal experimental conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to PQ over a linear concentration range of 0.01-1μM and 0.001-1μM with a detection limit of 3.5nM and 0.9nM using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively. The AuNu/GCE showed good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Further, the developed sensor was successfully applied to determine the drug in human urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations demonstrating its analytical applicability in clinical analysis as well as quality control. The proposed method thus provides a promising alternative in routine sensing of PQ as well as promotes the application of gold nanourchins in electrochemical sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemically altered human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted delivery of primaquine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars K; Harisa, Gamal El-Din I; Maqboul, Ahmad; Abdel-Hamid, Magdi; Neau, Steven H; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted drug delivery of primaquine (PQ). The process of PQ loading in human erythrocytes, as well as the effect of PQ loading on the oxidative status of erythrocytes, was also studied. At PQ concentrations of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/mL and an incubation time of 2 h, the ratios of the concentrations of PQ entrapped in erythrocytes to that in the incubation medium were 0.515, 0.688, 0.697 and 0.788, respectively. The maximal decline of erythrocyte reduced glutathione content was observed at 8 mg/mL of PQ compared with native erythrocytes p erythrocytes was increased in comparison with unloaded cells. Electron microscopy revealed spherocyte formation with PQ carrier erythrocytes. PQ-loaded cells showed sustained drug release over a 48 h period. Erythrocytes were loaded with PQ successfully, but there were some biochemical as well as physiological changes that resulted from the effect of PQ on the oxidative status of drug-loaded erythrocytes. These changes may result in favorable targeting of PQ-loaded cells to reticulo-endothelial organs. The relative impact of these changes remains to be explored in ongoing animal studies.

  17. Study protocol for a randomised controlled double-blinded trial of the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eziefula, A.C.; Staedke, S.G.; Yeung, S.; Webb, E.; Kamya, M.; White, N.J.; Bousema, T.; Drakeley, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the purpose of blocking transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from humans to mosquitoes, a single dose of primaquine is recommended by the WHO as an addition to artemisinin combination therapy. Primaquine clears gametocytes but causes dose-dependent haemolysis in individuals

  18. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  19. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omwoyo WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Primaquine (PQ is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs (PQ-SLNs as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  2. The impact of chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus on liver function in a 7-day ultramarathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chou

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Compared to their counterparts, runners who are HBV carriers had significantly greater increases in levels of ALT, AST, and T-BIL during a 7-day ultramarathon, indicating that the liver function of carriers is more highly impacted in these races.

  3. Blood pressure circadian pattern and physical exercise assessment by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Ibáñez-Jalón, Elisa; González-Viejo, Natividad; Guenaga-Saenz, Nahia; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55 ± 14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; ρ = 0.19 to 0.11; P Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  4. Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar Lala M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%, Moraxella catarrhalis (100%, Staphylococcus aureus (80%, and Legionella spp. (100%. The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%. In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1% and nausea (5.8%. Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

  5. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkies, Krystyna, E-mail: kserkies@wp.pl [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  6. A comparative study of acute intravascular hemolysis in response to two chloroquine-primaquine regimens to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria%两种氯伯喹方案治疗间日疟急性血管内溶血反应比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 张再兴; 邓艳; 王剑; 魏春; 梁桂亮; 王恒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety of an 8-day chloroquine-primaquine regimen and a 14-day chloroquine-primaquine regimen to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria and to explore the relationship between acute intravascular hemolysis (AIH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in the City of Laiza, Myanmar and four suburban villages from 2007 to 2008. Patients infected with P. vivax were recruited and randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A received an 8-day chloroquine-primaquine regimen with a total a-dult dose of 1200 mg chloroquine(base, 600 mg on Day 0, 300 mg on Day 1. and 300 mg on Day 2)and 180 mg prima-quine (base, 22. 5 mg primaquine/d×8 d, simultaneously administered with chloroquine on Day 0). Group B received a 14-day chloroquine-primaquine regimen with a total dose of 1 500 mg chloroquine (base, 25 mg chloroquine/kg. body weight×3 d) and 210 mg primaquine (base, 0. 25 mg primaquine/kg. body weight/d×14 d, simultaneously administered with chloroquine on Day 0). Patients were followed up on DO, Dl, D2, D3, D7, D14, D21 and D28; their symptoms, parasite density, body temperature, and urine were observed. Patients who suffered from jaundice and/or hematuria after treatment were deemed to be positive for AIH. G6PD activity was determined using the fluorescent spot test with dried blood specimens on filter paper that were collected from patients enrolled in 2008. Results There were 62 patients in group A; 1 patient from the Jingpo ethnic group developed AIH. The rate of AIH in group A was 1. 67%. There were 56 patients in group B, and none developed AIH. G6PD activity was determined in 74 patients; 11 had G6PD deficiency. The total rate of G6PD deficiency was 14. 87%. The rate of G6PD deficiency was 21. 62% in group A and 8. 11% in group B. The only patient with AIH in group A was found to have a severe G6PD deficiency. There was no significant difference between groups A and B in terms of

  7. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  8. Lack of Response in Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia to Combined Caspofungin and Clindamycin Treatment: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhang; Hua Zhang; Jun XU; Chan Wu; Xiao-jun Ma

    2011-01-01

    PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia (PCP) is among the most common opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first line therapy for that condition given its efficacy,approximately one third of patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity.1 For cases of severe to moderate PCP,if TMP-SMX treatment fails or is contraindicated,primaquine combined with clindamycin or intravenous pentamidine is recommended as second line therapy.2 However,both primaquine and pentamidine are associated with severe adverse reactions and often unavailable at hospitals in China.3 As a result,other treatment options have been explored.

  9. Therapeutic Assessment of Chloroquine-Primaquine Combined Regimen in Adult Cohort of Plasmodium vivax Malaria from Primary Care Centres in Southwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravu, Kavitha; Kumar, Rishikesh; Ashok, Herikudru; Kundapura, Premananda; Kamath, Veena; Kamath, Asha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs) of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Method Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days) plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days) regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization’s protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort. Results In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3%) participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1%) participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity) was noted among 5 (3.1%) participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28%) cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum) malaria. Conclusions The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs. PMID:27315280

  10. Therapeutic Assessment of Chloroquine-Primaquine Combined Regimen in Adult Cohort of Plasmodium vivax Malaria from Primary Care Centres in Southwestern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Saravu

    Full Text Available Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization's protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort.In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3% participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1% participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity was noted among 5 (3.1% participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28% cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum malaria.The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs.

  11. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    Outer membrane vesicle BALB/c mice s.c. 1026b i.n. 5 x 10 3 0% at d 14 86 Outer ...6.6 x 10 5 30% at d 42 80 Bip proteins BALB/c mice i.p. Ashdown i.p. 970 0% at d 5 81 Omp3 and Omp7 ( Outer membrane ...proteins) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10 6 50% at d 21 82 Omp85 ( Outer membrane protein) BALB/c mice i.p. D286 i.p. 1 x 10

  12. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sadahiro, Sotaro, E-mail: sadahiro@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi [Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Chieko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  13. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal Samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Robert G; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011-2012, respectively. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  14. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (PHolter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Estimating children's eating habits. Validity of a questionnaire measuring food frequency compared to a 7-day record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, L; Lundmark, K; Dahlquist, G; Persson, L A

    1989-11-01

    A questionnaire measuring food frequency was validated against 7-day records of food intake in a group of 30 children, 2-16 years of age. Special emphasis was given to the ability of the questionnaire to estimate frequency of intake of foods of particular interest in diabetes mellitus. Fifteen children had insulin-dependent diabetes; 15 were healthy. Comparison of the two methods regarding frequency of foods with high content of sucrose, protein, fat, fibres, nitrite or vitamin C showed a correlation of 0.52-0.76. The frequency of intake of some staple foods was often overestimated by the questionnaire, while the frequency of meat, sausage and some sweet snacks was underestimated. The use of the questionnaire to identify high or low consumers of the mentioned nutrients showed a rather low sensitivity (0.38-0.50), but a high specificity (0.86-1.0) when compared with results of the 7-day record. In our limited sample of subjects no systematic differences were found comparing sexes or diabetic and healthy children. A food frequency questionnaire may, in spite of some important reservations, be a useful tool for screening purposes when more time-consuming and resource-demanding methods cannot be used.

  16. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch.

  17. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1 antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL y 7 estudios clínicos controlados (ECC. Según los EEL, para adultos, la dosis de primaquina apropiada en QP1 es 30 mg/d, tomados desde el día previo a la exposición. Los ECC mostraron protección de 93% entre quienes recibieron primaquina y de 45% entre quienes no la recibieron (p = 0,0000000. CONCLUSIONES: la QP1 con primaquina es altamente eficaz en adultos y niños, es igual frente a Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax y debe adoptarse como alternativa válida. Faltan evaluaciones sobre la seguridad y la toxicidad en niños. Background: There are many reportss about primaquine as primary chemoprophylactic (1-CP in humans, but we do not know of any metaanalysis about this subject. Specific Questions: Is primaquine effective to prevent malaria in humans? Does primaquine efficacy to prevent malaria depend on the place, the age of patients, or the Plasmodium species? Methodology: Procedures recommended for metanalysis were applied. Results: Four laboratory experimental studies (LES in humans and seven clinical controlled studies (CCS were included. According to LES the adequate primaquine dose as 1-CP for adults is 30 mg/day from the day before exposition and during the time of exposition. According to CCS protection was 93% in people that received primaquine and 45% in those who did not receive it (p = 0.0000000.

  18. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  19. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. [The fructose induced "glycogenosis". I. Ultrastructural and morphometric analysis of rat hepatocytes 7 days after fructose overload (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, U N; Uhl, H; Seufer, G; Robausch, T; Böhm, N; Sasse, D

    1975-01-01

    Infusion of fructose has been shown to stimulate the SER and to reduce the RER in rat liver cells. After feeding fructose of 7 days a glycogenosis of unknown pathogenesis occurs, which was analysed morphometrically. 60% fructose in water, was given as drinking water to animals deprived of other food. Controls had free access to Altromin-R-standard diet and drinking water. Liver tissue was analysed morphometrically according to the methods described by Weibel. Rat hepatocytes accumulate a material with histochemical properties of glycogen. The enlargement of hepatic nuclei is probably due to a pathological edema. The SER is decreased suggesting a drop of glycogen catabolizing enzymes. The drastic reduction of the RER and the non-membrane bound ribosomes are signs of inpeeded protein synthesis. According to this, the peroxisomes, which arise from the RER, are decreased in volume and number. The hepatocellular chondrioma is transformed morphometrically in a smaller number of larger, pleomorphic and cup-shaped mitochondria. The ATP level drops while, on the other hand, the cristeal membranes increase. This might be caused by a negative feed back mechanism. The hepatocellular cytoarchitecture described is similar to the one found in glycogenosis type I and in the cerebrohepato-renal syndrom.

  1. CYP450 phenotyping and accurate mass identification of metabolites of the 8-aminoquinoline, anti-malarial drug primaquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pybus Brandon S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ drug primaquine (PQ is currently the only approved drug effective against the persistent liver stage of the hypnozoite forming strains Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale as well as Stage V gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. To date, several groups have investigated the toxicity observed in the 8AQ class, however, exact mechanisms and/or metabolic species responsible for PQ’s haemotoxic and anti-malarial properties are not fully understood. Methods In the present study, the metabolism of PQ was evaluated using in vitro recombinant metabolic enzymes from the cytochrome P450 (CYP and mono-amine oxidase (MAO families. Based on this information, metabolite identification experiments were performed using nominal and accurate mass measurements. Results Relative activity factor (RAF-weighted intrinsic clearance values show the relative role of each enzyme to be MAO-A, 2C19, 3A4, and 2D6, with 76.1, 17.0, 5.2, and 1.7% contributions to PQ metabolism, respectively. CYP 2D6 was shown to produce at least six different oxidative metabolites along with demethylations, while MAO-A products derived from the PQ aldehyde, a pre-cursor to carboxy PQ. CYPs 2C19 and 3A4 produced only trace levels of hydroxylated species. Conclusions As a result of this work, CYP 2D6 and MAO-A have been implicated as the key enzymes associated with PQ metabolism, and metabolites previously identified as potentially playing a role in efficacy and haemolytic toxicity have been attributed to production via CYP 2D6 mediated pathways.

  2. Effect of Broiler Breeder Age and Glutamine Supplementation on the Development of the Intestinal Mucosa of 7-Day-Old Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of glutamine and broiler breeder age on the development of intestinal mucosa in broiler chicks during first week of age. For this purpose, 32 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two broiler breeder ages (30 and 60 weeks and two dietary glutamine supplementation levels (0% and 1%. The morphological development of intestinal mucosa, particularly villus height and crypt depth, was evaluated. The results showed that the supplementation with 1% of glutamine influenced the development of villus height in the duodenum (p=0.009, jejunum (p = 0.006, and ileum (p = 0.001, as well as crypt depth in the jejunum (p = 0.037 of 7-day-old broilers. These results suggest that the presence of glutamine influenced the development of intestinal mucosa during the first week of age, when these tissues are highly influenced by dietary components, especially by trophic agents. The results show that broiler breeder age (30 or 60 weeks did not influence the evaluated parameters.

  3. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  4. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type

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    Kristina Pavić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs bound directly (compounds 3a–k or via a spacer (compounds 7a–k are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3a–k were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A or benzotriazolides 2 (method B. The synthesis of acylsemicarbazides 7a–k included activation of PQ with benzotriazole, preparation of PQ-semicarbazide 6 and its condensation with CAD chlorides 4. All synthesized PQ-CAD conjugates were evaluated for their anticancer, antiviral and antioxidative activities. Almost all compounds from series 3 were selective towards the MCF-7 cell line and active at micromolar concentrations. The o-fluoro derivative 3h showed high activity against HeLa, MCF-7 and in particular against the SW 620 cell line, while acylsemicarbazide 7f with a benzodioxole ring and 7c, 7g and especially 7j with methoxy-, chloro- or trifluoromethyl-substituents in the para position showed high selectivity and high inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line at micromolar (7c, 7f, 7g and nanomolar (7j levels. Acylsemicarbazide derivatives with trifluoromethyl group(s 7i, 7j and 7k showed specific activity against human coronavirus (229E at concentrations which did not alter the normal cell morphology. The same compounds exerted the most potent reducing activity in the DPPH test, together with 7d and 7g, while methoxy (compounds 7c–e, benzodioxole (7f, p-Cl (7g and m-CF3 (7i acylsemicarbazides and amide 3f presented the highest LP inhibition (83%–89%. The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 μΜ. The performed biological tests gave evidence of

  5. Novel urea and bis-urea primaquine derivatives with hydroxyphenyl or halogenphenyl substituents: Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perković, I; Antunović, M; Marijanović, I; Pavić, K; Ester, K; Kralj, M; Vlainić, J; Kosalec, I; Schols, D; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; Pontiki, E; Zorc, B

    2016-11-29

    A series of novel compounds 3a-j and 6a-j with primaquine and hydroxyl or halogen substituted benzene moieties bridged by urea or bis-urea functionalities were designed, synthesized and evaluated for biological activity. The title compounds were prepared using benzotriazole as the synthon, through several synthetic steps. 3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-{4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}urea (3j) was the most active urea and 1-[({4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}carbamoyl)amino]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea (6h) the most active bis-urea derivative in antiproliferative screening in vitro against eight tested cancer cell lines. Urea derivatives 3a-g with hydroxy group or one halogen atom showed moderate antiproliferative effects against all the tested cell lines, but stronger activity against breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell line, while trifluoromethyl derivatives 3h-j showed antiproliferative effects against all the tested cell lines in low micromolar range. Finally, bis-ureas with hydroxy and fluoro substituents 6a-d showed extreme selectivity and chloro or bromo derivatives 6e-g high selectivity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 0.1-2.6 μM). p-Fluoro derivative 6d, namely 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-[({4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}carbamoyl)amino]urea, is the most promising compound. Further biological experiments showed that 6d affected cell cycle and induced cell death of MCF-7 cell line. Due to its high activity against MCF-7 cell line (IC50 0.31 μM), extreme selectivity and full agreement with the Lipinski's and Gelovani's rules for prospective small molecular drugs, 6d may be considered as a lead compound in development of breast carcinoma drugs. Urea 3b and almost all bis-ureas showed high antioxidant activity in DPPH assay, but urea derivatives were more active in lipid peroxidation test. Only few compounds exhibited weak inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase. Compound 3j exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity in susceptibility

  6. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Kristina; Perković, Ivana; Gilja, Petra; Kozlina, Filip; Ester, Katja; Kralj, Marijeta; Schols, Dominique; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Pontiki, Eleni; Zorc, Branka

    2016-11-28

    In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3a-k) or via a spacer (compounds 7a-k) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3a-k were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A) or benzotriazolides 2 (method B). The synthesis of acylsemicarbazides 7a-k included activation of PQ with benzotriazole, preparation of PQ-semicarbazide 6 and its condensation with CAD chlorides 4. All synthesized PQ-CAD conjugates were evaluated for their anticancer, antiviral and antioxidative activities. Almost all compounds from series 3 were selective towards the MCF-7 cell line and active at micromolar concentrations. The o-fluoro derivative 3h showed high activity against HeLa, MCF-7 and in particular against the SW 620 cell line, while acylsemicarbazide 7f with a benzodioxole ring and 7c, 7g and especially 7j with methoxy-, chloro- or trifluoromethyl-substituents in the para position showed high selectivity and high inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line at micromolar (7c, 7f, 7g) and nanomolar (7j) levels. Acylsemicarbazide derivatives with trifluoromethyl group(s) 7i, 7j and 7k showed specific activity against human coronavirus (229E) at concentrations which did not alter the normal cell morphology. The same compounds exerted the most potent reducing activity in the DPPH test, together with 7d and 7g, while methoxy (compounds 7c-e), benzodioxole (7f), p-Cl (7g) and m-CF₃ (7i) acylsemicarbazides and amide 3f presented the highest LP inhibition (83%-89%). The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 μΜ). The performed biological tests gave evidence of

  7. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  8. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  9. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  10. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  11. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  12. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  13. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time-course of this effect of Epo are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the cognitive improvement reflects direct neurobiological actions or is secondary to hematological effects. We therefore assessed the actions of single administration of Epo (40,000 IU) vs. saline to healthy volunteers on cognitive and neural measures of executive function using a verbal fluency task and N-back working memory (WM) paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on day 3 and 7 after administration in two separate cohorts of subjects. Epo modulated neuronal response in a fronto-parietal network during WM performance at both time points; on day 3 after administration, activation was increased in left-hemisphere frontal and cingulate cortex and reduced in the right parietal cortex; in contrast, neural response was enhanced in a right-lateralized fronto-parietal network and reduced in left-side regions 1 week post-administration. In addition, Epo-treated volunteers displayed improved verbal fluency performance 1 week post-administration. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in hematological measures suggesting that they reflect direct neurobiological actions of Epo. The findings are consistent with enduring effects of Epo on neurotrophic signaling and induction of neurochemical changes over time in neural networks typically affected in neuropsychiatric illness. The present study supports the notion that Epo may have clinical applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction.

  14. Time to detection of positive BacT/Alert blood cultures and lack of need for routine subculture of 5- to 7-day negative cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, D J; Hulbert, B B; Migneault, P C

    1992-01-01

    Consecutive BacT/Alert blood cultures which were instrument negative following a 7-day incubation were subcultured. Eighteen (0.2%) of 11,476 bottles had growth on subculture. Eleven of these eighteen isolates were considered contaminants on the basis of the identity of the organism and lack of other positive blood cultures from the same patient. In addition, analysis of time to instrument detection for approximately 2,900 positive blood cultures indicates that 5 or 6 days of incubation is su...

  15. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  16. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Henley-Einion, Josie; Barnett, Amanda; Edwards, Darren; Heidi Seage, C

    2011-06-01

    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants (n=8, all female) kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline matching was assessed by comparing all dream reports to all diary records for days that occurred after the dream. A significant dream-lag effect for the 5-7 day period, compared to baseline and compared to the 2-4 day period, was found. This may indicate a memory processing function for sleep, which the dream content may reflect. Participants' and three independent judges' mean ratings also confirmed a significant day-residue effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compliance with a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine combination and baseline anti-malarial treatment in an area of Thailand with highly multidrug resistant falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Bangchang Kesara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is presently recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in several countries, as a mean of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. A three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine (4 mg/kg body weight once daily for three consecutive days, plus 15 and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine on the first and second days has been adopted by Malaria Control Programme of Thailand as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria all over the country since 2008. The gametocytocydal anti-malarial drug primaquine is administered at the dose of 30 mg (0.6 mg/kg on the last day. The aim of the present study was to assess patient compliance of this combination regimen when applied to field condition. Methods A total of 240 patients (196 males and 44 females who were attending the malaria clinics in Mae-Sot, Tak Province and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, with no reappearance of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia during follow-up were included into the study. The first dose of the treatment was given to the patients under direct supervision. All patients were given the medication for self-treatment at home and were requested to come back for follow-up on day 3 of the initial treatment. Baseline (day 0 and day 3 whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Two patients had recrudescence on days 28 and 35. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-day efficacy rate of this combination regimen was 99.2% (238/240. Based on whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations on day 3 of the initial treatment, compliance with mefloquine and primaquine in this three-day artesunate-mefloquine combination regimen were 96.3% (207/215, and 98.5% (197/200, respectively. Baseline mefloquine

  18. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  19. [b][/b]Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Peel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these differences inter-sampler correction factors may be applied, however for many pollen samplers and pollen taxa such correction factors do not exist and cannot be derived from existing published work. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] In this study, the relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap, the Sampling Technologies Rotorod Model 20, and the Burkard Personal Volumetric Air Sampler were evaluated for Urticaceae and Poaceae pollen under field conditions. The influence of wind speed and relative humidity on these efficiency relationships was also assessed. Data for the two pollen taxa were collected during 2010 and 2011–2012, respectively. [b]Results[/b]. The three devices were found to record significantly different concentrations for both pollen taxa, with the exception of the 7-Day and Rotorod samplers for Poaceae pollen. Under the range of conditions present during the study, wind speed was found to only have a significant impact on inter-sampler relationships involving the vertically-orientated Burkard Personal sampler, while no interaction between relative efficiency and relative humidity was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Data collected with the three models of sampler should only be compared once the appropriate correction has been made, with wind speed taken into account where appropriate.

  20. Compliance to the treatment of malaria cases in Ahmedabad City- A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in India, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss 1,2 . A Revised National Drug Policy on Malaria adopted and the guidelines have been prepared for healthcare personnel including clinicians involved in the treatment of malaria 2. Aim: 1 To study adherence to the protocol in diagnosis & management of malaria cases by private medical practitioners and Urban Health Centres (UHC of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC. Methodology- This was a qualitative study in which 29 UHCs and 97 private practitioners of three zones of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation were visited. Case papers of last 2 months and all malaria related registers maintained at UHCs were evaluated and home visit of 115 malaria cases was carried out. Observation & Discussion- 93.7% of patient with confirmed vivax malaria were prescribed Chloroquine and 99.1% patient with confirmed malaria prescribed Primaquine with correct dose as per age & schedule. Only 78.8% private practitioner was following the guideline dose. 20.2% of private practitioner were not prescribing Primaquine at all. Conclusion & Recommendation There was lack of sensitization in some M.O. of U.H.C & private practitioners (other than M.D. Medicine regarding prescribing treatment as per National Drug Policy for treatment of Malaria especially primaquine. Sensitization & involvement of private doctors for rational prescription through the Indian / Ahmedabad Medical Association must be carried out.

  1. A newly validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array ultraviolet detection for analysis of the antimalarial drug primaquine in the blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Ana Paula Barbosa do; Borborema, Manoella; Ribeiro, Stephan; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Xavier; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma; Moreira, Davyson de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) diphosphate is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug with unique therapeutic properties. It is the only drug that prevents relapses of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale infections. In this study, a fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and robust method for the extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection (HPLC-DAD-UV ) analysis of PQ in the blood plasma was developed and validated. After plasma protein precipitation, PQ was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-UV with a modified-silica cyanopropyl column (250mm × 4.6mm i.d. × 5μm) as the stationary phase and a mixture of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 3.80) (45:55) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0mL·min-1, the oven temperature was 50OC, and absorbance was measured at 264nm. The method was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, recovery, and robustness. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 1.0 and 3.5ng·mL-1, respectively. The method was used to analyze the plasma of female DBA-2 mice treated with 20mg.kg-1 (oral) PQ diphosphate. By combining a simple, low-cost extraction procedure with a sensitive, precise, accurate, and robust method, it was possible to analyze PQ in small volumes of plasma. The new method presents lower LOD and LOQ limits and requires a shorter analysis time and smaller plasma volumes than those of previously reported HPLC methods with DAD-UV detection. The new validated method is suitable for kinetic studies of PQ in small rodents, including mouse models for the study of malaria.

  2. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  3. Comparison of abuse, suspected suicidal intent, and fatalities related to the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal patch versus other opioid analgesics in the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Paul M; Sessler, Nelson E; Harikrishnan, Venkatesh; Singh, Richa; Perkel, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Prescription opioid related abuse, suicide and death are significant public health problems. This study compares rates of poison center calls categorized as intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent or fatality for the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal system/patch (BTDS) with other extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids indicated for chronic pain. Retrospective 24-month cohort study using National Poison Data System data from July 2012 through June 2014. BTDS was introduced in the United States in January 2011. Numbers and rates of calls of intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent and fatalities were evaluated for BTDS, ER morphine, ER oxycodone, fentanyl patch, ER oxymorphone and methadone tablets/capsules, using prescription adjustment to account for community availability. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Absolute numbers and prescription-adjusted rates of intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent with BTDS were significantly lower (p opioid analgesics examined. No fatalities associated with BTDS exposure were reported. This post-marketing evaluation of BTDS indicates infrequent poison center calls for intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent events, suggesting lower rates of these risks with BTDS compared to other ER/LA opioids.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of 7-day-Holter monitoring alone or in combination with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Felix; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Gröschel, Klaus; Mostardt, Sarah; Biermann, Janine; Edelmann, Frank; Liman, Jan; Wasem, Jürgen; Goehler, Alexander; Wachter, Rolf; Neumann, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Prolonged Holter monitoring of patients with cerebral ischemia increases the detection rate of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); this leads to improved antithrombotic regimens aimed at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes. The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day-Holter monitoring (7-d-Holter) alone or in combination with prior selection via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to a standard 24-h-Holter using a cost-utility analysis. Lifetime cost, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for a cohort of patients with acute cerebral ischemia and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. A Markov model was developed to simulate the long-term course and progression of cerebral ischemia considering the different diagnostic algorithms (24-h-Holter, 7-d-Holter, 7-d-Holter after preselection by TTE). Clinical data for these algorithms were derived from the prospective observational Find-AF study (ISRCTN 46104198). Predicted lifelong discounted costs were 33,837 for patients diagnosed by the 7-d-Holter and 33,852 by the standard 24-h-Holter. Cumulated QALYs were 3.868 for the 7-d-Holter compared to 3.844 for the 24-h-Holter. The 7-d-Holter dominated the 24-h-Holter in the base-case scenario and remained cost-effective in extensive sensitivity analysis of key input parameter with a maximum of 8,354 /QALY gained. Preselecting patients for the 7-d-Holter had no positive effect on the cost-effectiveness. A 7-d-Holter to detect PAF in patients with cerebral ischemia is cost-effective. It increases the detection which leads to improved antithrombotic regimens; therefore, it avoids recurrent strokes, saves future costs, and decreases quality of life impairment. Preselecting patients by TTE does not improve cost-effectiveness.

  5. Recurrencias de malaria por Plasmodium vivax según el uso de primaquina: análisis de estudios descriptivos longitudinales Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence according to the use of primaquine: analysis of longitudinal descriptive studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: la primaquina (PQ es el único medicamento disponible en el mercado para prevenir recurrencias del paludismo por Plasmodium vivax pero varios aspectos suyos se desconocen. OBJETIVO: comparar regímenes de PQ para prevenir recurrencias de malaria vivax. METODOLOGÍA: revisión sistemática de datos. RESULTADOS: 1. ¿Según los estudios descriptivos, la PQ es eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias del paludismo vivax? Sí. La comparación de estudios que no usaron PQ con otros que sí la aplicaron, en cualquier esquema, mostró que si no se usa PQ la recurrencia es altamente probable. 2. ¿Tienen la misma eficacia dosis diarias (mg/kg iguales pero dosis totales diferentes? La dosis total de 75 mg es tanto o más eficaz que la de 210 mg. 3. ¿La eficacia anti-recurrencias depende del lugar donde sucede la infección? Si. Hay variación según país y región. 4. ¿La frecuencia de recurrencias depende del tiempo de seguimiento post tratamiento? La respuesta no es uniforme para todos los lugares. CONCLUSIONES: la PQ resultó eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias, pero no fue 100%. Las dosis totales de 210 y de 75 mg tuvieron igual eficacia, pero 75 mg sólo han sido evaluados en India, donde P. vivax parece ser más sensible a la PQ que en otros lugares. Parece indudable la influencia del lugar en la proporción de recurrencias, incluso con una misma dosis total. El papel del tiempo de seguimiento no resultó claro. Deben evaluarse esquemas alternativos al estándar, que tiene eficacia promedio de 90% o más.BACKGROUND: primaquine (PQ is the only drug available in the market to prevent Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence, but several aspects are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare PQ regimens to prevent recurrence of vivax malaria. METHODS: systematic review and meta-analysis of data. RESULTS: 1. According to descriptive studies, is PQ effective in preventing recurrence of vivax malaria? Yes. The comparison of studies that did not use

  6. Performance of the CareStart™ G6PD Deficiency Screening Test, a Point-of-Care Diagnostic for Primaquine Therapy Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saorin; Nguon, Chea; Guillard, Bertrand; Duong, Socheat; Chy, Sophy; Sum, Sarorn; Nhem, Sina; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Christophel, Eva; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Baird, John Kevin; Menard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Development of reliable, easy-to-use, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency at point of care is essential to deploying primaquine therapies as part of malaria elimination strategies. We assessed a kit under research and development called CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test (Access Bio, New Jersey, USA) by comparing its performance to quantitative G6PD enzyme activity using a standardized spectrophotometric method (‘gold standard’). Blood samples (n = 903) were collected from Cambodian adults living in Pailin province, western Cambodia. G6PD enzyme activities ranged from 0 to 20.5 U/g Hb (median 12.0 U/g Hg). Based on a normal haemoglobin concentration and wild-type G6PD gene, the normal values of G6PD enzymatic activity for this population was 3.6 to 20.5 U/g Hg (95th percentiles from 5.5 to 17.2 U/g Hg). Ninety-seven subjects (10.7%) had <3.6 U/g Hg and were classified as G6PD deficient. Prevalence of deficiency was 15.0% (64/425) among men and 6.9% (33/478) among women. Genotype was analyzed in 66 G6PD-deficient subjects and 63 of these exhibited findings consistent with Viangchang genotype. The sensitivity and specificity of the CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test was 0.68 and 1.0, respectively. Its detection threshold was <2.7 U/g Hg, well within the range of moderate and severe enzyme deficiencies. Thirteen subjects (1.4%, 12 males and 1 female) with G6PD enzyme activities <2 U/g Hg were falsely classified as “normal” by RDT. This experimental RDT test here evaluated outside of the laboratory for the first time shows real promise, but safe application of it will require lower rates of falsely “normal” results. PMID:22164279

  7. A SWOT Analysis of the Development of 7 Days Inn%7天连锁酒店发展的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴; 彭保发; 吴云超; 黄佳

    2015-01-01

    since the luxury hotel is beyond the accept scope of most people ,the economic hotels are more welcomed by many people,although the present market situation is sound and the market prospects are broad, but along with the rapid development of economic hotels ,there are also a lot of problems.This paper is started from the current situation of economic hotels in our country and took the typical representative 7 Days Inn for example. it the pointed out rea-sons why the economic hotels are developing rapidly and the main problems existing in development with the contrasive analysis and comparative analysis,data analysis and other analysis methods Comprehensively,and proposed the development prospect and strategies in this industry, ,like to lay emphasis on theme culture,to carry out the differential management, to select the optimal franchisees ,to establish perfect management system and so on,hoping to provide reference for the development of ecomonic hotel in our country.%由于高档酒店超出了多数人的接受范围,使得经济型酒店受到了很多人的欢迎,虽然目前市场形势较好,市场前景广阔,但在经济型酒店发展迅速同时,也存在着不少的问题。文章就是从我国经济型酒店的现状入手,以极具代表性的7天连锁酒店为例。综合运用对比分析、数据分析等不同分析方法,指出了近几年我国经济型酒店迅猛发展的原因和发展过程中存在的主要问题,提出了这个行业未来的发展前景和发展战略,如重视主题文化、实行差异化管理、择优选择加盟店、建立完善的管理系统等等,希望对我国经济型酒店的发展提供参考价值。

  8. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave

  9. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  10. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  11. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use

  12. Adherence to Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Pereira Elza A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' adherence to malaria treatment is an important factor in determining the therapeutic response to anti-malarial drugs. It contributes to the patient's complete recovery and prevents the emergence of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Brazil, the low compliance with malaria treatment probably explains the large number of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses observed in the past years. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients adhering to the P. vivax malaria treatment with chloroquine + primaquine in the dosages recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods Patients who were being treated for P. vivax malaria with chloroquine plus primaquine were eligible for the study. On the seventh day of taking primaquine, they were visited at their home and were interviewed. The patients were classified as probably adherent, if they reported having taken all the medication as prescribed, in the correct period of time and dosage, and had no medication tablets remaining; probably non-adherent, if they reported not having taken the medication, in the correct period of time and dosage, and did not show any remaining tablets; and certainly non-adherent, if they showed any remaining medication tablets. Results 242 of the 280 patients reported having correctly followed the prescribed instructions and represented a treatment adherence frequency (CI95% of 86.4% (81.7%-90.1%. Of the 38 patients who did not follow the recommendations, 27 (9.6% were still taking the medication on the day of the interview and, therefore, still had primaquine tablets left in the blister pack. These patients were then classified as certainly non-adherent to treatment. Although 11 patients did not show any tablets left, they reported incorrect use of the prescribed therapy regimen and were considered as probably non-adherent to treatment. Conclusions Compliance with the P. vivax malaria treatment is a characteristic of

  13. Tafenoquine plus chloroquine for the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria (DETECTIVE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 2b dose-selection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Lacerda, Marcus V; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Krudsood, Srivicha; Gupta, Sandeep K; Kochar, Sanjay K; Arthur, Preetam; Chuenchom, Nuttagarn; Möhrle, Jörg J; Duparc, Stephan; Ugwuegbulam, Cletus; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Carter, Nick; Green, Justin A; Kellam, Lynda

    2014-03-22

    Clinical effectiveness of previous regimens to treat Plasmodium vivax infection have been hampered by compliance. We aimed to assess the dose-response, safety, and tolerability of single-dose tafenoquine plus 3-day chloroquine for P vivax malaria radical cure. In this double-blind, randomised, dose-ranging phase 2b study, men and women (aged ≥16 years) with microscopically confirmed P vivax monoinfection (parasite density >100 to 7500 per μL blood). The primary efficacy endpoint was relapse-free efficacy at 6 months from initial dose (ie, clearance of initial infection without subsequent microscopically confirmed infection), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01376167. Between Sept 19, 2011, and March 25, 2013, 329 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (chloroquine plus tafenoquine 50 mg [n=55], 100 mg [n=57], 300 mg [n=57], 600 mg [n=56]; or to chloroquine plus primaquine [n=50]; or chloroquine alone [n=54]). Relapse-free efficacy at 6 months was 57·7% (95% CI 43-70) with tafenoquine 50 mg, 54·1% (40-66) with tafenoquine 100 mg, 89·2% (77-95) with tafenoquine 300 mg, 91·9% (80-97) with tafenoquine 600 mg, 77·3% (63-87) with primaquine, and 37·5% (23-52) with chloroquine alone. Tafenoquine 300 mg and 600 mg had better efficacy than chloroquine alone (treatment differences 51·7% [95% CI 35-69], p<0·0001, with tafenoquine 300 mg and 54·5% [38-71], p<0·0001, with tafenoquine 600 mg), as did primaquine (treatment difference 39·9% [21-59], p=0·0004). Adverse events were similar between treatments. 29 serious adverse events occurred in 26 (8%) of 329 patients; QT prolongation was the most common serious adverse event (11 [3%] of 329), occurring in five (2%) of 225 patients receiving tafenoquine, four (8%) of 50 patients receiving primaquine, and two (4%) of 54 patients receiving chloroquine alone, with no evidence of an additional effect on QT of chloroquine plus tafenoquine

  14. The effect of 7 days of letrozole pretreatment combined with misoprostol on the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic factors of placental and decidual tissues from first-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Sofie Shuk Fei; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Chiu, Philip Chi Ngong; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate if letrozole-induced suppression of estradiol reduces progesterone receptor expression and apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 20 women requesting first-trimester abortion with gestation up to 63 days to receive either letrozole 10 mg daily or placebo pretreatment for 7 days before administrating 400 mcg of vaginal misoprostol followed by suction abortion. We collected the placental and decidual tissues on which we performed immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers (active caspase 3, caspase 3, Bcl2, CD95, fas ligand) and determined H-scores of each based on the intensities of staining. We performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in the samples of four women to confirm the findings from apoptotic markers. We excluded one woman in the letrozole group from the analysis because she had passage of abortus after taking letrozole, leaving 19 women (9 in the letrozole group, 10 in the placebo group) for analysis. There was no significant difference in the H-scorings of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers, as well as proportion of apoptotic cells on TUNEL assay between the two groups. The H-scores for the progesterone receptor were 8.17 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) in the letrozole group and 9.01 ± 2.82 in the placebo group (p=0.36). We did not detect a difference in the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers in placental and decidual tissues after letrozole pretreatment for 7 days in first-trimester abortion. We did not confirm the hypothesis that letrozole reduces progesterone receptor expression and induces apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. Further studies are required to allow better understanding of the mechanism by which estrogen suppression following the use of letrozole can lead to improved abortion rate in the first

  15. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T.; Atzori, C.; Miller, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007...... and included individual treatment data of AIDS-associated PCP from a tricenter study. We calculated pooled estimates of reported outcome of second-line treatment using averaged odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies with sufficient detail of second-line treatment and outcome, including data from 82...... individual cases from the tricenter study, yielded a total of 468 PCP second-line treatment episodes. Response rates to second-line treatment were comparable for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 68%) and clindamycin-primaquine (73%) (OR for response = 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 3...

  16. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  17. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  18. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  19. Down-regulation of monocyte functions by treatment of healthy adults with 1 alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Gram, J; Bollerslev, J;

    1991-01-01

    , immunological effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 have not been substantiated in vivo. Six healthy male volunteers, aged 28-45 yr, were treated orally with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (tabl. Rocaltrol), 1 microgram twice daily for 7 days. Blood and urine samples were collected before and 7 days after initiation of treatment. Blood...

  20. Report of treatment of a patient with a mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria%间日疟、恶性疟混合感染1例治疗报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温卫珊; 魏荣英

    2011-01-01

    2009年龙岩市报告1例间日疟、恶性疟混合感染病例,患者在国外感染、发病,曾接受过治疗,回国后再次发病.在国内经3个疗程青蒿琥酯(1 800mg)和4个疗程的氯伯8 d疗法(氯喹4 800 mg、伯氨喹720 mg)治疗后痊愈.%The City of Longyan reported a case of a mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 2009. The patient had been infected abroad, developed malaria, been treated, returned home, and developed malaria again. In China, the patient received an 8-day-treatment with 3 courses of artesunate (1 800 mg) and 4 courses of chloroquine+primaquine (chloroquine, 4 800 mg, primaquine 720 mg). Afterwards, the patient recovered.

  1. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    severe malaria should also be treated with empirical broad spectrum antibiotics until bacterial infection can be excluded (Grade 1B). 15. Haemolysis occurs in approximately 10-15% patients following intravenous artesunate treatment. Haemoglobin concentrations should be checked approximately 14 days following treatment in those treated with IV artemisinins (Grade 2C). 16. Falciparum malaria in pregnancy is more likely to be complicated: the placenta contains high levels of parasites, stillbirth or early delivery may occur and diagnosis can be difficult if parasites are concentrated in the placenta and scanty in the blood. 17. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy should be treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Grade 2B). Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy should usually be treated with quinine and clindamycin but specialist advice should be sought. Severe malaria in any trimester of pregnancy should be treated as for any other patient with artesunate preferred over quinine (Grade 1C). 18. Children with uncomplicated malaria should be treated with an ACT (artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) as first line treatment (Grade 1A). Quinine with doxycycline or clindamycin, or atovaquone-proguanil at appropriate doses for weight can also be used. Doxycycline should not be given to children under 12 years. 19. Either an oral ACT or chloroquine can be used for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria. An oral ACT is preferred for a mixed infection, if there is uncertainty about the infecting species, or for P. vivax infection from areas where chloroquine resistance is common (Grade 1B). 20. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine (1A). Primaquine is more effective at preventing relapse if taken at the same time as chloroquine (Grade 1C). 21

  2. Clinical efficacy of first- and second-line treatments for HIV-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a tri-centre cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: First-line therapy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Few data exist to guide the choice of second-line therapy for patients failing or developing toxicity to first-line therapy. METHODS: A case note review of 1122 patients with 1188 episodes...... of HIV-associated PCP from three observational cohorts in Copenhagen, London and Milan, between 1989 and 2004, was conducted. RESULTS: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (962 PCP episodes, 81%) was the most frequently used first-line therapy, followed by intravenous pentamidine (87 episodes, 7%), clindamycin......-associated PCP, and was associated with more treatment changes. Clindamycin/primaquine appeared superior to pentamidine as second-line therapy for PCP in patients failing or developing toxicity with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. In patients failing first-line treatment with non...

  3. Factors associated with delays in treatment initiation after tuberculosis diagnosis in two districts of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durba Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time between diagnosis and initiation of tuberculosis (TB treatment contributes to ongoing TB transmission and should be minimized. In India, Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP focuses on indicator start of treatment within 7 days of diagnosis for patients with sputum smear-positive PTB for monitoring DOTS implementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine length of time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment and factors associated with delays of more than 7 days in smear-positive pulmonary TB. METHODS: Using existing programme records such as the TB Register, treatment cards, and the laboratory register, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB registered from July-September 2010 in two districts in India. A random sample of patients with pulmonary TB who experienced treatment delay of more than 7 days was interviewed using structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 2027 of 3411 patients registered with pulmonary TB were smear-positive. 711(35% patients had >7 days between diagnosis and treatment and 262(13% had delays >15 days. Mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 8 days (range = 0-128 days. Odds of treatment delay >7 days was 1.8 times more likely among those who had been previously treated (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.3 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.8 times more likely among those diagnosed in health facilities without microscopy centers. The main factors associated with a delay >7 days were: patient reluctance to start a re-treatment regimen, patients seeking second opinions, delay in transportation of drugs to the DOT centers and delay in initial home visits. To conclude, treatment delay >7 days was associated with a number of factors that included history of previous treatment and absence of TB diagnostic services in the local health facility. Decentralized diagnostic facilities and improved referral procedures may reduce such treatment

  4. Quick Drought Response Index, 7 Day CONUS Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — QuickDRI, short for Quick Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought Mitigation...

  5. Assessing predictive services' 7-day fire potential outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Haiganoush Preisler

    2015-01-01

    The Predictive Services program was created under the National Wildfire Coordinating Group in 2001 to address the need for long- and short-term decision support information for fire managers and operations personnel. The primary mission of Predictive Services is to integrate fire weather, fire danger, and resource availability to enable strategic fire suppression...

  6. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearse, R.M.; Moreno, R.P.; Bauer, P.; Pelosi, P.; Metnitz, P.; Spies, C.; Vallet, B.; Vincent, J.L.; Hoeft, A.; Rhodes, A.; Pickkers, P.; Bouw, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an intern

  7. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebstie YA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yehenew A Ebstie,1,* Solomon M Abay,2,* Wondmagegn T Tadesse,3 Dawit A Ejigu4 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, 4Department of Pharmacology, St Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites, emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure. However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. Keywords: vivax malaria, radical cure, schizonts, hypnozoite, primaquine 

  8. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  9. 连锁酒店产品战略分析--以济南市槐荫区7天连锁酒店为例%Analysis of chain hotel product strategy:Taking Ji'nan District 7 Days Inn as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炜

    2013-01-01

      以济南市槐荫区7天连锁酒店经十中路分店的产品销售战略为研究对象,主要采用随机问卷调查和实地考察的方法进行数据收集,运用 Excel软件对调查的数据进行整理分析,以SWO T战略组合模型提出该酒店可以采用WO 战略,即扭转内部劣势把握外部机会,使其产品在同类酒店中更具优势,从而使得7天连锁酒店在济南市经济型酒店市场中更具竞争力。%In Huaiyin District of Ji'nan city 7 Days Inn after ten road store sales strategy as the research ob-ject ,mainly adopts the method of random questionnaire and on-the-spot investigation to collect data ,use Excel software to analyze the survey data ,the SWOT strategic combination model is proposed for the hotel can adopt the WO strategy ,namely the torsion internal weaknesses grasp the external opportunities ,make the products more competitive in the same hotel ,w hich makes the 7 Days Inn in the more competitive mar-ket in Ji'nan city Econo Hotel .

  10. A Seven-Day Course of TMP-SMX May Be as Effective as a Seven-Day Course of Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Miriam T; Melia, Michael T; Same, Rebecca G; Conley, Anna T; Tamma, Pranita D

    2017-07-01

    The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX vs 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with Escherichia coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX vs a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin. Women ages 16 years and older with E. coli pyelonephritis presenting to 5 health care facilities in the greater Maryland area between 2010 and 2016 receiving either TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin were included. Patients were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: (a) pregnancy, (b) dialysis dependency, (c) E. coli not susceptible to the treatment prescribed, (d) polymicrobial urine culture, or (e) >48 hours of antibiotic therapy other than TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin. Of 272 women meeting eligibility criteria, 81 (30%) and 191 (70%) received 7 days of TMP-SMX and 7 days of ciprofloxacin, respectively. In an adjusted model, the likelihood of a recurrent UTI within 30 days for the TMP-SMX and ciprofloxacin groups was similar (adjusted odds ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-7.42). Our findings suggest that 7 days of TMP-SMX therapy may result in similar clinical outcomes compared with 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Considering the frequency of pyelonephritis and risks of antibiotic resistance and associated toxicities, decreasing the duration of antibiotic therapy for pyelonephritis may impact a large number of women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Problemer med primakin-recidivprofylakse hos malariapatienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1993-01-01

    Standard treatment of P. ovale and P. vivax malaria is 1500 mg of chloroquine base given over three days followed by 15 mg of primaquine base daily for 14 days. At the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen an increasing number of cases of relative by primaquine-resistant m......Standard treatment of P. ovale and P. vivax malaria is 1500 mg of chloroquine base given over three days followed by 15 mg of primaquine base daily for 14 days. At the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen an increasing number of cases of relative by primaquine...

  12. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    : Seventy-one patients (36 females, 35 males, average age 41.9 years from three Brazilian university centers (located in the cities of Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre, with peptic ulcers confirmed by endoscopy, and infections by H. pylory proven by at least two diagnostic testings were admitted in the trial. An association of pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1.0 g was administered to patients twice daily for 7 days. RESULTS: By the end of treatment all patients were examined for digestive symptoms, presence of adverse events, and treatment adherence. Sixty days after the end of the treatment a new endoscopy with biopsies and respiratory function testing with 13C-urea breath test was performed in order to determine the eradication rates of that microorganism. Patients showing negative results at least in the 13C-urea breath test and in one other test (urease or histology were considered H. pylory-negative. By the end of the trial, 60/69 (87%, CI 95% = 78.9-94.8 patients had the H. pylory eradicated in the per protocol analysis and 60/71 (84.5%, CI 95% = 76-92.9 in the intention-to-treat analysis. One patient was withdrawn from the trial due to a diarrhea. Twelve (16.9% patients showed adverse symptoms that were deemed as mild symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that the association of pantoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin administered during 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated alternative as regards the eradication of H. pylory in patients with peptic ulcer in Brazil.

  13. Intralesional vincristine use for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in a puma (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Blanca Juarez; Amat, Azlan Che'; Sabri, Jasni; Ramli, Mat Naim

    2013-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male puma (Puma concolor) was presented to the veterinary staff of the National Zoo in Malaysia for an auricular mass. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy. Systemic administration of chemotherapy using vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 i.v. q. 7 days for six treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 7 days) caused side effects of vomiting, weight loss, and alopecia and did not improve the size or appearance of the tumor. Intralesional vincristine injections (0.2 mg q. 7 days for two treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 15 days) were administered, resulting in complete tumor regression after 14 days of treatment.

  14. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  15. Perceptions and Attitudes of Resident Doctors about Malaria Treatment as Per National Drug Policy on Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Ahir, D V Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of public and private health care providers in malaria treatment, particularly understanding their knowledge and practices will aid in devising strategies to increase the rational use of antimalarial drugs. They should be aware about rationale and implement national drug policy on malaria to prevent morbidity and mortality of malaria as well as development of antimalarial drug resistance. Therefore, a study was planned on the same issue among resident doctors of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Objective: To study the perceptions and attitudes of resident doctors regarding use of anti malarial drugs for treatment of all types of malaria cases in accordance with national drug policy on malaria-2010. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary care teaching hospital with sixty four (64 resident doctors of medicine (24, pediatrics (24 and obstetrics (16 departments with the help of pre tested; semi-structured questionnaire based on national drug policy on malaria-2010 from 15th July to 30th August 2010. Results: Only 12 (18.8% residents were aware about drug policy. Dose and duration and indication of primaquine was known to 21 (32.8% of resident doctors. Artesunate (49.2% and Arteether (16.9% were commonly prescribed in case of uncomplicated P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria. Conclusion: It was noticeable that knowledge and awareness regarding drug policy among resident doctors was unsatisfactory. Regular sensitization programme on malaria drug policy should be conducted.

  16. 七氟烷麻醉对新生7d大鼠学习记忆功能及S100β蛋白的影响%Effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory function and S100β protein in the 7-day-old rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冬梅; 高琳; 徐桂萍; 苏涛; 马雪萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory functions and S100β protein in anaplasis in the 7-day-old rat.Methods 48 SD rats of both sexes aged 7-day-old weighing 1 2-1 6 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (1 6 rats in each group):group A and group B inhaled 3 % sevoflurane in oxygen(1L/min) for 6h and 2h respectively; group C inhaled oxygen(1L/min) only.After inhalation,the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water-maze test and Y-maze test from 16d to 24d.The rats were killed in the day of 8d and 25d respectively,and the blood were collected for the expression of serum concentration S100β protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results (1) Results of Morris water-maze test:Compared with group C,escape latency prolonged in group A and group B in 17-20d(P < 0.05 or 0.01) ;escape latency prolonged in group A compared with group B in 19-20d(P < 0.01) ;but there were no significant differences in the probe time in original platform quadrant and the frequency of crossing original platform among three groups(P >0.05).(2) Result of Y-maze test:In 22d,the total reaction time of group A and B were longer than group C (P <0.05 or 0.01),and the error number was increased in group A and B compared with group C(P < 0.01) ; while in 23-24d,there were no significant differences between every index of each groups (P > 0.05).(3) Results of the blood serum index:In 8d,serum concentration of S100β protein was significantly increased in group A and B compared with group C (P <0.01),and serum concentration of S100β protein was significantly increased in group A compared with group B (P < 0.05) ; But there were no significant differences in serum concentration of S100β protein of each groups in 25d(P > 0.05).Conclusion Sevoflurane anesthesia in the 7-day-old rat can temporarily decrease the ability of learning and memory functions in the length of inhalation

  17. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  18. Primaquine: Modes of Action and Mechanisms of Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    dehydrogenase was used as an enzyme marker for the presence of mitochondria, acid phosphatase for lysosomal contamination, and isocitrate dehydrogenase for... dehydrogenase , acid phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined in the supernatants and pellets of the preparative steps for the...Relative Activity() Succinic Acid Isocitrate Fraction Description Dehydrogenase Phosphatase Dehydrogenase I Pellet after first 100 100 100 7000 x

  19. [Efficacy of early combined high-dose steroid + PGE1 treatment for sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Toshinori; Watanabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Masashi; Ito, Tsukasa; Aoyagi, Masaru

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of combined high-dose steroid and PGE1 treatment initiated immediately after the onset of sudden deafness was analyzed with the outcome of 174 patients begun on treatment within 7 days of the onset of sudden deafness. Four potential prognostic factors (days from onset to treatment, age, initial hearing level, presence of vertigo) and hearing outcome were examined with a multiple logistic regression analysis. Days from onset to treatment and age significantly correlated with hearing improvement. The efficacy of the treatment of patients begun on treatment within 3 days of the onset was significantly better than that of patients on treatment 4-7 days after the onset (p sudden deafness, and started within 3 days of the onset of sudden deafness in patients 50 years old and older.

  20. Biomechanical properties of ileum after systemic treatment with epithelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yang; Jing-Bo Zhao; Yan-Jun Zeng; Hans Gregersen

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF)leads to growth of all parts of the small intestine in normal functioning rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of this growth process on morphometric and biomechanical parameters of ileum.METHODS: Rats were treated with EGF (150 μg@kg-1day-1)or placebo via osmotic minipumps for 2, 4, 7, and 14 days.A segment of ileum was removed. The morphology at noload state and zero-stress state was measured and passive biomechanical properties were assessed using a biaxial test machine (combined inflation and axial stretching).RESULTS: The ileum weight increased after EGF administration. After 4 days' EGF treatment, the wall thickness was increased. Significantly smaller inner perimeters were seen in 4 day and 7 day EGF treatment groups. The opening angle and residual strain began to increase after 7 days' EGF treatment. Wall stiffness, evaluated from the stress-strain curves, showed a continuous decrease in circumferential direction during the first 7 days' EGF treatment. The longitudinal stiffness increased during the first 7 days. The stress-strain curves for both circumferential and longitudinal direction tended to shift back to normal 14days after starting EGF administration.CONCLUSION: EGF can cause significant changes both in the morphology and in the passive mechanical properties of the rat ileum.

  1. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  2. Integration of TB and ART services fails to improve TB treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7,8] These delays could negatively influence TB ... [9-11]. In recent years, the SA National Department of Health (NDoH) .... Treatment was received 7 days per ... building. Included in this definition were both partially integrated services that ...

  3. Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluations of a new coated chloroquine tablet in a single-arm open-label non-comparative trial in Brazil: a step towards a user-friendly malaria vivax treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dhelio; Daher, André; Zanini, Graziela; Maia, Ivan; Fonseca, Lais; Pitta, Luciana; Ruffato, Rosilene; Marchesini, Paola; Fontes, Cor Jesus

    2016-09-17

    Malaria remains a major public health problem, with half the world population at risk of contracting malaria. The effects of Plasmodium vivax on prosperity and longevity have been highlighted in several recent clinical case reports. The first line of vivax treatment drugs has seen no radical innovation for more than 60 years. This study introduces a subtle incremental innovation to vivax treatment: a chloroquine and primaquine co-blister. The co-blister includes a new chloroquine formulation incorporating coated tablets to mask the drug's bitter taste and user-friendly packaging containing tablets of each drug, which may improve patient adherence and facilitate the appropriate use of the drugs. This new formulation will replace the non-coated chloroquine distributed in Brazil. Patients were orally treated with 150 mg coated chloroquine tablets for 3 days: an initial 450 mg dose, followed by two 300 mg doses. The patients were treated concomitantly with two 15 mg primaquine tablets for 7-9 days, according to their weight. The primary objective of this study was to prove parasitological and clinical cure rates above 90 % by day 28. This single-arm open-label non-comparative trial was conducted according to the WHO recommended methodology for the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy in the Brazilian Amazon. On day 28, the parasitological and clinical response was adequate in 98.8 % of patients (CI 95 % 93.4-100 %). The success rate on day 3 was 100 %, and the cumulative success rate by day 28 was 98.8 % (CI 95 % 91.7-99.8 %). There were no serious adverse events, with most adverse events classified as mild. The pharmacokinetic parameters of chloroquine analysed in whole blood dry spot samples showed mean (coefficient of variation) Cmax and AUC0-t values of 374.44 (0.35) and 3700.43 (0.36) ng/mL, respectively. This study reports an appropriate safety and efficacy profile of a new formulation of coated chloroquine tablets for vivax malaria

  4. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria.

  5. Perioperative Antihypertensive Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Lin, Sen; Ma, Junpeng; Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Studies on antihypertensive treatment for surgical patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are insufficient. This pilot study was conducted to investigate the safety of the perioperative intensive blood pressure lowering in surgical patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. This study was a prospective, parallel, randomized, assessor-blinded trial. Patients allocated to the intensive group received perioperative intensive antihypertensive treatment aiming to achieve a target systolic blood pressure between 120 and 140 mm Hg, whereas the patients in the conservative group received conservative treatment aiming to achieve a target systolic blood pressure between 140 and 180 mm Hg for 7 days. The primary outcome was the rate of rehemorrhage at 7 days after surgery. Rehemorrhage was noted in 11 patients (11%) in the intensive group and 14 (14%) in the conservative group (P=0.689). There was no significant difference in mortality at 7 days (4.0% versus 10.0%; P=0.164), 30 days (10.4% versus 17.2%; P=0.247), and 90 days (13.5% versus 18.2%; P=0.490) between the 2 groups. Perioperative intensive blood pressure lowering was not associated with a reduced incidence of rehemorrhage, death, or other serious adverse events. URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-13004304. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Efficacy of surgical treatment of patients for an acute lactational mastitis using radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, I V; Chernova, N V

    2013-01-01

    According to microbial investigation data, conducted preoperatively, intraoperatively, in 7 days postoperatively for an acute purulent lactational mastitis, there was noted significant reduction of the wound microbial soiling while application of radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method in comparison with such while application of conventional methods of treatment.

  7. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  8. Cost comparison of wirelessly vs. directly observed therapy for adherence confirmation in anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yeung, K Y; DiCarlo, L

    2012-11-01

    A US clinic treating patients entering the continuation phase of treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To compare the costs of direct confirmation of treatment using wirelessly observed therapy (WOT) vs. standard of care utilizing World Health Organization-recommended 7-day and 3-day directly observed therapy (DOT). A model was created comparing the costs between the two types of DOT and WOT, using data from public sources of treatment, personnel costs, patient spending, and interview responses. The model considered public health facility's cost-to-treat and patient's cost-to-be-treated. Cost drivers for M. tuberculosis treatment monitoring were identified, and four univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted on selected variables. The cost of WOT was estimated to be 36% of 7-day DOT, and 71% of 3-day DOT in public health facility's cost-to-treat. The patient's cost-to-be-treated with WOT was estimated to be 4% of 7-day DOT and 8% of 3-day DOT. Sensitivity analyses indicated that WOT was likely to provide immediate cost savings over a range of WOT costs, time spent on WOT monitoring, WOT-related treatment failure rates and clinician compensations. Under several potential cost scenarios, the immediate cost of M. tuberculosis treatment by WOT appears to be substantially less than DOT. Further WOT development for M. tuberculosis treatment appears warranted.

  9. Modeling Plasmodium vivax: relapses, treatment, seasonality, and G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchod, Farida; Beier, John C

    2013-01-07

    Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) is one of the most important human malaria species that is geographically widely endemic and causes social and economic burden globally. However, its consequences have long been neglected and underestimated as it has been mistakenly considered a benign and inconsequential malaria species as compared to Plasmodium falciparum. One of the important differences between P. falciparum and P. vivax is the formation of P. vivax latent-stage parasites (hypnozoites) that can cause relapses after a course of treatment. In this work, mathematical modeling is employed to investigate how patterns of incubation periods and relapses of P. vivax, variation in treatment, and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes influence the number of humans infected with P. vivax and the mean age at infection of humans in tropical and temperate regions. The model predicts that: (i) the number of humans infected with P. vivax may increase when an incubation period of parasites in humans and a latent period of hypnozoites decrease; (ii) without primaquine, the only licensed drug to prevent relapses, P. vivax may be highly prevalent; (iii) the mean age at infection of humans may increase when a latent period of hypnozoites increases; (iv) the number of infectious humans may peak at a few months before the middle of each dry season and the number of hypnozoite carriers may peak at nearly the middle of each dry season. In addition, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, which is the most common enzyme defect in humans that may provide some protection against P. vivax infection and severity, is taken into account to study its impact on the number of humans infected with P. vivax. Modeling results indicate that the increased number of infected humans may result from a combination of a larger proportion of humans with G6PD deficiency in the population, a lesser protection of G6PD deficiency to P. vivax infection, and a shorter latent period of hypnozoites.

  10. The potential elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria by relapse treatment: insights from a transmission model and surveillance data from NW India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojit Roy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With over a hundred million annual infections and rising morbidity and mortality, Plasmodium vivax malaria remains largely a neglected disease. In particular, the dependence of this malaria species on relapses and the potential significance of the dormant stage as a therapeutic target, are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To quantify relapse parameters and assess the population-wide consequences of anti-relapse treatment, we formulated a transmission model for P. vivax suitable for parameter inference with a recently developed statistical method based on routine surveillance data. A low-endemic region in NW India, whose strong seasonality demarcates the transmission season, provides an opportunity to apply this modeling approach. Our model gives maximum likelihood estimates of 7.1 months for the mean latency and 31% for the relapse rate, in close agreement with regression estimates and clinical evaluation studies in the area. With a baseline of prevailing treatment practices, the model predicts that an effective anti-relapse treatment of 65% of those infected would result in elimination within a decade, and that periodic mass treatment would dramatically reduce the burden of the disease in a few years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The striking dependence of P. vivax on relapses for survival reinforces the urgency to develop more effective anti-relapse treatments to replace Primaquine (PQ, the only available drug for the last fifty years. Our methods can provide alternative and simple means to estimate latency times and relapse frequency using routine epidemiological data, and to evaluate the population-wide impact of relapse treatment in areas similar to our study area.

  11. Survey and treatment of an imported cholera case from Myanmar%登革热和严重登革热简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚震宇

    2012-01-01

    On 14 December 2011, one case of cholera occurred in Hunong village, bordering with Myanmar, in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan. The case was confirmed to be infection of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba and imported from Myanmar, After the treatment in hospital for 7 days, the patient recovered, and after 2 negative results were obtained in clinical sample detection, the patient was discharged.

  12. Short-course treatment with ceftriaxone for leptospirosis: a retrospective study in a single center in Eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Jean-François; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joël; Hustache-Mathieu, Laurent; Estavoyer, Jean-Marie

    2015-03-01

    Short-course (less than 7 days) antibiotic treatments have been rarely assessed in the management of leptospirosis. We analyzed the charts of patients hospitalized with confirmed and probable leptospirosis in a teaching hospital between 1994 and 2012. Of 89 patients with confirmed or probable leptospirosis, 21 patients (11 confirmed, 10 probable - 14 uncomplicated and 7 severe forms) admitted between 2001 and 2012 received ceftriaxone (1-2 g daily) for less than 7 days. Apyrexia was obtained within 2 days of treatment in all patients and no relapse was observed. These data support the hypothesis that short-course treatments of 3-6 days with ceftriaxone (1-2 g per day) may be an option in the treatment of uncomplicated and severe forms of leptospirosis responding quickly to therapy. This hypothesis deserves being confirmed in further clinical studies.

  13. 7-Day Biodefense: Engineered Nanoparticle for Virus Elimination by Opsonization (ENVELOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Pilot batches of liposomes produced by Northern Lipids using this process had the same physical properties as similar batches produced at UCSB and...a lipid anchor to create a glycolipid that could be incorporated into liposomes. Alternatives were to conjugate the carbohydrate to a different...molecules such as sucrose when exposed to protein and lipid surfactants in the airway. The pharmacokinetic profile was not dependent on the liposome

  14. Five-hour sleep restriction for 7 days increases subjective sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Keiko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Hori, Reiko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Teruyuki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a 5-h sleep restriction for 7 d on subjective sleepiness in an ambulatory condition by comparing them with baseline conditions consisting of an 8-h sleep for 7 consecutive days. Subjects were 13 healthy male students (mean age 21.1 yr). Each subject was required to get 8 h of sleep (baseline, from 2300 to 0700) for 7 d, and 5 h of sleep (sleep restriction, from 0100 to 0600) for 7 d in an ambulatory condition. The order of the two sleep schedules was randomly assigned. Subjective sleepiness was assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) every 3 h at 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, and 2100 for 7 successive days during each sleep schedule. The VAS score during sleep restriction gradually increased up to the 5th day and then reached a plateau. The patterns of time-course changes in the VAS score were similar to those at baseline. The VAS scores showed a peak at 0900, taking a dip at 1200, and then gradually increasing toward 2100. The mean VAS score of the last three days of the 5-h sleep restriction was significantly higher than that at baseline (psleep restriction for 7 d in an ambulatory condition increased subjective sleepiness up to the 5th day and then reached a plateau. The patterns of the time-course changes in sleepiness of 5-h sleep restriction per day did not differ from that at baseline.

  15. Sevoflurane exposure in 7-day-old rats affects neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and neurocognitive function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; Zhanggang Xue; Jing Cang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sevoflurane is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and former studies showed that it causes neurodegeneration in the developing brain.The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on neurogenesis,neurodegeneration and behavior.Methods We administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine,an S-phase marker,before,during,and after 4 h of sevoflurane given to rats on postnatal day 7 to assess dentate gyrus progenitor proliferation and Fluoro-Jade staining for degeneration.Spatial reference memory was tested 2 and 6 weeks after anesthesia.Results Sevoflurane decreased progenitor proliferation and increased cell death until at least 4 days after anesthesia.Spatial reference memory was not affected at 2 weeks but was affected at 6 weeks after sevoflurane administration.Conclusion Sevoflurane reduces neurogenesis and increases the death of progenitor cells in developing brain.This might mediate the lateonset neurocognitive outcome after sevoflurane application.

  16. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  17. Diabetes, hypertension, overweight and hyperlipidemia and 7-day case-fatality in first myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: In this population-based inception cohort study, diabetes but not hypertension and hyperlipidemia were associated with MI fatality. This further emphasizes the importance of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor and the need for close surveillance of diabetic patients. Overweight was however associated with decreased MI fatality.

  18. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  19. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7-day Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Andi; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We report the WIMP dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing Underground Laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3$\\times10^4$ kg-day,the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 3.5 and 1000 GeV/c$^2$. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found $2.5\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^2$ for the WIMP mass 40 GeV/c$^2$ at 90% confidence level.

  20. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted...

  1. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  2. Treatment-seeking behaviour and associated costs for malaria in Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyana, Muhammad; Devine, Angela; Kenangalem, Enny; Burdarm, Lenny; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Vemuri, Ram; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-11-08

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Eastern Indonesia, where multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to describe treatment-seeking behaviour and household costs prior to a change to a unified treatment policy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Mimika district, Papua province in 2006. In 2005 a randomized cross-sectional household survey was conducted to collect data on demographics, socio-economic status (SES), treatment-seeking, case management, and household costs. Information on the cost of illness was also collected from patients exiting health facilities, in order to compare the cost of episodes diagnosed as P. vivax compared with those diagnosed as P. falciparum. 825 households were included in the survey. Of the 764 individuals who sought treatment for fever outside the home in the last month, 46% (349/764) went to a public health facility. Of the 894 reported visits to healthcare providers, 48% (433) resulted in a blood test, of which 78% (337) were reportedly positive. Only 10% (17/177) of individuals who reported testing positive for P. falciparum or mixed infection received the first-line treatment of chloroquine with SP, and 38% (61/159) of those with a diagnosis of P. vivax reportedly received the first-line treatment of chloroquine and primaquine. Overall, public facilities were more likely to prescribe the correct prevailing first-line drug combinations than private providers (OR = 3.77 [95% CI 2.31-6.14], p < 0.001). The mean cost to the household of an episode of P. vivax was similar to the cost of P. falciparum [US$44.50 (SD: 46.23) vs US$48.58 (SD: 64.65)]. Private providers were a popular source of treatment for malaria, but adherence to the national guidelines was low and the economic burden of malaria for both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was substantial. Engagement with the private sector is needed to ensure that patients have access

  3. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?★

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Hua, Xuming; Hua, Fang; Mao, Wenwei; Wan, Liang; Li, Shiting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohist...

  4. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  5. Idiopathic sudden hearing loss: Oxidative status before and after corticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaleriu Bogdan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels after systemic corticoid therapy (Solu-Medrol, 250mg/day, for 7 days. The effects of corticoid treatment on superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity were investigated. Fifteen patients diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled. Serum markers of oxidative stress were measured using spectrophotometric methods. In ten cases, the SOD and GPX activities and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels before and after corticoid treatment were investigated. Corticoid treatment enhanced antioxidant activity by increasing SOD and GPX activities and decreasing MDA serum levels.

  6. Efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, S; Canale, C; Masperone, M A; Terracchini, V; Valentini, G; Brunelli, C

    1994-09-01

    The effect of L-propionylcarnitine on patients with left ventricular dysfunction (EF propionylcarnitine or placebo on a random basis as oral treatment for 6 months. At baseline, during a 7 day placebo run-in period, and during the 6-month treatment bicycle exercise test, M-B mode and Doppler echocardiography, and clinical evaluation (clinical score) were repeatedly performed. The analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed a statistically significant difference (P propionylcarnitine group (respectively P propionylcarnitine treated group. In conclusion, L-propionylcarnitine treatment was shown to improve patient symptomatology and effort tolerance.

  7. All-oral therapy with nucleotide inhibitors sofosbuvir and GS-0938 for 14 days in treatment-naive genotype 1 hepatitis C (nuclear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawitz, E J; Rodriguez-Torres, M; Denning, J; Mathias, A; Mo, H; Gao, B; Cornpropst, M T; Berrey, M M; Symonds, W T

    2013-10-01

    Sofosbuvir and GS-0938 are distinct nucleotide analogues with activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vitro. We evaluated the antiviral activity and safety of sofosbuvir and GS-0938 alone and in combination in HCV genotype 1 patients. In this double-blind study, 40 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to 4 treatment cohorts: (i) GS-0938 for 14 days, (ii) GS-0938 for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days, (iii) sofosbuvir for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days and (iv) GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 14 days. In each arm, 8 patients received active drug and 2 placebo. After 7 days of dosing, patients in all 4 dose groups experienced substantial reductions in HCV RNA, with median declines (Q1, Q3) of -4.50 (-4.66, -4.24) in Cohort 1, -4.55 (-4.97, -4.13) in Cohort 2, -4.65 (-4.78, -4.17) in Cohort 3 and -4.43 (-4.81, -4.13) in Cohort 4; patients receiving placebo had essentially no change in HCV RNA (+0.07 log(10) IU/mL). Seven days after the end of treatment, the proportions of patients with HCV RNA Sofosbuvir and GS-0938-alone and in combination--were well tolerated and led to substantial reductions in viral load. Sofosbuvir is undergoing further investigation as a possible backbone of an all-oral regimen for chronic HCV.

  8. Acute otitis media: a simple diagnosis, a simple treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, S S

    2014-09-01

    To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Acute otitis media was common in children under 15 years (64.7%). Patients presented with earache (100%), aural fullness (90.68%), fever (76.47%) associated with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections (88.23%). In group A, improvement was noticed in 28.43% in 3 days while 35.29% in 7 days. In group B, improvement was noticed in 48.03% in day 3 while 86.27% in day 7. In countries where medical care is scarce, patients lost to follow up, it is wise to treat with simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in adequate dose than to treat only symptomatically. It prevents chronicity, early hearing impairments and reduces antibiotic resistance.

  9. Treatment of perforated appendicitis in children: what is the cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Kate V; Tracy, Sarah; Fisher, Sharon; Charron, Gisele; Zurakowski, David; Calvert, Catherine E; Chen, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    We compared direct hospital costs and indirect costs to the family associated with immediate appendectomy or initial nonoperative management for perforated appendicitis in children. From June 2009 through May 2010, 61 prospectively identified families completed a cost diary, documenting the numbers of missed school days for the child and missed employment days for the adult caregiver(s) over the treatment course. Hospital costs were obtained from hospital financial databases. Mann-Whitney U tests and Fisher exact tests were used to compare outcome measures for each treatment strategy. Patients treated by initial nonoperative management had a significantly longer median length of stay (9 days vs 7 days, P = .02) and a significantly greater median total hospital cost per patient ($31,349 vs $21,323, P = .01) when compared with those treated by immediate appendectomy. There was no significant difference in median number of missed school days (9 days vs 10 days, P = .23) or missed employment days for adult caregiver(s) (5 days vs 7 days, P = .18) between treatment strategies. Patients with perforated appendicitis treated by initial nonoperative management had a greater length of stay and a significantly greater total hospital cost but were not burdened by significantly greater indirect costs compared with those treated by immediate appendectomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant'Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%-90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women.

  11. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%–90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Patients and methods Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. Results After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Conclusion Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women. PMID:27578994

  12. TREATMENT OF 36 CASES OF SCAPULOHUMERAL PERIARTHRITIS MAINLY BY CONTRALATERAL NEEDLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家萍; 韩臣子

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the therapeutic effect of contralateral needling in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis.Methods: A total of 68 cases of scapulohumeral periarthritis were outpatients and were randomized into treatment group (n=36) and control group (n=32).In treatment group, Zhiyin (BL67), Jinmen (BL63) and Yanglao (SI6) on the contralateral side of the affected shoulder and local tenderpoints (Ashi-points) were punctured once every other day, with 7 days being a therapeutic course; while in control group, local Ashi-points were used for injection of Procaine and Prednisolone Acetate, once every 7 days and with 3~4 sessions being a therapeutic course.Results: Following 2 courses of treatment, of the 32 cases in control group, 8 (25.0%) were cured, 17 (53.1%) experienced improvement and 7 failed in the treatment, with a total of effective rate of 78.1%; of the 36 cases in treatment group, 18 (50.0%) were cured, 16 (44.4%) experienced improvement and 2 (5.6%) failed in the treatment, with a total effective rate of 94.4%.The therapeutic effect of contralateral needling is significantly higher than that of Ashi-point blocking method (P<0.05).Conclusion: Contralateral needling is superior to Ashi-point in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis.

  13. Neuroprotective efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcová, G; Kassa, J

    2003-03-14

    To study the influence of pharmacological pretreatment (PANPAL) and antidotal treatment (obidoxime plus atropine) on tabun-induced neurotoxicity, male albino rats were poisoned with a lethal dose of tabun (280 microg/kg i.m.; 100% of LD(50) value) and observed at 24 h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The neurotoxicity of tabun was evaluated using a functional observational battery (FOB) and an automatic measurement of motor activity. Pharmacological pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were able to eliminate most of tabun-induced neurotoxic effects observed at 24 h following tabun poisoning. However, there was not significant difference between the efficacy of PANPAL and antidotal treatment to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The combination of PANPAL pretreatment and antidotal treatment seems to be slightly more effective in the elimination of tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats at 24 h following tabun challenge in comparison with the administration of PANPAL pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. At 7 days following tabun poisoning, very few neurotoxic signs in tabun-poisoned rats were observed regardless of administration of pharmacological pretreatment or antidotal treatment. Thus, our findings confirm that the combination of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment is not only able to protect the experimental animals from the lethal effects of tabun but also to eliminate most of tabun-induced signs of neurotoxicity in tabun-poisoned rats.

  14. Perioperative antihypertensive treatment in patients of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (PATICH): a clinical trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; Ma, Junpeng; Guo, Rui; Fang, Yuan; Ma, Lu; Liu, Wenke; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2014-09-01

    The management of perioperative period for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage affects the prognosis. Elevated blood pressure is common in the patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and related to a poor outcome. However, study on antihypertensive treatment for surgical patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is insufficient. To determine if the intensive antihypertensive treatment improves the prognosis compared with the conservative antihypertensive treatment followed guidelines in perioperative period for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. PATICH is a prospective, parallel, randomized, assessor-blinded trial. Two hundred eligible patients will be assigned to the intensive group and conservative group randomly. Patients allocated to the intensive group will receive an intensive antihypertensive treatment aiming to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of between 120 mmHg and 140 mmHg while the patients in the conservative group will receive conservative antihypertensive treatment as recommended by guidelines for 7 days. Operation will be conducted by well-trained surgeons and the best medical treatment will be given in all patients. Patients will be followed up at 7 days, 30 days, and 90 days. Primary outcome of this study is the rate of rehemorrhage in 7 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes include death and dependency at 90 days incidence of ischemic stroke, separate rate of death and dependency at 90 days, health related quality of life (HRQoL) at 90 days, incidence of other vascular events, and days of hospitalization. Dependency is defined by a score of 3-5 based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NVC-422 topical gel for the treatment of impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Susan M; Krantz, Kenneth D; Blanco, Daisy M; Fernández, Josefina A; Ocampo, Naomi; Najafi, Azar; Memarzadeh, Bahram; Celeri, Chris; Debabov, Dmitri; Khosrovi, Behzad; Anderson, Mark

    2011-08-15

    Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection affecting children worldwide that is caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or both. Staphylococcus species can quickly develop drug resistance rendering mupirocin, fusidic acid, and erythromycin ineffective. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that NVC-422 (N, N-dichloro-2, 2-dimethyltaurine) rapidly kills pathogens without the development of drug resistance. 129 patients with clinically diagnosed impetigo were randomized to three dose groups (0.1, 0.5, or 1.5% NVC-422 topical gel) in a study conducted at 2 centers; 125 patients (97%) had microbiologically confirmed infection. Treatment was administered three times a day (TID) for 7 days to all randomized subjects. Response was measured at the completion of treatment (Day 8) and 1 week post treatment (Day 15) by the Skin Infection Rating Scale (SIRS) and by microbiological response. A total of 120 subjects (96%) completed all 7 days of treatment and were assessed at end of treatment (EOT). Clinical response rate at EOT in the PPC population was excellent in each of the dose groups (84.6%, 87.2%, and 92.3% in the 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% dose groups respectively). The majority of the infections were caused by S. aureus, alone (106/125, 85%) of which approximately 10% were MRSA. There were no clinical recurrences in any treatment groups. Treatment-emergent adverse events were seen in 5.4% of the subjects (7/129) and were mild to moderate and resolved. NVC-422 topical gel administered TID was well tolerated, with high rates of clinical and microbiological responses for treating impetigo.

  16. Hyperbaric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  17. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  18. Treatment responses to tooth whitening in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Patricia M A; Biesbrock, Aaron; Gerlach, Robert; Corby, Andrea L; Moreira, Alexandre; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light-dark), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) color change from digital images at baseline (∆) and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h(2) = 71.0) for ∆b* and ∆a*(p < .0001), but not for ∆L* (h(2) = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips.

  19. Use of fenbendazole for treatment of Crenosoma vulpis infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E N; Barr, S C; Gould, W J; Beck, K A; Bowman, D D

    1993-05-01

    An 8-month-old Labrador Retriever was examined because of a 1-month history of productive coughing unresponsive to ampicillin treatment. Larvae of Crenosoma vulpis were found in fecal samples examined by zinc sulfate centrifugation and Baermann technique. Physical examination abnormalities or larvae in fecal samples were not detected 6 weeks after treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 7 days, then 0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 48 h, for 8 days) and fenbendazole granules (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 days). This report suggests that fenbendazole may be effective for treating Crenosoma vulpis infection in dogs.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for experimental intraocular hypertension in rats: An electroretinogram detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhui Yi; Zhengrong Peng; Qiuli Liu; Zhongqi Wu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is used for treating glaucoma, and affirmative curative effect has been obtained. HBO can sensitively reflect the obviously heightened b wave of electroretinogram (ERG)of injured tissue.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of HBO treatment on retinal function of rats with acute experimental intraocular hypertension with ERG.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Department of Hyperbaric Oxygen, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Department of Anatomy, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.MATERIALS: Eighteen adult healthy Wistar rats, of either gender, weighing from 150 to 250 g, were provided by the Animal Room of Central South University. Type YLCO. 5/Ⅰ A baby hyperbaric oxygen chamber, type LMS-2A two-channel physiological recorder, type BG-1 retina exposure system, Jiangwan type Ⅰ stereotaxis instrument.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Central South University between March and September 2006. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were made into models of acute experimental intraocular hypertension. Then, they were divided into two groups: model group and HBO treatment group, with 9 in each group. Following 7 days of HBO treatment, the rats in HBO treatment group were placed in Type YLCO. 5/Ⅰ A baby hyperbaric oxygen chamber, which was pressurized with pure oxygen( volume fraction 0.825 ± 0.025).The treatment pressure was 0.2 MPa. The rats in HBO treatment group daily inhaled HBO for 80 minutes within 7 days; Rats in the model group were untouched. The performance of eyes was observed under the status of intraocular hypertension. ERG was recorded before, during and 7 days after modeling,meanwhile, the recovery rate of b wave from ERG was calculated. Recovery rate of b wave from ERG=(amplitude of b wave 7 days after modeling/amplitude of b wave before modeling)× 100%.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Performance of eyes

  1. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Is antiviral treatment really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Övet, Gültekin; Alataş, Necat; Kocacan, Fatma Nur; Gürcüoğlu, Sermin Selver; Görgülü, Hakan; Güzelkara, Fatih; Övet, Habibe

    2015-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the necessity of antiviral agents in the ISSHL treatment. In this study, the patients, diagnosed with sudden hearing loss and admitted in the first 7 days of hearing loss were divided into two groups; a combination therapy was administered to one of the groups, and famciclovir was administered to the other group as an antiviral treatment in addition to the combined therapy. Both groups were compared in terms of levels of recovery. No statistically significant difference was found in the recovery rates between the two groups (p=0.7). In this study, the additional antiviral treatment was found to have no effect on the remission rates in patients with ISSHL treated with combined therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial biofilm formation and treatment in soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Er, Ozge; Eickhardt, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    fraction these. We developed a novel mouse model and evaluated hyaluronic acid gel, calcium hydroxyl apatite microspheres and polyacrylamide hydrogel for their potential for sustaining bacterial infections and their possible treatments. We were able to culture Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus...... epidermidis and Probionibacterium acnes in all three gels. When contaminated gels were left for 7 days in a mouse model, we found sustainment of bacterial infection with the permanent gel, less with the semi-permanent gel and no growth within the temporary gel. Evaluation of treatment strategies showed...... that once the bacteria had settled (into biofilms) within the gels, even succesive treatments with high concentrations of relevant antibiotics were not effective. Our data substantiate bacteria as a cause of adverse reactions reported when using tissue fillers, and the sustainability of these infections...

  3. Early changes in emotional processing as a marker of clinical response to SSRI treatment in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, B R; Browning, M; Norbury, R; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2016-11-22

    Antidepressant treatment reduces behavioural and neural markers of negative emotional bias early in treatment and has been proposed as a mechanism of antidepressant drug action. Here, we provide a critical test of this hypothesis by assessing whether neural markers of early emotional processing changes predict later clinical response in depression. Thirty-five unmedicated patients with major depression took the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram (10 mg), over 6 weeks, and were classified as responders (22 patients) versus non-responders (13 patients), based on at least a 50% reduction in symptoms by the end of treatment. The neural response to fearful and happy emotional facial expressions was assessed before and after 7 days of treatment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the neural response to these facial cues after 7 days of escitalopram were compared in patients as a function of later clinical response. A sample of healthy controls was also assessed. At baseline, depressed patients showed greater activation to fear versus happy faces than controls in the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate. Depressed patients who went on to respond to the SSRI had a greater reduction in neural activity to fearful versus happy facial expressions after just 7 days of escitalopram across a network of regions including the anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala and thalamus. Mediation analysis confirmed that the direct effect of neural change on symptom response was not mediated by initial changes in depressive symptoms. These results support the hypothesis that early changes in emotional processing with antidepressant treatment are the basis of later clinical improvement. As such, early correction of negative bias may be a key mechanism of antidepressant drug action and a potentially useful predictor of therapeutic response.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-08-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti.

  5. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Saghrouni, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  6. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline (Vaginal Cream, Ovules, and Vaginal Washing) and of Benzydamine Hydrochloride (Tantum Rosa Vaginal Cream and Vaginal Washing) in the Topical Treatment of Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, R; Ascione, L.; Rullo, V.; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M.; Petrella, E.; Boselli, F.; Saponati, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0–3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms sc...

  7. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  8. Diclofenac epolamine medicated plaster in the treatment of minor soft tissue injuries: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunde; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano; Zheng, Qingshan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a topical plaster containing diclofenac epolamine (DHEP) 1.3% in the treatment of patients with acute minor soft tissue injuries in China. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study had balanced random assignment to DHEP medicated plaster and placebo plaster. A total of 384 patients, aged 18-74 years, with minor soft tissue injury occurring within 72 hours of study entry were enrolled and randomized. Plasters were applied twice daily for seven consecutive days. Outcomes were assessed in three visits over 7 days, in addition to patients' daily self-assessment and an adverse events follow-up visit on day 21. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in pain on movement on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after 7 days of treatment. Secondary efficacy endpoints included pain on movement day-by-day evaluation, summed pain intensity difference, overall treatment efficacy, rescue medication consumption, and treatment tolerability. Reduction in pain on movement after 7 days of treatment, the primary efficacy endpoint, was statistically significantly greater in the DHEP plaster group than with placebo (reduction in VAS pain scores -53.78 ± 16.96 vs -37.02 ± 18.30 for DHEP vs placebo, p plaster was evident by day 1 and increased progressively throughout the treatment period. Global pain relief and overall treatment efficacy were significantly better with DHEP. Both DHEP and placebo plaster were well tolerated with few adverse events, mostly application site reactions. A medicated plaster containing DHEP applied to the affected site in Chinese patients with minor soft tissue injury, such as sprains, strains and contusions, was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain scores. Onset of action was rapid and the DHEP plaster was safe and well tolerated. The main limitation was the use of a subjective, though validated, self-reported VAS to assess the primary endpoint.

  9. A Multi-Center Randomised Controlled Trial of Gatifloxacin versus Azithromycin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Typhoid Fever in Children and Adults in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Dolecek; Thi Phi La Tran; Ngoc Rang Nguyen; Thi Phuong Le; Vinh Ha; Quoc Tuan Phung; Cong Du Doan; Thi Be Bay Nguyen; Thanh Long Duong; Bich Ha Luong; Trung Binh Nguyen; Thi Anh Hong Nguyen; Ngoc Dung Pham; Ngoc Lanh Mai; Van Be Bay Phan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug resistant typhoid fever is a major clinical problem globally. Many of the first line antibiotics, including the older generation fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, are failing. OBJECTIVES: We performed a randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) versus azithromycin (20 mg/kg/day) as a once daily oral dose for 7 days for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children and adults in Vietnam. METHODS: An op...

  10. Effect and treatment of lactobacillus on inflammation around the implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Wu, Feng; Tian, Guobing

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic scaling and antibiotic therapy are traditional therapeutic methods for inflammation around the implant but therapeutic effect is not ideal. In view of maintaining flora balance around the implant and implant long-term solid holdup, this experiment observes impact and clinical effect of lactobacillus metabolite on inflammation around the impact to explore a new kind of ecological drug. This drug has little or no side effect, good curative effect and low recurrence rate, which can be applied for broad groups of people. 16 cases with inflammation around the impact were divided into experimental group and control group, 8 cases for each group. Lactobacillus metabolites gargle was offered to experimental group; purified water was offered to control group. Gargle way is 3 times/day, 20 ml/time, 3 min/time and for 7 days. Two groups of cases were clinical and microbiological tested before gargle, 3 days, 7 days and 30 days after gargle. Based on clinical and microbiological test of 8 cases of health implant, we observe sub gingival flora variation trend and clinical effects of infectors with inflammation around implant. Lactobacillus metabolite can improve clinical index of inflammation around the impact including MPLI, GI, MBI and PD. Lactobacillus metabolite has a strong treatment effect on inflammation around the implant and has no side effect.

  11. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-19

    Information is presented on the treatment of infections associated primarily with sexual transmission. Attention is directed to the following: gonorrhea (urogenital gonorrhea, anal and pharyngeal gonorrhea, resistant infections, and gonorrhea in pregnancy); syphilis (syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis); nongonococcal urethritis and related infections (diseases of infancy and other chlamydial infections); and vaginitis (trichomoniasis, trichomoniasis in pregnancy, nonspecific vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidasis); chancroid; pediculosis pubis; venereal warts; and genital herpes simplex. 5 days of oral tetracycline HCI taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals is recommended for urogenital gonorrhea in both women and men. Anal gonorrhea in women can be treated like urogenital gonorrhea, but men should be treated with intramuscular procaine penicillin G or spectinomycin. Pregnant women can be treated with the same regimens of penicillin G, amoxicillin, or ampicillin as other patients. Parenteral penicillin G remains the drug of choice for treating all stages of syphilis. Either a tetracycline or an erythromycin taken for 7 days is usually effective against nongonococcal urethritis and related infections. Neonatal pneumonia caused by "Chlamydia" can be treated with systemic erythromycin for 14 days. Suspected infectious vaginitis is best managed by making a specific etiologic diagnosis. The important of sexual transmission in vulvovaginal candidiasis is most likely low and remains to be determined in nonspecific vaginitis. Metronidazole remains the treatment of choice for trichomoniasis unless contraindicated by pregnancy or hypersensitivity. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for nonspecific vaginitis. Several remedies are available for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Topical antifungal drugs are effective, but recurrences are frequent. Although common in the U.S., chancroid is prevalent in other areas of the world. Resistant infections can be

  12. Hydrocephalus Onset after Microsurgical or Endovascular Treatment for Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue. PMID:24809036

  13. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Omwoyo, WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available . The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) (PQ-SLNs) as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water...

  15. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Omwoyo WN; Ogutu B; Oloo F; Swai H; Kalombo L; Melariri P; Mahanga GM; Gathirwa JW

    2014-01-01

    Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Science...

  16. CLINICAL LABORATORY PARAMETERS AMONG ADULT MALES DURING A PRIMAQUINE CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS TRIAL IN IRIAN JAYA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Fryauff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primakuin yang digunakan sebagai profilaksis malaria terbukti efektif dan diterima dengan baik oleh tubuh manusia yang normal terhadap aktivitas enzim 6 glukosa-6 fosfat dehidrogenase (G-6PD. Pemeriksaan laboratoris klinik adalah bagian dari uji coba secara acak dengan kontrol plasebo dalam rangka mengevaluasi penggunaan primakuin sebagai profilaksis pada penduduk transmigran yang tidak kebal di Irian Jaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 129 pria Jawa dewasa yang normal G-6PDnya. Pemeriksaan hematologi, fungsi hati dan ginjal, dan pemeriksaan limfosit dilakukan berulang kali selama waktu penelitian profilaksis dilakukan untuk menjamin keamanan dari sukarelawan tersebut dan mengawasi perubahan yang mungkin terjadi akibat obat profilaksis. Seperti yang diperkirakan, pengguna primakuin tidak menunjukkan gejala peningkatan methemoglobin yang kembali dalam batas normal setelah 7 hari pemberian dosis terakhir. Pada akhir penelitian (12 bulan profilaksis nilai hematologi, fungsi hati dan ginjal, dan nilai limfosit dari kelompok primakuin sebanding dengan kelompok plasebo, dan berada dalam batas nilai normal untuk orang Indonesia.Hasil penelitian ini memberikan masukan adanya keluhan fisik yang sedikit dari sukarelawan pengguna profilaksis primakuin. Untuk membuktikan hasil penelitian ini dan mempersiapkan penggunaan secara umum primakuin untuk profilaksis malaria, perlu dilakukan uji coba lebih lanjut keamanan primakuin. Di Indonesia, primakuin tidak digunakan sebagai profilaksis dan laporan hasil penelitian ini hendaknya tidak ditafsirkan sebagai laporan keamanan dari primakuin.

  17. Efficacy and safety of oral tinidazole and metronidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abbaspoor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for one week is currently the treatment of choice for bacterial vaginosis (BV. Complete treatment by this regimen takes time and occurs less often. This drug has significant side effects too. Using a drug in the shortest treatment course may increases the success of treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral tinidazole compare to metronidazole in treatment of BV.Methods: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind, comparative, clinical trial, 110 non-pregnant women aged between 15-45 years with confirmed diagnosis of BV by Amsels criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g tinidazole tablet once daily for 2 days (n=55 or 500 mg metronidazole table twice daily for 7 days (n=55.The cure and recurrence rate were evaluated in both groups after 2 and 4 weeks follow up visits. For statistical analysis t-test,   test, fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used.Results: The results showed that cure rate after 2 weeks in tinidazole tablet group was 84.6٪ and in metronidazole group was 85.4٪ (p=0.9, and after 4 weeks recurrence rate in tinidazole and metronidazole groups was 6.9٪and 12.1٪respectively (P=0.3.Conclusions: Tinidazole table 2 g once daily for 2 days is as effective as metronidazole tablet 500 mg twice a day for 7 days in treatment of BV.

  18. The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial: clinical rationale, study design, and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; Hansen, Peter Steen; Johannessen, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: No large randomized multicentre trial has evaluated the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) vs. anti-arrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy as a first-line treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation....... The primary endpoint is cumulative AF burden on repeated 7 days Holter monitoring. Secondary endpoints are: thromboembolic events, hospitalization due to arrhythmia, pro-arrhythmic events, procedure/treatment-related side effects, health economics, quality of life, and change in left ventricular function. Ten...

  19. Comparison of Oral Terbinafine with Itraconazole in the Treatment of Tinea Pedis

    OpenAIRE

    Memet Bilgili

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of the patients with interdigital tinea pedis. Material and Method: A total 60 patients with clinically and mycologically diagnosed as interdigital tinea pedis were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group received oral terbinafine 250 mg/day for two weeks (n:30). The second group received itraconazole 200 mg daily for 7 days (n:30). At ...

  20. Tinidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R Armstrong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola R Armstrong1, Janet D Wilson21Department of Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health, Trinity Centre, Bradford, UK; 2The Centre for Sexual Health, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Oral metronidazole has long been established as an effective therapy in the treatment of BV. However, adverse effects due to metronidazole are frequent and this may lead to problems with adherence to a 7-day course of treatment and subsequently result in treatment failure. Oral tinidazole has been used to treat bacterial vaginosis for over 25 years but in a number of different dosage regimens. Placebo controlled trials have consistently shown increases in cure rate with tinidazole. Longer courses of treatment (eg, 1 g daily for 5 days appear to be more effective than a 2 g oral single dose. Comparative studies suggest that oral tinidazole is equivalent to oral metronidazole, intravaginal clindamycin cream, and intravaginal metronidazole tablets, in efficacy in treating BV. However, tinidazole has a more favorable side effect profile than oral metronidazole notably with better gastrointestinal tolerability and less metallic taste. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with high rates of recurrence and appropriate management of such recurrences can prove difficult. Recurrent BV has been linked with persistence of Gardnerella vaginalis after treatment; however the clinical implications of the possible greater activity of tinidazole against G. vaginalis are not yet clear. Repeated courses of oral metronidazole may be poorly tolerated and an alternative but equally effective treatment that is better tolerated may be preferable. In comparison to oral metronidazole, cost is clearly an issue as oral metronidazole is considerably cheaper and available in generic form. However where avoidance of oral metronidazole is necessary because of side effects, oral

  1. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body’s ability to fight ...

  2. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke Stroke Treatment Stroke used to rank fourth in leading causes of ... type of treatment depends on the type of stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a clot blocks a ...

  3. Treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis with praziquantel and albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbar Hamid

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methods, doses and results of medical treatment on taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoo-notic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are discussed. In cases of cysticercosis T. solium, especially neurocysticercosis the optimal length and dose of albendazole is a course of 8 days with doses of 15 mg/kg/day divided in two times added by 50 mg/day of prednisone in the morning. The drug is effective in almost any location of the parasites for 80-90% of macroscopic cysts seen by imaging studies. For taeniasis a single dose of praziquantel, 10-15 mg/kg achieves cure rates of more than 90%. Side effects such as nausea, headache and abdominal pain are mild.  Evaluation of drug treatment is done by clinical, radiological and serological evaluation. In Papua (=Irian Jaya nine cases with suspected neurocysticercosis, serologically positive, were treated with 1200 mg single dose albendazole for 15 days. Prednisonetablets, three times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days were added. After one year 6 cases were still serologic positive. At the same time praziquantel, 1200 mg, single dose was given to ten cases during 15 days and prednisone tablets, 3 times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days. After one year 5 sero-positive cases were still found. Albendazole and praziquantel are both effective drugs for taeniasis and cysticercosis, with minor side effects. In addition symptomatic treatment should be given if necessary. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:253-7Keywords: albendazol, praziquantel, cysticercosis, taeniasis

  4. Anticholinergic drugs--functional antidotes for the treatment of tabun intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcová, Gabriela; Kassa, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    1. To study the influence of antidotes on tabun-induced neurotoxicity, the rats were injected intramuscularly with organophosphate tabun (LD50). The efficacy of choice antidotal treatment consisting of acetylcholinesterase reactivator obidoxime and one of four anticholinergic drugs (atropine, benactyzine, biperiden, scopolamine) was compared. 2. Testing of tabun-induced neurotoxicity progress was carried out using the method Functional observational battery. The experimental animals as well as controls were observed at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun or saline administration. 3. The results were compared to the condition of animals without anticholinergic drug (oxime alone) and control rats that received physiological solution instead of tabun and treatment. Antidotal treatment involving centrally acting anticholinergic drugs (benactyzine, biperiden, scopolamine) showed significantly higher neuroprotective efficacy compared to antidotal treatment containing atropine.

  5. Molecular and Cellular Responses to Interleukin-4 Treatment in a Rat Model of Transient Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Starlee; Hutchings, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Within hours after stroke, potentially cytotoxic pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated within the brain; thus, one potential therapeutic strategy is to reduce them and skew the brain toward an anti-inflammatory state. Because interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment induces an anti-inflammatory, “alternative-activation” state in microglia and macrophages in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that early supplementation of the brain with IL-4 can shift it toward an anti-inflammatory state and reduce damage after transient focal ischemia. Adult male rat striata were injected with endothelin-1, with or without co-injection of IL-4. Inflammation, glial responses and damage to neurons and white matter were quantified from 1 to 7 days later. At 1 day, IL-4 treatment increased striatal expression of several anti-inflammatory markers (ARG1, CCL22, CD163, PPARγ), increased phagocytic (Iba1-positive, CD68-positive) microglia/macrophages, and increased VEGF-A-positive infiltrating neutrophils in the infarcts. At 7 days, there was evidence of sustained, propagating responses. IL-4 increased CD206, CD200R1, IL-4Rα, STAT6, PPARγ, CD11b, and TLR2 expression and increased microglia/macrophages in the infarct and astrogliosis outside the infarct. Neurodegeneration and myelin damage were not reduced, however. The sustained immune and glial responses when resolution and repair processes have begun warrant further studies of IL-4 treatment regimens and long-term outcomes. PMID:27634961

  6. Adjuvant treatment of atopic eczema: assessment of an emollient containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (ATOPA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Eicke, C; Reinhardt, H-W; Ring, J

    2008-01-01

    For long-term management of atopic eczema, the use of skin care creams is recommended, but effectiveness of this treatment is not well established. The objective of this study was to yield data on the skin care properties of a cream with a unique lamellar matrix containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and to assess quality-of-life variables in patients with mild to moderate atopic eczema. In this multinational, multicentre, observational, non-controlled, prospective cohort study, patients between 2 and 70 years of age were enrolled. All patients were supplied with the study product sufficient for treatment over the entire study period. Outcome was followed in periods between 3 and 7 days and 4 and 6 weeks after study start. Data were gathered from doctor reports and patient self-assessments via patient questionnaires. Data from 2456 patients entered the database. The mean examination intervals were 6 days for the 3- to 7-day period and 38 days for the 4- to 6-week period. At study end, intensities of erythema, pruritus, excoriation, scaling, lichenification and dryness were significantly reduced with a combined score reduction of 58.6% in the entire population (57.7% in adults > 12 years and 60.5% in children effectiveness (decline of pruritus and loss of sleep) indicated a gain in quality of life in these patients. The reduced use of topical corticosteroids is important in view of safety and pharmacoeconomic implications in the treatment of atopic eczema.

  7. Feasibility of Typha latifolia for high salinity effluent treatment in constructed wetlands for integration in resource management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, J M; Calheiros, C S C; Castro, P M L; Borges, M T

    2014-01-01

    High salinity wastewaters have limited treatment options due to the occurrence of salt inhibition in conventional biological treatments. Using recirculating marine aquaculture effluents as a case study, this work explored the use of Constructed Wetlands as a treatment option for nutrient and salt loads reduction. Three different substrates were tested for nutrient adsorption, of which expanded clay performed better. This substrate adsorbed 0.31 mg kg(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 5.60 mg kg(-1) of PO4(3-)-P and 6.9 mg kg(-1) dissolved salts after 7 days of contact. Microcosms with Typha latifolia planted in expanded clay and irrigated with aquaculture wastewater (salinity 2.4%, 7 days hydraulic retention time, for 4 weeks), were able to remove 94% NH(4+)-N (inlet 0.25 +/- 0.13 mg L(-1)), 78% NO2(-)-N (inlet 0.78 +/- 0.62 mg L(-1)), 46% NO3(-)-N (inlet 18.83 +/- 8.93 mg L(-1)) whereas PO4(3-)-P was not detected (inlet 1.41 +/- 0.21 mg L(-1)). Maximum salinity reductions of 52% were observed. Despite some growth inhibition, plants remained viable, with 94% survival rate. Daily treatment dynamics studies revealed rapid PO4(3-)-P adsorption, unbalancing the N:P ratio and possibly affecting plant development. An integrated treatment approach, coupled with biomass valorization, is suggested to provide optimal resource management possibilities.

  8. Effects of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Paula, Luiz Guilherme Freitas de; Souza, João Antônio Chaves de; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced in 84 rats via ligature placement around the second upper molar, which was removed after 7 days, and scaling and root planning (SRP) was performed at this time. Subsequently, the rats were randomly allocated to four groups with 21 animals each: One SRP group in which saline solution was administered (SS), and three groups in which ASU was administered (0.6 g/kg/day), beginning either 7 days before the induction of periodontitis (SRP/ASU-7), on the day of periodontitis induction (SRP/ASU0), or on the day of treatment (SRP/ASU+7). ASU and SS were administered daily by gavage until the sacrifice of the animals (7, 15, and 30 days after SRP). The % bone in the furcation area was evaluated by histomorphometry and micro-CT. The expression of proteins (TRAP, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) and mRNA (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The SRP/ASU+7 group presented a higher percentage of bone fill in the furcation area and higher expression of alkaline phosphatase than in the SRP group (at 7 and 30 days, respectively). The SRP/ASU0 and SRP/ASU+7 groups presented lower expression levels of RANKL mRNA than the SRP and SRP/ASU-7 groups at 15 days. ASU administration on the day of the SRP treatment of the ligature-induced periodontitis promoted subtle beneficial effects on periodontal repair following the treatment of induced periodontitis within the experimental period of 7 days.

  9. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  10. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  11. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  12. Scabies Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  13. E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leistner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.

  14. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  15. An evaluation of the sensitivity of freshwater mussels in 7-day effluent toxicity tests compared to commonly tested species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The causes of...

  16. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  17. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    resulted in improvements in insulin action in the absence of weight loss. Glucose disposal rates during the euglycemic clamp were significantly increased at both hyperinsulinemic stages after training (40 mU: 1.84 +/- 0.32 to 2.67 +/- 0.37 mg.kg(-1).min(-1), P ...The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...

  18. [Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-bearing in an experiment with 7-day immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Zhuravleva, O A; Morukov, B V; Zabolotskaia, I V; Vostrikova, L V; Kuzichkin, D S

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic effects of physical countermeasures against deficient weight-loading were studied in three groups of 21-30 y.o. volunteers for 7-d dry immersion. Blood serum was investigated for 38 biochemical parameters that characterize myocardium, skeletal musculature, hepatobiliary system, kidney, pancreas, GI tract, prostate, and protein-nucleic, carbohydrate, electrolyte and mineral metabolism. Seven-day DI w/o countermeasures (n = 5) increased concentration of conjugated bilirubin, suppressed activities of muscular (creatine phosphokinase MM) and myocardial enzymes (CPK MB, OBDH), and caused an upward trend in cholesterol, its atherogenic LDP fraction and triglycerides. Mechanic sole stimulation (n = 6) intensified, within the physiological norm, erythrocyte hematolysis raising total bilirubin and potassium. Despite the stimulation, activity of muscle and myocardial enzymes made a decrease. Blood creatinine decreased to a less extent than in the immersed group w/o stimulation, however, lipid parameters did not rise. High-frequency stimulation of the lower leg and hip muscles in the course of immersion (n = 5) was noted to heighten the activity of muscle enzymes and potassium level in blood beyond the physiological norm. Change in creatinine did not reach a statistical significance and lipid metabolism parameters were not different from baseline values. Application of these physical methods of counteracting deficiency of weight bearing did not interfere with redistribution of body liquids due to immersion. Values of the parameters under study were mostly within the normal limits throughout the experimental exposure suggesting absence of pathological developments during DI or in consequence of physical stimulation. Therefore, the reactions were obviously of normal adaptive character.

  19. Effect of hypercarbia and isoflurane on brain cell death and neurocognitive dysfunction in 7-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greg; May, Laura D V; Sall, Jeffrey W; Alvi, Rehan S; Bell, Joseph S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Rau, Vinuta; Hilton, Joan F; Dai, Ran; Lee, Michael T; Visrodia, Kavel H; Ku, Ban; Zusmer, Emanuel J; Guggenheim, Jeremy; Firouzian, Atoosa

    2009-04-01

    Millions of neonates undergo anesthesia each year. Certain anesthetic agents cause brain cell death and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in postnatal day (P)7 rats. Despite its intuitive appeal, a causal link between cell death and neurocognitive decline after anesthesia has not been established. If one existed, the degree of cell death would be expected to correlate with the degree of neurocognitive dysfunction caused by anesthesia. The authors therefore tested if cell death caused by various durations of isoflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration causes duration-dependent long-term neurocognitive dysfunction. Isoflurane was administered to P7 rats at 1 minimum alveolar concentration for 0, 1, 2, or 4 h. To control for the respiratory depressant effects of anesthesia, a group of rats was treated with 4 h of carbon dioxide. Cell death was assessed by FluoroJade staining 12 h after the end of each intervention, and neurocognitive outcome was assessed 8 weeks later by using fear conditioning, spatial reference memory, and spatial working memory tasks. Widespread brain cell death was caused by 2 h and 4 h of isoflurane and by 4 h of carbon dioxide. The degree and distribution of thalamic cell death was similar in 4 h isoflurane-treated and 4-h carbon dioxide-treated rats. Only 4 h of isoflurane caused a long-term neurocognitive deficit affecting both spatial reference memory and spatial working memory. Working memory was improved in carbon dioxide-treated rats. Isoflurane-induced brain cell death may be partly caused by hypercarbia. The inconsistencies between cell death and neurocognitive outcome suggest that additional or alternative mechanisms may mediate anesthesia-induced long-term neurocognitive dysfunction.

  20. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7 Days of Data from the PandaX-II Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andi; Xiao, Mengjiao; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Xuyuan; Han, Ke; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jimin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-09-16

    We report the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing underground laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3×10^{4}  kg day, the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 5 and 1000  GeV/c^{2}. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found 2.5×10^{-46}  cm^{2} for the WIMP mass 40  GeV/c^{2} at 90% confidence level.

  1. Prognostic value of severity by various visceral proteins in critically ill patients with SIRS during 7 days of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharras-El Idrissi, Hicham; Molina-López, Jorge; Herrera-Quintana, Lourdes; Domínguez-García, Álvaro; Lobo-Támer, Gabriela; Pérez-Moreno, Irene; Pérez-de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells-Del Pozo, Elena

    2016-11-29

    Critically ill patients typically develop a catabolic stress state as a result of a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) that alters clinical-nutritional biomarkers, increasing energy demands and nutritional requirements. To evaluate the status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in critically ill patients and the association between these clinical-nutritional parameters with the severity during a seven day stay in intensive care unit (ICU). Multicenter, prospective, observational and analytical follow-up study. A total of 115 subjects in critical condition were included in this study. Clinical and nutritional parameters and severity were monitored at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. A significant decrease in APACHE II and SOFA (p < 0.05) throughout the evolution of critically ill patients in ICU. In general, patients showed an alteration of most of the parameters analyzed. The status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were below reference levels both at admission and the 7th day in ICU. A high percentage of patients presented an unbalanced status of albumin (71.3%), prealbumin (84.3%) and transferrin (69.0%). At admission, 27% to 47% of patients with altered protein parameters had APACHE II above 18. The number of patients with altered protein parameters and APACHE II below 18 were significantly higher than severe ones throughout the ICU stay (p < 0.01). Regarding the multivariate analysis, low prealbumin status was the best predictor of severity critical (p < 0.05) both at admission and 7th day of the ICU stay. The results of the present study support the idea of including low prealbumin status as a severity predictor in APACHE II scale, due to the association found between severity and poor status of prealbumin.

  2. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  3. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  4. Oral ivermectin treatment in two cases of scabies: effective in crusted scabies induced by corticosteroid but ineffective in nail scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Noriko; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Ohtomo, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    We report two cases of scabies treated with oral ivermectin (200 micro g/kg). Case 1, a 72-year-old man, developed crusted scabies with the use of oral corticosteroids due to a misdiagnosis by an earlier physician. The patient was successfully treated with two doses of oral ivermectin at a 7 day interval with concomitant topical use of crotamiton and keratolytic agents. However, the nail scabies in this patient failed to respond to these treatments. Live mites were detected from all his toenails two weeks after the second dose of ivermectin. A complete cure of the nail scabies was achieved by occlusive dressing of 1% gamma-BHC on all toenails for one month. Case 2, a 52-year-old woman, had been treated with oral corticosteroid for mesangial nephritis. She developed common scabies, but a topical scabicide, crotamiton, was not effective. Two weeks after treatment with a single dose of oral ivermectin, eggs were still detected from a burrow on her trunk. Her treatment was completed after a further two doses of oral ivermectin were administered at 7 day intervals. In both patients, the administration of oral ivermectin did not induce any clinical or laboratory side effects. Oral ivermectin is effective for crusted scabies, but not effective for nail scabies. Two doses of oral ivermectin, administered with a one-week interval, is an appropriate treatment regimen.

  5. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of a combined analgetic drug "Fanigan" for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamchur V.Y.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combined drug Fanigan (paracetamol 500 mg and diclofenac sodium 50 mg (production of "Kusum Pharm" (Ukraine or "Kusum Heltker PVT. LTD" (India in tablets for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome. A pronounced clinical efficiency of its application in patients with pain syndrome of various genesis in a daily dose from 2 to 3 tablets for 3 to 7 days was established. The obtained data on the clinical efficacy of the drug. Fanigan in the treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis allow to recommend it for application in wide clinical practice.

  6. Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study for 1-Week Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsing Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this one-group, repeated-measures design was to explore the acceptance of auricular point acupressure (APA to reduce chronic low back pain (CLBP and estimate minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs for pain intensity change. Methods. Subjects received 7-day APA treatment. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point for 7-day. The Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI was used to collect outcome data. Results. A total of 74 subjects participated in the study. Ten subjects dropped out and the retention rate was 87%. Subjects reported a 46% reduction in BPI worst pain, and over 50% reduction in BPI average pain, overall pain severity and pain interference by the end of study, and 62.5% subjects also reported less pain medication use. The MCIDs for the subscale of BPI ranged from .70 to 1.86 points. The percentage improvement of MCIDs from baseline was between 14.5–24.9%. Discussion. APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with CLBP. A sham group is needed in order to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of more frequent visits by the auricular therapist and patients’ expectation of the APA treatment.

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of Samen-ista emulsion on treatment of cutaneous and mucosal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mousalreza; Pourakbar, Ali; Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Arian, Amirali; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran; Salehi, Maryam; Esfandiari, Samaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Despite new treatment methods, upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains challenging. Samen-ista emulsion is a new agent based on traditional medicine with coagulant properties. The efficacy and safety of Samen-ista were assessed in cutaneous and mucosal bleeding animal models. Coagulant properties of Samen-ista were evaluated using mice tail bleeding assay, marginal ear vein and upper gastrointestinal mucosal bleeding times in rabbits. After 7 days, clinical signs, mortality and end-organ (kidney, liver, lung, brain and gastric mucosa) histopathological changes were also examined. Samen-ista dose-dependently decreased mean cutaneous tail (128 vs. 14 s) and marginal ear vein (396 vs. 84 s) bleeding times. Rabbit's upper gastrointestinal bleeding time was also significantly decreased (214 vs. 15.8 s) upon Samen-ista local endoscopic application. Treatment with Samen-ista for 7 days did not cause any mortality, abnormal signs of bleeding, changes in appetite or significant histopathologicl changes. Samen-ista emulsion is well tolerated and highly effective in achieving hemostasis in cutaneous and mucosal bleeding animal models.

  8. Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñoles, C; Meikle, A; Martin, G B

    2009-07-01

    We tested whether short periods of increased nutrition will improve ovulation rate and prolificacy, irrespective of the method used to synchronise the cycles of the ewes. In Experiment 1, we used 138 Corriedale ewes to evaluate two factors: synchronization treatment (sponges versus a single injection of prostaglandin) and type of pasture (native versus improved with Lotus corniculatus). Ewes were mated at the end of the grazing period and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. Grazing Lotus corniculatus for 12 days tended to increase the number of twin lambs born (P=0.09). The percentage of ewes showing oestrus during a 9-day period was similar among synchronization treatments. Animals in Experiments 2 (n=282) and 3 (n=288) were allocated to a control group or a group fed a supplement of corn grain and soybean meal for 7 days. Ewes received 2 prostaglandin injections and the supplement was fed from Days 11 to 17 after the second prostaglandin. Ovulation rate was measured in 65 (Experiment 2) and 61 (Experiment 3) ewes that were confirmed to have consumed the supplement and showed oestrus in a 4-day period. The supplement increased ovulation rate by 14% in both experiments (PLotus corniculatus and in ovulation rate to 7 days feeding with a supplement rich in energy and protein. Moreover, in these studies, prostaglandin was as effective as sponges for synchronising oestrus, an important factor in future decisions about hormonal management of fertility.

  9. Percutaneous carbon dioxide mist treatment has protective effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Masayuki; Shimada, Kenei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Izumi, Yasukatsu

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment with carbon dioxide (CO2) mist, CO2 gas dissolved in water, contributes to improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated pretreatment with CO2 mist on cardiac dysfunction after MI. The CO2 mist was generated by a dry mist production unit. The whole body of rats below the axilla was wrapped in a polyethylene bag, which was sealed and filled with the CO2 mist in the draft cabinet for 30 min daily for 7 days. MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery in untreated (UT), CO2 gas-pretreated (CG), and CO2 mist-pretreated (CM) rats. The infarct size and the increase in oxidative stress due to MI were significantly smaller in the CM rats than in the UT rats. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibrosis-related genes, such as transforming growth factor-β1, was significantly suppressed in the CM rats. The CM rats had a better left ventricular ejection fraction than the UT rats 7 days after MI. These parameters in the CG rats were the same as in the UT group. Thus, CO2 mist preparative treatment may be potentially useful for the reduction of MI.

  10. Effect of Binghuang ear drop treatment on otitis externa in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Suo-qiang; Yu, Ning; Guo, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of Binghuang ear drop on acute suppurative otitis externa in guinea pig model. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups, with ten animals in each group. Group A animals had normal ear canal and Binghuang ear drops (two drops, B.I.D) were applied in both ears for 7 days; Group B animals had induced otitis externa and received identical prescription as group A; Group C had normal ear canal and were treated with normal saline (two drops, B.I.D) for 7 days. After the treatments, the external morphology of ear canals was observed and the paraffin sections of external auditory canal were prepared and examined under the microscope. The inflammatory manifestation and cell infiltration into the skin of group B was significantly attenuated after the Binghuang ear drops treatment. In contrast, no allergy or side effects were produced by Binghuang ear drops application in the animals with normal ear canals. Binghuang ear drops could be used to treat acute otitis externa by eliciting anti-bacterial effects.

  11. Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Bach; Laurberg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting...... and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days...... after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30...

  12. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  13. DYNAMIC ADHESIVE WETTABILITY OF POPLAR VENEER WITH COLD OXYGEN PLASMA TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Tang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cold oxygen plasma treatment on activating the surface of poplar veneers and improving its wettability were investigated. The veneers were treated with cold oxygen plasma for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 min, and aged in air for 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The dynamic adhesive wettability of veneers was assessed using the contact angle, K-value analysis, and surface free energy. The shear strength of three-layer panels produced from untreated and cold oxygen plasma treated veneers was examined. The results showed that the wettability of veneer was significantly improved after cold oxygen plasma treatment, leading to the enhancement of shear strength of panels. The optimized treatment time should be 7 min. Aging effect of treated veneers showed that the veneer surface wettability degraded within the first 7 days and thereafter changed slightly.

  14. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  15. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  16. Eyelid hygiene as a tool for prevention and treatment of complications due to ocular surface diseases in early post-LASIK period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the effect of eyelid hygiene and therapy on early post-op period following excimer laser refractive surgery.Methods: 144 patients (288 eyes aged 18-57 yrs who underwent excimer laser vision correction (LASIK were followed. All patients were divided into two groups depending on therapy. In treatment group (70 patients/140 eyes, eyelid hygiene was prescribed 7 days before and 7 days again following refractive surgery for 1 or 2 months. In control group (74 patients/148 eyes, no eyelid hygiene was prescribed.Results: Complex method of eyelid hygiene and therapy was developed that consisted in eyelid margins self-massage using Blepharogel 1 or Blepharogel 2 and warm compresses using Blepharopads impregnated with Blepharolotion. When using in combina- tion with antibacterial and tear replacement therapy, this method provides significant decrease in infectious complications rate and effective recovery of tear production in early post-op period following excimer laser surgery. these observations are confirmed by the dynamics of clinical, functional and subjective parameters.Conclusion: 7-days eyelid hygiene and therapy course that is prescribed immediately before and following laser vision correctionprovides multi-factorial effect, i.e., reduces post-op inflammatory complications rate and increases tear film stability.

  17. Eyelid hygiene as a tool for prevention and treatment of complications due to ocular surface diseases in early post-LASIK period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the effect of eyelid hygiene and therapy on early post-op period following excimer laser refractive surgery.Methods: 144 patients (288 eyes aged 18-57 yrs who underwent excimer laser vision correction (LASIK were followed. All patients were divided into two groups depending on therapy. In treatment group (70 patients/140 eyes, eyelid hygiene was prescribed 7 days before and 7 days again following refractive surgery for 1 or 2 months. In control group (74 patients/148 eyes, no eyelid hygiene was prescribed.Results: Complex method of eyelid hygiene and therapy was developed that consisted in eyelid margins self-massage using Blepharogel 1 or Blepharogel 2 and warm compresses using Blepharopads impregnated with Blepharolotion. When using in combina- tion with antibacterial and tear replacement therapy, this method provides significant decrease in infectious complications rate and effective recovery of tear production in early post-op period following excimer laser surgery. these observations are confirmed by the dynamics of clinical, functional and subjective parameters.Conclusion: 7-days eyelid hygiene and therapy course that is prescribed immediately before and following laser vision correctionprovides multi-factorial effect, i.e., reduces post-op inflammatory complications rate and increases tear film stability.

  18. Surviving cells after treatment with gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil for the study of de novo resistance of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Chen-Yan; Yu, Dang-Hui; Bu, Hai-Ji; Chen, Ying; Ni, Can-Yong; Zhu, Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of pancreatic cancer is its inherent insensitivity to chemotherapy. This study was undertaken to develop a cell model for the study of de novo resistance of pancreatic cancer. The surviving pancreatic cancer cells after a 3-day exposure to gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil followed by another 7-day recovery were potentially drug-resistant. They had similar morphology and comparable growth and tumorigenic potentials to their untreated parental cells. Repeated subculture affected the cell-cycle profile and growth characteristics of the surviving cells. Our data suggest that surviving pancreatic cancer cells after drug treatment are a useful model for exploring intrinsic resistance.

  19. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot problems such as swelling, pain, and Raynaud's phenomenon. article Access to care: What is being done, ... lupus. article How lupus treatments can affect your child's vision Antimalarials can affect the retina, so an ...

  20. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  1. TREATMENT OPTIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of diverse lesions: comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, sinuses and scars. Despite, this ... nodules, cysts, drainage sinuses form ... In cases of mild acne, topical treatment is usually ... tients an eruption of pustules may appear.

  2. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exciting research being done today to generate promising new drugs. These new drugs all work differently than the approved treatments, so ... could include a combination of the old and new drugs. Several of the new drugs are already being ...

  3. Alzheimer's Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. Because it is a complex disease, scientists believe ...

  4. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950229 A controlled multi—center clinical trial oncisapride in treatment of functional dyspepsia.WANGBaoen(王宝恩),et al.Beijing Friendship Hosp,Bei-jing.100050.Chin J Intern Med 1995;34(3):180—184.A controlled muhi-centre clinical trial was con-ducted for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cis-apride in the treatment of 414 cases of functional dys-pepsia with 169 cases as control.Cisapride were given

  6. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Lai

    Full Text Available Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01, though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture

  7. An open randomized comparison of gatifloxacin versus cefixime for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Pandit

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus cefixime in the treatment of uncomplicated culture positive enteric fever. DESIGN: A randomized, open-label, active control trial with two parallel arms. SETTING: Emergency Room and Outpatient Clinics in Patan Hospital, Lagankhel, Lalitpur, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed uncomplicated enteric fever meeting the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated to receive one of two drugs, Gatifloxacin or Cefixime. The dosages used were Gatifloxacin 10 mg/kg, given once daily for 7 days, or Cefixime 20 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was fever clearance time. The secondary outcome measure was overall treatment failure (acute treatment failure and relapse. RESULTS: Randomization was carried out in 390 patients before enrollment was suspended on the advice of the independent data safety monitoring board due to significant differences in both primary and secondary outcome measures in the two arms and the attainment of a priori defined endpoints. Median (95% confidence interval fever clearance times were 92 hours (84-114 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 138 hours (105-164 hours for cefixime-treated patients (Hazard Ratio[95%CI] = 2.171 [1.545-3.051], p<0.0001. 19 out of 70 (27% patients who completed the 7 day trial had acute clinical failure in the cefixime group as compared to 1 out of 88 patients (1% in gatifloxacin group(Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.031 [0.004 - 0.237], p<0.001. Overall treatment failure patients (relapsed patients plus acute treatment failure patients plus death numbered 29. They were determined to be (95% confidence interval 37.6 % (27.14%-50.2% in the cefixime group and 3.5% (2.2%-11.5% in the gatifloxacin group (HR[95%CI] = 0.084 [0.025-0.280], p<0.0001. There was one death in the cefixime group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, gatifloxacin is a better treatment for

  8. Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Naing

    required to establish how best to combine this treatment with appropriate antirelapse therapy (primaquine or other drugs under development.

  9. Application of Diode Laser in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Zukanovic, Amila; Pasic, Enes; Pavlic, Veriva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser. Materials and Methods: The study included 18 patients with 82 sensitive teeth. The degree of dentine hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the treatment was carried out by application of low-power diode laser over the span of three visits, which depended on the initial sensitivity. Results: There is a significant difference in VAS values measured at the onset of treatment (baseline) and immediately after the first laser treatment (t=9.275; p=0.000), after 7 days, after the second laser treatment (14 days) (t=7.085, p=0.000), as well as after 14 days and the third laser treatment (t=5.517, p=0.000), which confirms the effectiveness of this therapeutic procedure. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile stimulus with a probe after the third treatment, even with teeth whose value on the VAS was very high at the beginning of treatment (baseline). Conclusion: Within the scope of the conducted study, laser therapy has provided extremely safe and effective results in the treatment of cervical dentine hypersensitivity.

  10. Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

  11. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  12. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M; Barber, Larry B; Gray, James L; Lopez, Elena M; Bolden, Ashley M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Norris, David O

    2011-06-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent.

  14. [Pain and discomfort in orthodontic treatments. Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsánszky, Nelli; Madléna, Melinda

    2011-12-01

    The experience of pain and discomfort during orthodontic treatment is common. Pain is a subjective response to noxious stimuli, but it is also influenced by age, gender, previous pain experience, emotional factors and stress. The ortodontic treatments such as separation, placement of the arch wire, activation of the fix or removable appliances and debonding cause some degree of pain for the patient. In a prospective study 95% of the patients reported pain experience during orthodontic treatment. The periodontal pain caused by the combination of pressure, ischemia, inflammation and oedema. The pain starts within 4 hours, increases over the next 24 hours, and decrease within 7 days, so it may not be identified by the orthodontist at recall visit. The most common method to measure the intensity of the pain is the NRS (numerical rating scale), where patients can rate their pain intensity from 1 to 10 or 1 to 100. There are many modalities to control orthodontic pain, we can use different analgesic agents, solf-laser irradiation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and hypnotherapy. The aim of this review to provide an overview on discomfort and pain reaction during orthodontic treatments and discussion of the possible measurement and alleviation of pain.

  15. Randomized Clinical Trial of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate for the Treatment of Mild Hyperkalemia in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Laurence; Dufour, Anne-Claude; Doiron, Jessica; Handfield, Katia; Desforges, Katherine; Bell, Robert; Vallée, Michel; Savoie, Michel; Perreault, Sylvie; Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Pichette, Vincent; Lafrance, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-07

    Hyperkalemia affects up to 10% of patients with CKD. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate has long been prescribed for this condition, although evidence is lacking on its efficacy for the treatment of mild hyperkalemia over several days. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in the treatment of mild hyperkalemia. In total, 33 outpatients with CKD and mild hyperkalemia (5.0-5.9 mEq/L) in a single teaching hospital were included in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. We randomly assigned these patients to receive either placebo or sodium polystyrene sulfonate of 30 g orally one time per day for 7 days. The primary outcome was the comparison between study groups of the mean difference of serum potassium levels between the day after the last dose of treatment and baseline. The mean duration of treatment was 6.9 days. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate was superior to placebo in the reduction of serum potassium levels (mean difference between groups, -1.04 mEq/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.37 to -0.71). A higher proportion of patients in the sodium polystyrene sulfonate group attained normokalemia at the end of their treatment compared with those in the placebo group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (73% versus 38%; P=0.07). There was a trend toward higher rates of electrolytic disturbances and an increase in gastrointestinal side effects in the group receiving sodium polystyrene sulfonate. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate was superior to placebo in reducing serum potassium over 7 days in patients with mild hyperkalemia and CKD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatits with amikacin through anal submucosal injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-LieHU; Shi-ZhenZHONG; 等

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Aim:To assess the efficacy and safety of anal submucosal injection(ASI)of amikacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis(CBP).Methods:Fifty male outpatients with CBP were randomly diided into two groups.Thirty cases of ASI group were given amikacin 400mg daily by ASI for ten times and the other twenty cases of intramuscular injection(IM)group were given the same drug daily by IM,All patients were evaluated with NIH-Chronic prostatitis symptom index(NIH-CPSI),the bacteria culture of the expressed prostate secretion(EPS),proctoscopic examination,rectal biopsy and the clinical manifestation were checked at pretreatment and on day 7and 90after cessation of therapy,Results:The cure rate ,apparent effective rate and effective rate of ASI group and IM group were 33.3%vs5%(P0.05).respectively.The score of NIH-CPSI in both of ASI group and IM group decreased significantly 7days after cessation of therapy,both ASI and IMof amikacin could relieve symptoms within a short time,However,3months after cessation of therapy the score of NIH-CPSIin ASIgroup continued own in spite of no significant differences compared with 7days after cessation of theragy,but the score of IMgroup was rebound nearly colsed to level of pretreatment at23.8±8.5and significantly higher than that of ASI group.The amount of white blood cell(WBC)of EPS in ASIgroup increased slightly at7days after cessation of therapy without significant difference with pretreatment(P>0.050,but it significantly decreased at 3months after cessation of therapy,the amount of WBCof EPS in ASIgroup was lower than that of IM group at 3months after cessation of therapy(P<0.05).Proctoscopic examination of anal canal were normal after ASI therapy and the rectum biopsy showed no obvious histopathologic abnormality at the site of injection except mild focal submucosal infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells at 7days after cessation of therapy which disappeared on 3months after cessation of therapy.All patients had no evident

  17. Treatment of ingrown toenails using a new conservative method: a prospective study comparing brace treatment with Emmert's procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Jörg; Schöffl, Volker; Hohenberger, Werner; Schneider, Ignaz

    2005-01-01

    Ingrown toenails cause incapacitation and pain for the patient and lost time from work. Many different conservative and surgical treatment methods have been described. European chiropodists and podologists have long treated ingrown toenails with orthonyxia, which consists of implantation of a small metal brace or plate onto the dorsum of the nail. To determine whether orthonyxia is an acceptable alternative to surgery, we compared the VHO-Osthold brace (VHO-Osthold-Spange GmbH, Deisenhofen, Germany), a new method of orthonyxia, with Emmert's procedure, a standard surgical method that is virtually identical to the Winograd-type procedure, in a prospective study of 41 patients (21 in the brace group and 20 in the Emmert procedure group). Pain due to treatment was significantly lower in the brace group than in the Emmert procedure group, and patients in the brace group could wear regular shoes again without appreciable pain much earlier than those in the Emmert procedure group. In the brace group, there were four recurrences, and one patient was still receiving treatment at the end of follow-up; in the Emmert procedure group, there were three recurrences. None of the patients in the brace group had to take time off from work, whereas in the Emmert procedure group, working patients were off from work for an average of 14.7 days. Brace treatment proved to be a good conservative alternative to operative procedures.

  18. Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm resists repeated intravaginal antiseptic treatment in a subset of women with bacterial vaginosis: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Verstraelen, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept). In case of treatment failure or relapse within 6 months, patients were re-treated with a 28-day course of octenidine. In case of recurrence within 6 months after the second treatment course, patients were treated again with a 28-day course followed by weekly applications for 2 months. Treatment effect was evaluated by assessment of the presence of the biofilm on voided vaginal epithelial cells through fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The initial cure rate following a 7-day course of octenidine was as high as 87.5%. The 6-month relapse rate was, however, as high as 66.6%. Repeated treatment for 28 days led to an overall cure rate of 75.0%; however, it was also associated with emergence of complete resistance to octenidine in a subset of women. The overall cure rate after three treatment courses with 1-year follow-up was 62.5 %, with 37.5 % of the patients showing complete resistance to octenidine. Our preliminary results showed that octenidine dihydrochloride was initially highly effective, but the efficacy of repeated and prolonged treatment dropped quickly as challenge with the antiseptic rapidly led to bacterial resistance in a considerable subset of women.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of natural prostaglandin in the treatment of pyometra in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Jena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was done to study the therapeutic effect of natural prostaglandin in treatment of canine pyometra. Materials and Methods: Seven bitches were treated with natural PGF2 á i.e. dinoprost tromethamine at the dose rate of 100 μg/kg body weight subcutaneously once daily for 7 days with supportive therapies. The physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters were studied before (0th day and after treatment (8th day. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in terms of return of abnormal parameters to either normal or near normal value as compared to the untreated control group, intensity of side effects and post treatment reproductive status. Results: All physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters in the seven treated bitches returned to normal range at the end of treatment. The intensity of side effects was quite severe in the treatment group. Six bitches came to estrus within 2 months of treatment and out of them four conceived on subsequent mating. In rest three bitches there was recurrence of pyometra within 4 months of treatment. Conclusion: Though conception rate of recovered bitches is decreased when compared with that of normal healthy bitches still this treatment protocol can be used successfully in treatment of canine pyometra to conserve the breeding capability of bitches. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 295-299

  20. Clinical treatment of ocular Demodex folliculorum by systemic ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzchuh, Flávio Gaieta; Hida, Richard Yudi; Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Villa Albers, Marcos Bottene; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-José, Newton; Holzchuh, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    To report clinical outcomes of the treatment of ocular Demodex folliculorum with oral ivermectin. Noncomparative, interventional case series. Setting. Institutional. Study Population. Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (3 male and 9 female; mean age ± standard deviation, 50.4 ± 21.0 years) with refractory posterior blepharitis with the presence of D. folliculorum in lash samples were enrolled in this study. Intervention. Patients were instructed to take 1 dose of oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg). All patients were instructed to repeat the treatment after 7 days. Main outcome measures. Tear meniscus height, Schirmer I test results, noninvasive tear film break-up time (BUT), quantification of the absolute number of D. folliculorum found in the lashes, and corneal fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores were obtained from all patients 1 day before and 28 days after treatment. Statistical improvement was observed in the absolute number of D. folliculorum found in the lashes after the treatment with oral ivermectin. Average values of Schirmer I test results and tear film break-up time improved statistically after the treatment of oral ivermectin. No statistical improvement was observed in average lacrimal meniscus height or value of corneal fluorescein and rose bengal staining after treatment with oral ivermectin. Ivermectin successfully reduced the number of D. folliculorum found in the lashes of patients with refractory blepharitis. Oral ivermectin may be very useful as a complement in the treatment of D. folliculorum infestation with ocular manifestation, especially in cases of unsuccessful treatment related to patient compliance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

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    Maria Aparecida SHIKANAI-YASUDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYConsidered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions.

  2. GENERAL TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    1.1 Drug treatment2003260 Helicobacter pylori: in vitro induction of resistance to antibiotics and surveillance of its resistant prevalence.LIANG Xiao(梁晓), et al.Shanghai Instit, Dig Dis, Renji Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Dig 2003;23(3):146 - 149.Objective: Antibiotic resistance has increasingly been

  3. [Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it's giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

  4. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEmpirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3-7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  5. Surgical treatment of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas by the endoscopic endonasal approach in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Armando Marenco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, surgical series of elderly patients treated for pituitary adenomas have been published, all of which used the microscopic transsphenoidal or transcranial approach. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the surgical results of our first 25 elderly patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPM operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA. Preoperative visual loss was found in 92.8% of the cases, and 70.8% experienced visual improvement following surgery. Preoperative pituitary dysfunction was found in 69.2% of the cases and postoperative pituitary recovery occurred in 22.2% of them. Mean hospital stay was 6.7 days. The results of this study suggest that surgery remains the first line of treatment for NFPM in the elderly. Because age alone is not a barrier for surgery, patients should be selected for surgical treatment based on their symptoms and clinical condition, as defined by comorbidities.

  6. Pregnancy and treatment outcome in a patient with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul D; Freeman, Leisa J; Stanley, Katherine P S; McKelvey, Alistair

    2013-05-01

    Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. This case reviews a woman with familial LVNC (EF 45%, NYHA class I, evidence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia pre-pregnancy) who had significant decompensation with heart failure in the third trimester that required early delivery. Deterioration in symptoms and LV function 7 days after delivery required further hospitalization and aggressive treatment. Suppression of lactation with bromocriptine, together with standard heart failure management, has allowed recovery and return to full activities and work. Acknowledged adverse risk factors in LVNC are considered, and pre-pregnancy risk assessment is reviewed. There is no specific treatment for LVNC in pregnancy besides the usual management of dilated cardiomyopathy. This is the ninth case report of LVNC in pregnancy reported in the literature.

  7. Recurrent Fistula between Ileal Pouch and Vagina—Successful Treatment with a Gracilis Muscle Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Aydin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fistulae between an ileal pouch and the vagina are an uncommon complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following proctocolectomy and mucosectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. Several reports describe the successful use of muscle flaps to close recurrent pouch-vaginal-fistulae (PVF. However, series only contain small numbers and an optimal management has not yet been determined. We report the case of a 26-year old woman with a third recurrence of a PVF after proctocolectomy for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis in October 2005. Because local approaches failed, definitive closure of the fistula was achieved by interposition of a gracilis muscle flap between the pouch-anal anastomosis and the vagina. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient was discharged 7 days after surgery and remained free of recurrence and symptomatic complaints for 22 months now. The gracilis muscle flap proved to be an effective method in the treatment of recurrent PVF.

  8. Treatment Effects of Xuebijing Injection in Severe Septic Patients with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

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    Qin Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment effects of Xuebijing (XBJ injection in severe septic patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC were investigated in this study. 171 severe septic patients with DIC were divided into the control group (n=83 or intervention group (n=88. Routine therapies were administered in both groups, and XBJ injection was administered additionally in the intervention group. Incidence of DIC, clinical severity scores, and coagulation parameters at 7 days after administration of XBJ injection were compared between the two groups, and short-term prognosis was evaluated by 28-day mortality. Compared with the control group, incidence of DIC in the intervention group was significantly lower at 7 days after administration of XBJ injection (P<0.001. In addition, differences of platelet count and prothrombin time were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group (P all <0.05, and similar results were also found for differences of the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (P all <0.05. Furthermore, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group (P=0.034. These results demonstrate that XBJ injection can effectively treat DIC caused by severe sepsis and improve short-term prognosis of severe septic patients with DIC.

  9. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

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    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  10. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930015 Treatment of soil-transmittedhelminth infections by helminthicides in currentuse.XU Longqi(许隆祺),et al.Instit ParasitDis,Acad Chin Pre Med,Shanghai 200025.Chin J Parasitol & Parasit Dis 1992;10(2):95—98.The efficacy of broad-spectrum helminthi-cides in current use was studied in HengshanCounty,Hunan Province.The vermicides under

  11. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  12. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  13. IBS Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  14. plasma treatment

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    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  15. Wastewater treatment

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    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  16. TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR DISPLACED FRACTURE OF THE CALCANEAL TUBEROSITY

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    Siva G. Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to compare the outcome following conservative or surgical treatment for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 men and 4 women aged 20 to 44 years chose to undergo conservative (9 feet or surgical (10 feet treatment by a single surgeon for closed displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. The injury mechanism was a fall from a height of <1.5 m; the mean time from injury to treatment was 3 (range 1-7 days. Conservative treatment comprised immobilisation in a plaster cast. Surgical treatment involved fixation with a half thread cannulated screw for large fragments (in 6 feet or a mini-plate for comminuted fragments (in 4 feet. At the final follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and hind foot score was evaluated. RESULTS The conservative and surgery groups were comparable in terms of age, gender and fracture displacement. The mean follow-up duration was 20 (range, 14-24 months. All patients had bone union; none had implant loosening or breakage. One patient with surgical treatment developed skin numbness at the medial aspect of the heel that resolved following neurotrophic drug treatment for 3 months. The surgery group achieved earlier full weight bearing (5.8 vs. 7.5 weeks, p<0.001 and return to work (5.9 vs. 8.2 weeks, p=0.048, but comparable AOFAS score (89.0 vs. 88.2, p=0.4. CONCLUSION Surgery for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity enabled earlier full weight bearing and return to work, but comparable AOFAS score.

  17. MICRO DIATHERMOCOAGULATION IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS CORNEAL ULCERS

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    E. A. Kasparova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To improve the treatment of early infectious corneal ulcers by combining microdiathermocoagulation (MDC, external autocytokinotherapy, and antiviral and/or antibacterial therapy. patients and methods. The study enrolled 2 groups of outpatients (a total of 112 patients, 112 eyes who either showed no improvement or deteriorated under 7-day to 1.5-month therapeutic treatment. Group I included 70 patients (70 eyes with superficial corneal ulcers due to herpes virus infection under antiviral therapy (instillations and periocular injections of Poludan (PolyA:PoliU as well as Zovirax 3% ophthalmic ointment, group II — 42 patients (42 eyes with early-stage purulent corneal ulcers under instillations of modern antibiotics (current-generation fluoroquinolones. results and discussion. The combination of MDC and external autocytokinotherapy is the most effective treatment for torpid herpetic ulcerative keratitis that allows a reliable reduction in the recovery period: from 24.1±2.2 days (therapeutic treatment only down to 9.2±1.3 days (both methods plus antiviral therapy. Moreover, MDC is the treatment of choice in outpatients with purulent corneal ulcer in its early stage. The healing period in this case can be also reliably reduced (р<0.05 from 18.6±1.9 days (MDC plus antibacterial therapy. Hence, MDC is a highly effective urgent method of treatment available to ambulatory care patients with herpetic keratitis and early-stage purulent corneal ulcers. External autocytokinotherapy shows a pronounced anti-inflammatory and regenerative effect. When applied together, MDC and external autocytokinotherapy act synergistically and provide twice as short treatment periods. MDC as well as its combination with external autocytokinotherapy, if started early, allow to avoid keratoplasty in most patients with herpetic keratitis and early-stage purulent corneal ulcers.

  18. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment of Acute Epidural Hematoma: Case Series

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    Weijun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Although minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute epidural hematoma attracts increasing attention, no generalized indications for the surgery have been adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery in acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes. Methods. Minimally invasive puncture and aspiration surgery were performed in 59 cases of acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes (13–145 mL; postoperative follow-up was 3 months. Clinical data, including surgical trauma, surgery time, complications, and outcome of hematoma drainage, recovery, and Barthel index scores, were assessed, as well as treatment outcome. Results. Surgical trauma was minimal and surgery time was short (10–20 minutes; no anesthesia accidents or surgical complications occurred. Two patients died. Drainage was completed within 7 days in the remaining 57 cases. Barthel index scores of ADL were ≤40 (n=1, 41–60 (n=1, and >60 (n=55; scores of 100 were obtained in 48 cases, with no dysfunctions. Conclusion. Satisfactory results can be achieved with minimally invasive surgery in treating acute epidural hematoma with hematoma volumes ranging from 13 to 145 mL. For patients with hematoma volume >50 mL and even cerebral herniation, flexible application of minimally invasive surgery would help improve treatment efficacy.

  19. Use of firocoxib for the treatment of equine osteoarthritis

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    Donnell JR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Josh R Donnell, David D Frisbie Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract: This review presents the pathogenesis and medical treatment of equine osteoarthritis (OA, focusing on firocoxib. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 remains a fundamental treatment for decreasing clinical symptoms (ie, pain and lameness associated with OA in horses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 from the arachidonic acid pathway, continue to be a mainstay for the clinical treatment of OA. Firocoxib is a cyclooxygenase (COX-2-preferential NSAID that has been shown to be safe and to have a 70% oral bioavailability in the horse. Three clinical reports identified symptom-modifying effects (reduction in pain and/or lameness in horses with OA administered the once-daily recommended dose (0.1 mg/kg of oral firocoxib following 7 days of administration. Other reports have suggested that a one-time loading dose (0.3 mg/kg of firocoxib provides an earlier (1–3 days onset of action compared to the recommended dose. It is noteworthy that OA disease-modifying effects have been reported in horses for other COX-2-preferential NSAIDs (meloxicam and carprofen, but have not been attributed to firocoxib due to a lack of investigation to date. Keywords: horse, osteoarthritis, firocoxib, COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID

  20. Comprehensive treatment for gas gangrene of the limbs in earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Lu, Bo; Hao, Peng; Yan, Meng-ning; Dai, Ke-rong

    2013-10-01

    Mortality rates for patients with gas gangrene from trauma or surgery are as high as 25%, but they increase to 50%-80% for patients injured in natural hazards. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for these patients. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and therapeutic results of 19 patients with gas gangrene of the limbs, who were injured in the May 2008 earthquake in the Wenchuan district of China's Sichuan province and treated in our hospital, to seek how to best diagnose and treat earthquake-induced gas gangrene. Of 226 patients with limbs open injuries sustained during the earthquake, 53 patients underwent smear analysis of wound exudates and gas gangrene was diagnosed in 19 patients. The average elapsed time from injury to arrival at the hospital was 72 hours, from injury to definitive diagnosis was 4.3 days, and from diagnosis to conversion of negative findings on wound smear analysis to positive findings was 12.7 days. Anaerobic cultures were also obtained before wound closure. The average elapsed time from completion of surgery to recovery of normal vital signs was 6.3 days. Of the 19 patients, 16 were treated with open amputation, two with closed amputation, and 1 with successful limb salvage; 18 patients were successfully treated and one died. In earthquakes, rapid, accurate screening and isolation are essential to successful treatment of gas gangrene and helpful in preventing nosocomial diffusion. Early and thorough debridement, open amputation, and active supportive treatment can produce satisfactory therapeutic results.

  1. Surgical treatment strategy for multiple injury patients in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-yang; YAO Yuan-zhang; JIANG Dong-po; ZHOU Jian; HUANG Xian-kai; SHEN Yue; HUANG Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical treatment for patients with multiple injuries in ICU.Methods: Clinical data of 163 multiple injury patients admitted to ICU of our hospital from January 2006 to January 2009 were retrospectively studied, including 118 males and 45 females, with the mean age of 36.2 years (range, 5-67 years). The injury regions included head and neck (29 cases),face (32 cases), chest (89 cases), abdomen (77 cases), pelvis and limbs (91 cases) and body surface (83 cases). There were 57 cases combined with shock. ISS values varied from 10 to 54, 18.42 on average. Patients received surgical treatments in ICU within respectively 24 hours (10 cases), 24-48 hours (8 cases), 3-7 days (7 cases) and 8-14 days (23 cases).Results: Forthe 163 patients, the duration of ICU stay ranged from 2 to 29 days, with the average value of 7.56 days. Among them, 143 were cured (87.73%), 11 died in the hospital (6.75%) due to severe hemorrhagic shock (6 cases),craniocerebral injury (3 cases) and multiple organ failure (2 cases), and 9 died after voluntarily discharging from hospital (5.52%). The total mortality rate was 12.27%.Conclusions: The damage control principle should be followed when multiple injury patients are resuscitated in ICU. Surgical treatment strategies include actively controlling hemorrhage, treating the previously missed injuries and related wounds or surgical complications and performing planned staging operations.

  2. Disseminated BCG: Complications of Intravesical Bladder Cancer Treatment

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    Uyen To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG has been established as an effective treatment of superficial bladder cancer (Parker and Kommu, 2013. However, major side effects, including pneumonitis, sepsis, and even death, may occur in <5% of patients (Gonzalez et al., 2003. Here we present a case of severe disseminated Mycobacterium bovis following intravesical BCG administration. Our patient is a 76-year-old gentleman with newly diagnosed superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who recently received his first intravesical BCG treatment. He initially presented with hemoptysis and was found to have extensive patchy infiltrates bilaterally. He was treated for pneumonia with antibiotics and then with steroids for hypersensitivity pneumonitis but continued to deteriorate. Due to the temporal proximity of his exposure to BCG, we administered treatment for presumed disseminated BCG infection with rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol. Within a 48-hour period, the patient improved dramatically. The reported cases of infection from intravesical BCG illustrate an insidious onset with initial symptoms of low-grade fevers and cystitis but may progress to pneumonitis. If the symptoms persist for more than 7 days or if there is clinical deterioration, RIPE therapy (with rifampin, isoniazid, pyridoxine, and ethambutol and a fluoroquinolone should be administered for a 6–9-month course along with steroids for 4–6 weeks (Naudžiunas et al., 2012.

  3. Prophylactic Antiviral Treatment in Recurrent Herpes Zoster: A Case Report

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    Hatice Gamze Bayram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ occurs in older ages with activation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV which persists in a dormant phase within the dorsal root ganglia. The incidence of HZ in immunosuppressed patients is 20-100 times higher and the clinical progress is more severe than in immunocompetent individuals. A 48-year-old man who had been diagnosed with acute myelocytic leukemia type M3 and had been treated with immunosuppressive agents was admitted to our clinic. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having HZ. He was treated with acyclovir 800 mg five times daily for 7 days. In the consecutive three months, he attended our clinic again with similar complaints. The left cervical (C5, C6 dermatomes were involved at the fourth attack of HZ. Multinucleated giant cells were determined on the Tzanck smear. VZV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Treatment with valacyclovir 1 g three times daily for 14 days was prescribed and then, prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir 500 mg two times a day was administered. Although immunosuppressive treatment was continued, no new attacks of herpes zoster occurred. We think that prophylactic antiviral therapy should be initiated in immunosuppressive individuals who have recurrent herpes zoster attacks.

  4. Evaluation of the conservative treatment of Trigger finger by local instillation of corticosteroids

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    Muris Pecar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trigger Finger (tenosynovitis stenosans is a specific, named disease from a group of repetitive strain injury (RSI diseases, caused by inflammation which results in difficulties during muscle contraction and weakened and painful tendon movement. It is common in the outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation practice. The aim of our study was to evaluate the success of conservative treatment of Trigger Finger by local instillation of corticosteroids.Methods: The study was designed as an observational and open analysis of the results of conservative treatment of 45 patients. We used precise instillation of steroid anti-inflammatory antirheumatic drugs in the area of patho-anatomic, microtraumatic injuries of tendon and its sheath. Patients were evaluated before and after the treatment with 0 to 5 evaluation score scale. The data were analyzed using X2 test.Results: Most of the patients had evaluation score of 2, 3 and 4, before the treatment. After the treatment 10 (29% patients had achieved score 4 and 35 (71% patients had achieved score 5. All of the patients with score 5 had excellent working ability with full working capacity. Other patients had well-preserved working ability, which improved to excellent in maximum of 7 days.Conclusions: Conservative treatment of Trigger finger shows good therapeutic effects and taking into account the benefits, convenience and generally lower cost of conservative treatment for the patient, should be considered as an effective alternative to surgical treatment.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhichun; Liu, Jing; Ju, Rong

    2013-05-05

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhichun Feng; Jing Liu; Rong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  7. Lengthened superstimulatory treatment in cattle: Evidence for rescue of follicles within a wave rather than continuous recruitment of new follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Guerra, A; Tribulo, A; Yapura, J; Adams, G P; Singh, J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    A study was designed to compare the effects of a conventional (4 days) versus a lengthened (7 days) superstimulation protocol on follicle dynamics and to test the hypothesis that superstimulatory treatment only rescues small follicles within the wave. Nonlactating beef cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device [PRID] and were superstimulated with 400-mg FSH on the day of follicle ablation-induced wave emergence (Day 0). The control group (n = 5) received FSH over 4 days, whereas the long group (n = 5) received FSH over 7 days. PGF was administered twice on Day 2 (control group) or 5 (long group), and PRIDs were removed 24 hours after the first PGF. Cows received 25-mg LH 24 hours after PRID removal. The cows chosen for the present study represented a subset from a larger group of 24 cows in which superovulation results were obtained and published. Cows in the present study were those with the lowest antral follicle counts at the time of wave emergence in order to facilitate tracking of individual follicles. Daily ultrasonographic examinations monitored follicle diameters and numbers. A reduction (P protocols rescue small antral follicles present at the time of wave emergence; there was no evidence for continuous recruitment of new follicles. Results also provide rationale for the hypothesis that a lengthened treatment protocol is associated with greater follicle maturation and capacity to ovulate.

  8. Design of pediatric oral formulations with a low proportion of methadone or phenobarbital for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Nora; Calpena, Ana C; Mallandrich, Mireia; Pueyo, Blanca; Clares, Beatriz

    2016-09-01

    Elaboration of oral liquid formulations is the best alternative when no marketed forms are available for pediatrics. The development, characterization and stability evaluation of methadone (MI, MII, MIII) and phenobarbital (PI, PII) can be used for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A standard operating procedure was established and parameters such as appearance, pH, rheological behavior and drug content were evaluated at three temperatures for 90 days. Changes in color of phenobarbital made necessary the storage below 25 °C. pH did not change in methadone solutions and was able to maintain phenobarbital solubilized. Degradation data at 4 °C fitted to Plateau equation followed by one phase decay. MI was stable for 60 days at the three temperatures; MII for 90 days at 4 and 25 °C and 60 days at 40 °C; MIII for 60 days at 4 °C, 15 days at 25 °C and 7 days at 4 °C. PI was stable for 60 days at 4 °C and 30 days at 25 °C. PII was stable for 7 days at 4 and 25 °C. All solutions met microbial specifications. A correct dosage for the treatment of NAS was guaranteed.

  9. Effect of systemic piracetam treatment on flap survival and vascular endothelial growth factor expression after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Serhan; Ayhan, Suhan; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Ergun, Hakan; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2011-09-01

    The effects of piracetam on flap survival, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated in this study. Unipedicled epigastric flap model was used in 36 rats and was evaluated within 4 groups. The flap was elevated and untreated in Group 1. Postoperative piracetam treatment was given for 7 days in Group 2. In Group 3, 4 hours of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion were applied. I/R was applied to Group 4 and piracetam was given 30 minutes before reperfusion and postoperatively for 7 days. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow changes. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemical methods on tissue samples taken after the completion of 2 hours reperfusion in groups 3 and 4. Flap necrosis was measured on the day 7 in all groups. Blood flow rates did not show significant difference between piracetam treated and untreated I/R groups. Piracetam significantly reduced necrosis area both in ischemic and nonischemic flaps ( P piracetam-treated Group 4 compared with Group 3 ( P = 0.005). This experimental study demonstrates that systemic piracetam treatment improves survival of pedicled flaps, reduces necrosis amounts, and increases VEGF expression in I/R induced flaps. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. Detecting cells on the surface of a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance using plasma treatment and graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Che; Yan, Tsong-Rong; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2009-10-15

    This paper utilizes a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) mass sensor to detect the physiology of cells. This study also investigates the plasma surface modification of silver electrode QCMs through deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSZ) films as a protection film. To improve the cell growth, this paper also performs post-treatments by surface-grafting acrylic acid (AAc), acrylamide (AAm), and oxygen plasma treatment onto the QCM electrodes. Experimental results indicate that plasma deposition is a useful technique to protect the surface of silver electrodes. This technique extends the unpeeling time of silver electrodes from 1 to 7 days. The hydrophilic silver electrode QCM surface modified by AAm exhibited a better storage time effect than other post-treatments.

  11. Replacement of 5% of OPC by fly ash and APC residues from MSWI with electrodialytic pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magro, Cátia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Guedes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and air pollution control (APC) residues are waste products from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI). They are classified as hazardous waste due to the content of leachable heavy metals (HM), salts and/or dioxins. An electrodialytic (ED) process was applied to FA and APC residues...... leaching of HM and the Cl content. The compressive tests presented comparable values to the reference mortars. This study suggests that the characteristics of FA and APC residues from MSWI after pre-treatment allows them to be reused in building materials, giving a new edge to waste management....... as pre-treatment prior to incorporation in mortar, aiming to stabilize and remove HM and chlorides. Eight ED experiments were performed for 7 days with a L/S ratio of 3.5. The number of compartments (2 or 3) and current density (0.1 or 1.0 mA cm-2) varied. After ED treatment the heavy metals left...

  12. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Osteoporosis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, B; Rizzoli, R

    2006-01-04

    As for any chronic disease, adherence to osteoporosis treatment is low. Folates and vitamin B12 decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Japanese with stroke. Raloxifene (Evista) decreases the incidence of positive estrogen receptor breast cancer and could prevent cardiovascular events in patients at high risk. Strontium ranelate (Protélos) prevents hip fracture in elderly women. The action of alendronate (Fosamax) on bone mineral density and markers of bone remodelling is of higher amplitude than that of risedronate (Actonel). Once monthly ibandronate (Bonviva) increases bone mineral density in post menopausal women with osteoporosis. Excessive suppression of bone remodelling and osteonecrosis of the yaws could be related to bisphosphonate intake.

  14. Microcystin release and Microcystis cell damage mechanism by alum treatment with long-term and large dose as in-lake treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jisun; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Most of our previous studies reported aluminum causes no cell damage or lysis, and no subsequent toxin release in conventional treatment of drinking water or in the laboratory, on the contrary, we investigated the effect of long-term and large-dose alum treatment, because the environmental conditions in lakes and treatment plants are widely different. The microcosm experiments were designed to simulate the effect of adding alum under the similar conditions of common lakes and reservoirs, and the bottle experiments were conducted to examine the budget or dynamics of microcystin after adding alum. In precipitate analyses, we also confirm the release and dynamics of microcystin and the damage mechanisms of Microcystis cells under alum treatment. In microcosms treated with alum alone, the extracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) concentration increased to approximately 82% in 7 days. Similar results were obtained in bottle experiments. By plotting the concentration of released microcystin over time, we inferred that the extracellular MC-LR concentration exponentially rose toward an asymptotic maximum. Moreover, in scanning electron microscope images, some cells exhibited torn membranes with miniscule traces of aluminum hydroxide coating. We conclude that alum treatment, particularly at maximum dosage administered over long periods, seriously damages Microcystis cells and induces microcystin release. Therefore, long-term application of large alum doses is not recommended as an in-lake treatment.

  15. A comparison of the standard and the computerized versions of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    1998-01-01

    the computer and the paper and pencil version of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) in a randomized order, with a mean interval of 7 days. The scales showed high test-retest correlations and the means, dispersions, kurtosis and skewness were found...... to be approximately the same in both versions. In both modes of assessment, the depression and the energy scale proved to be sensitive for carry-over effects, resulting in better well-being scores at the second measurement. Almost all subjects reported that using the personal computer in the realization...

  16. Efficacy of rifabutin-based triple therapy as second-line treatment to eradicate helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Isabel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifabutin has been found to be effective in multi-resistant patients after various treatment cycles for Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, but it has not been analysed as a second-line treatment. Therefore, we seek to compare the effectiveness of a treatment regimen including rifabutin versus conventional quadruple therapy (QT. Methods Open clinical trial, randomised and multi-centre, of two treatment protocols: A Conventional regime -QT- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, bismuth citrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid and metronidazole 500 mg tid; B Experimental one -OAR- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 gr bid, and rifabutin 150 mg bid, both taken orally for 7 days, in patients with HP infection for whom first-line treatment had failed. Eradication was determined by Urea Breath Test (UBT. Safety was determined by the adverse events. Results 99 patients were randomised, QT, n = 54; OAR, n = 45. The two groups were homogeneous. In 8 cases, treatment was suspended (6 in QT and 2 in OAR. The eradication achieved, analysed by ITT, was for QT, 38 cases (70.4%, and for OAR, 20 cases (44.4%; p = 0.009, OR = 1.58. Of the cases analysed PP, QT were 77.1%; OAR, 46.5%; p = 0.002. Adverse effects were described in 64% of the QT patients and in 44% of the OAR patients (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 7-day rifabutin-based triple therapy associated to amoxicillin and omeprazole at standard dose was not found to be effective as a second-line rescue therapy. The problem with quadruple therapy lies in the adverse side effects it provokes. We believe the search should continue for alternatives that are more comfortably administered and that are at least as effective, but with fewer adverse side effects. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81058036

  17. Retrospective evaluation of conservative treatment for 140 ingrown toenails with a novel taping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akiko; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is retrospectively to review the efficacy of a taping procedure for treating ingrown toe-nails or for supporting other conservative treatments of ingrown toenails. A total of 140 ingrown toenails treated at the Dermatology Clinic in Tohoku University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for demographic characteristics, association with granulation tissue or infection, treatment modalities and their outcomes, and classified according the treatment modalities. All the ingrown toe-nails were treated with a novel taping procedure, "slit tape-strap procedure" alone or in conjunction with other conservative treatments. The mean?±?SD duration until pain relief and until cure of the ingrown toenail were 4.8?±?4.7 days, range 0-24 and 21.0?±?11.2 weeks, range 4-56, respectively. All of the treatments were all effective, although 18 cases recurred after treatment. The "slit tape-strap procedure" is effective in treating ingrown toenails, either as a monotherapy or as a supportive therapy for other conservative treatments.

  18. Chronic Prosopis glandulosa treatment blunts neutrophil infiltration and enhances muscle repair after contusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Cindy; Smith, Carine; Isaacs, Ashwin W; Huisamen, Barbara

    2015-01-23

    The current treatment options for soft tissue injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscle. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral Prosopis glandulosa treatment on inflammation and regeneration in skeletal muscle after contusion injury, in comparison to a conventional treatment. The gastrocnemius muscle of rats was subjected to mass-drop injury and muscle samples collected after 1-, 3 h, 1- and 7 days post-injury. Rats were treated with P. glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day) either for 8 weeks prior to injury (up until day 7 post-injury), only post-injury, or with topically applied diclofenac post-injury (0.57 mg/kg). Neutrophil (His48-positive) and macrophage (F4/80-positive) infiltration was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry. Indicators of muscle satellite cell proliferation (ADAM12) and regeneration (desmin) were used to evaluate muscle repair. Chronic P. glandulosa and diclofenac treatment (p<0.0001) was associated with suppression of the neutrophil response to contusion injury, however only chronic P. glandulosa treatment facilitated more effective muscle recovery (increased ADAM12 (p<0.05) and desmin (p<0.001) expression), while diclofenac treatment had inhibitory effects on repair, despite effective inhibition of neutrophil response. Data indicates that P. glandulosa treatment results in more effective muscle repair after contusion.

  19. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for Plasmodium vivax infections in a prospective study in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eibach Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guyana, chloroquine + primaquine is used for the treatment of vivax malaria. A worldwide increase of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax led to questioning of the current malaria treatment guidelines. A therapeutic efficacy study was conducted using artemether-lumefantrine + primaquine against P. vivax to evaluate a treatment alternative for chloroquine. Methods From 2009 to 2010, a non-controlled study in two hospitals in Guyana was conducted. A total 61 patients with P. vivax infection were treated with artemether-lumefantrine as a six-dose regimen twice a day for three days with additional 0.25 mg/kg/d primaquine at day 0 for 14 days. Clinical and parasitological parameters were followed on days 0,1,2,3,7,14 and 28 in agreement with WHO guidelines. Plasmodium vivax DNA from eight patients was analysed for pvmdr1, molecular marker of resistance. Results Artemether-lumefantrine cleared 100% of parasites on day 1, but two patients (3% had recurrence of parasites on day 28, suggesting relapse. No pvmdr1 Y976F polymorphism was detected. The treatment regimen was well tolerated. Conclusions In Guyana, artemether-lumefantrine represents an adequate treatment option against P. vivax when combined with primaquine. Availability of this alternative will be of great importance in case of emerging chloroquine resistance against P. vivax.

  1. Positive effects of treatment of donor cells with aphidicolin on the preimplantation development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Chinese Bama mini-pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Yu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Wu, Cai-Feng; Gu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Liang; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Yi-Ni; Wu, Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan; Li, Yao; Chen, Xue-Jin; Zhang, De-Fu

    2012-02-01

    To optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures in mini-pigs, the present study was designed to examine the effects of donor cell types and aphidicolin (APC) treatment on in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), ear fibroblast cells (EFC) and cumulus cells (CC) derived from mini-pigs were treated with serum starvation only or serum starvation followed by treatment of 0.1 µg/mL APC. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their developmental competency. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed embryos derived from the OEC by APC treatment were significantly higher than the serum starvation (61.82% vs. 56.25%, 24.55% vs. 17.86%; P cell types. Therefore, our results suggest that treatment of CC with serum starvation plus APC prior to nuclear transfer is more suitable in SCNT of mini-pigs.

  2. [Activity of purified diosmin in the treatment of hemorrhoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, G; Catanzaro, M; Ferrara, A; Ferrari, P

    2000-01-01

    Several theories on the etio-pathogenesis and physio-pathology of hemorrhoids have been up to now proposed. From the fisio-pathological viewpoint, particular importance is retained by the vascular factor, which in its turn is influenced by mechanical and sphinceric factors, that impair the venous back-flow. In the evidence of an hemorrhoidal crisis, characterized by local oedema, pain and bleeding, the use of bioflavonoid drugs is deemed to be the first choice. We investigated the use of purified diosmin, given at a dose of two 450 mg tablets bid for the first 7 days, then at 1 tablet bid for up to 2 months, in a group of 66 patients suffering from primitive hemorrhoids of grade 1-4. Our results confirmed diosmin efficacy in decreasing both pain and bleeding: reduction rates of 79% and 67%, respectively, were reached in the first treatment week. In the second week, figures were 98% and 86%, respectively. Diosmin tolerability was excellent: this characteristic makes the drug very easy to handle by the general practitioner and also useful to the proctologist in the preparation of patient to further treatments.

  3. Treatment of hind limb ischemia using angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Liu, Qi; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C; Shi, Siyu; Cornwright, Toya T; Deng, Yuxiao; Azares, Alon; Moore, Amanda N; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Agudo, Noel R; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G; Vanderslice, Peter; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    For a proangiogenic therapy to be successful, it must promote the development of mature vasculature for rapid reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Whole growth factor, stem cell, and gene therapies have yet to achieve the clinical success needed to become FDA-approved revascularization therapies. Herein, we characterize a biodegradable peptide-based scaffold engineered to mimic VEGF and self-assemble into a nanofibrous, thixotropic hydrogel, SLanc. We found that this injectable hydrogel was rapidly infiltrated by host cells and could be degraded while promoting the generation of neovessels. In mice with induced hind limb ischemia, this synthetic peptide scaffold promoted angiogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery, as shown by Doppler-quantified limb perfusion and a treadmill endurance test. Thirteen-month-old mice showed significant recovery within 7 days of treatment. Biodistribution studies in healthy mice showed that the hydrogel is safe when administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously. These preclinical studies help establish the efficacy of this treatment for peripheral artery disease due to diminished microvascular perfusion, a necessary step before clinical translation. This peptide-based approach eliminates the need for cell transplantation or viral gene transfection (therapies currently being assessed in clinical trials) and could be a more effective regenerative medicine approach to microvascular tissue engineering.

  4. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. J., E-mail: gd130056@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Wahab, M. A. A., E-mail: cd110006@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Mahmod, S., E-mail: cd110201@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Idris, M. I., E-mail: izwana@uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  5. Platelet rich fibrin and xenograft in treatment of intrabony defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For complete periodontal regeneration, delivery of growth factors in the local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects. Intrabony defect was treated with autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral. A decrease in probing pocket depth, gain in clinical attachment level and significant bone fill was observed at end of 6 months. The result obtained with the use of PRF may be attributed to the sustained and simultaneous release of various growth factors over a period of 7 days. In this case report, the positive clinical impact of additional application of PRF with xenogenic graft material in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defect was seen.

  6. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  7. Influence of exposure time to saliva and antioxidant treatment on bond strength to enamel after tooth bleaching: an in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aglaet Matos MIRANDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of different exposure times to saliva in situ in comparison with an antioxidant treatment on composite resin bond strength to human enamel restored after tooth bleaching. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth specimens measuring 5x5 mm were prepared and randomly allocated into 5 groups with 8 specimens each: Gct (control group, restored on unbleached enamel; Gbl (restored immediately after bleaching; Gsa (bleached, treated with 10% sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min and restored; G7d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 7 days and restored; and G14d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 14 days and restored. Restored samples were cut into 0.8 mm2 sticks that were tested in microtensile. Specimens were microscopically analyzed and failure modes were classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Pretest and cohesive failures were not considered in the statistical analysis, which was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05, with the dental specimen considered as the experimental unit. Results: Mean bond strength results found for Gbl in comparison with Gct indicated that bleaching significantly reduced enamel adhesiveness (P0.05. Bond strength found for G14d was significantly higher than for Gsa (P<0.01. Fractures modes were predominantly of a mixed type. Conclusions: Bonding strength to bleached enamel was immediately restored with the application of sodium ascorbate and exposure to human saliva in situ for at least 7 days. Best results were obtained with exposure to human saliva in situ for 14 days. Treatment with sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min may be recommended in cases patients cannot wait for at least 7 days for adhesive techniques to be performed.

  8. Improved Completion Rates and Characterization of Drug Reactions with an Intensive Chagas Disease Treatment Program in Rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Gilman, Robert H.; Castellon, Mario; Solano Mercado, Marco A.; Sullca, Walter; Torrico, Faustino; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease treatment is limited by drug availability, adverse side effect profiles of available medications, and poor adherence. Methods Adult Chagas disease patients initiating 60-days of benznidazole were randomized to weekly or twice-weekly evaluations of medication adherence and screening for adverse drug events (ADEs). Mid-week evaluations employed phone-based evaluations. Adherence was measured by self-report, pill counts with intentional over-distribution, and Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS). Prospective data were compared to historical controls treated with benznidazole at the same hospital. Results 162 prospective patients were compared to 172 historical patients. Pill counts correlated well with MEMS data (R = 0.498 for 7-day intervals, R = 0.872 for intervals >7 days). Treatment completion rates were higher among prospective than historical patients (82.1% vs. 65.1%), primarily due to lower abandonment rates. Rates of ADEs were lower among prospective than historical patients (56.8% vs. 66.9%). Twice-weekly evaluations increased identification of mild ADEs, prompting higher suspension rates than weekly evaluations. While twice-weekly evaluations identified ADEs earlier, they did not reduce incidence of moderate or severe ADEs. Many dermatologic ADEs were moderately severe upon presentation (35.6%), were not reduced by use of antihistamines, occurred among adult patients of all ages, and occurred throughout treatment, rather than the first few weeks alone. Conclusions Intensive management improved completion and identified more ADEs, but did not reduce moderate or severe ADEs. Risk of dermatologic ADEs cannot be reduced by selecting younger adults or monitoring only during the first few weeks of treatment. Pill counts and phone-based encounters are reliable tools for treatment programming in rural Bolivia. PMID:24069472

  9. Trends in antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media and treatment failure in children, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Guidelines to treat acute otitis media (AOM were published in 2004. Initial declines in prescribing were shown, but it's unknown if they were sustained. We examine trends in antibiotic dispensing patterns to treat AOM among a large population of children. We also document trends in antibiotic failure. STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 3 months to 12 years with an AOM diagnosis, enrolled in a commercial claims database between January 1, 2000-December 31, 2011 were included. Pharmacy claims within 7 days of diagnosis were searched for antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotic failure was defined as a dispensing of a different antibiotic class within 2-18 days after the first prescription. We analyzed trends in antibiotic use and failure by class of antibiotic and year. RESULTS: We identified over 4 million children under 13 years with AOM. The proportion of antibiotic dispensing decreased from 66.0% in 2005 to 51.9% in 2007, after which the instances of dispensing rebounded to pre-guideline levels. However, levels began decreasing again in 2010 and the antibiotic use rate in 2011 was 57.6%. Cephalosporin prescriptions increased by 41.5% over eleven years. Antibiotic failure decreased slightly, and macrolides had the lowest proportion of failures, while all other classes had failure rates around 10%. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, antibiotic dispensing to treat AOM remains high. In addition, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is increasing despite having a high rate of treatment failure. Overprescribing of antibiotics and use of non-penicillin therapy for AOM treatment could lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  10. Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Using Photodithazine®- Mediated Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmello, Juliana Cabrini; Alves, Fernanda; G Basso, Fernanda; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of oral candidiasis in a murine model using Photodithazine® (PDZ). This model of oral candidiasis was developed to allow the monitoring of the infection and the establishment of the aPDT treatment. Six-week-old female mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with C. albicans to induce oral candidiasis. PDZ-mediated aPDT and nystatin treatment were carried out for 5 consecutive days with one application per day. The macroscopic evaluation of oral lesions was performed. After each treatment, the tongue was swabbed to recover C. albicans cells. Viable colonies were quantified and the number of CFU/ml determined. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 7 days after treatment and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis and analysis of inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6) by RT-qPCR. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. PDZ-mediated aPDT was as effective as Nystatin (NYS group) in the inactivation of C. albicans, reducing 3 and 3.2 logs10 respectively, 24 h after treatment (poral lesions, while animals treated with NYS presented partial remission of oral lesions in both periods assessed. Histological evaluation revealed mild inflammatory infiltrate in the groups treated with aPDT and NYS in both periods assessed. The aPDT induced the TNF-α expression when compared with the control (P-L-) (poral candidiasis.

  11. Clinical management of carbamazepine intoxication during anti-tubercular treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Calderazzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 67-year-old man with medical history of focal post-stroke seizure and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with carbamazepine, clobazam, gliclazide, insulin glargine, and omeprazole we visited for the onset in the last 7 days of asthenia, cough with mucus, breathing difficulty, chest pain, and weight loss. After clinical and laboratory tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed, and a treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide rifampicin, and pyridoxine was started. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tuberculosis treatment documented that all drugs were in normal therapeutic range. Four days after the beginning of the treatment, we documented the improvement of fever, and three days later the patient showed sleepiness, visual disorder and asthenia. Clinical and pharmacological evaluation suggested a carbamazepine toxicity probably related to a drug interaction (Drug Interaction Probability Scale score = 6. The impossibility to switch carbamazepine for another antiepileptic drug, due to a resistant form of seizure, induced the discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment, resulting in the normalization of serum carbamazepine levels in one day (10 µg/ml and in the worsening of fever, requiring a new clinical and pharmacological evaluation. The titration dosage of carbamazepine and its therapeutic drug monitoring allowed to continue the treatment with both antitubercular drugs and carbamazepine, without the development of adverse drug reactions. To date, tuberculosis treatment was stopped and clinical evaluation, radiology and microbiology assays documented the absence of tubercular infection and no seizures appeared (carbamazepine dosage 800 mg/bid; serum levels 9.5 µg/ml.

  12. Methemoglobinemia hemotoxicity of some antimalarial 8-aminoquinoline analogues and their hydroxylated derivatives: density functional theory computation of ionization potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The administration of primaquine (PQ), an essential drug for treatment and radical cure of malaria, can lead to methemoglobin formation and life-threatening hemolysis for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients. The ionization potential (IP, a quantitative measure of the ability to lose...

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 11, Number 4, July/August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    diagnosis, and treatment of imported malaria. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Sep 11;160(16):2505-10. 2. Baird JK, Hoffman SL. Primaquine therapy for malaria...System. Reporting location Food-borne Vaccine PreventableNumber of reports all events3 Giardia Hepatitis B Varicella 2 Events reported by September 7

  14. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianez LR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Luana Ramalho Pianez,1 Fernanda Silva Custódio,1 Renata Michelini Guidi,1-4 Jauru Nunes de Freitas,5-7 Estela Sant’Ana8-10 1Ibramed Center for Education and Advanced Training (CEFAI, Amparo, 2Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Porto Alegre, 3University of Campinas, Campinas, 4Ibramed Research and Development Department, Amparo, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Universitá Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 6Centro de Medicina Pesquisa e Ensino (CEMEPE, Belo Horizonte, 7Advanced Dermatology Studies Group (GDA, Rio de Janeiro, 8Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCAR, 9University of São Paulo (USP, São Carlos, 10Indústria Brasileira de Equipamentos Médicos (IBRAMED, Amparo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%–90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh.Patients and methods: Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy.Results: After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025 of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the

  15. Ganirelix for luteolysis in poor responder patients undergoing IVF treatment: a Scandinavian multicenter 'extended pilot study'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lena; Andersen, A.N.; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2010-01-01

    To enhance oocyte yield and pregnancy outcome in poor responder women undergoing IVF treatment, daily low dose GnRH antagonist administration was given during the late luteal phase to induce luteolysis and possibly secure a more synchronous cohort of recruitable follicles. An open extended pilot...... study in four Scandinavian fertility centers was done including 60 patients. Poor response was defined as when 2000 IU FSH. GnRH antagonist (ganirelix) was given, 0.25 mg s.c. daily, from days 3 to 5...... before expected start of menstruation and continued for 4-7 days. On cycle day 2-3 a starting dose of rFSH (300-400 IU/day) was given. At a leading follicle diameter of 14 mm, ganirelix administration was resumed until final oocyte maturation was induced with 10,000 IU hCG. GnRH antagonist only...

  16. Application of a low cost ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor for greywater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Shafiquzzaman, Md; Nakajima, Jun; Ahmed, Abdel Kader T; Azam, Mohammad Shafiul

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a low cost and simple ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was evaluated for greywater treatment. The ceramic filter was submerged in an acrylic cylindrical column bioreactor. Synthetic greywater (prepared by shampoo, dish cleaner and laundry detergent) was fed continuously into the reactor. The filter effluent was obtained by gravitational pressure. The average flux performance was observed to be 11.5 LMH with an average hydraulic retention time of 1.7 days. Complete biodegradation of surfactant (methylene blue active substance removal: 99-100%) as well as high organic removal performance (biochemical oxygen demand: 97-100% and total organic carbon: >88%) was obtained. The consistency of flux (11.5 LMH) indicated that the filter can be operated for a long time without fouling. The application of this simple ceramic filter would make MBR technology cost-effective in developing countries for greywater reclamation and reuse.

  17. An Unexpected Result of Obesity Treatment: Orlistat-Related Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Murat; Emet, Samim; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Ilhan, Mehmet; Gok, Ali Fuat Kaan; Dadashov, Mubariz; Tukek, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Orlistat is a pancreatic lipase inhibitor which is used to treat obesity. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, orlistat use is thought to rise progressively. We report an interesting case caused by orlistat use caught in the early stages of acute pancreatitis through imaging; in addition, the case had significantly elevated serum amylase levels. A 54-year-old male who had a history of orlistat treatment started 7 days before was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting lasting for 24 h. Abdominal computed tomography revealed peripancreatic fat tissue edema and a heterogeneous appearance of the pancreas. Based on these findings, it was concluded that edematous pancreatitis was in its initial stage. Orlistat is a drug that is increasingly widespread use due to obesity. More attention must be paid when planning to prescribe orlistat to patients if there are risk factors for acute pancreatitis (alcohol use, height, serum calcium and lipid levels).

  18. An Unexpected Result of Obesity Treatment: Orlistat-Related Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Orlistat is a pancreatic lipase inhibitor which is used to treat obesity. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, orlistat use is thought to rise progressively. We report an interesting case caused by orlistat use caught in the early stages of acute pancreatitis through imaging; in addition, the case had significantly elevated serum amylase levels. A 54-year-old male who had a history of orlistat treatment started 7 days before was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting lasting for 24 h. Abdominal computed tomography revealed peripancreatic fat tissue edema and a heterogeneous appearance of the pancreas. Based on these findings, it was concluded that edematous pancreatitis was in its initial stage. Orlistat is a drug that is increasingly widespread use due to obesity. More attention must be paid when planning to prescribe orlistat to patients if there are risk factors for acute pancreatitis (alcohol use, height, serum calcium and lipid levels.

  19. Treatment of Slightly Polluted Wastewater in an Oil Refinery Using a Biological Aerated Filter Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wenyu; ZHONG Li; CHEN Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The slightly polluted wastewater from oil refinery contains some COD, oil pollutants and suspended solids (SS). A small-scale fixed film biological aerated filter (BAF) process was used to treat the wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air/water volume flow ratio and backwashing cycle on treatment efficiencies were investigated. The wastewater was treated by the BAF process under optimal conditions: the HRT of backwashing cycle of every 4-7 days. The results showed that the average removal efficiency of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 84.5%, 94.0% and 83.4%, respectively. And the average effluent concentration of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 12.5, 0.27, 14.5the BAF process is a suitable and highly efficient method to treat the wastewater.

  20. {sup 90}Y-oxine-ethiodol, a potential radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Junfeng; Haefeli, U.O. E-mail: hafeliu@ccf.org; Sands, Mark; Dong Yonghua

    2003-05-01

    Ethiodol (or lipiodol) is selectively retained in hepatocellular carcinoma and is used as a vehicle to deliver radioactive agents following intraarterial hepatic infusion. We prepared the lipophilic complex {sup 90}Y-oxine with a radiolabeling efficiency of 97.6{+-}1.1%. After extraction into ethiodol, a stability test in serum at 37 deg. C showed that 87.8% of the {sup 90}Y remained ethiodol-bound for 7 days. Bremsstrahlung imaging of a rabbit for 48 h confirmed that the homogeneous mixture of radiolabeled {sup 90}Y-oxine and ethiodol stayed in the targeted liver lobe. This radiopharmaceutical is thus a potential candidate for the treatment of non-resectable liver cancer.

  1. Effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of globe artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two globe artichoke cultivars (Violet de Provence and Apollo were harvested at an experimental field in Sicily, immediately washed with ozonised water and stored in: i normal atmosphere; ii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 3 days and for the last 4 days in normal atmosphere; iii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 7 days. A control (samples unwashed and stored at room temperature was also investigated. The effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on water content losses, total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity was evaluated after 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. Washing with ozonised water and storage under O3- enriched atmosphere allowed higher water retention compared with the control, especially for Violet de Provence. After 3 days of storage in ozone-enriched atmosphere, on average of cultivars, the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity increased by 11.7% and 5.5%, respectively. By contrast, after further 4 days of storage in ozonised atmosphere, Apollo and Violet de Provence displayed a significant reduction in their level of total polyphenols and aantioxidant activity. The exposure of globe artichoke heads to an ozone-enriched atmosphere should not exceed 3 days aimed at preserving their high nutritional value, with special emphasis on total polyphenols content.

  2. Effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on social behaviors, and operant discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Subchronic treatment with the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP has been proposed as a rodent model of the negative and cognitive/executive symptoms of schizophrenia. There has, however, been a paucity of studies on this model in mice, despite the growing use of the mouse as a subject in genetic and molecular studies of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subchronic PCP treatment (5 mg/kg twice daily x 7 days, followed by 7 days withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice on 1 social behaviors using a sociability/social novelty-preference paradigm, and 2 pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen-based operant system. Results showed that mice subchronically treated with PCP made more visits to (but did not spend more time with a social stimulus relative to an inanimate one, and made more visits and spent more time investigating a novel social stimulus over a familiar one. Subchronic PCP treatment did not significantly affect behavior in either the discrimination or reversal learning tasks. These data encourage further analysis of the potential utility of mouse subchronic PCP treatment for modeling the social withdrawal component of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the treatment regimen employed was insufficient to impair our measures of discrimination and reversal learning in the C57BL/6J strain. Further work will be needed to identify alternative methods (e.g., repeated cycles of subchronic PCP treatment, use of different mouse strains that produce discrimination and/or reversal impairment, as well as other cognitive/executive measures that are sensitive to chronic PCP treatment in mice.

  3. Patient Treatment Tracking Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment Tracking Chart Patient Treatment Tracking Chart Patient Treatment Tracking Chart Sample Chart This chart is ... this website Submit Share this page Related Resource Patient Treatment Tutorial return to top CONNECT Veterans Crisis ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline (vaginal cream, ovules, and vaginal washing) and of benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum rosa vaginal cream and vaginal washing) in the topical treatment of symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, F; Petrella, E; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M; Rullo, V; Ascione, L; Papa, R; Saponati, G

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0-3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV.

  6. Wound complications from idiopathic clubfoot surgery: a comparison of the modified Turco and the Cincinnati treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wellington K; Bhatia, Nitin N; Raskin, Alexander; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2007-01-01

    Treatment protocols using the Turco and the Cincinnati incisions are widely used for the surgical correction of clubfoot deformity. However, it is unclear which surgical approach leads to fewer wound problems. We therefore sought to determine which treatment method led to a lower incidence of wound complications. A retrospective chart review of 217 consecutive patients (308 feet) who underwent a primary posteromedial release for the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot under the age of 24 months via either the modified Turco or Cincinnati treatment methods was used to document the incidence of postoperative wound complications. The modified Turco protocol involved immediate postoperative casting in neutral, whereas the Cincinnati method involved staged casting with the foot initially in equinus, then to neutral with a cast change 7 days later. A significantly lower incidence of wound complications was seen in the Cincinnati treatment group when compared with the modified Turco treatment method (6.9% vs 19.6%, respectively, P Turco treatment method; however, the statistical populations were markedly unequal. Among all feet treated with the Cincinnati method, patients who underwent a staged cast change had significantly fewer wound problems when compared with those who underwent immediate casting with the foot in neutral (5.1% vs 16.7%, respectively, P Turco treatment protocol. Whether this effect is a result of the incision or the postoperative casting protocol is unclear.

  7. Randomized Multi-center Study of Baofuxin for Treatment of Bleeding Side-effect Induced by IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尚纯; 王翠萍; 程渭玉; 韩学军; 王素贞; 戚娟芳; 刘莹; 付伟

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Baofuxin for treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD.Method The study is a multi-center trial. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups, Baofuxin group ( 90 cases) and Indomethacin group ( 90 cases). In the Baofuxin group, the subjects took the medicine on the first day of menses, once a bag,twice a day for 10 days. In the Indomethacin group, only one capsule was taken once a time, twice a day for 7 days. The treatment was given for three menstrual cycles.The subjects were asked to record their bleeding~spotting by using menstrual diary card not only during the treatment cycles but also during the three months previous and after the treatment cycles. The menstrual profile was analyzed by using MDSv2. 3 program that was provided by WHO.Results Within each 90-day reference period of treatment and post-treatment cycles,the number of bleeding/spotting days decreased obviously and bleeding/spotting free days were greatly increased. Both medicines have little effect on number of episode of bleeding/spotting. The subjects who thought the treatment were highly effective were 81. 1% in the Baofuxin group and 56. 2% in the Indomethacin group respectively (P< 0.01).Conclusion Both Baofuxin and indomethacin are highly effective on treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD, but Baofuxin had longer effects and was more acceptable.

  8. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in primary health care setting: eight year cohort analysis from district Faridabad, Haryana, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Singh, Arvind K; Parmeshwaran, Giridara G; Haldar, Partha; Malhotra, Sumit; Kaur, Ravneet

    2017-01-01

    Delay in initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment may have a tremendous impact on disease transmission, development of drug resistance, poor outcome and overall survival of TB patients. The delay can occur at various levels. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis is mostly due to health system failure and has immense programmatic implications. It has not been studied extensively in the Indian setting. The authors did a cohort analysis of all TB patients initiated on treatment from two primary health centres (PHCs) at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System between January 2007 and December 2014. Diagnosis and treatment of TB in the study area was done as per the protocol envisaged in the national program. Information related to demography, details of diagnosis and treatment of TB and outcome of treatment were extracted from the TB register. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis was considered if the gap between diagnosis and treatment was greater than 7 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to find the association of various factors with delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis. Out of 885 patients, 662 patients started treatment for pulmonary TB. Mean time interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 8.95 days. Only 57.7% of pulmonary TB patients were started on treatment within 7 days of diagnosis, and an additional 24.5% were started on treatment 8-14 days after diagnosis. Patients on retreatment regimens and those residing in villages without a PHC were more likely to have delayed initiation of treatment (odds ratio (OR)=1.82 (1.3-2.7, p=0.001) and OR=1.62 (1.1-2.5, p=0.01) respectively). Delay in initiation of treatment was also associated with unfavourable treatment outcome such as default, failure or death. There is a need to have healthcare changes related to TB care to enable initiation of treatment as early as possible. Pretreatment counselling especially for retreatment patients is

  9. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  10. Treatment of osteoporosis in an older home care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Colleen J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research indicates that many patients with fractures indicative of underlying osteoporosis are not receiving appropriate diagnostic follow-up and therapy. We assessed osteoporosis treatment coverage in older home care clients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and/or prevalent fracture. Methods Subjects included 330 home care clients, aged 65+, participating in a longitudinal study of medication adherence and health-related outcomes. Data on clients' demographic, health and functional status and service utilization patterns were collected using the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC. A medication review included prescribed and over-the-counter medications taken in the past 7 days. Criteria for indications for osteoporosis therapy included diagnosis of osteoporosis or a recent fracture. Coverage for treatment was examined for anti-osteoporotic therapies approved for use in 2000. Results Of the 330 home care clients, 78 (24% had a diagnosis of osteoporosis (n = 47 and/or had sustained a recent fracture (n = 34. Drug data were available for 77/78 subjects. Among the subjects with osteoporosis or a recent fracture, 45.5% were receiving treatment for osteoporosis; 14% were receiving only calcium and vitamin D, and an additional 31% were receiving drug therapy (bisphosphonate or hormone replacement therapy. The remaining 54.5% of subjects were not receiving any approved osteoporosis therapy. Conclusions The high prevalence of undertreatment among a population of older adults with relatively high access to health care services raises concern regarding the adequacy of diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in the community.

  11. 670-nm light treatment reduces complement propagation following retinal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutar Matt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Complement activation is associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We aimed to investigate whether 670-nm light treatment reduces the propagation of complement in a light-induced model of atrophic AMD. Methods Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were pretreated with 9 J/cm2 670-nm light for 3 minutes daily over 5 days; other animals were sham treated. Animals were exposed to white light (1,000 lux for 24 h, after which animals were kept in dim light (5 lux for 7 days. Expression of complement genes was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Counts were made of C3-expressing monocytes/microglia using in situ hybridization. Photoreceptor death was also assessed using outer nuclear layer (ONL thickness measurements, and oxidative stress using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Results Following light damage, retinas pretreated with 670-nm light had reduced immunoreactivity for the oxidative damage maker 4-HNE in the ONL and outer segments, compared to controls. In conjunction, there was significant reduction in retinal expression of complement genes C1s, C2, C3, C4b, C3aR1, and C5r1 following 670 nm treatment. In situ hybridization, coupled with immunoreactivity for the marker ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1, revealed that C3 is expressed by infiltrating microglia/monocytes in subretinal space following light damage, which were significantly reduced in number after 670 nm treatment. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for C3 revealed a decrease in C3 deposition in the ONL following 670 nm treatment. Conclusions Our data indicate that 670-nm light pretreatment reduces lipid peroxidation and complement propagation in the degenerating retina. These findings have relevance to the cellular events of complement activation underling the pathogenesis of AMD, and highlight the potential of 670-nm light as a non-invasive anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. Surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescent cervical kyphosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; ZHOU Xu-hui; LIU Yang; GAO Rui; CHEN Hua-jiang; YANG Li-li; SHI Sheng; YUAN Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent cervical kyphosis refers to manifestation characterized by loss of physiological cervical lordosis with involvement of multiple cervical vertebrae.There is no standard treatment strategy for this disease,especially in those patients who need surgical intervention.The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical staged treatment for moderate to severe adolescents cervical kyphosis.Methods A total of 26 adolescent with cervical kyphosis were retrospectively assigned into following two groups according to the magnitude of kyphosis:moderate group (n=17),the Cobb angle was 46.6°±4.8°.The surgical procedure was that skull traction was first carried out for 5-7 days and then the anterior fusion and instrumentation were performed.Severe group (n=9),the Cobb angle was 61.6°±4.8°.The treatment strategy was that the anterior release were first performed,followed by skull traction for 7-10 days,and then anterior fusion were performed.Radiographic evaluation was performed postoperatively.Results Three days after surgery,the X-ray examination showed that the Cobb angle was -8.9°±6.8° in the moderate group and -6.0°±6.3° in the severe group.The deformed appearance was obviously corrected,with neck pain and neurologic function improved significantly.Further magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated the physiology curvature of the cervical spine had been reconstructed.Conclusion Surgical staged treatment may be an ideal therapeutic intervention for cervical kyphosis patients with a Cobb angle exceeding 35° in adolescents.

  13. Memantine treatment reduces the expression of the K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2 in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and attenuates behavioural responses mediated by GABA(A) receptor activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Gemma; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Riozzi, Barbara; Di Menna, Luisa; Rampello, Liborio; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2009-04-10

    A 7-day treatment with memantine (25 mg/kg, i.p.), a drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced the expression of the neuron-specific K(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter, KCC2, in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice. Knowing that KCC2 maintains low intracellular Cl(-) concentrations, which drive Cl(-) influx in response to GABA(A) receptor activation, we monitored the behavioural response to the GABA(A) receptor enhancer, diazepam, in mice pre-treated for 7 days with saline or 25 mg/kg of memantine. Memantine treatment substantially attenuated motor impairment induced by an acute challenge with diazepam (6 mg/kg, i.p.), as assessed by the rotarod test and the horizontal wire test. We suggest that a prolonged treatment with memantine induces changes in the activity of GABA(A) receptors that might contribute to the therapeutic and/or toxic effects of the drug.

  14. Oral antibiotic treatment induces skin microbiota dysbiosis and influences wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Jiang, Ziwei; Li, Dongqing; Jiang, Deming; Wu, Yelin; Ren, Hongyan; Peng, Hua; Lai, Yuping

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic treatment eliminates commensal bacteria and impairs mucosal innate immune defenses in the gut. However, whether oral antibiotic treatment could alter the composition of the microbiota on the skin surface and influence innate immune responses remains unclear. To test this, mice were treated with vancomycin for 7 days and then wounds were made on the back skin of the mice. Five days later, scar tissue from each mouse was collected for bacterial enumeration, the bacterial composition on the scar and unwounded skin was determined using 16S RNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis, and skin around wounds was collected for RNA extraction. Compared with the control group, the overall density and composition of skin bacteria were altered, and the proportion of Staphylococcus-related sequences was reduced in the vancomycin-treated group. Moreover, vancomycin treatment decreased the expression of RegIIIγ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the wounded skin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that antibiotic treatment decreases the bacterial density and alters the bacterial composition in skin wounds, followed by a decrease in RegIIIγ expression, which may contribute to the delayed wound repair. Our findings also indicate that antibiotic therapy should be carefully considered in the treatment of skin injury.

  15. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  16. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  17. Effects of using pozzolan and Portland cement in the treatment of dispersive clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, A H; Selamat, M R; Moayedi, H

    2013-01-01

    Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.

  18. [Regional intraosseous thrombolytic therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A N; Rodin, A N; Kozlov, S A

    The authors assessed efficacy of regional intraosseous administration of urokinase medac in comprehensive treatment of patients with complicated forms of diabetic foot syndrome by means of analysing therapeutic results in a total of 65 patients presenting with pyonecrotic complications of diabetic foot. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups. The control group was composed of 35 patients receiving basic therapy. The study group comprised 30 patients subjected to comprehensive treatment including regional intraosseous (into the heel bone of the affected limb) administration of urokinase medac at a dose of 100 thousand IU for 5 days. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by the course of the wound process, indices of haemostasis, free radical oxidation, results of surgical treatment. In patients of the Study Group the terms of wound purification from pyonecrotic masses amounted to 9.8±0.3 days, which was by 4.7 days less than in the Control Group patients (pintraosseous administration of urokinase medac as compared with basic therapy alone promoted a more significant decrease in the coagulation activity of blood and the level of free-radical lipid oxidation, stimulation of regenerative processes, as well as improvement of outcomes of surgical treatment.

  19. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Vakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.

  20. Acetylcysteine in the treatment of subacute sinusitis: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Monavarsadegh, Gholamhosein; Ahmadipour, Mohammadjavad; Motieilangroodi, Mazyar; Motamed, Niloofar; Saberifard, Jamshid; Eghbali, Seyyedsajjad; Adibi, Hooman; Maneshi, Hesam; Malekizadeh, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and normal saline nasal drops for 10 days and oral pseudoephedrine for 7 days. In addition, the patients received acetylcysteine (600 mg orally, once daily) in the intervention group or placebo in the control group for 10 days. A paranasal CT scan was taken at baseline and 30 days after patients finished the treatment and was evaluated quantitatively by Lund-Mackay (LM) score. Symptoms and some aspects of quality of life also were assessed at baseline and 14 days after initiation and 30 days after termination of the treatment via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire. The groups showed no significant difference in LM score after treatment. A positive correlation was observed between the LM and SNOT-20 scores. We concluded that adding oral acetylcysteine to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, pseudoephedrine, and intranasal normal saline has no benefit for the treatment of subacute sinusitis.

  1. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  2. Combined treatment with subchronic lithium and acute intracerebral mirtazapine microinjection into the median raphe nucleus exerted an anxiolytic-like effect synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitaichi, Yuji; Chen, Chong; Nakagawa, Shin; Wang, Ce; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-07-15

    Although preclinical and clinical studies have established the efficacy of lithium augmentation of antidepressant drugs, the mechanism of action of lithium augmentation is not fully understood. Our previous study reported that subchronic lithium treatment enhanced the anxiolytic-like effect of systemic mirtazapine. In the present study, we examined the effect of subchronic lithium in combination with acute local intracerebral injection of mirtazapine on fear-related behaviors in a contextual fear conditioning test in rats to clarify the target brain region of lithium augmentation of mirtazapine. After conditioning by footshock, diet (food pellets) containing Li2CO3 at a concentration of 0.2% was administered for 7 days. Ten min before testing and 7 days after conditioning, mirtazapine (3μg/site) in a volume of 0.5µl was acutely injected into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), hippocampus or amygdala. The combination of subchronic lithium and acute mirtazapine microinjection into the MRN but not the hippocampus or the amygdala reduced fear expression synergistically. These results suggest that intra-MRN mirtazapine treatment with subchronic lithium exerts the anxiolytic-like effect through the facilitation of the MRN-5HT pathway.

  3. Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Treatment, Early or Late After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Twelve Months CMR and Long-Term Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürder, Daniel; Manka, Robert; Moccetti, Tiziano; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Klersy, Catherine; Soncin, Sabrina; Turchetto, Lucia; Radrizzani, Marina; Zuber, Michel; Windecker, Stephan; Moschovitis, Aris; Bühler, Ines; Kozerke, Sebastian; Erne, Paul; Lüscher, Thomas F; Corti, Roberto

    2016-07-22

    Intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) may improve remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To demonstrate long-term efficacy of BM-MNC treatment after AMI. In a multicenter study, we randomized 200 patients with large AMI in a 1:1:1 pattern into an open-labeled control and 2 BM-MNC treatment groups. In the BM-MNC groups, cells were either administered 5 to 7 days (early) or 3 to 4 weeks (late) after AMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and after 12 months. The current analysis investigates the change from baseline to 12 months in global LV ejection fraction, LV volumes, scar size, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values comparing the 2 treatment groups with control in a linear regression model. Besides the complete case analysis, multiple imputation analysis was performed to address for missing data. Furthermore, the long-term clinical event rate was computed. The absolute change in LV ejection fraction from baseline to 12 months was -1.9±9.8% for control (mean±SD), -0.9±10.5% for the early treatment group, and -0.7±10.1% for the late treatment group. The difference between the groups was not significant, both for complete case analysis and multiple imputation analysis. A combined clinical end point occurred equally in all the groups. Overall, 1-year mortality was low (2.25%). Among patients with AMI and LV dysfunction, treatment with BM-MNC either 5 to 7 days or 3 to 4 weeks after AMI did not improve LV function at 12 months, compared with control. The results are limited by an important drop out rate. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00355186. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: A comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Michael

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting. Methods The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (≤ 7 days runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8, Germany (8, the Netherlands (7, Russia (6, Spain (6, Ukraine (4, United Kingdom (10 and the USA (8 and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy. Results Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H and 720 conventional (C treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing. In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019. Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5% and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22 in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34 in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic

  5. Effect of pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment on serum indexes of children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guo; Ming-Hai Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment on serum indexes of children with hand-foot-mouth disease.Methods:A total of 78 children with hand-foot-mouth disease who received pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment in our hospital from May 2013 to December 2015 were selected as the experimental group of the research, 84 children with hand-foot-mouth disease who received ribavirin monotherapy in our hospital from January 2012 to April 2013 were selected as the control group of the research. Serum inflammatory response indexes and biochemical indexes and immune function indexes of two groups were compared.Results: During the treatment, the maculopapule and herpes progression of experimental group were significantly better than those of control group; 7 day after treatment, CD3+CD4+CD8-T cell, CD3+CD4-CD8+T cell, CD19+B cell, CD14highCD16+monocyte and CD14lowCD16+ monocyte content in peripheral blood of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group, serum CRP, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly lower than those of control group, and blood insulin, blood glucose, lactic acid, D-dimer and procalcitonin levels were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions:Pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment can improve maculopapule and herpes, enhance immune function and reduce inflammatory reaction, and it is an ideal treatment for the treatment of children with hand-foot-mouth disease.

  6. Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging Predicts Simeprevir-Induced Hyperbilirubinemia During Hepatitis C Virus Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hironao; Kitamura, Tsuneo; Ando, Hitoshi; Fukada, Hiroo; Igusa, Yuki; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Akihisa; Fujimura, Akio; Shiina, Shuichiro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-03-01

    Simeprevir is a substrate for organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that transport bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is an adverse event reported during treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Because gadoxetic acid is also a substrate of OATPs, pretreatment gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may predict hyperbilirubinemia during treatment. This prospective study therefore evaluated 11 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI prior to treatment with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks, followed by pegylated interferon and ribavirin for an additional 12 weeks. Their contrast enhancement index (CEI), an index of liver parenchymal enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, was assessed before treatment. Plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough ) of simeprevir were determined 7 days after its administration, and serum bilirubin concentrations were measured throughout the course of treatment. Six patients (55%) developed hyperbilirubinemia (≥1.6 mg/dL) during treatment. Ctrough was significantly higher in patients with than without hyperbilirubinemia (P = .009), with a strong inverse relationship between CEI and Ctrough (r = -0.911, P simeprevir. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may predict the development of hyperbilirubinemia during treatment of hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

  7. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites: Emerging perspectives in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Girod-Fullana, Sophie; Charvillat, Cédric; Ternet-Fontebasso, Hélène; Dufour, Pascal; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Santran, Véronique; Bordère, Julie; Pipy, Bernard; Bernad, José; Drouet, Christophe

    2012-02-14

    Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate apatites constitute the mineral part of hard tissues, and the synthesis of biomimetic analogs is now well-mastered at the lab-scale. Recent advances in the fine physico-chemical characterization of these phases enable one to envision original applications in the medical field along with a better understanding of the underlying chemistry and related pharmacological features. In this contribution, we specifically focused on applications of biomimetic apatites in the field of cancer diagnosis or treatment. We first report on the production and first biological evaluations (cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory potential, internalization by ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells) of individualized luminescent nanoparticles based on Eu-doped apatites, eventually associated with folic acid, for medical imaging purposes. We then detail, in a first approach, the preparation of tridimensional constructs associating nanocrystalline apatite aqueous gels and drug-loaded pectin microspheres. Sustained releases of a fluorescein analog (erythrosin) used as model molecule were obtained over 7 days, in comparison with the ceramic or microsphere reference compounds. Such systems could constitute original bone-filling materials for in situ delivery of anticancer drugs.

  8. [Orthotopic liver transplant in rats. Surgical technique, complications and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia R; Gondolesi, G E; Ortiz, E; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C

    2002-01-01

    The orthotopic rat liver transplant model is a widely used technique in transplantation research. It has many advantages over other animal transplant models because of its availability and low cost. However, it must be emphasized that success with the rat model requires thorough training. The aim of this paper is to describe the microsurgical technique involved in 60 rat liver transplants and to discuss the complications and their treatments. Forty-nine liver transplants were performed at the Experimental Laboratory of the University Hospital, Ontario, Canada (ELUH) and 11 were performed at the Laboratorio de Trasplante de Organos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina (LTO). Among the transplants performed at the ELUH, the observed complications were haemorrhage (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 1), anastomotic failure (n = 15), bile leak (n = 3), and bile duct necrosis (n = 9). The remaining 17 rats at the ELUH were healthy at day 7 after surgery. Animal survival immediately postop, at 24 hours postop and at 7 days postop was achieved with the 9th, 20th and 21st transplants respectively. At the LTO, 3 rats died as a result of anaesthetic complications. Seven-day animal survival was achieved with the 11th transplant. We beleive that the description of the orthotopic rat liver transplantation technique, as well as the discussion regarding complications and their management, can be useful for researchers interested in performing liver transplantation in rats.

  9. [Treatment of corneal ulcers with platelet rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L; Castro, M; Fernandez, M; Oliveres, E; Gomez-Demmel, E; Tartara, L

    2014-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of extensive corneal ulcers in albino rabbits. New Zealand rabbits, divided in 3 groups, were used for the study. Corneal ulcers of 10mm diameter were made. Rabbits blood was extracted for the preparation of the PRP of the corresponding group. The blood was processed by differential centrifugation. The first group, named control, was treated with sterile saline every 8h. The second group, named gel, was treated with deproteinized extract gel beef fat every 8h, and the third group, named PRP received one PRP drop on the first and third day of monitoring. The rabbits were monitored, by taking photographs, each day for the 7 days that the study lasted. A better outcome was observed in the group with deproteinized extract gel beef fat (GE group), and the PRP group (PL group), in comparison with the control group (CO group) (P<.05). The PRP showed to be just as effective as the commercial product (Solcoseryl®), for the regeneration of the extensive and deep corneal ulcers. Besides, it stands out as a no surgical procedure is required, and there is easy access, low cost and reduced doses. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of Apamarga Kshara in the treatment of Arsha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhamal, T S; Gupta, S K; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuj; Singh, Kulwant

    2010-04-01

    As per the available treatment modalities of Arsha, the Kshara karma modality is the best one, taking into the consideration its convenience, easy adoptability, cost-effectiveness and curative results. Under this parasurgical procedure, various forms of external kshara application are used in treating the Arsha. These are Ksharasutra Ligation (KSL), ksharpatan, etc. KSL is a surgical procedure, while ksharapatan vidhi is local application and seems to be effective with an easy procedure. Several studies of ksharapatan had been conducted; so the time has come to specify the study of ksharapatan, e.g., according to degree of pile mass and different symptoms and signs. In this present study, apamarga (Achyranthus aspera Linn.) kshara, one among the best qualitative ksharas, was locally applied directly on the different sizes, shapes and degrees of Arsha, to find out its effectiveness with or without any untoward effect. A total of 30 patients were treated by local application of Apamarga kshara. The ksharapatan was done every day, for 7 days in 3 g dose, and the result was assessed thoroughly on the basis of observation according to the specially designed proforma. Apamarga kshara was prepared as per the standard method described in Ayurvedic texts. Patients suffering from Arsha were selected by simple random sampling method, with the complaints of bleeding per rectum, Vedana, Srava, kandu and prolapse. Lastly, it was concluded that ksharapatan had shown significant improvement in 1st and 2nd degree of pile masses without any side effect.

  11. Fewer acute respiratory infection episodes among patients receiving treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) present with comorbid complications with implications for healthcare utilization. To date, little is known about the effects of GERD treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) on patients’ subsequent healthcare utilization for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This population-based study compared ARI episodes captured through outpatient visits, one year before and one year after GERD patients received PPI treatment. We used retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 in Taiwan, comparing 21,486 patients diagnosed with GERD from 2010 to 2012 with 21,486 age-sex matched comparison patients without GERD. Annual ARI episodes represented by ambulatory care visits for ARI (visits during a 7-day period bundled into one episode), were compared between the patient groups during the 1-year period before and after the index date (date of GERD diagnosis for study patients, first ambulatory visit in the same year for their matched comparison counterpart). Multiple regression analysis using a difference-in-difference approach was performed to estimate the adjusted association between GERD treatment and the subsequent annual ARI rate. We found that the mean annual ARI episode rate among GERD patients reduced by 11.4%, from 4.39 before PPI treatment, to 3.89 following treatment (mean change = -0.5 visit, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (-0.64, -0.36)). In Poisson regression analysis, GERD treatment showed an independent association with the annual ARI rate, showing a negative estimate (with p<0.001). The study suggests that GERD treatment with PPIs may help reduce healthcare visits for ARIs, highlighting the importance of treatment-seeking by GERD patients and compliance with treatment. PMID:28222168

  12. Therapeutic effects of blood purification in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Pu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effects of blood purification for treating fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. METHODS: Thirty-three severe FHF patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE above grade III were subjected to a combined blood purification treatment in addition to the comprehensive liver protection therapy. Patients underwent continuous hemofiltration on a daily basis during the daytime followed by sequential treatment with plasma exchange or hemodialysis every 2-3 days. The therapeutic effects of this treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment with blood purification, restoration of consciousness (those who abandoned the treatment without restoration of consciousness were excluded was achieved in 6 of 8 cases (75% in acute liver failure (ALF group, 3 of 3 cases (100% in subacute liver failure (SALF group, and 9 of 14 cases (64.29% in acute/subacute on chronic liver failure (A/SCLF group. Of all cases, 11 patients restored consciousness after 7 days in a coma. The rate of long-term survival (those who abandoned the treatment were excluded was 3/7 (42.86% for ALF group, 2/2 (100% for SALF group, and 1/11 (9.09% for A/SCLF group. The levels of hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were significantly reduced after blood purification. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of FHF patients with daily continuous hemofiltration during the daytime is effective in treating HE and in improving health status in the early stages of the disease. Long-term prognosis also benefits from this treatment. The rate of consciousness recovery and long-term survival is highest in SALF group followed by ALF group. This treatment is less effective in A/SCLF patients. It should be noted that blood purification procedure may cause damage to blood cells.

  13. Clinical presentation and treatment of septic arthritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro-Lago, I; Talavera, G; Moraleda, L; González-Morán, G

    The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological features, clinical presentation, and treatment of children with septic arthritis. A retrospective review was conducted on a total of 141 children with septic arthritis treated in Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid) between the years 2000 to 2013. The patient data collected included, the joint affected, the clinical presentation, the laboratory results, the appearance, Gram stain result, and the joint fluid culture, as well as the imaging tests and the treatment. Most (94%) of the patients were less than 2 years-old. The most common location was the knee (52%), followed by the hip (21%). The septic arthritis was confirmed in 53%. No type of fever was initially observed in 49% of them, and 18% had an ESR (mm/h) or CRP (mg/l) less than 30 in the initial laboratory analysis. The joint fluid was purulent in 45% and turbid in 12%. The Gram stain showed bacteria in 4%. The fluid culture was positive in 17%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen found, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Kingella kingae. Antibiotic treatment was intravenous administration for 7 days, followed by 21 days orally. Surgery was performed in 18% of cases. The diagnosis was only confirmed in 53% of the patients. Some of the confirmed septic arthritis did not present with the classical clinical/analytical signs, demonstrating that the traumatologist or paediatrician requires a high initial level of clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bonilla, Juan Carlos; Del Olmo-Jimeno, Alberto; Llovet-Osuna, Fernando; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo(®) is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo(®) (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid) or Systane(®). Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0-100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green), ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo(®) treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane(®) treatment (P=0.043, mixed-effects analysis of covariance). Two secondary efficacy parameters (dry eye symptoms and the impact of their symptoms on work) showed statistically significant advantages for Thealoz Duo(®) over Systane(®). There were no statistically significant advantages for Systane(®) over Thealoz Duo(®) for any measured parameter. No adverse events were reported. Thealoz Duo(®) appears to be an effective combination of two active ingredients for the treatment of dry eye and is at least as effective as Systane(®).

  15. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    The management of acute ischemic stroke is rapidly developing.Although acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of adult disability and death, the number of patients requiring emergency endovascular intervention remains unknown, but is a fraction of the overall stroke population. Public health initiatives endeavor to raise public awareness about acute stroke to improve triage for emergency treatment, and the medical community is working to develop stroke services at community and academic medical centers throughout the United States. There is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–approved pathway for training in endovascular surgical neuroradiology, the specialty designed to train physicians specifically to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Primary and comprehensive stroke center designations have been defined, yet questions remain about the best delivery model. Telemedicine is available to help community medical centers cope with the complexity of stroke triage and treatment. Should comprehensive care be provided at every community center, or should patients with complex medical needs be triaged to major stroke centers with high-level surgical,intensive care, and endovascular capabilities? Although the answers to these and other questions about stroke care delivery remain unanswered owing to the paucity of empirical data, we are convinced that stroke care regionalization is crucial for delivery of high-quality comprehensive ischemic stroke treatment. A stroke team available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week requires specialty skills in stroke neurology, endovascular surgical neuroradiology, neurosurgery, neurointensive care, anesthesiology, nursing, and technical support for optimal success. Several physician groups with divergent training backgrounds (i.e., interventional neuroradiology, neurosurgery,neurology, peripheral interventional radiology, and cardiology) lay claim to the treatment of stroke patients,particularly the endovascular or

  16. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  17. [Use of Myrtol standardized in the treatment of children with acute rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, E P; Tulupov, D A; Emel'yanova, M P

    2016-01-01

    The present study included 60 children at the age from 6 to 10 years undergoing a course of out-patient and in-patient treatment of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). Thirty of these patients were given Myrtol standardised in the dose of 120 mg thrice daily for 7 days, in addition to traditional therapy.With convincing objective data for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (in accordance with the criteria of EP3OS 2012), antibacterial preparations were prescribed to the children. The remaining patients received either conventional (symptomatic, irrigation) therapy or systemic antimicrobial agents. The analysis of characteristics of the visual-analog scale reflecting the severity of rhinorrhea, basal congestion, and coughing has demonstrated a significant (рtreatment. For basal congestion, the difference was apparent as soon as day 3 after the beginning of therapy. The duration of the treatment with intranasal vasoconstrictive medications used for symptomatic therapy by the patients given Myrtol standardized was 2.2±0.4 days in comparison with 3.6±0.5 days in the control group. None of the patients treated with GeloMyrtol exhibited any adverse reaction attributable to the action of the medication in being studied. The study has demonstrated that using Myrtol standardized for the treatment of the uncomplicated forms of acute rhinosinusitis in children is clinically effective, safe, and convenient method for the management of ARS in children. And it can be recommended for the wide practical application.

  18. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated.Results: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031.Conclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  19. Combination of the transurethral resection and prostate HIFU ablation at treatment of the localized cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-09-01

    26 patients were included into HIFU and 74 group in group of the combined treatment (TURP+HIFU. Selection criteria for HIFU ablation were the localized cancer of a prostate concerning which earlier it wasn't carried out treatments, and level of a PSA at the time of statement of the diagnosis 15 ng/ml. All patients corresponding to these by criteria, were considered as candidates for treatment and inclusion in the analysis. The nadir and stability of PSA, the histologic conclusion, IPSS, quality of life and complication were estimated at time of postoperative supervision. Results: Statistically significant influence of a combination TURP+HIFU for the term of transurethral drainage of a bladder (a median of 40 days against 7 days, incontience frequency (15.4% against 6.9%, infections of urinary ways (47.9% against 11.4% and IPSS change during the postoperative period (on the average 8.91 against 3.37 is noted. During the short period of supervision it wasn't observed considerable changes in relation to efficiency: in HIFU group the frequency of repeated sessions made 25%, in TUR/HIFU group 4%. Conclusion: HIFU therapy is modern, minimum invasive method of a cancer therapy of a prostate. The combination of a transurethral resection and HIFU ablation significantly reduces the frequency of the complications connected with treatment. Maintaining the patient after combined TURP and HIFU ablation is comparable with maintaining the patient after usual TURP.

  20. Can Spinal Bupivacaine Analgesia Treatment Make a Difference on Urinary Bladder Healing According to the Intramuscular Pethidine Analgesia Treatment in Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeswim Senayli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a study to compare the healing levels found with intramuscular pethidine with those found with intrathecal local anesthetic treatments. The urinary bladder is suggested to be the most useful tissue in the evaluation of the effects of the drugs. Nineteen male, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–300 g were used in this study. A sagittal section was made in the urinary bladder after suitable anesthesia and laparotomy. Bladders were closed with 5-0 plain catguts 5 min later. There were nine rats in the control group and pethidine (0.5 g/kg was administered intramuscularly in the gluteal muscle region to treat pain after the operations. There were 11 rats in the study group and each received a spinal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine after the operation. Rats were followed for 7 days to define pain. Specimens, particularly the incised region of the bladder, were evaluated for inflammation and fibrosis. Grading scales were used for this purpose. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using the Chi-square test. Statistical analyses were nonsignificant for inflammation (p ≤ 0.151 and nonsignificant for fibrosis (p ≤ 0.105. The treatments may have the same effects on organ healing mechanisms. Statistical difference is not shown in this study, but use of other combinations of pain treatments to evaluate the healing may demonstrate which of these possibilities is true.

  1. Combination treatment with progesterone and vitamin D hormone is more effective than monotherapy in ischemic stroke: the role of BDNF/TrkB/Erk1/2 signaling in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Fahim; Yousuf, Seema; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Hua, Fang; Stein, Donald G

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether combinatorial post-injury treatment with progesterone (P4) and vitamin D hormone (VDH) would reduce ischemic injury more effectively than P4 alone in an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model in primary cortical neurons and in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in rats. In the OGD model, P4 and VDH each showed neuroprotection individually, but combination of the "best" doses did not show substantial efficacy; instead, the lower dose of VDH in combination with P4 was the most effective. In the tMCAO model, P4 and VDH were given alone or in combination at different times post-occlusion for 7 days. In vivo data confirmed the in vitro findings and showed better infarct reduction at day 7 and functional outcomes (at 3, 5 and 7 days post-occlusion) after combinatorial treatment than when either agent was given alone. VDH, but not P4, upregulated heme oxygenase-1, suggesting a pathway for the neuroprotective effects of VDH differing from that of P4. The combination of P4 and VDH activated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its specific receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor-B. Under specific conditions VDH potentiates P4's neuroprotective efficacy and should be considered as a potential partner of P4 in a low-cost, safe and effective combinatorial treatment for stroke.

  2. Does MIS Surgery Allow for Shorter Constructs in the Surgical Treatment of Adult Spinal Deformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan S; Beckman, Joshua; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Okonkwo, David; Nunley, Pierce; Wang, Michael Y; Mundis, Gregory M; Park, Paul; Eastlack, Robert; Anand, Neel; Kanter, Adam; Lamarca, Frank; Fessler, Richard; Shaffrey, Chris I; Lafage, Virginie; Chou, Dean; Deviren, Vedat

    2017-03-01

    The length of construct can potentially influence perioperative risks in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. A head-to-head comparison between open and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques for treatment of ASD has yet to be performed. To examine the impact of MIS approaches on construct length and clinical outcomes in comparison to traditional open approaches when treating similar ASD profiles. Two multicenter databases for ASD, 1 involving MIS procedures and the other open procedures, were propensity matched for clinical and radiographic parameters in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were ASD and minimum 2-year follow-up. Independent t -test and chi-square test were used to evaluate and compare outcomes. A total of 1215 patients were identified, with 84 patients matched in each group. Statistical significance was found for mean levels fused (4.8 for circumferential MIS [cMIS] and 10.1 for open), mean interbody fusion levels (3.6 cMIS and 2.4 open), blood loss (estimated blood loss 488 mL cMIS and 1762 mL open), and hospital length of stay (6.7 days cMIS and 9.7 days open). There was no significant difference in preoperative radiographic parameters or postoperative clinical outcomes (Owestry Disability Index and visual analog scale) between groups. There was a significant difference in postoperative lumbar lordosis (43.3° cMIS and 49.8° open) and pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis correction (10.6° cMIS and 5.2° open) in the open group. There was no significant difference in reoperation rate between the 2 groups. MIS techniques for ASD may reduce construct length, reoperation rates, blood loss, and length of stay without affecting clinical and radiographic outcomes when compared to a similar group of patients treated with open techniques.

  3. Neural stem cell transplantation combined with erythropoietin for the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zuo, Yuan; Jiang, Jianming; Yan, Huibo; Wang, Xiliang; Huo, Hunjun; Xiao, Yulong

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) comprises nerve and motor function disorders that may be caused by a variety of damaging factors and is challenging to treat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regenerative effects of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation combined with intraperitoneal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) on cross-sectional SCI in rats. A model of SCI was induced in 40 adult Wistar rats via the complete transection of the 10th thoracic vertebra (T10). The rats were allocated at random into 4 groups: Control, NSC, EPO and NSC + EPO groups (n=10 per group). Morphological alterations associated with axonal regeneration were detected using neurofilament (NF)-200 immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining after 8 weeks. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring was used to evaluate the recovery of hindlimb function. A total of 5 rats died following surgery, including 2 control rats and 1 rat each in the EPO, NSC and NSC + EPO groups. NSCs labeled with bromodeoxyuridine were observed to have survived and migrated in the spinal cord tissue after 8 weeks. Significant histomorphological differences were observed in the NSC and NSC + EPO groups compared with the EPO and control groups. Furthermore, the rats of the NSC + EPO group exhibited significantly enhanced axonal regeneration in the SCI area compared with the NSC group rats. The rats of the NSC and NSC + EPO groups exhibited significantly improved BBB scores compared with the EPO and control group rats at 7 days after treatment (PEPO group were significantly improved compared with those of the three other groups at 7 days after surgery (PEPO may benefit the survival and regeneration of injured axons, and accelerate the repair of injured spinal cord tissue, thus facilitating the functional recovery of hindlimb locomotor function in rats.

  4. Pain and distress induced by elastomeric and spring separators in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balbeesi, Hana O.; Bin Huraib, Sahar M.; AlNahas, Nadia W.; AlKawari, Huda M.; Abu-Amara, Abdulrahman B.; Vellappally, Sajith; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present investigation is to evaluate patients’ pain perception and discomfort, the duration of pain and the level of self-medication over time during tooth separation, and the effectiveness of elastomeric and spring types of orthodontic separators in Saudi population. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 30 female adolescent patients who had elastomeric/spring separators as part of their orthodontic treatment. A self-administrated questionnaire comprising 16 multiple choice questions and another with visual analog scale were used to record the patient's pain perceptions at 4 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days from the time of insertion. The level of pain and discomfort during these time periods were assessed by a visual analog scale. After a separation period of 7 days, the amount of separation was measured with a leaf gauge. Type and frequency of analgesic consumption was also recorded. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM SPSS -Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.,) was used for statistical analysis. Results: The data showed significant increase in the level of pain at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 3 days from separator placement. The elastomeric separators produced significantly more separation than the spring separators and also caused maximum pain during the first 3 days after insertion. However, there was no significant difference between the score of pain between two separators at all time intervals. Conclusion: Both elastomeric and spring separators showed comparative levels of pain and discomfort during the early phase of separation. Elastomeric separators were found to be more effective in tooth separation than spring separators. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate this preliminary observation. PMID:28032047

  5. Prospective pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of osteoid osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, Clara; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe; Runge, Michel; Dubut, Jonathan [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); I4S Laboratory, INSERM EA4268, University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France); Aubry, Sebastien [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Nanomedecine Laboratory, INSERM EA4662, University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2017-03-15

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of osteoid osteomas (OOs). Thirteen consecutive patients (range 11-31 years old) presenting with OO were prospectively included and treated by CT-guided MWA. Power and duration of MWA were both recorded. The patient's pain was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale (NRS), and side effects were recorded during procedures, after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The nidus vascularization and the volume of necrosis induced by MWA were assessed using contrast-enhanced MRI. Success was defined as the complete relief of the patient's pain 1 month after the first procedure, associated with necrosis of the nidus on follow-up MRI. The success rate was up to 92.3% (12/13). At 1 day, 7 days and 1 month, the median NRSs were respectively 5 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5], 0 (IQR 0-1) and 0 (IQR 0-0). Side effects observed were one partial and self-resolving lesion of a sensory branch of the radial nerve and two skin burns. The median power of the MWA used was 60 W (IQR 50-60) with a 1.5-min duration (IQR 1-2), leading to MWA-induced necrosis measuring on average 23 x 15 x 16 mm. CT-guided MWA of OO has a success rate that appears to be almost similar to that of laser or radiofrequency ablation, but care must be taken to prevent nerve or skin lesions. (orig.)

  6. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  8. Treatment of acute gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  9. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  10. Real-life treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with moxifloxacin or macrolides: a comparative post-marketing surveillance study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaberg, T; Möller, M; File, T; Stauch, K; Landen, H

    2006-01-01

    To compare the real-life treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs) using moxifloxacin tablets or one of the oral macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin in terms of symptom relief, time until improvement and cure, overall efficacy and tolerability. This prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study included out-patients with AECB whose last exacerbation was treated with a macrolide. The current AECB was treated either with moxifloxacin or with one of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin. Data were obtained on the patient's characteristics, disease and treatment history, the course of the current AECB including time to improvement and cure, and the final assessments of efficacy and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded in patients treated with moxifloxacin; for patients receiving macrolides, only drug-related adverse events were reported. 464 physicians treated 904 patients with moxifloxacin and 846 patients with one of the macrolides. Age, sex and body mass index were well matched between the two treatment groups. However, more moxifloxacin than macrolide patients presented with a generally bad condition (62.8% vs 48.6%). About 42% of patients in both groups had had chronic bronchitis for 1-5 years, and about 27% for 5-10 years. The mean number of AECBs in the previous 12 months was 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Moxifloxacin was administered to most patients for 5 (43.8%) or 7 days (42.4%). Patients in the macrolide group were treated in most cases with clarithromycin 500 mg for 4-7 days, roxithromycin 300 mg for 6-7 days or azithromycin 500 mg for 3 days. Physicians assessed overall efficacy and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 96.1% and 98.1%, respectively, of moxifloxacin-treated patients and in 67.5% and 91.7%, respectively, of macrolide-treated patients. The mean duration until improvement and cure of AECB was 3.2 days (+/- SD 1.5) and 6.2 days (+/- 2.6) in moxifloxacin

  11. Influence of the length of progestagen treatment and the time of oestradiol benzoate application on the ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, J; Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R H

    2012-06-01

    Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that the pre-ovulatory follicle size, maturity and subsequent susceptibility to gonadotropin are influenced by the length of progestagen treatment in artificial insemination programme in beef cows. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 35 anoestrous beef cows received an intravaginal sponge containing 200 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The treatment lasted for 7 (n = 12), 8 (n = 11) or 9 (n = 12) days. Half of the animals in each group were injected with 0.7 mg of oestradiol benzoate (EB) at device removal (0 h) and the other half 24 h later. In experiment 2, 38 cycling beef cows were treated with the same protocols as in experiment 1. Ultrasound examinations were performed to determine the follicular diameter at device removal (dominant follicle), interval to ovulation and ovulatory follicle diameter. The dominant follicle of anoestrous cows with progestagen for 7 days (8.4 ± 1.6 mm) resulted smaller (p time after device removal was longer (p withdrawal than at 0 h in anoestrous cows (EB0 = 52.7 ± 4.0 h; EB24 = 70.8 ± 6.2 h) and in cyclic cows (EB0 = 50.0 ± 21.0 h; EB24 = 73.0 ± 20.0 h). In anoestrous cows, the treatment with progestagen for 9 days and EB at 24 h increased the diameter of the ovarian follicle (p = 0.033) but did not affect the diameter of the ovulatory follicle in cyclic cows. In conclusion, increasing the length of progestagen treatment for 8 or 9 days compared to 7 days increased the diameter of the dominant follicle, in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows. Oestradiol benzoate administered at device removal resulted in a shorter interval from device removal to ovulation compared with EB injection 24 h after the end of a progestagen treatment.

  12. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low bone mass, you may receive treatment with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with synthetic (laboratory- made) ...

  13. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  14. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  15. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  16. Bleeding Disorders Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Annual Global Survey Treatment Guidelines Laboratory Manual Hemophilia in Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal ...

  17. Benznidazole and posaconazole in experimental Chagas disease: positive interaction in concomitant and sequential treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Figueiredo Diniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current chemotherapy for Chagas disease is unsatisfactory due to its limited efficacy, particularly in the chronic phase, with frequent side effects that can lead to treatment discontinuation. Combined therapy is envisioned as an ideal approach since it may improve treatment efficacy whilst decreasing toxicity and the likelihood of resistance development. We evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole in combination with benznidazole on Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vivo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Benznidazole and posaconazole were administered individually or in combination in an experimental acute murine infection model. Using a rapid treatment protocol for 7 days, the combined treatments were more efficacious in reducing parasitemia levels than the drugs given alone, with the effects most evident in combinations of sub-optimal doses of the drugs. Subsequently, the curative action of these drug combinations was investigated, using the same infection model and 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg/kg/day (mpk of benznidazole in combination with 5, 10 or 20 mpk of posaconazole, given alone or concomitantly for 20 days. The effects of the combination treatments on parasitological cures were higher than the sum of such effects when the drugs were administered separately at the same doses, indicating synergistic activity. Finally, sequential therapy experiments were carried out with benznidazole or posaconazole over a short interval (10 days, followed by the second drug administered for the same period of time. It was found that the sequence of benznidazole (100 mpk followed by posaconazole (20 mpk provided cure rates comparable to those obtained with the full (20 days treatments with either drug alone, and no cure was observed for the short treatments with drugs given alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the importance of investigating the potential beneficial effects of combination treatments with marketed compounds, and showed that combinations of

  18. Short communication. In vitro embryo production can be modified by the previous ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forcada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two ewes were used to study how the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines quality of oocytes recovered from ovaries after embryo collection, and their developmental capacity after in vitro maturation (IVM and fertilization (IVF. Ewes were superovulated, and seven days after oestrus, embryos were collected and ewes divided into three groups: (+ +, n=19, ewes responding to the treatment with embryos collected after flushing; (+ –, n=8, ewes responding, but only oocytes were found; and (– –, n=5, ewes not responding to the treatment and no embryos collected. Ovaries were recovered and oocytes collected from the three groups. A significant effect of the response to the treatment was observed for oocyte quality, so that (– – ewes presented the higher number of oocytes per ewe (p<0.001. Total number of oocytes selected for IVM and IVF was significantly higher in the same group, in comparison with (+ + and (+ – (p<0.001. Group (+ – ewes presented the lowest maturation (p<0.001, fertilization (p<0.05 and cleavage rates (p<0.001. In conclusion, the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines the number and quality of the oocytes recovered 7 days after the oestrus induced by the hormonal treatment. In vitro techniques could be an important tool to increase embryo production by particular ewes when they are not able to produce a significant amount of in vivo embryos.

  19. [A study of combination treatment with nacom (levodopa + carbodope) and citicoline in the model of Parkinson disease in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkin, V A; Shekunova, E V; Makarova, M N; Makarov, V G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of citicoline (neipilept) and levodopa/carbidopa (nakom) in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in rats. Rotenone was administrated during 14 days in dose 2 mg/kg/day subcutaneously. The duration of treatment was 7 days, intragastrically. Alteration of locomotor behavior components, muscular rigidity in resistance to passive flexion in the ankle joint and signs of extrapyramidal disorders were assessed. Combined therapy led to the decrease in muscle rigidity (the decrease of gibbosity in resistance to passive flexion in the ankle joint). There was a decrease in oligokinesia that emerged in higher vertical and horizontal locomotor activity of experimental animals, decrease in the time of head turning during climbing down the pole and total time of climbing down the pole. The combination of drugs had a more pronounced therapeutic effect on extrapyramidal disorders compared to monotherapy.

  20. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  1. Local hyperthermia treatment of tumors induces CD8+ T cell-mediated resistance against distal and secondary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peisheng; Chen, Lei; Baird, Jason R.; Demidenko, Eugene; Turk, Mary Jo; Hoopes, P. Jack; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.; Fiering, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and an alternating magnetic filed (AMF) can induce local hyperthermia in tumors in a controlled and uniform manner. Heating B16 primary tumors at 43°C for 30 minutes activated dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN) and conferred resistance against rechallenge with B16 (but not unrelated Lewis Lung carcinoma) given 7 days post hyperthermia on both the primary tumor side and the contralateral side in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. Mice with heated primary tumors also resisted rechallenge given 30 days post hyperthermia. Mice with larger heated primary tumors had greater resistance to secondary tumors. No rechallenge resistance occurred when tumors were heated at 45°C. Our results demonstrate the promising potential of local hyperthermia treatment applied to identified tumors in inducing anti-tumor immune responses that reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis. PMID:24566274

  2. Repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate for prophylaxis of UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    of a corticosteroid would reduce IngMeb-induced local skin responses (LSRs) without affecting tumor postponement. METHODS: Hairless mice (n=150; 6 groups á 25 mice) were irradiated with solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) until SCC developed. During UV-irradiation and before tumor development, five single......, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7days after each IngMeb treatment. RESULTS: IngMeb significantly delayed tumor development compared to UVR alone (UVR day 168 vs. UVR+IngMeb day 189; p=0.025). LSR included erythema, flaking, crusting, bleeding, vesiculation, and ulceration. The composite LSR-scores were...... of moderate intensity in non-UV irradiated skin (max LSR IngMeb Tx 1-5: 1.5-2.5) and more pronounced in photodamaged skin (max LSR Tx 5; IngMeb 1.5 vs. UVR+IngMeb 1.8; p

  3. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation.Forty-three patients (26-62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted.To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation.

  4. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  5. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Verma; Chaitanya Namdeo

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.

  6. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, P; Lublin, H; Taylor, D

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  7. Clinical features and treatment status of hemifacial spasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lin; Hu Xingyue; Dong Hongjuan; Wang Wenzhao; Huang Yue; Jin Lingjing; Luo Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial nerve disorder characterized by episodic involuntary ipsilateral facial muscle contraction.Information on Chinese patients with HFS has not been well-characterized.This study aimed to evaluate the clinical feature and the treatment status of HFS across China.Methods A cross-sectional study including 1003 primary HFS patients had been carried out in 15 movement disorder clinics in China in 2012.The investigated information was acquired from questionnaires and medical records including demographic data,site of onset,aggravating and relieving factors,treatments prior to the investigation,etc.Results In this study,the ratio of male to female was 1.0:1.8,the mean age at onset was (46.6±11.5) years.About 1.0% patients were bilaterally affected.The most often site of initial onset was the orbicularis oculi muscle.The most often affected sites were orbicularis oculi,zygomatic,and orbicularis oris muscles.Stress/anxiety and relaxation were most often aggravating and relieving factors,respectively; 2.3% patients had family history,28.4% cases were combined with hypertension,and 1.4% patients were with trigeminal neuralgia.Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection was the most commonly used treatment,followed by acupuncture and oral medication.BTX-A maintained the highest repeat treatment ratio (68.7%),while 98.4% patients gave up acupuncture.The mean latency of BTX-A effect was (5.0±4.7) days,the mean total duration of the effect was (19.5±11.7) weeks,and 95.9% patients developed improvements no worse than moderate in both severity and function.The most common side effect was droopy mouth.Conclusions The onset age of HFS in China is earlier than that in western countries.The most often used two treatments are BTX-A injection and acupuncture,while the latter kept the poor repeat treatment ratio because of dissatisfactory therapeutic effect.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M

    2013-05-01

    We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.

  9. Successful outcomes with oral fluoroquinolones combined with rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel P; McDonald, Anthony; Callan, Peter; Robson, Mike; Friedman, N Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Holten, Ian; Walton, Aaron; Athan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization currently recommends combined streptomycin and rifampicin antibiotic treatment as first-line therapy for Mycobacterium ulcerans infections. Alternatives are needed when these are not tolerated or accepted by patients, contraindicated, or neither accessible nor affordable. Despite in vitro effectiveness, clinical evidence for fluoroquinolone antibiotic use against Mycobacterium ulcerans is lacking. We describe outcomes and tolerability of fluoroquinolone-containing antibiotic regimens for Mycobacterium ulcerans in south-eastern Australia. Analysis was performed of prospectively collected data including all primary Mycobacterium ulcerans infections treated at Barwon Health between 1998 and 2010. Medical treatment involved antibiotic use for more than 7 days; surgical treatment involved surgical excision of a lesion. Treatment success was defined as complete lesion healing without recurrence at 12 months follow-up. A complication was defined as an adverse event attributed to an antibiotic that required its cessation. A total of 133 patients with 137 lesions were studied. Median age was 62 years (range 3-94 years). 47 (34%) had surgical treatment alone, and 90 (66%) had combined surgical and medical treatment. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin comprised 61% and rifampicin and clarithromycin 23% of first-line antibiotic regimens. 13/47 (30%) treated with surgery alone failed treatment compared to 0/90 (0%) of those treated with combination medical and surgical treatment (pantibiotic combinations containing a fluoroquinolone (61/61 cases; 100%) compared with those not containing a fluoroquinolone (29/29 cases; 100%). Complication rates were similar between ciprofloxacin and rifampicin (31%) and rifampicin and clarithromycin (33%) regimens (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.27-2.99). Paradoxical reactions during treatment were observed in 8 (9%) of antibiotic treated cases. Antibiotics combined with surgery may significantly increase treatment success for

  10. Successful Outcomes with Oral Fluoroquinolones Combined with Rifampicin in the Treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel P.; McDonald, Anthony; Callan, Peter; Robson, Mike; Friedman, N. Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Holten, Ian; Walton, Aaron; Athan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization currently recommends combined streptomycin and rifampicin antibiotic treatment as first-line therapy for Mycobacterium ulcerans infections. Alternatives are needed when these are not tolerated or accepted by patients, contraindicated, or neither accessible nor affordable. Despite in vitro effectiveness, clinical evidence for fluoroquinolone antibiotic use against Mycobacterium ulcerans is lacking. We describe outcomes and tolerability of fluoroquinolone-containing antibiotic regimens for Mycobacterium ulcerans in south-eastern Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis was performed of prospectively collected data including all primary Mycobacterium ulcerans infections treated at Barwon Health between 1998 and 2010. Medical treatment involved antibiotic use for more than 7 days; surgical treatment involved surgical excision of a lesion. Treatment success was defined as complete lesion healing without recurrence at 12 months follow-up. A complication was defined as an adverse event attributed to an antibiotic that required its cessation. A total of 133 patients with 137 lesions were studied. Median age was 62 years (range 3–94 years). 47 (34%) had surgical treatment alone, and 90 (66%) had combined surgical and medical treatment. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin comprised 61% and rifampicin and clarithromycin 23% of first-line antibiotic regimens. 13/47 (30%) treated with surgery alone failed treatment compared to 0/90 (0%) of those treated with combination medical and surgical treatment (pantibiotic combinations containing a fluoroquinolone (61/61 cases; 100%) compared with those not containing a fluoroquinolone (29/29 cases; 100%). Complication rates were similar between ciprofloxacin and rifampicin (31%) and rifampicin and clarithromycin (33%) regimens (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.27–2.99). Paradoxical reactions during treatment were observed in 8 (9%) of antibiotic treated cases. Conclusions Antibiotics combined with

  11. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai, E-mail: hekai@urban.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7 days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. - Highlights: • Soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity enhanced the removals of antibiotics in SAT. • A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days was sufficient for the removals of most PPCPs. • The removals of most selected PPCPs were similar under vadose and saturated conditions. • Vadose condition contributed to the

  12. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  13. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth submitted to bleaching treatment with hydrogen peroxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles photoactivated by LED-laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cristina JORDÃO-BASSO

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth after bleaching treatment using 15% hydrogen peroxide plus titanium dioxide nanoparticles (15HPTiO2 photoactivated by LED-laser, in comparison with protocols using 35% hydrogen peroxide (35HP, 37% carbamide peroxide (37CP or sodium perborate (SP. Material and method: After endodontic treatment, fifty bovine extracted incisors were divided into five groups (n = 10: G1- without bleaching; G2- 35HP; G3- 37CP; G4- 15HPTiO2 photoactivated by LED-laser and G5- SP. In G2 and G4, the bleaching protocol was applied in 4 sessions, with a 7 day interval between each session. In G3 and G5, the materials were kept in the pulp chamber for 21 days, but replaced every 7 days. After 21 days, the crowns were subjected to compressive load at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min, applied at 135° to the long axis of the root using an eletromechanical testing machine, until fracture. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05. Result: The bleaching treatment in endodontically-treated teeth with 15HP plus TiO2 nanoparticles and photoactivated by LED-laser caused reduction of the fracture resistance similarly provided by 35HP, 37CP or SP (p>0.05. All bleaching treatments reduced the fracture resistance compared to unbleached teeth (p<0.05. Conclusion: All bleaching protocols reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth, but there were no differences between each other.

  15. Effect of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture treatment timing on Salmonella Enteritidis in neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J P; Higgins, S E; Wolfenden, A D; Henderson, S N; Torres-Rodriguez, A; Vicente, J L; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, a series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of a combination of 3 ATCC lactobacilli (LAB3) or a commercially available probiotic culture (PROB) to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in broiler chicks. Additionally, we varied the timing of PROB administration in relationship to Salmonella challenge and determined the influence on recovery of enteric Salmonella. In experiments 1 to 3, chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then challenged via oral gavage with Salmonella Enteritidis. Chicks were treated 1 h after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge with LAB3 or PROB. Twenty-four hours posttreatment, cecal tonsils were collected for recovery of enteric Salmonella. In experiments 4 to 7, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then treated with PROB via oral gavage and placed into pens. Chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis 24 h after treatment via oral gavage. At 24 h after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, cecal tonsils were collected and recovery of enteric Salmonella was determined. In experiments 8 to 10, 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then challenged via oral gavage with Salmonella Enteritidis and placed into pens. Chicks were treated 24 h after challenge with PROB via oral gavage. Twenty-four hours post PROB treatment, cecal tonsils were collected and enriched as described above. It was found that PROB significantly reduced cecal Salmonella Enteritidis recovery 24 h after treatment as compared with controls or LAB3-treated chicks in experiments 1 to 3 (PSalmonella Enteritidis challenge significantly reduced recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis in 2 out of 4 experiments and no reduction in cecal Salmonella Enteritidis was observed when chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis and treated 24 h later with PROB. These data demonstrate that PROB more effectively reduced Salmonella

  16. Responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in rat bladder cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederas, Odrun; Larsen, Eivind; Randeberg, Lise; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2010-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated histologically the effects of hexyl 5-aminolevulinateinduced photodynamic treatment in the AY-27 tumor cell induced rat bladder cancer model. MATERIAL & METHODS: The animals (fischer-344 female rats) were divided into 2 groups, half of which were orthotopically implanted with 400,000 syngeniec AY-27 urothelia1 rat bladder cancer cells and half sham implanted. 14 days post implantation 6 rats from each group were treated with hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment (8mM HAL and light fluence of 20 J/cm2). Additional groups of animals were only given HAL instillation, only light treatment, or no treatment. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after the PDT/only HAL/only light or no treatment. Each bladder was removed, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and saferin for histological evaluation at high magnification for features of tissue damage by a pathologist blinded to the sample source. RESULTS: In all animals that were AY-27 implanted and not given complete PDT treatment, viable tumors were found in the bladder mucosa and wall. In the animals treated with complete HAL-PDT only 3 of 6 animals had viable tumor. In the 3 animals with viable tumor it was significantly reduced in volume compared to the untreated animals. It was also noted that in the PDT treated animals there was a significantly increased inflammatory response (lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration) in the peri-tumor area compared to implanted animals without complete HAL-PDT. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in a rat bladder cancer model involves both direct effects on cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and indirect effects to evoke the host immune-response, together contributing to tumor eradication.

  17. [Economic evaluation of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejas Gutiérrez, Javier; Blanca Tamayo, Milagrosa; Gascón Barrachina, Josep; Armada Peláez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the clinical and economic value of the use of 50mg-desvenlafaxine compared to the usual care (mix of duloxetine and venlafaxine) in the outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder after first line treatment failure (relapse) in Spain. A Markov model was used to follow up a cohort of major depressive disorder patients for one year after failure of first-line treatment with a serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and estimate outcome measures (percentage remission and depression-free days) and accrued and direct costs incurred during outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder. In order to obtain the efficacy data related to the treatment alternatives, a literature review of clinical trials was performed. A panel of clinical experts validated the use of clinical resources employed in the estimation of economic outcomes together with model assumptions. The analysis was performed in 2014 from the perspective of the National Health System. Due to fewer discontinuations, initiating second line treatment with desvenlafaxine was associated with more depression-free days and a higher percentage of patients in remission versus usual care: 1.7 days and 0.5%, respectively. This was translated into lower drug and events management costs, and an overall cost reduction of €108 for the National Health System. In patients who have not responded to a first-line serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor therapy, desvenlafaxine-50mg was clinically similar in effectiveness, but a less costly option, compared with a weighted average of duloxetine and venlafaxine for the second-line treatment of major depressive disorder patients from a payer (National Health System) perspective in Spain. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Misoprostol for treatment of incomplete abortion at the regional hospital level: results from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwekerela, B; Kalumuna, R; Kipingili, R; Mashaka, N; Westheimer, E; Clark, W; Winikoff, B

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of misoprostol versus manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for treatment of incomplete abortion. A prospective open-label randomised trial. Kagera Regional Hospital, Bukoba, Tanzania. Three hundred women with a clinical diagnosis of incomplete abortion and a uterine size misoprostol or MVA. If abortion was clinically complete at 7-day follow up, the woman was released from the study. If it was still incomplete, the woman was offered the choice of an additional 1-week follow up or immediate MVA. Cases still incomplete after a further week were offered MVA. Incidence of successful abortion (success defined as no secondary surgical intervention provided), incidence of adverse effects, patient satisfaction. Success was very high in both arms (misoprostol: 99%; MVA: 100%; difference not significant). Most adverse effects were higher in the misoprostol arm, although the mean pain score was higher in the MVA arm (3.0 versus 3.5; P misoprostol (75%) than with MVA (55%, P = 0.001), and a higher proportion of women in the misoprostol arm said that they would recommend the treatment to a friend (95% versus 75%, P Misoprostol is as effective as MVA at treating incomplete abortion at uterine size of misoprostol appears higher. Given the many practical advantages of misoprostol over MVA in low-resource settings, misoprostol should be more widely available for treatment of incomplete abortion in the developing world.

  19. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Alexander, Joshua B.; Cardenas, Henry E.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2008-01-01

    This work examines field performance of nanoscale pozzolan treatments delivered el ctrokinetically to suppress chloride induced corrosion of concrete reinforcement. The particles are 20 nm silica spheres coated with 2 nm alumina particles that carry a net positive charge. Earlier work demonstrated that the alumina particles were stripped from the silica carriers and formed a dense phase with an interparticle spacing that is small enough to inhibit the transport of solvated chlorides. A D.C. field was used to inject the particles into the pores of concrete specimens, directly toward the mild steel bars that were embedded within each 3 inch diameter by 6 inch length concrete specimen. The voltage was held constant at 25 v per inch of concrete cover for a period of 7 days. These voltages permitted current densities as high as 3 A/sq m. During the final 3 days, a 1 molar solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used to provide a source of calcium to facilitate stronger and more densified phase formation within the pores. In a departure from prior work the particle treatments were started concurrent with chloride extraction in order to determine if particle delivery would inhibit chloride transport. Following treatment the specimens were immersed in seawater for 4 weeks. After this posttreatment exposure, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and the steel reinforcement was examined for evidence of corrosion. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to assess impact on microstructure.

  20. Induction of Tetraploids from Petiole Explants through Colchicine Treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x=22 Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA, 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x=44 shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  1. Early biochemical responses of Brassica napus var Exagone seed germination at salt treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapeseed is the third most important edible oil source in the world, after soybean and palm. This plant is very sensitive to salt stress throughout the growth and development cycle. Salt stress reduces plant growth and productivity and can affected several physiological and biochemical process. For this reason, this study was carried out to determine early the effects of NaCl treatment on the protein content, amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, acide phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6 in young rape plant (Brassica napus L. var Exagone. The rape seed were treated four hour with three NaCl solutions (50mM, 100mM, 150mM comparatively with a control who wasn’t exposed at treatment. Amylase activity was inhibited by all used salts concentrations at both time intervals studied. Salinity stimulated the acid phosphatase activity, more intense at 4 days and moderately at 7 days after treatment. The activity of the two assayed antioxidant enzymes (except peroxidase in the second period increase in salinity conditions with increasing salt concentration. Soluble protein content is reduced compared to the control at both studied intervals.

  2. Oral treatment with Bifidobacterium longum 51A reduced inflammation in a murine experimental model of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A T; Galvão, I; Amaral, F A; Teixeira, M M; Nicoli, J R; Martins, F S

    2015-01-01

    Gout is an acute inflammatory disease characterised by the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint. This event promotes neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to tissue damage. We investigated here whether the oral administration of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum 5(1A) (BL) could ameliorate monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced inflammation in a murine model of gout. Mice received oral administration of BL or saline daily for 7 days and then were injected with MSU in the knee cavity. Treatment with BL significantly alleviated the inflammatory parameters, as seen by reduced hypernociception, reduced neutrophil accumulation in the joint and myeloperoxidase activity in periarticular tissue. There was inhibition of the production of CXCL1 and interleukin(IL)-1β in joints. Levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were significantly higher in the knee tissue of mice treated with than control mice injected with MSU. In conclusion, oral BL treatment reduced the inflammatory response in an experimental murine model of gout, suggesting it may be useful as an adjuvant treatment in patients with gout.

  3. 5-aminolaevulinic Acid-photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Cervical Condylomata Acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-xin Liu; He-yi Zheng; Xiu-rong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy(PDT)with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid(ALA)on cervical condylomata acuminata.Methods Patients with cervical condylomata(n=30)were allocated into primary and recurrent group,and were given topical ALA under occlusive dressing for 3 hours followed by irradiation with semiconductor laser at a dose of 100 Jcm2 and a power of 100 mW.The treatment was repeated 7 days later if the lesion was not completely removed after the first treatment.Complete response rate and recurrence rate of wart lesions as well as rate of adverse reaction were analyzed.Results The total complete response rate of PDT was 100% and the total recurrence rate was 5% after 3 months of follow-up.Recurrence rate of recurrent group was significantly lower than that of prior managements(100% ,P<0.01).The side effects of PDT in patients mainly included mild burning and/or stinging restricted to the illuminated areas,and was significant lower than their own control(25% vs.100% ,P<0.05).Conclusion Compared with conventional therapies,topical application of ALA-PDT is a simple,effective,safe,well-tolerated,and low recurrence rate treatment for cervical condylomata acuminata.

  4. Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilanthi, Dahanayake; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x = 22) Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA), 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L) of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x = 44) shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  5. [Treatment of pediculosis capitis in children with permethrin 1% shampoo or lotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H; Wiedmaier, G; Contreras, L

    1994-01-01

    A clinical and entomological trial was carried out in 88 head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infested children treated with a single dose of 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion. The sex distribution was 47 males an 41 females with ages ranging between 5 and 14 year olds. In order to assess the efficiency of treatments, search for adult forms, nymphs and eggs (nits) of the parasite was performed in each of the children, before and after treatment (30 minutes, 7 days and 21 days). The entomological evaluations consisted in stereoscopic and microscopic examinations of a mean of 12 hair samples taken from the retroauricular and occipital regions of each of the children, the biological condition of eggs, viable (immature, mature), dead and empty, was recorded. The cure rates--both clinical and entomological--obtained were 91.5% for shampoo and 95.2% for lotion. No adverse reactions with the two formulations used were reported. In conclusion, 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion in an effective and safe treatment for pediculosis capitis.

  6. Transient brain shrinkage in infantile spasms after ACTH treatment. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, K; Ohta, H; Tamai, I

    1980-02-01

    This is the report of two cases of infantile spasms, manifesting transient brain shrinkage in computerized tomography (CT) after ACTH treatment. ACTH was given for 8 weeks to a 8-months-old Japanese girl with infantile spasms. First CT performed at 2 weeks after the final ACTH injection, displayed moderate brain shrinkage. Second CT at 4 months showed marked diminution of the shrinkage. ACTH was also given for 8 weeks to a 14 months old Japanese boy with infantile spasms. First CT, just before ACTH treatment, showed mild cortical atrophy, the second at 7 days after the final ACTH injection revealed marked brain shrinkage and moderate ventricular dilatation, and the third at 2 months, disclosed mild improvement of the shrinkage. ACTH or corticoateroid has widespread effects on the developing nervous system. In animal experiments, ACTH or steroids interfere with brain growth of young rats. CT findings of transient brain shrinkage in a child with infantile spasms might suggest that intensive treatment with ACTH or steroids in infancy interferes with brain growth as seen in the results of animal experiments.

  7. Imatinib treatment reduces brain injury in a murine model of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enming Joe Su

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for Traumatic brain injury (TBI focus on stabilizing individuals and on preventing further damage from the secondary consequences of TBI. A major complication of TBI is cerebral edema, which can be caused by the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB integrity. Recent studies in several CNS pathologies have shown that activation of latent platelet derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC within the brain can promote BBB permeability through PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα signaling, and that blocking this pathway improves outcomes. In this study we examine the efficacy for the treatment of TBI of an FDA approved antagonist of the PDGFRα, Imatinib. Using a murine model we show that Imatinib treatment, begun 45 minutes after TBI and given twice daily for 5 days, significantly reduces BBB dysfunction. This is associated with significantly reduced lesion size 24 hours, 7 days, and 21 days after TBI, reduced cerebral edema, determined from apparent diffusion co-efficient (ADC measurements, and with the preservation of cognitive function. Finally, analysis of CSF from human TBI patients suggests a possible correlation between high PDGF-CC levels and increased injury severity. Thus, our data suggests a novel strategy for the treatment of TBI with an existing FDA approved antagonist of the PDGFRα.

  8. Enhancement of waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by means of pre- and intermediate treatments. Technical and economic analysis at a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Alberto; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Scibilia, Gerardo; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Ruffino, Barbara

    2017-05-16

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments. The efficacy of post- and inter-stage treatments is currently under consideration to overcome the problems due to this unavoidable byproduct. This work compares three scenarios in which low-temperature (WWTP, 2,000,000 p.e.). It was demonstrated that the introduction of thermal or hybrid pre-treatments could increase the revenues from the electricity sale by between 13% and 25%, in comparison with the present scenario (no lysis treatments). Conversely, intermediate treatments on a 7-day digestate could provide a gain of 26% or 32%, depending on the process temperature (70 or 90 °C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tafenoquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria: suggestive evidence that CYP2D6 reduced metabolism is not associated with relapse in the Phase 2b DETECTIVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jean, Pamela L; Xue, Zhengyu; Carter, Nick; Koh, Gavin C K W; Duparc, Stephan; Taylor, Maxine; Beaumont, Claire; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Krudsood, Srivicha; Green, Justin A; Rubio, Justin P

    2016-02-18

    Tafenoquine (TQ) and primaquine (PQ) are 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQ) with anti-hypnozoite activity against vivax malaria. PQ is the only FDA-approved medicine for preventing relapsing Plasmodium vivax infection and TQ is currently in phase 3 clinical trials for the same indication. Recent studies have provided evidence that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism via CYP2D6 plays a role in PQ efficacy against P. vivax and have suggested that this effect may extend to other 8-AQs, including TQ. Here, a retrospective pharmacogenetic (PGx) investigation was performed to assess the impact of CYP2D6 metabolism on TQ and PQ efficacy in the treatment of P. vivax in the DETECTIVE study (TAF112582), a recently completed, randomized, phase 2b dose-ranging clinical trial. The impact of CYP2D6 on TQ pharmacokinetics (PK) was also investigated in TAF112582 TQ-treated subjects and in vitro CYP metabolism of TQ was explored. A limitation of the current study is that TAF112582 was not designed to be well powered for PGx, thus our findings are based on TQ or PQ efficacy in CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (IM), as there were insufficient poor metabolizers (PM) to draw any conclusion on the impact of the PM phenotype on efficacy. The impact of genetically-predicted CYP2D6 reduced metabolism on relapse-free efficacy six months post-dosing of TQ or PQ, both administered in conjunction with chloroquine (CQ), was assessed using exact statistical methods in 198 P. vivax-infected study participants comparing IM to extensive metabolizers (EM). The influence of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes on TQ PK was assessed comparing median TQ area under the curve (AUC). In vitro metabolism of TQ was investigated using recombinant, over-expressed human CYP enzymes and human hepatocytes. Metabolite identification experiments were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reduction of CYP2D6 activity was not associated with an increase in relapse-rate in TQ-treated subjects (p = 0.57). In contrast

  10. Swift reveals a ~5.7 day super-orbital period in the M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Murrray, S S

    2015-01-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29$\\pm$1 times the orbital period, i.e. $\\sim$81$\\pm$3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3--10 keV Swift XRT luminosity lightcurve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65+/-0.05 days, and a >5$\\sigma$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods 5.4--5.8 days were detected at a >3$\\sigma$ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70\\% l...

  11. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  12. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these di...

  14. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  15. Reduction in Thrombosis and Bacterial Adhesion with 7 Day Implantation of S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-Doped Elast-eon E2As Catheters in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Davis, Ryan P.; Jones, Anna M.; Major, Terry C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis and infection are two common problems associated with blood-contacting medical devices such as catheters. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a potent antimicrobial agent as well as an inhibitor of platelet activation and adhesion. Healthy endothelial cells that line the inner walls of all blood vessels exhibit a NO flux of 0.5~4×10−10 mol cm−2 min−1 that helps prevent thrombosis. Materials with a NO flux that is equivalent to this level are expected to exhibit similar anti-thrombotic properties. In this study, NO-releasing catheters were fabricated by incorporating S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in the Elast-eon E2As polymer. The SNAP/E2As catheters release physiological levels of NO for up to 20 d, as measured by chemiluminescence. Furthermore, SNAP is stable in the E2As polymer, retaining 89% of the initial SNAP after ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization. The SNAP/E2As and E2As control catheters were implanted in sheep veins for 7 d to examine the effect on thrombosis and bacterial adhesion. The SNAP/E2As catheters reduced the thrombus area when compared to the control (1.56 ± 0.76 and 5.06 ± 1.44 cm2, respectively). A 90% reduction in bacterial adhesion was also observed for the SNAP/E2As catheters as compared to the controls. The results suggest that the SNAP/E2As polymer has the potential to improve the hemocompatibility and bactericidal activity of intravascular catheters, as well as other blood-contacting medical devices (e.g., vascular grafts, extracorporeal circuits). PMID:25685358

  16. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  17. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P ....0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies...

  18. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  19. Special offer-7 days fly and drive Antarctica: The role of wilderness protection in deciding whether (semi) permanent tourist facilities in Antarctica should be prohibited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world’s last wildernesses. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23,000 (2004/05). The diversity of tourist activities is also increasing. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental...

  20. How long should umbilical venous catheters remain in place in neonates who require long-term (≥5-7 days) central venous access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Amy; Giesinger, Regan; Dunn, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this evidenced-based review, we examine the current available literature to help answer the question 'In neonates requiring long-term central access [patient], does removal of the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) on days 5-7 and replacement with a peripherally inserted central catheter line [intervention] compared with leaving the UVC in situ [comparison] reduce rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections [outcome]?'

  1. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  2. Association Between 7 Days Per Week Rehabilitation and Functional Recovery of Patients With Acute Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study Based on the Japan Rehabilitation Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Momosaki, Ryo; Kakuda, Wataru; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that functional outcome of patients with stroke who receive 7d/wk of rehabilitation is generally better than that of similar patients who undergo 5 or 6d/wk of rehabilitation. Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals. From the Japan Rehabilitation Database, which includes data on 8033 patients with acute stroke collected between January 2005 and December 2013, we included 3072 patients with stroke who were admitted to the acute hospitals and received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Seven days per week of rehabilitation was defined as rehabilitation therapy administrated by a physical or occupational therapist on every weekday, Saturday, and Sunday. Favorable functional independence in daily living, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at the time of discharge. A total of 1075 (35.0%) patients received 7d/wk of rehabilitation. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference in favorable functional recovery between the 7d/wk rehabilitation group and non-7d/wk rehabilitation group (43.3% vs 37.6%, respectively; P=.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using the generalized estimating equations method showed that 7d/wk of rehabilitation was independently associated with favorable functional recovery. Our cohort analysis demonstrated that 7d/wk of rehabilitation in early rehabilitation for patients with acute stroke can lead to functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise Des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance.

  4. [The combined drug ascoril in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, N Iu; Kuznetsov, A N; Koroleva, T V; Koroleva, M E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the combined drug ascoril (Glenmark, India) in patients with grade I-Ii chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) concurrent with coronary heart disease (CHD). Sixty patients, including 12 (20%) women and 48 (80%) men, aged 43 to 68 years (mean age 55.1 +9.9 years), with COPD were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 used the combined broncholytic and expectorant drug ascoril and Group 2 took mucolytic agent ambroxol. The follow-up period was 7 days. On day 2 of ascoril treatment, all the patients showed a significant reduction in the intensity of cough that was completely relieved in 26 (87%) patients by treatment day 7. Prior to ascoril treatment, heart rate (HR) was 64.4+/-5.5 beats/min. A significant increase in HR to 72.7+/-10.1 beats/min was observed 20 min after the first drug intake (p < 0.05) and a decrease to 68.6+/-10.5 beats/min was seen after 60 min. On treatment day 7, HR was 63.0+/-6.5 beats/min, which was similar to that before ascoril treatment (p = 0.6). In the patients with COPD concurrent with CHD, the combined drug ascoril exerts broncholytic and expectorant effects, with no pronounced negative action on HR.

  5. Assessing Response to Radiation Therapy Treatment of Bone Metastases: Short-Term Followup of Radiation Therapy Treatment of Bone Metastases with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cappabianca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in monitoring bone metastases response to radiation therapy in 15 oligometastatic patients. For each metastasis, both mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC changes and high b-value DW metastasis/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR variations were evaluated at 30 ± 5 days and 60 ± 7 days after the end of treatment. On baseline DW-MRI, all bone metastases were hyperintense and had signal intensities higher than normal bone marrow on calculated ADC maps. At follow-up evaluations, 4 patterns of response were identified: (I decreased high b-value DW SIR associated with increased mean ADC (83.3% of cases; (II increased mean ADC with no change of high b-value DW SIR (10% of cases; (III decreased both high b-value DW SIR and mean ADC (3.3% of cases; (IV a reduction in mean ADC associated with an increase in high b-value DW SIR compared to pretreatment values (3.3% of cases. Patterns (I and (II suggested a good response to therapy; pattern (III was classified as indeterminate, while pattern (IV was suggestive of disease progression. This pattern approach may represent a useful tool in the differentiation between treatment-induced necrosis and highly cellular residual tumor.

  6. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Vicari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE. A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 10 [9] CFU per day or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6% complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = "6Tx/6-": treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26; Group B = "12Tx": 12 months of treatment (n = 22; Group C = "6-/6Tx": no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23; Group D = "12-": no treatment (n = 24. The patients of Groups A = "6Tx/6-" and B = "12Tx" had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast, group "12-": patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%. The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups "6Tx/6-" (15.5% and "6-/6Tx" (13.6% was lower than that found in the patients of group "12-" (45.8%. Finally, no patient of groups "6Tx/6-" and "6-/6Tx" had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group "12-" patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS.

  8. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Enzo; Vignera, La Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 109 CFU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = “6Tx/6-”: treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = “12Tx”: 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = “6-/6Tx”: no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = “12-”: no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = “6Tx/6-” and B = “12Tx” had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group “12-”: patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups “6Tx/6-” (15.5%) and “6-/6Tx” (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group “12-” (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups “6Tx/6-” and “6-/6Tx” had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group “12-” patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  9. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  10. Treatment of human scabies with oral ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONTI DÍAZ Ismael A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight patients with scabies (21 males and 17 females received oral ivermectin in two doses of 200 mg/kg at 7 days interval. Excellent results were achieved in 29 cases (76.34%, improvement in 6 (15.78% and poor responses in 3 (7.88%. Tolerance was satisfactory-excellent in 32 patients (84.2%. The effectiveness and safety of the drug described in previous studies are confirmed by the present results.

  11. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  12. Interstitial microwave-induced hyperthermia and iridium brachytherapy for the treatment of obstructing biliary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, C T; Wong, T Z; Ryan, T P; Jones, E L; Crichlow, R W; Spiegel, P K; Jeffery, R

    1992-01-01

    In a phase I clinical study, 10 patients with obstructive biliary carcinomas were treated with single-antenna interstitial microwave hyperthermia and iridium-192 brachytherapy. For each patient a standard biliary drainage catheter was implanted percutaneously through the obstructed common bile duct. This catheter accommodated a single microwave antenna which operated at 915 MHz, and one or two fibreoptic thermometry probes for temperature measurement. Under fluoroscopic guidance the microwave antenna and temperature probes were positioned in the CT-determined tumour mass. The 60-min heat treatment achieved a central tumour temperature of 45-55 degrees C while keeping temperatures at the proximal and distal margins at 43 degrees C. Immediately following the hyperthermia treatment the microwave antenna and temperature probes were removed, and a single strand of iridium-192 double-strength seeds was inserted to irradiate the tumour length. A dose of 5500-7900 cGy calculated at 0.5 cm radially from the catheter was administered over 5-7 days. Upon removal of the iridium a second hyperthermia treatment was performed. A total of 18 hyperthermia treatments were administered to the 10 patients. In two cases the second hyperthermia treatment after brachytherapy was not possible due to a kink in the catheter, or bile precipitation in the catheter. All patients tolerated the procedure well, and there were no acute complications. To evaluate the volumetric heating potential of this hyperthermia method, specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured at 182 planar points in muscle phantom. Insulated and non-insulated antenna performance was tested at 915 MHz in a biliary catheter filled with air, saline, or bile to mimic clinical treatments. The insulated antenna exhibited the best performance. Differences between antenna performance in saline and bile were also noted. In summary, this technique may have potential for tumours which obstruct biliary drainage and are

  13. Treatment of stump complications after above-knee amputation using negative-pressure wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The stump wound complications after above-knee amputation lead to other problems, such as prolonged rehabilitation, delayed prosthetic restoration, the increase in total treatment cost and high mortality rates. Objective. To evaluate the safety and outcomes of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT using Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VACR therapy in patients with stump complication after above-knee amputation (AKA. Methods. From January 2011 to July 2014, AKA was performed in 137 patients at the University Cardiovascular Clinic. Nineteen (12.4% of these patients (mean age 69.3 Ѓ} 9.2 years were treated with NPWT. The following variables were recorded: wound healing and hospitalization time, rate of NPWT treatment failure, and mortality. Results. AKA was performed in 17 (89.5% patients after the vascular or endovascular procedures had been exhausted, while urgent AKA was performed in two (10.5% patients due to uncontrolled infection. The time before NPWT application was 3.1 Ѓ} 1.9 days and the duration of the NPWT use ranged from 15 to 54 days (mean 27.95 Ѓ} 12.1 days. During NPWT treatment, operative debridement was performed in 12 patients. All the patients were kept on culture-directed intravenous antibiotics. The average hospital length of stay was 34.7 days (range 21-77 days. There were four (20.9% failures during the treatment which required secondary amputation. During the treatment, one (5.3% patient died due to multi-organ failure after 27 days. Conclusions. The use of NPWT therapy in the treatment of AKA stump complication is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risk and positive outcome in terms of wound healing time and further complications.

  14. Treatment of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure with extracorporeal sorbent-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Stephen R; Caldwell, Cary A; Singer, Greg G; Lowell, Jeff A; Howard, Todd K; Rustgi, Vinod K

    2002-01-01

    When a patient with acetaminophen overdose arrives in the emergency room more than 14 hours after ingestion, the value of N-acetylcysteine is unproven and patient mortality is at least 10%. Anecdotal case reports have indicated benefit of extracorporeal detoxification of these late-arriving patients with acetaminophen overdose. We identified 10 patients with serious acetaminophen overdose, 8 that arrived in the emergency room 16 to 44 hours after acetaminophen overdose with plasma levels predicting severe hepatic toxicity, and 2 that arrived in the emergency room 8 to 12 hours after overdose but with exceedingly high levels. All patients developed severe hepatitis (mean peak alanine aminotransferase, 4,052; mean peak protime, 25 seconds). At 16 to 68 hours after overdose, the patients were treated for 4 to 6 hours with the Liver Dialysis System (Hemocleanse Inc, W. Lafayette, IN), a single-access hemodiabsorption system indicated for treatment of serious drug overdose and for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Acetaminophen levels fell an average of 73% during treatment. Treatment was repeated 24 or 48 hours later if acetaminophen was still measurable in plasma. All 10 patients recovered intrinsic liver function and general health, with liver enzymes starting to normalize 24 hours after treatment, and were discharged 3 to 7 days after overdose. No patient required liver transplant. Because market introduction of Liver Dialysis, there have been 40 more patients with acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity treated with Liver Dialysis. All have recovered liver function without long-term sequelae. Though most of these patients with already established hepatic toxicity from acetaminophen would recover without extracorporeal blood therapy, treatment with the Liver Dialysis System should assure recovery from acute hepatic failure, and may shorten the clinical course of the illness.

  15. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E

    2001-01-01

    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  16. Hippocampal transcriptional and neurogenic changes evoked by combination yohimbine and imipramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Basma Fatima Anwar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Marathe, Swananda V; Rajendran, Rajeev; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2015-08-03

    Adjunct α2-adrenoceptor antagonism is a potential strategy to accelerate the behavioral effects of antidepressants. Co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine hastens the behavioral and neurogenic effects of the antidepressant imipramine. We examined the transcriptional targets of short duration (7days), combination treatment of yohimbine and imipramine (Y+I) within the adult rat hippocampus. Using microarray and qPCR analysis we observed functional enrichment of genes involved in intracellular signaling cascades, plasma membrane, cellular metal ion homeostasis, multicellular stress responses and neuropeptide signaling pathways in the Y+I transcriptome. We noted reduced expression of the α2A-adrenoceptor (Adra2a), serotonin 5HT2C receptor (Htr2c) and the somatostatin receptor 1 (Sstr1), which modulate antidepressant action. Further, we noted a regulation of signaling pathway genes like inositol monophosphatase 2 (Impa2), iodothyronine deiodinase 3 (Dio3), regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4), alkaline ceramidase 2 (Acer2), doublecortin-like kinase 2 (Dclk2), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (Nfkbia) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1), several of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Comparative analysis revealed an overlap in the hippocampal regulation of Acer2, Nfkbia, Sgk1 and Impa2 between Y+I treatment, the fast-acting electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) paradigm, and the slow-onset chronic (21days) imipramine treatment. Further, Y+I treatment enhanced the quiescent neural progenitor pool in the hippocampal neurogenic niche similar to ECS, and distinct from chronic imipramine treatment. Taken together, our results provide insight into the molecular and cellular targets of short duration Y+I treatment, and identify potential leads for the development of rapid-action antidepressants.

  17. Histological evaluation of intratumoral myxoma virus treatment in an immunocompetent mouse model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Rosalinda A; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Roy, Edward J; MacNeill, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Two recombinant myxoma viruses (MYXV expressing a fluorescent protein [MYXV-Tred] and MYXV-Tred encoding murine interleukin-15 [MYXV-IL15]) were evaluated for therapeutic effects in an aggressive B16F10 melanoma model in immunocompetent mice. It was hypothesized that continuous expression of IL-15 within a tumor would recruit cytotoxic effector cells to induce an antitumor immune response and improve treatment efficacy. Weekly intratumoral injections were given to evaluate the effect of treatment on the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice bearing established B16F10 melanomas. Mice that received MYXV-Tred or MYXV-IL15 lived significantly longer than mice given treatment controls. Unexpectedly, the median survival time of MYXV-IL15-treated mice was similar to that of MYXV-treated mice. At 1, 2, and 4 days postinoculation, viral plaque assays detected replicating MYXV-Tred and MYXV-IL15 within treated tumors. At these time points in MYXV-IL15-treated tumors, IL-15 concentration, lymphocyte grades, and cluster of differentiation-3+ cell counts were significantly increased when compared to other treatment groups. However, viral titers, recombinant protein expression, and lymphocyte numbers within the tumors diminished rapidly at 7 days postinoculation. These data indicate that treatment with recombinant MYXV should be repeated at least every 4 days to maintain recombinant protein expression within a murine tumor. Additionally, neutrophilic inflammation was significantly increased in MYXV-Tred- and MYXV-IL15-treated tumors at early time points. It is speculated that neutrophilic inflammation induced by intratumoral replication of recombinant MXYV contributes to the antitumoral effect of MYXV treatment in this melanoma model. These findings support the inclusion of neutrophil chemotaxins in recombinant poxvirus oncolytic virotherapy.

  18. Treatment of Amanita phalloides intoxication by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergis, Dominik; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Zeuzem, Stefan; Betz, Cristoph; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal detoxification using the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus® 4008H, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) in patients suffering from acute liver failure due to intoxication with Amanita phalloides (AP) toxin. The study population consisted of 20 patients with proven AP intoxication (FPSA treatment group n=9, control group n=11). Urinary amanitin toxin concentration was measured by the Amanitin ELISA Kit (Bühlmann Laboratories, Germany, cut off level 1.5 ng/ml). All patients received standard medical treatment with activated charcoal, i.v. crystalloid fluids, silibinine and N-acetylcysteine. Additionally 9 patients underwent treatment with FPSA until undetectable amanitin levels. Mean urinary amanitin levels were significantly reduced by FPSA with 42.5 +/- 21.9 ng/ml before and 1.2 +/- 0.31 ng/ml after treatment (p=0.04). No hemodynamic, respiratory or hematological complications were observed. None of the patients had to undergo liver transplantation. All patients in the treatment group survived and were discharged fully recovered. One patient in the control group died due to shock and lactic acidosis; one patient remained dialysis dependent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.1 days in the treatment group and 11.7 days in the control group (p=0.30). Use of liver support therapy by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®) offers a safe way for elimination of Amanita toxin with the potential to avoid the need for liver transplantation.

  19. Effect of prolonged hydroxytamoxifen treatment of MCF-7 cells on mitogen activated kinase cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenoelina, Fanjaniriana; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Duchesne, Marie-Josèphe; Freiss, Gilles; Pons, Michel; Badia, Eric

    2002-04-10

    Resistance to the antiestrogen tamoxifen is the main stumbling block for the success of breast cancer therapy. We focused our study on cellular alterations induced by a prolonged treatment with the active tamoxifen metabolite hydroxytamoxifen (OHT). We show that a prolonged OHT treatment (for up to 7 days) led to a progressive increase in the level of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen activated kinase (MAP kinase) induced by 10(-7) M TPA stimulation, without any significant change in the protein level. This effect was also observed in MCF-7 cells grown first in medium containing dextran-coated charcoal-treated FCS (DCC medium) for 20 days prior to OHT treatment, indicating a specific effect of the antiestrogen and not an effect of estrogen deprivation. It was prevented by cotreatment with estradiol and not observed in the estrogen receptor negative HeLa cell line, suggesting that it was mediated by the estrogen receptor. TPA induced phosphorylation of MEK1/2 was also raised by OHT treatment, without any change in their protein level or Raf-1 and H-Ras levels. When the MCF-7R OHT resistant cell line was grown in antiestrogen containing medium, the level of phosphorylated p44/42 MAP kinase was also high but reversed when the antiestrogen was removed. The 2 other MAP kinase, JNK and P38 pathways were not affected in the same way by OHT treatment. In conclusion, our data reveal that a prolonged OHT treatment, by increasing p44/42 MAPK activity, affects a key step in the growth control of MCF-7 cells, although not sufficiently to overcome the growth inhibitory effect of the drug. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  1. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl-Andersen, B; Prahl, C; de Baat, C; Creugers, N H J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary orthodontic anomalies, closing or reducing interdental spaces and correcting the migration of teeth. In the case of unfavourable maxillomandibular relations, a preprosthetic surgical treatment is usually needed together with a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. For children with agenesis and/or early loss of teeth and/or aberrant morphology of teeth, a treatment with fixed dental prostheses, either implant-supported or not, may be indicated after the tooth development or in some cases earlier. Until that time, preprosthetic orthodontic treatments may be indicated to offer an aesthetically sound provisional solution and to achieve optimal teeth positions for the final fixed dental prostheses.

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students and Residents Toggle Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  3. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  4. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  5. Cancer treatment -- early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000912.htm Cancer treatment - early menopause To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause women to have early menopause. This ...

  6. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search Vea esta página en español Cancer Treatment Scams Share This Page Facebook Twitter Linked-In Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health ...

  7. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  9. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  10. INSTRUMENTAL TREATMENT OF AMBLYOPIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. F. Lavrent’ev; V. V. Rozhentsov

    2016-01-01

    To develop a device with broad functionality for treatment amblyopia. methods. Analysis of functionality and technical characteristics of devices for amblyopia treatment and the development of multifunctional apparatus. results...

  11. Treatment of pterygium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    improved with adjuvant combination therapy and the introduction of newer approaches to treatment. Keywords: Adjuvant .... MMC is an antineoplastic antibiotic agent with radiomimetic ..... pterygium: Guidelines foroptimal treatment. Int J Rad.

  12. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative treatments for vaginal dryness ... Question: Is there a drug-free treatment for vaginal dryness? Answer: There are many causes of vaginal dryness . It may be caused by reduced estrogen level, infection, medicines, and ...

  13. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  14. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development ... such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s when the HIV/ ...

  16. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media ... Page Content Your health care provider may suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or ...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  18. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  20. Strabismus: Botox Treatment

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4 months. However, after repeat treatments the effect can be longer lasting. The reason why the effect ... restored. In adults and cooperative teenagers Botox treatment can be carried out in clinic using anesthetic drops ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  2. Strabismus: Botox Treatment

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment. The muscle will normally regain its normal function after 3-4 months. However, after repeat treatments ... 2017 Stargardt Disease (STGD) Aug 21, 2017 Surgical Management of Strabismus Jun 10, 2017 Binocular Vision and ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  5. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  6. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  7. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndr