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Sample records for 6c reveals determinants

  1. The 6C Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille

    2016-01-01

    students, teachers, and clients reflect on what abilities the designer must possess in order to be able to promote transformation. The study is informed by the 6C Model, a theory describing the types of knowledge production taking place in design processes, and by the Co-creation Cards, a collection...

  2. Ly6C(low and not Ly6C(high macrophages accumulate first in the heart in a model of murine pressure-overload.

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    Christina Weisheit

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue remodeling in the course of chronic left ventricular hypertrophy requires phagocytes which degrade cellular debris, initiate and maintain tissue inflammation and reorganization. The dynamics of phagocytes in left ventricular hypertrophy have not been systematically studied. Here, we characterized the temporal accumulation of leukocytes in the cardiac immune response by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy at day 3, 6 and 21 following transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Cardiac hypertrophy due to chronic pressure overload causes cardiac immune response and inflammation represented by an increase of immune cells at all three time points among which neutrophils reached their maximum at day 3 and macrophages at day 6. The cardiac macrophage population consisted of both Ly6C(low and Ly6C(high macrophages. Ly6C(low macrophages were more abundant peaking at day 6 in response to pressure overload. During the development of cardiac hypertrophy the expression pattern of adhesion molecules was investigated by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. CD11b, CX3CR1 and ICAM-1 determined by qRT-PCR in whole cardiac tissue were up-regulated in response to pressure overload at day 3 and 6. CD11b and CX3CR1 were significantly increased by TAC on the surface of Ly6C(low but not on Ly6C(high macrophages. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was up-regulated on cardiac endothelial cells. In fluorescence microscopy Ly6C(low macrophages could be observed attached to the intra- and extra-vascular vessel-wall. Taken together, TAC induced the expression of adhesion molecules, which may explain the accumulation of Ly6C(low macrophages in the cardiac tissue, where these cells might contribute to cardiac inflammation and remodeling in response to pressure overload.

  3. Main: 1Q6C [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1Q6C 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai...496 AA, Molecular weight: 56071 Da MATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNARPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1Q6C.jpg ...

  4. Clonal expansion within pneumococcal serotype 6C after use of seven-valent vaccine.

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    Nicholas J Loman

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive infections, primarily at the extremes of life. A seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7 is used to protect against invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Within three years of PCV7 introduction, we observed a fourfold increase in serotype 6C carriage, predominantly due to a single clone. We determined the whole-genome sequences of nineteen S. pneumoniae serotype 6C isolates, from both carriage (n = 15 and disease (n = 4 states, to investigate the emergence of serotype 6C in our population, focusing on a single multi-locus sequence type (MLST clonal complex 395 (CC395. A phylogenetic network was constructed to identify different lineages, followed by analysis of variability in gene sets and sequences. Serotype 6C isolates from this single geographical site fell into four broad phylogenetically distinct lineages. Variation was seen in the 6C capsular locus and in sequences of genes encoding surface proteins. The largest clonal complex was characterised by the presence of lantibiotic synthesis locus. In our population, the 6C capsular locus has been introduced into multiple lineages by independent capsular switching events. However, rapid clonal expansion has occurred within a single MLST clonal complex. Worryingly, plasticity exists within current and potential vaccine-associated loci, a consideration for future vaccine use, target selection and design.

  5. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Revealing the African Presence in..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  6. Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, reveals earliest form of sex chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigler, R B; Lewers, K S; Main, D S; Ashman, T-L

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants, and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. Studies in species with intermediate sexual systems are providing unprecedented insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here, we describe the genetic mechanism of sex determination in the octoploid, subdioecious wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana Mill., based on a whole-genome simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic map and on mapping sex determination as two qualitative traits, male and female function. The resultant total map length is 2373 cM and includes 212 markers on 42 linkage groups (mean marker spacing: 14 cM). We estimated that approximately 70 and 90% of the total F. virginiana genetic map resides within 10 and 20 cM of a marker on this map, respectively. Both sex expression traits mapped to the same linkage group, separated by approximately 6 cM, along with two SSR markers. Together, our phenotypic and genetic mapping results support a model of gender determination in subdioecious F. virginiana with at least two linked loci (or gene regions) with major effects. Reconstruction of parental genotypes at these loci reveals that both female and hermaphrodite heterogamety exist in this species. Evidence of recombination between the sex-determining loci, an important hallmark of incipient sex chromosomes, suggest that F. virginiana is an example of the youngest sex chromosome in plants and thus a novel model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution.

  7. Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population

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    Fernanda Gabriela Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the teeth supporting structures, triggered by periodontal pathogens, and is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genes encoding molecules related to the immune response, such as cytokine, are the main candidates for polymorphisms analysis and may be possibly associated with this pathology. A G/C promoter polymorphism on the IL6 gene has been shown to affect basal IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis in individuals from Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Material and Methods. Three hundred and thirty individuals (134 cases, 196 controls were genotyped for the IL6 c.-174G>C by MS-PCR technique. Concentrations of salivary IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. Results. The IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis when comparing the distribution of genotypes between patients with periodontitis and control subjects. The GC genotype appeared as a protective factor for periodontitis. Results showed increased levels of salivary IL-6 in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between the concentrations of IL-6 and genotypes when comparing the case and control groups. Conclusions. Our data indicate an association between IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis and showed that IL-6 may be considered an important marker for periodontitis.

  8. Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Teixeira, Fernanda; Mendonça, Samir Andrade; Menezes Oliveira, Kamilla; Barbosa Dos Santos, Djanilson; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Mendonça Amorim, Maise; de Souza Gestinari, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the teeth supporting structures, triggered by periodontal pathogens, and is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genes encoding molecules related to the immune response, such as cytokine, are the main candidates for polymorphisms analysis and may be possibly associated with this pathology. A G/C promoter polymorphism on the IL6 gene has been shown to affect basal IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis in individuals from Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Material and Methods. Three hundred and thirty individuals (134 cases, 196 controls) were genotyped for the IL6 c.-174G>C by MS-PCR technique. Concentrations of salivary IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. Results. The IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism was associated with periodontitis when comparing the distribution of genotypes between patients with periodontitis and control subjects. The GC genotype appeared as a protective factor for periodontitis. Results showed increased levels of salivary IL-6 in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between the concentrations of IL-6 and genotypes when comparing the case and control groups. Conclusions. Our data indicate an association between IL6 c.-174G>C polymorphism and periodontitis and showed that IL-6 may be considered an important marker for periodontitis.

  9. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria.

  10. Multiperspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R; Alejo, Jose L; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-04-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the mRNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of tRNA and mRNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations revealed direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution determines the rate of translocation. These steps involve intramolecular events within the EF-G-GDP-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small-subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA's movement into its final post-translocation position. PMID:26926435

  11. Structure determination of archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a reveals a novel protein fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yingang, E-mail: fengyg@qibebt.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101 (China); Song, Xiaxia [Department of Biological Science and Engineering, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Jinzhong [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xuan, Jinsong [Department of Biological Science and Engineering, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cui, Qiu [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101 (China); Wang, Jinfeng [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a has no homology to known proteins. • Three dimensional structure and backbone dynamics of L46a were determined by NMR. • The structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. • A potential rRNA-binding surface on L46a was identified. • The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed. - Abstract: Three archaea-specific ribosomal proteins recently identified show no sequence homology with other known proteins. Here we determined the structure of L46a, the most conserved one among the three proteins, from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using NMR spectroscopy. The structure presents a twisted β-sheet formed by the N-terminal part and two helices at the C-terminus. The L46a structure has a positively charged surface which is conserved in the L46a protein family and is the potential rRNA-binding site. Searching homologous structures in Protein Data Bank revealed that the structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. The backbone dynamics identified by NMR relaxation experiments reveal significant flexibility at the rRNA binding surface. The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed by fitting the structure into a previous electron microscopy map of the ribosomal 50S subunit, which indicated that L46a contacts to domain I of 23S rRNA near a multifunctional ribosomal protein L7ae.

  12. Ly6C- Monocytes Regulate Parasite-Induced Liver Inflammation by Inducing the Differentiation of Pathogenic Ly6C+ Monocytes into Macrophages.

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    Yannick Morias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes consist of two well-defined subsets, the Ly6C+ and Ly6C- monocytes. Both CD11b+ myeloid cells populations have been proposed to infiltrate tissues during inflammation. While infiltration of Ly6C+ monocytes is an established pathogenic factor during hepatic inflammation, the role of Ly6C- monocytes remains elusive. Mice suffering experimental African trypanosome infection die from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that is initiated by phagocytosis of parasites by liver myeloid cells and culminates in apoptosis/necrosis of liver myeloid and parenchymal cells that reduces host survival. C57BL/6 mice are considered as trypanotolerant to Trypanosoma congolense infection. We have reported that in these animals, IL-10, produced among others by myeloid cells, limits the liver damage caused by pathogenic TNF-producing Ly6C+ monocytes, ensuring prolonged survival. Here, the heterogeneity and dynamics of liver myeloid cells in T. congolense-infected C57/BL6 mice was further dissected. Moreover, the contribution of Ly6C- monocytes to trypanotolerance was investigated. By using FACS analysis and adoptive transfer experiments, we found that the accumulation of Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages in the liver of infected mice coincided with a drop in the pool of Ly6C+ monocytes. Pathogenic TNF mainly originated from Ly6C+ monocytes while Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages were major and equipotent sources of IL-10 within myeloid cells. Moreover, Nr4a1 (Nur77 transcription factor-dependent Ly6C- monocytes exhibited IL-10-dependent and cell contact-dependent regulatory properties contributing to trypanotolerance by suppressing the production of TNF by Ly6C+ monocytes and by promoting the differentiation of the latter cells into macrophages. Thus, Ly6C- monocytes can dampen liver damage caused by an extensive Ly6C+ monocyte-associated inflammatory immune response in T. congolense trypanotolerant animals. In a more general context, Ly6C- or Ly6C

  13. Transcription closed and open complex dynamics studies reveal balance between genetic determinants and co-factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Adrien; Shoaib, Muhammad; Anufrieva, Olga; Mutharasu, Gnanavel; Jahan Hoque, Rawnak; Yli-Harja, Olli; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram

    2015-05-19

    In E. coli, promoter closed and open complexes are key steps in transcription initiation, where magnesium-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes RNA synthesis. However, the exact mechanism of initiation remains to be fully elucidated. Here, using single mRNA detection and dual reporter studies, we show that increased intracellular magnesium concentration affects Plac initiation complex formation resulting in a highly dynamic process over the cell growth phases. Mg2+ regulates transcription transition, which modulates bimodality of mRNA distribution in the exponential phase. We reveal that Mg2+ regulates the size and frequency of the mRNA burst by changing the open complex duration. Moreover, increasing magnesium concentration leads to higher intrinsic and extrinsic noise in the exponential phase. RNAP-Mg2+ interaction simulation reveals critical movements creating a shorter contact distance between aspartic acid residues and Nucleotide Triphosphate residues and increasing electrostatic charges in the active site. Our findings provide unique biophysical insights into the balanced mechanism of genetic determinants and magnesium ion in transcription initiation regulation during cell growth.

  14. 17 CFR 270.6c-3 - Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6c-3 Section 270.6c-3 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.6c-3 Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. A separate account which meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of Rule 6e-2 (17 CFR 270.6e-2) or paragraph (a)...

  15. Phylodynamic reconstruction reveals norovirus GII.4 epidemic expansions and their molecular determinants.

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    J Joukje Siebenga

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. An increase in the number of globally reported norovirus outbreaks was seen the past decade, especially for outbreaks caused by successive genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. Whether this observed increase was due to an upswing in the number of infections, or to a surveillance artifact caused by heightened awareness and concomitant improved reporting, remained unclear. Therefore, we set out to study the population structure and changes thereof of GII.4 strains detected through systematic outbreak surveillance since the early 1990s. We collected 1383 partial polymerase and 194 full capsid GII.4 sequences. A Bayesian MCMC coalescent analysis revealed an increase in the number of GII.4 infections during the last decade. The GII.4 strains included in our analyses evolved at a rate of 4.3-9.0x10(-3 mutations per site per year, and share a most recent common ancestor in the early 1980s. Determinants of adaptation in the capsid protein were studied using different maximum likelihood approaches to identify sites subject to diversifying or directional selection and sites that co-evolved. While a number of the computationally determined adaptively evolving sites were on the surface of the capsid and possible subject to immune selection, we also detected sites that were subject to constrained or compensatory evolution due to secondary RNA structures, relevant in virus-replication. We highlight codons that may prove useful in identifying emerging novel variants, and, using these, indicate that the novel 2008 variant is more likely to cause a future epidemic than the 2007 variant. While norovirus infections are generally mild and self-limiting, more severe outcomes of infection frequently occur in elderly and immunocompromized people, and no treatment is available. The observed pattern of continually emerging novel variants of GII.4, causing elevated numbers of infections, is therefore a

  16. The small 6C RNA of Corynebacterium glutamicum is involved in the SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Jennifer; Dostálová, Hana; Holátko, Jiří; Degner, Ursula; Bott, Michael; Pátek, Miroslav; Polen, Tino

    2016-09-01

    The 6C RNA family is a class of small RNAs highly conserved in Actinobacteria, including the genera Mycobacterium, Streptomyces and Corynebacterium whose physiological function has not yet been elucidated. We found that strong transcription of the cgb_03605 gene, which encodes 6C RNA in C. glutamicum, was driven by the SigA- and SigB-dependent promoter Pcgb_03605. 6C RNA was detected at high level during exponential growth phase (180 to 240 molcules per cell) which even increased at the entry of the stationary phase. 6C RNA level did not decrease within 240 min after transcription had been stopped with rifampicin, which suggests high 6C RNA stability. The expression of cgb_03605 further increased approximately twofold in the presence of DNA-damaging mitomycin C (MMC) and nearly threefold in the absence of LexA. Deletion of the 6C RNA gene cgb_03605 resulted in a higher sensitivity of C. glutamicum toward MMC and UV radiation. These results indicate that 6C RNA is involved in the DNA damage response. Both 6C RNA level-dependent pausing of cell growth and branched cell morphology in response to MMC suggest that 6C RNA may also be involved in a control of cell division.

  17. The small 6C RNA of Corynebacterium glutamicum is involved in the SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Jennifer; Dostálová, Hana; Holátko, Jiří; Degner, Ursula; Bott, Michael; Pátek, Miroslav; Polen, Tino

    2016-09-01

    The 6C RNA family is a class of small RNAs highly conserved in Actinobacteria, including the genera Mycobacterium, Streptomyces and Corynebacterium whose physiological function has not yet been elucidated. We found that strong transcription of the cgb_03605 gene, which encodes 6C RNA in C. glutamicum, was driven by the SigA- and SigB-dependent promoter Pcgb_03605. 6C RNA was detected at high level during exponential growth phase (180 to 240 molcules per cell) which even increased at the entry of the stationary phase. 6C RNA level did not decrease within 240 min after transcription had been stopped with rifampicin, which suggests high 6C RNA stability. The expression of cgb_03605 further increased approximately twofold in the presence of DNA-damaging mitomycin C (MMC) and nearly threefold in the absence of LexA. Deletion of the 6C RNA gene cgb_03605 resulted in a higher sensitivity of C. glutamicum toward MMC and UV radiation. These results indicate that 6C RNA is involved in the DNA damage response. Both 6C RNA level-dependent pausing of cell growth and branched cell morphology in response to MMC suggest that 6C RNA may also be involved in a control of cell division. PMID:27362471

  18. Conformation and crystal structures of 1-aminocyclohexaneacetic acid (β3,3Ac6c in N-protected derivatives

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    Naiem Ahmad Wani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N-Protected derivatives of 1-aminocyclohexaneacetic acid (β3,3-Ac6c, namely Valeroyl-β3,3-Ac6c-OH [2-(1-pentanamidocyclohexylacetic acid, C13H23NO3], (I, Fmoc-β3,3-Ac6c-OH [2-(1-{[(9H-fluoren-9-yloxycarbonyl]amino}cyclohexylacetic acid, C23H25NO4], (II, and Pyr-β3,3-Ac6c-OH {2-[1-(pyrazine-2-amidocyclohexyl]acetic acid, C13H17N3O3}, (III, were synthesized and their conformational properties were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The backbone torsion angles (ϕ, θ for β3,3-Ac6c-OH are restricted to gauche conformations in all the derivatives, with a chair conformation of the cyclohexane ring. In the crystal structure of (I, the packing of molecules shows both carboxylic acid R22(8 O—H...O and centrosymmetric R22(14 N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, giving rise to chains along the c-axis direction. In (II, centrosymmetric carboxylic acid R22(8 O—H...O dimers are extended through N—H...O hydrogen bonds and together with inter-ring π–π interactions between Fmoc groups [ring centroid distance = 3.786 (2 Å], generate a layered structure lying parallel to (010. In the case of compound (III, carboxylic acid O—H...Npyrazine hydrogen bonds give rise to zigzag ribbon structures extending along the c-axis direction.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2088 - Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linear. 721.2088 Section 721.2088 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2088 Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear. (a) Chemical... as carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear (PMNs P-93-313, 314, 315, and 316) are subject...

  20. Isolation, Structure, and Electronic Calculations of the Heterofullerene Salt K6C59N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prassides, Kosmas; Keshavarz-K., Majid; Hummelen, Jan Cornelis; Andreoni, Wanda; Giannozzi, Paolo; Beer, Ernst; Bellavia, Cheryl; Cristofolini, Luigi; González, Rosario; Lappas, Alexandros; Murata, Yasuo; Malecki, Magdalena; Srdanov, Vojislav; Wudl, Fred

    1996-01-01

    An intercalation compound of azafullerene, K6C59N, was prepared and structurally characterized. It is isostructural with the fullerene compound K6C60, adopts a body-centered-cubic structure (lattice constant a = 11.31 angstroms), and consists of quasi-spherical monomeric (C59N)6- ions. Density funct

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  2. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  3. RNA splicing. The human splicing code reveals new insights into the genetic determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui Y; Alipanahi, Babak; Lee, Leo J; Bretschneider, Hannes; Merico, Daniele; Yuen, Ryan K C; Hua, Yimin; Gueroussov, Serge; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Hughes, Timothy R; Morris, Quaid; Barash, Yoseph; Krainer, Adrian R; Jojic, Nebojsa; Scherer, Stephen W; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate precision medicine and whole-genome annotation, we developed a machine-learning technique that scores how strongly genetic variants affect RNA splicing, whose alteration contributes to many diseases. Analysis of more than 650,000 intronic and exonic variants revealed widespread patterns of mutation-driven aberrant splicing. Intronic disease mutations that are more than 30 nucleotides from any splice site alter splicing nine times as often as common variants, and missense exonic disease mutations that have the least impact on protein function are five times as likely as others to alter splicing. We detected tens of thousands of disease-causing mutations, including those involved in cancers and spinal muscular atrophy. Examination of intronic and exonic variants found using whole-genome sequencing of individuals with autism revealed misspliced genes with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Our approach provides evidence for causal variants and should enable new discoveries in precision medicine.

  4. Intracellular biology and virulence determinants of Francisella tularensis revealed by transcriptional profiling inside macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrly, Tara D.; Chong, Audrey; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Sturdevant, Dan E.; Child, Robert; Edwards, Jessica A.; Brouwer, Dedeke; Nair, Vinod; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Wicke, Luke; Curda, Alissa J.; Kupko, John J.; Martens, Craig; Crane, Deborah D.; Bosio, Catharine M.

    2009-01-01

    The highly infectious bacterium Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, whose virulence requires proliferation inside host cells, including macrophages. Here we have performed a global transcriptional profiling of the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 strain during its intracellular cycle within primary murine macrophages, to characterize its intracellular biology and identify pathogenic determinants based on their intracellular expression profile...

  5. Genome-wide Screening Reveals the Genetic Determinants of an Antibiotic Insecticide in Bacillus thuringiensis*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Ruan, Li-Fang; Hu, Zhen-Fei; Peng, Dong-hai; Cao, Shi-Yun; Yu, Zi-Niu; Liu, Yao; Zheng, Jin-Shui; Sun, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Thuringiensin is a thermostable secondary metabolite in Bacillus thuringiensis and has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects. Until now, the regulatory mechanisms and genetic determinants involved in thuringiensin production have remained unclear. Here, we successfully used heterologous expression-guided screening in an Escherichia coli–Bacillus thuringiensis shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome library, to clone the intact thuringiensin synthesis (thu) cluster. Then the th...

  6. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks. PMID:26943625

  7. Molecular determinants of juvenile hormone action as revealed by 3D QSAR analysis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Liszeková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH. While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 A or longer than 13.5 A, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions.

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Differences in Site-specific Cell Fate Determination in Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan eErtaylan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis - the generation of new neurons - is an ongoing process that persists in the adult mammalian brain of several species, including humans. In this work we analyze two discrete brain regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ lining the walls of the lateral ventricles; and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in mice and shed light on the SVZ and SGZ specific neurogenesis. We propose a computational model that relies on the construction and analysis of region specific gene regulatory networks from the publicly available data on these two regions. Using this model a number of putative factors involved in neuronal stem cell (NSC identity and maintenance were identified. We also demonstrate potential gender and niche-derived differences based on cell surface and nuclear receptors via Ar, Hif1a and Nr3c1.We have also conducted cell fate determinant analysis for SVZ NSC populations to Olfactory Bulb interneurons and SGZ NSC populations to the granule cells of the Granular Cell Layer. We report thirty-one candidate cell fate determinant gene pairs, ready to be validated. We focus on Ar - Pax6 in SVZ and Sox2 - Ncor1 in SGZ. Both pairs are expressed and localized in the suggested anatomical structures as shown by in situ hybridization and found to physically interact.Finally, we conclude that there are fundamental differences between SGZ and SVZ neurogenesis. We argue that these regulatory mechanisms are linked to the observed differential neurogenic potential of these regions. The presence of nuclear and cell surface receptors in the region specific regulatory circuits indicate the significance of niche derived extracellular factors, hormones and region specific factors such as the oxygen sensitivity, dictating SGZ and SVZ specific neurogenesis.

  9. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  10. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    determinants of rates of protein evolution and the impact of selection on patterns of polymorphism and divergence.

  11. PRINSIP 6C (CHARACTER, CAPACITY, CAPITAL, CONDITION OF ECONOMY, COLLATERAL DAN CONSTRAINT DALAM WIRAUSAHA MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Sri Astuty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Prinsip 6C (Character, Capacity, Capital, Condition of Economy, Collateral dan Constraint dalam Wirausaha Mahasiswa. Kegiatan wirausaha yang sekarang banyak dilakukan oleh mahasiswa memiliki sisi positif maupun negatif, dari yang berhasil kuliah dan wirausahanya hingga yang gagal semuanya. Untuk ini diperlukan pemahaman tentang prinsip enam C (character, capacity, capital, condition of economy, collateral and constraint yang akan membantu mahasiswa sebagai bekal dalam melakukan kegiatan usahanya. Banyak faktor yang diperoleh dalam prinsip ini yaitu aspek manajemen, pemasaran, produksi, dan keuangan. Kata Kunci: prinsip 6c, wirausaha, mahasiswa Abstract: 6C Principles (Character, Capacity, Capital, Condition of Economy, Collateral and Constraint in Entrepreneurial Students. Entrepreneurial activity that is widely performed by students has two different stories. Some of them are successful on the other hand, the rest of them are fail. Accordingly, it is required an understanding of the 6C principles of the six C (character, capacity, capital, condition of economy, collateral and constraints which will help the students as a preparation in conducting their business activities. Many factors obtained in this principle namely: management, marketing, production, and financial aspects. Keywords: 6C principles, entrepreneurs, students

  12. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with Lenke 3C or 6C scoliosis who were treated with posterior pedicle screw-only constructs; (2) 2-year radiographic follow-up. All the included patients were categorized into three groups based on the relative...... surgery. No significant differences were found in thoracic or lumbar correction rate, global coronal balance and incidence rate of trunk shift among the three groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis, post-op lumbar curve behaviour differs due to different choices of LIV...

  13. Cytogenetic Insights into the Evolution of Chromosomes and Sex Determination Reveal Striking Homology of Turtle Sex Chromosomes to Amphibian Autosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Badenhorst, Daleen; Lee, Ling S; Literman, Robert; Trifonov, Vladimir; Valenzuela, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Turtle karyotypes are highly conserved compared to other vertebrates; yet, variation in diploid number (2n = 26-68) reflects profound genomic reorganization, which correlates with evolutionary turnovers in sex determination. We evaluate the published literature and newly collected comparative cytogenetic data (G- and C-banding, 18S-NOR, and telomere-FISH mapping) from 13 species spanning 2n = 28-68 to revisit turtle genome evolution and sex determination. Interstitial telomeric sites were detected in multiple lineages that underwent diploid number and sex determination turnovers, suggesting chromosomal rearrangements. C-banding revealed potential interspecific variation in centromere composition and interstitial heterochromatin at secondary constrictions. 18S-NORs were detected in secondary constrictions in a single chromosomal pair per species, refuting previous reports of multiple NORs in turtles. 18S-NORs are linked to ZW chromosomes in Apalone and Pelodiscus and to X (not Y) in Staurotypus. Notably, comparative genomics across amniotes revealed that the sex chromosomes of several turtles, as well as mammals and some lizards, are homologous to components of Xenopus tropicalis XTR1 (carrying Dmrt1). Other turtle sex chromosomes are homologous to XTR4 (carrying Wt1). Interestingly, all known turtle sex chromosomes, except in Trionychidae, evolved via inversions around Dmrt1 or Wt1. Thus, XTR1 appears to represent an amniote proto-sex chromosome (perhaps linked ancestrally to XTR4) that gave rise to turtle and other amniote sex chromosomes.

  14. Integrating total quality management principles with the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, D. [Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy has recently required its field offices, contractors, and subcontractors to implement DOE Order 5700.6C, ``Quality Assurance,`` for all work on waste management contracts. The order restructures the 18 criteria of NQA-1 and focuses on the role of management in achieving and assuring quality, performance of activities to achieve and assure quality, and management`s assessment of its performance for the purpose of identifying improvements to be made. The DOE order also introduces elements of the total quality management (TQM) philosophy, which were not present in DOE Order 5700.6B. The research community within DOE has recently issued a document entitled DOE Order 5700.6C Implementation Guide, which is more explicit about the integration of TQM principles with the implementation of DOE Order 5700.6C in research facilities. The Environmental Protection Agency is sponsoring a quality assurance standard (ANSI/ASQC E-4) to replace EPA`s QAMS 005/80. The new standard is consistent with DOE Order 5700.6C, and it also stresses the integration of TQM principles within the quality assurance process. This paper discusses the intent and philosophy of the 10 criteria of the new DOE order, the status of ANSI/ASQC E-4, and how to effectively integrate TQM principles into the quality assurance process as the conversion is made from NQA-1 to DOE Order 5700.6C. The purpose and value of DOE Order 5700.6C Implementation Guide for research will also be discussed.

  15. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  16. Novel Pneumococcal Serotypes 6C and 6D: Anomaly or Harbinger

    OpenAIRE

    McEllistrem, M. Catherine; Nahm, Moon H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of serotypes 6C and 6D, the former of which expanded in the 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine era, illustrates a previously unrecognized limitation of conjugate vaccines: the expansion of unrecognized serotypes could erode the efficacy of a serotype-specific vaccine.

  17. 76 FR 56097 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PT6C-67E Turboshaft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the other model. Novel or Unusual Design Features The PWC model PT6C-67E turbo shaft engine will... These special conditions are applicable to PWC model PT6C-67E turbo shaft engines. If Pratt and Whitney... part of the type certification basis for PWC model PT6C-67E turbo shaft engines. 1. Part 1...

  18. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  19. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensenberger, Martin G; Lenz, Kristy A; Matthies, Learden K; Hadinoto, Gregory M; Schienman, John E; Przech, Angela J; Morganti, Michael W; Renstrom, Daniel T; Baker, Victoria M; Gawrys, Kori M; Hoogendoorn, Marlijn; Steffen, Carolyn R; Martín, Pablo; Alonso, Antonio; Olson, Hope R; Sprecher, Cynthia J; Storts, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    The PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System is a 27-locus, six-dye, multiplex that includes all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and increases overlap with STR database standards throughout the world. Additionally, it contains two, rapidly mutating, Y-STRs and is capable of both casework and database workflows, including direct amplification. A multi-laboratory developmental validation study was performed on the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System. Here, we report the results of that study which followed SWGDAM guidelines and includes data for: species specificity, sensitivity, stability, precision, reproducibility and repeatability, case-type samples, concordance, stutter, DNA mixtures, and PCR-based procedures. Where appropriate we report data from both extracted DNA samples and direct amplification samples from various substrates and collection devices. Samples from all studies were separated on both Applied Biosystems 3500 series and 6-dye capable 3130 series Genetic Analyzers and data is reported for each. Together, the data validate the design and demonstrate the performance of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C System.

  20. Modeling reveals bistability and low-pass filtering in the network module determining blood stem cell fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Narula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial regulation of gene expression is ubiquitous in eukaryotes with multiple inputs converging on regulatory control elements. The dynamic properties of these elements determine the functionality of genetic networks regulating differentiation and development. Here we propose a method to quantitatively characterize the regulatory output of distant enhancers with a biophysical approach that recursively determines free energies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions from experimental analysis of transcriptional reporter libraries. We apply this method to model the Scl-Gata2-Fli1 triad-a network module important for cell fate specification of hematopoietic stem cells. We show that this triad module is inherently bistable with irreversible transitions in response to physiologically relevant signals such as Notch, Bmp4 and Gata1 and we use the model to predict the sensitivity of the network to mutations. We also show that the triad acts as a low-pass filter by switching between steady states only in response to signals that persist for longer than a minimum duration threshold. We have found that the auto-regulation loops connecting the slow-degrading Scl to Gata2 and Fli1 are crucial for this low-pass filtering property. Taken together our analysis not only reveals new insights into hematopoietic stem cell regulatory network functionality but also provides a novel and widely applicable strategy to incorporate experimental measurements into dynamical network models.

  1. General Intermediates for the Synthesis of 6-C-Alkylated DMDP-Related Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Yi Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protected L-homoDMDP en-8 and its C-6 epimer en-7 were prepared through two different pathways starting from the vinylpyrrolidine en-9. Based on the NMR and X-ray analysis, the stereochemistry of homoDMDP at C-6 was confirmed to be consistent with reported data. Compounds en-7 and en-8 are general intermediates for the synthesis of a series of 6-C-alkylated DMDP-related natural products, such as broussonetine G, homoDMDP-7-O-apioside, homoDMDP-7-O-b-D-xyloside and so on.

  2. Poster: Ocean Literacy Principal 6c. The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected – Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Society, Blue; Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    : BlueSociety.org, Sea for Society and the Marine Institute have developed a number of 'Your Ocean - Your Future' posters that can be used in class to raise awareness and understanding about "the ocean's influence on us and our influence on the ocean". The posters can be used to help learn about the key fundamental concepts about our ocean. Poster 6c. The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected – Energy: E.U. offshore wind investments topped €4.2 billion in 2014

  3. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  4. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  5. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. PMID:25178718

  6. 360 degree decompresion and stabilisation of the C6-C7 cervical spine luxation - case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Robert; Godlewski, Bartosz; Klauz, Grzegorz; Janeczko, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    We present the operative technique employed in a young man with cervical spine luxation at the level of C6-C7 with clinical signs of damage to the spinal cord at the level of C5. In order to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect (decompression of neural structures and spinal stabilisation) during one surgical procedure, the positioning of the patient was changed twice during the procedure. Considering the positioning of the patient at the beginning of the procedure, the body position was changed by 360 degrees. The first part of the procedure was performed from an anterior approach with the patient in the supine position. It involved a C6-C7 discectomy and removal of the upper surface of the body of C7, which was protruding into the vertebral canal and compressing the spinal cord. Intraoperative inspection showed that a posterior approach was necessary to reduce the luxation. Therefore, for the second part of the operation, the patient was turned by 180 degrees and placed in the prone position. For the last (third) part of the surgical procedure, the patient was again turned by 180 degrees and placed in the supine position in order to insert an anterior spine fixator. We believe that a procedure utilising different surgical approaches and different positioning of the patient in order to achieve optimal therapeutic effect may be used in selected cases in everyday clinical practice. PMID:23382285

  7. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, John A; Fagg, Rajni; Sones, William R; Williams, Thomas C; Andrews, C Michael

    2006-04-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is haemotoxic in man, inducing two types of toxicity. First, a dose-related, reversible anaemia with reticulocytopenia, sometimes seen in conjunction with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; this form of toxicity develops during drug treatment. The second haemotoxicity is aplastic anaemia (AA) which is evident in the blood as severe pancytopenia. AA development is not dose-related and occurs weeks or months after treatment. We wish, in the longer term, to investigate CAP-induced AA in the busulphan-pretreated mouse. However, as a prelude to that study, we wanted to characterize in detail the reversible haemotoxicity of CAP succinate (CAPS), administered at high dose levels in the mouse, and follow the recovery of the bone marrow in the post-dosing period. Female B6C3F1 mice were gavaged with CAPS at 0, 2500 and 3500 mg/kg, daily, for 5 days and sampled (n = 5) at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days post-dosing. Blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were analysed and clonogenic assays carried out. At day 1 post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, decreases were seen in erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursors; marrow erythroid cells were reduced. Reductions were also evident in splenic nucleated cell counts, blood high fluorescence ratio (HFR) reticulocyte counts and total reticulocyte counts; burst-forming units-erythroid and colony-forming units-erythroid showed decreases. At day 7 post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), there was regeneration of erythrocyte production, with marked splenic erythropoietic activity, and raised blood HFR reticulocytes. At day 7, at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters remained depressed. At 14 days post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), many erythrocyte parameters had returned to normal; at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, there was erythroid regeneration. By 21 days post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, most erythrocytic parameters were equivalent to control values. For leucocyte parameters, there was some depression at day 1 post-dosing (at

  8. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [ Cp* Ru(η6- C6H5B Ph3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jun; GUAN Jin-Tao; YU Guang-Ao; LIU Sheng-Hua

    2005-01-01

    The title complex [Cp*Ru(η6-C6H5BPh3)] has been synthesized by the reaction of [Cp*Ru(H2O)(NBD)]BF4 with H2 and NaBPh4, and its crystal structure was determined by singlecrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P(1) with a = 11.0610(10), b = 11.2317(10), c = 12.3633(11) (A), α = 81.419(2), β = 67.8370(10), γ = 88.370(2)°, V= 1405.9(2) (A)3,Z= 2, C34H35BRu, Mr= 555.50, Dc = 1.312 g/cm3, F(000) = 576 and μ(MoKa) = 0.577 mm-1. The final R and wR are 0.0559 and 0.1483, respectively for 4365 observed reflections with I > 2σ(Ⅰ). In the title complex, the four phenyl rings bonded to the B atom are deposited in a tetrahedral geometry,and one of the phenyl rings is η6-bonded to ruthenium.

  9. Establishment of a human colorectal cancer cell line P6C with stem cell properties and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-hua RAO; Hong-min LIU; Bao-wei LI; Jia-jie HAO; Yan-lei YANG; Ming-rong WANG; Xiao-hui WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Cancer stem cells have the capacity to initiate and sustain tumor growth.In this study,we established a CD44+ colorectal cancer stem cell line with particular emphasis on its self-renewal capacity,enhanced tumor initiation and drug resistance.Methods:Fresh colon cancer and paired normal colon tissues were collected from 13 patients who had not received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to surgery.Among the 6 single-cell derived clones,only the P6C cell line was cultured for more than 20 passages in serial culture and formed holoclones with high efficiency,and then the stemness gene expression,colony formation,tumorigenicity and drug sensitivities of the P6C cell line were examined.Results:Stemness proteins,including c-Myc,0ct3/4,Nanog,Lgr5,and SOX2,were highly expressed in the P6C cell line.Oct3/4-positive P6C cells mostly generated holoclones through symmetric division,while a small number of P6C cells generated meroclones through asymmetric division.P6C cells stably expressed CD44 and possessed a high capacity to form tumor spheres.A single cellderived sphere was capable of generating xenograft tumors in nude mice.Compared to SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells,P6C cells were highly resistant to Camptothecin and 5-fluorouracil,the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents to treat colorectal cancers.Conclusion:We established a colorectal cancer stem cell line P6C with a high tumorigenic capacity and the characteristics of normal stem cells.It will benefit the mechanistic studies on cancer stem cells and the development of drugs that specifically target the cancer stem cells.

  10. Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and bone marrow compensation in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, G M; Robinson, S N; Gaido, K W; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Hahn, W P; Shah, R S

    1997-04-01

    Long-term inhalation exposure of benzene has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and an increased incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. The progression of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and the features of the toxicity that may play a major role in the leukemogenesis are not known. We report the hematological consequences of benzene inhalation in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1, 5, 10, 100, and 200 ppm benzene for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks and a recovery group. There were no significant effects on hematopoietic parameters from exposure to 10 ppm benzene or less. Exposure of mice to 100 and 200 ppm benzene reduced the number of total bone marrow cells, progenitor cells, differentiating hematopoietic cells, and most blood parameters. Replication of primitive progenitor cells in the bone marrow was increased during the exposure period as a compensation for the cytotoxicity induced by 100 and 200 ppm benzene. In mice exposed to 200 ppm benzene, the primitive progenitor cells maintained an increased percentage of cells in S-phase through 25 days of recovery compared with controls. The increased replication of primitive progenitor cells in concert with the reported genotoxicity induced by benzene provides the components necessary for producing an increased incidence of lymphoma in mice. Furthermore, we propose this mode of action as a biologically plausible mechanism for benzene-induced leukemia in humans exposed to high concentrations of benzene.

  11. EIGEN-6C4 - The latest combined global gravity field model including GOCE data up to degree and order 1949 of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förste, Christoph; Bruinsma, Sean; Abrikosov, Oleg; Flechtner, Frank; Marty, Jean-Charles; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Dahle, Christoph; Neumayer, Hans; Barthelmes, Franz; König, Rolf; Biancale, Richard

    2014-05-01

    GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse have a long-time close cooperation in the field of global gravity field determination. Here we focus on (1) GOCE gravity field determination and (2) computation of high resolution combined gravity field models. Such data products play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to scientific applications, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. Here we present our combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 which is the fourth release of EIGEN-6C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques). The first release of EIGEN-6C, published in 2011, was the first global combined gravity field model containing GOCE data. It was computed from a combination of LAGEOS, GRACE and GOCE data, augmented with DTU10 surface gravity data, and it is complete to degree and order 1440 (corresponding to 14 km spatial resolution). The combination of the different data types has been done on the basis of full normal equations up to maximum degree/order 370. The spherical harmonic coefficients of the shorter wavelengths were obtained from a block diagonal normal equation from the terrestrial data only. The subsequent releases EIGEN-6C2 (2012) and EIGEN-6C3stat (2013) were complete to degree and order 1949 (corresponding to approx. 10 km spatial resolution) and comprise extended measurement time spans for the LAGEOS/GRACE as well as for the GOCE data. Now we present the new release EIGEN-6C4. This time variable combined gravity field model is again developed to degree and order 1949 and comprises the new GRACE Release 03 from GRGS and gradiometer data almost of the entire GOCE mission (Sept. 2009-Sept. 2013). Our combination of GRACE and GOCE data allows the construction of an accurate satellite-only contribution to the final combined model up to degree and order 260, where the GOCE gradiometer data contribute only for degrees upwards of

  12. Tensile deformation of a duplex Fe-20Mn-9Al-0.6C steel having the reduced specific weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Characterization of deformation of each constituent phase of a duplex high Mn steel. → Austenite deformation mechanism in relation to the stacking fault energy. → Variances of microstructures and phase chemistry affecting the deformation modes. - Abstract: The room temperature deformation characteristics of a duplex Fe-20Mn-9Al-0.6C steel with the reduced specific weight of 6.84 g/cm3 in the fully solutionized state were described in conjunction with the deformation mechanisms of its constituent phases. The phase fraction was insensitive to annealing temperature in the range of 800-1100 deg. C. The ferrite grain size was also nearly unaltered but the austenite grain size slightly increased with increasing annealing temperature. This revealed that there is little window to control the microstructure of the steel by annealing. The steel exhibited a good combination of strength over 800 MPa and ductility over 45% in the present annealing conditions. Ferrite was harder than austenite in this steel. Strain hardening of both phases was monotonic during tensile deformation, but the strain hardening exponent of austenite was higher than that of ferrite, indicating the better strain hardenability of austenite. In addition, the strain hardening exponent of austenite increased but that of ferrite remained unchanged with increasing annealing temperature. The overall strain hardening of the steel followed that of austenite. Considering element partitioning by annealing, the stacking fault energy of austenite of the steel was estimated as ∼70 mJ/m2. Even with the relatively high stacking fault energy, planar glide dominantly occurred in austenite. Neither strain induced martensite nor mechanical twins formed in austenite during tensile deformation. Ferrite exhibited the deformed microstructures typically observed in the wavy glide materials, i.e. dislocation cells. The mechanical properties of the present duplex steel were compared to those of advance high

  13. TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R; Michael, Emily S; Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Steer, Michael L

    2011-04-15

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(+/+) donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(-/-) donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6C(hi) monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  14. Insight into the modulation of Shaw2 Kv channels by general anesthetics: structural and functional studies of S4-S5 linker and S6 C-terminal peptides in micelles by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Qu, Xiaoguang; Covarrubias, Manuel; Germann, Markus W

    2013-02-01

    The modulation of the Drosophila Shaw2 Kv channel by 1-alkanols and inhaled anesthetics is correlated with the involvement of the S4-S5 linker and C-terminus of S6, and consistent with stabilization of the channel's closed state. Structural analysis of peptides from S4-S5 (L45) and S6 (S6c), by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy supports that an α-helical conformation was adopted by L45, while S6c was only in an unstable/dynamic partially folded α-helix in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Solvent accessibility and paramagnetic probing of L45 revealed that L45 lies parallel to the surface of micelles with charged and polar residues pointing towards the solution while hydrophobic residues are buried inside the micelles. Chemical shift perturbation introduced by 1-butanol on residues Gln320, Thr321, Phe322 and Arg323 of L45, as well as Thr423 and Gln424 of S6c indicates possible anesthetic binding sites on these two important components in the channel activation apparatus. Diffusion measurements confirmed the association of L45, S6c and 1-butanol with micelles which suggests the capability of 1-butanol to influence a possible interaction of L45 and S6c in the micelle environment.

  15. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-19

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals.

  16. miRNA-target chimeras reveal miRNA 3'-end pairing as a major determinant of Argonaute target specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Michael J; Scheel, Troels K H; Luna, Joseph M;

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which mediate posttranscriptional silencing of target messenger RNAs. Despite their importance in many biological processes, rules governing AGO-miRNA targeting are only partially understood. Here we report a modified...... but divergent 3'-ends. This work provides a means for explicit biochemical identification of miRNA sites in vivo, leading to the discovery that miRNA 3'-end pairing is a general determinant of AGO binding specificity....

  17. Decreased catalytic activity and altered activation properties of PDE6C mutants associated with autosomal recessive achromatopsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Tanja; Artemyev, Nikolai O; Rosenberg, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the cone photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE6C) have been recently reported in patients with autosomal recessive inherited achromatopsia (ACHM) and early-onset cone photoreceptor dysfunction. Here we present the results of a comprehensive...... characterization of six missense mutations applying the baculovirus system to express recombinant mutant and wildtype chimeric PDE6C/PDE5 proteins in Sf9 insect cells. Purified proteins were analyzed using Western blotting, phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity measurements as well as inhibition assays by zaprinast...

  18. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  19. Structural mapping over the 85°E Ridge and surroundings using EIGEN6C4 high-resolution global combined gravity field model: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Narayan, Satya; Majumdar, T. J.; Kumar, Ujjawal

    2016-09-01

    A revised gravity anomaly map, generated from the EIGEN6C4 high resolution global gravity model, has been utilized for understanding structure and tectonics over the 85°E Ridge and surroundings. EIGEN6C4 data have been analysed using different derivatives and Analytical Signal techniques for delineation of structural features and comparative analysis with the published results, which shows good correlation. All the structural features observed in two seismic reflection sections over a small part of the 85°E Ridge have also been delineated very well. The lineament trends of N-S, NNW-SSE, ENE-WSW and E-W are consequences of the major changes occurred in the mid-Cretaceous towards the spreading trends from NNW-SSE to N-S and resulted in northward movement of the Indian Plate trailed by interaction with the Asian Plate in the Early Eocene. The lineaments in the eastern side of the ridge have greater circular variances and greater circular standard deviation than those of the western side, which reveals that the eastern side of the ridge has suffered more tectonic activities.

  20. Catalytic analysis of APOBEC3G involving real-time NMR spectroscopy reveals nucleic acid determinants for deamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kamba

    Full Text Available APOBEC3G (A3G is a single-stranded DNA-specific cytidine deaminase that preferentially converts cytidine to uridine at the third position of triplet cytosine (CCC hotspots. A3G restricts the infectivity of viruses, such as HIV-1, by targeting CCC hotspots scattered through minus DNA strands, reverse-transcribed from genomic RNA. Previously, we developed a real-time NMR method and elucidated the origin of the 3'→5' polarity of deamination of DNA by the C-terminal domain of A3G (CD2, which is a phenomenon by which a hotspot located closer to the 5'-end is deaminated more effectively than one less close to the 5'-end, through quantitative analysis involving nonspecific binding to and sliding along DNA. In the present study we applied the real-time NMR method to analyze the catalytic activity of CD2 toward DNA oligonucleotides containing a nucleotide analog at a single or multiple positions. Analyses revealed the importance of the sugar and base moieties throughout the consecutive 5 nucleotides, the CCC hotspot being positioned at the center. It was also shown that the sugar or base moieties of the nucleotides outside this 5 nucleotide recognition sequence are also relevant as to CD2's activity. Analyses involving DNA oligonucleotides having two CCC hotspots linked by a long sequence of either deoxyribonucleotides, ribonucleotides or abasic deoxyribonucleotides suggested that the phosphate backbone is required for CD2 to slide along the DNA strand and to exert the 3'→5' polarity. Examination of the effects of different salt concentrations on the 3'→5' polarity indicated that the higher the salt concentration, the less prominent the 3'→5' polarity. This is most likely the result of alleviation of sliding due to a decrease in the affinity of CD2 with the phosphate backbone at high salt concentrations. We also investigated the reactivity of substrates containing 5-methylcytidine (5mC or 5-hydroxymethylcytidine, and found that A3G exhibited low

  1. Poly(A) code analyses reveal key determinants for tissue-specific mRNA alternative polyadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lingjie; Li, Yi; Xie, Xiaohui; Shi, Yongsheng

    2016-06-01

    mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a critical mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation and is often regulated in a tissue- and/or developmental stage-specific manner. An ultimate goal for the APA field has been to be able to computationally predict APA profiles under different physiological or pathological conditions. As a first step toward this goal, we have assembled a poly(A) code for predicting tissue-specific poly(A) sites (PASs). Based on a compendium of over 600 features that have known or potential roles in PAS selection, we have generated and refined a machine-learning algorithm using multiple high-throughput sequencing-based data sets of tissue-specific and constitutive PASs. This code can predict tissue-specific PASs with >85% accuracy. Importantly, by analyzing the prediction performance based on different RNA features, we found that PAS context, including the distance between alternative PASs and the relative position of a PAS within the gene, is a key feature for determining the susceptibility of a PAS to tissue-specific regulation. Our poly(A) code provides a useful tool for not only predicting tissue-specific APA regulation, but also for studying its underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:27095026

  2. Characterization of hepatocellular resistance and susceptibility to styrene toxicity in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, J F; Price, H C; O'Connor, R W; Wilson, R F; Eldridge, S R; Moorman, M P; Morgan, D L

    1999-03-01

    Short-term inhalation exposure of B6C3F1 mice to styrene causes necrosis of centrilobular (CL) hepatocytes. However, in spite of continued exposure, the necrotic parenchyma is rapidly regenerated, indicating resistance by regenerated cells to styrene toxicity. These studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that resistance to repeated styrene exposure is due to sustained cell proliferation, with production of hepatocytes that have reduced metabolic capacity. Male mice were exposed to air or 500 ppm styrene (6 h/day); hepatotoxicity was evaluated by microscopic examination, serum liver enzyme levels, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling index (LI). Metabolism was assessed by measurement of blood styrene and styrene oxide. Both single and repeated exposures to styrene resulted in mortality by Day 2; in mice that survived, there was CL necrosis with elevated BrdU LI at Day 6, and complete restoration of the necrotic parenchyma by Day 15. The BrdU LI in mice given a single exposure had returned to control levels by Day 15. Re-exposure of these mice on Day 15 resulted in additional mortality and hepatocellular necrosis, indicating that regenerated CL cells were again susceptible to the cytolethal effect of styrene following a 14-day recovery. However, in mice repeatedly exposed to styrene for 14 days, the BrdU LI remained significantly increased on Day 15, with preferential labeling of CL hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei (karyomegaly). If repeated exposures were followed by a 10-day recovery period, CL karyomegaly persisted, but the BrdU LI returned to control level and CL hepatocytes became susceptible again to styrene toxicity as demonstrated by additional mortality and acute necrosis after a challenge exposure. These findings indicated a requirement for continued styrene exposure and DNA synthesis in order to maintain this resistant phenotype. Analyses of proliferating-cell nuclear-antigen (PCNA) labeling were conducted to further characterize the cell cycle

  3. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jerala, Roman, E-mail: roman.jerala@ki.si [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation.

  4. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Teklay

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial reductions in maternal mortality are called for in Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5, thus assuming that maternal mortality is measurable. A key difficulty is attributing causes of death for the many women who die unaided in developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA can elicit circumstances of death, but data need to be interpreted reliably and consistently to serve as global indicators. Recent developments in probabilistic modelling of VA interpretation are adapted and assessed here for the specific circumstances of pregnancy-related death. Methods A preliminary version of the InterVA-M probabilistic VA interpretation model was developed and refined with adult female VA data from several sources, and then assessed against 258 additional VA interviews from Burkina Faso. Likely causes of death produced by the model were compared with causes previously determined by local physicians. Distinction was made between free-text and closed-question data in the VA interviews, to assess the added value of free-text material on the model's output. Results Following rationalisation between the model and physician interpretations, cause-specific mortality fractions were broadly similar. Case-by-case agreement between the model and any of the reviewing physicians reached approximately 60%, rising to approximately 80% when cases with a discrepancy were reviewed by an additional physician. Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. The model estimated 30% of deaths to be pregnancy-related, of which half were due to direct causes. Data derived from free-text made no appreciable difference. Conclusion InterVA-M represents a potentially valuable new tool for measuring maternal mortality in an efficient, consistent and standardised way. Further development, refinement and validation are planned. It could become a routine

  5. Genome-wide mutagenesis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri reveals novel genetic determinants and regulation mechanisms of biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Li

    determinants and regulatory mechanism of biofilm formation.

  6. Seasonal patterns of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission from seven Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, J; Llusià, J

    2001-10-01

    The seasonal pattern of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission by seven Mediterranean woody species (Bupleurum fruticosum, Cistus albidus, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Quercus coccifera, and Q. ilex) was studied under field conditions. Branch chamber samples were sorbed on carbotrap and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC-MS. These non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emissions were large, almost of similar magnitude to those of terpenes. Overall, maximum values were recorded in spring and summer (up to 12 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex) and minimum values in autumn and winter (up to 5 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex). These C6-C10 VOC emissions represented 2.82% of the photosynthetic C fixation in summer and 0.22% in winter. Some compounds such as 2-ethoxyethyl acetate were emitted by most species, others such as 3-hexen-1-ol, phenol or decanal were significantly emitted only by few species. The greatest diversity of emitted non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOCs was observed in spring and in Q. ilex. Temperature seemed a strong driver of these seasonal changes but other species-specific and seasonal factors seem involved. These results indicate that C6-C10 non-terpenoid VOCs contribute a rather significant fraction of the total biogenic VOC flux from these Mediterranean species, especially in spring and summer, and therefore should be considered in VOC emission inventories and in model predictions of tropospheric chemistry. PMID:11592412

  7. Comparison of methods of identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 mice used in a carcinogenesis bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; MacGregor, J A; Shen, Z; Li, X; Lewis, R; Dangler, C A

    1998-05-01

    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of carcinogenic activity, was also noted in female mice. However, H. hepaticus was not considered a complicating factor, because the livers of the female mice did not have histological features compatible with H. hepaticus infection. A retrospective analysis of 51 liver tissue samples from the original carcinogenicity study was conducted to determine the incidence of H. hepaticus infection and to evaluate different diagnostic approaches for assessing the presence of H. hepaticus in livers lacking characteristic lesions. In an initial evaluation of seven mice with liver tumors, argyrophilic bacteria resembling H. hepaticus were observed in liver sections, associated with characteristic liver lesions of hepatocytic karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. Frozen liver tissue was available from four of these mice; all were confirmed to be infected with H. hepaticus by culture and PCR. In a larger subsequent analysis using frozen liver tissues from 44 mice without characteristic hepatic lesions, H. hepaticus-specific DNA was amplified from the livers of 21 of 44 of the mice (47%), compared to 14 of 44 of the mice (32%) having H. hepaticus cultured from their frozen liver tumors. The results of H. hepaticus culture and H. hepaticus-specific PCR concurred (i.e., both positive and negative results) in 84% of the cases. Microscopic detection of immunofluorescence-labeled or silver-stained bacteria in liver sections was relatively insensitive compared to either culture or PCR detection. This

  8. Comparison of Methods of Identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 Mice Used in a Carcinogenesis Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, James G.; MacGregor, Judith A.; Shen, Zeli; Li, Xiantang; Lewis, Robert; Dangler, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of ...

  9. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  10. Revealing of Element-Markers to Characterize Deposit and Determine the Belonging of Ore and Metal Good Samples to the Zhezkazgan-Ulytauskii Ancient Mining and Smelting Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the researched activities carried out within the CRP project are development and adaptation of the nuclear-physical methods complex to analyze the wide range of archaeological samples (ores, slag, metal goods etc.). Kazakhstan is situated in the center of Eurasia continent. Kazakhstan's entrails contain the large deposits of minerals, mining and smelling of which are dated back to Bronze Age. The nuclear-physical methods complex is capable to reveal new possible trade ways of Kazakhstan's ore transportation in the Asian market. It allows comprehending the Kazakhstan's mining and smelting centers' role in Middle and Fore Asia paleoeconomy in the Bronze Era. Base of the revealing of trade ways is the assumption: each of ore deposit has own unique element portrait. Hence, the elemental analysis of ore, slag and metal goods geographically corresponding to same ore region is capable of revealing elemental ratios typical for a chosen deposit. Taldysai settlement, geographically connected to one of the major copper deposits in the world, contains the Zhezkazgan-Ulytauskii mining and smelting center, which was chosen as an ancient metallurgical settlement. Within the CRP project ore, slag and metal good samples collected in the place of ancient settlement Taldysai there were determined contents of 42 chemical elements with the complex of nuclear-physical methods including neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescent analysis. Using the analytical complex allows both, extending the range of analyzed elements and obtaining more reliable quantitative data. Obtained data in ore, slag and metal good samples contents show some chemical elements considerably exceeing their average contents in the earth's crust. Possibly, these elements may be used as markers to characterize deposits and determine the belonging of ore and metal good samples to the Zhezkazgan-Ulytauskii mining and smelting center. However, to draw more correct and unambiguous conclusions one

  11. Kinetic analysis of electron flux in cytochrome P450 reductases reveals differences in rate-determining steps in plant and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Douglas A; Tonkin, Rochelle; Meints, Carla E; Wolthers, Kirsten R

    2015-10-15

    Herein, we compare the kinetic properties of CPR from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATR2), with CPR from Artemisia annua (aaCPR) and human CPR (hCPR). While all three CPR forms elicit comparable rates for cytochrome c(3+) turnover, NADPH reduction of the FAD cofactor is ∼50-fold faster in aaCPR and ATR2 compared to hCPR, with a kobs of ∼500 s(-1) (6 °C). Stopped-flow analysis of the isolated FAD-domains reveals that NADP(+)-FADH2 charge-transfer complex formation is also significantly faster in the plant enzymes, but the rate of its decay is comparable for all three proteins. In hCPR, transfer of a hydride ion from NADPH to FAD is tightly coupled to subsequent FAD to FMN electron transfer, indicating that the former catalytic event is slow relative to the latter. In contrast, interflavin electron transfer is slower than NADPH hydride transfer in aaCPR and ATR2, occurring with an observed rate constant of ∼50 s(-1). Finally, the transfer of electrons from FMN to cytochrome c(3+) is rapid (>10(3) s(-1)) in all three enzymes and does not limit catalytic turnover. In combination, the data reveal differences in rate-determining steps between plant CPR and their mammalian equivalent in mediating the flux of reducing equivalents from NADPH to external electron acceptors. PMID:26361974

  12. Accounting for experimental noise reveals that mRNA levels, amplified by post-transcriptional processes, largely determine steady-state protein levels in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csárdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells respond to their environment by modulating protein levels through mRNA transcription and post-transcriptional control. Modest observed correlations between global steady-state mRNA and protein measurements have been interpreted as evidence that mRNA levels determine roughly 40% of the variation in protein levels, indicating dominant post-transcriptional effects. However, the techniques underlying these conclusions, such as correlation and regression, yield biased results when data are noisy, missing systematically, and collinear---properties of mRNA and protein measurements---which motivated us to revisit this subject. Noise-robust analyses of 24 studies of budding yeast reveal that mRNA levels explain more than 85% of the variation in steady-state protein levels. Protein levels are not proportional to mRNA levels, but rise much more rapidly. Regulation of translation suffices to explain this nonlinear effect, revealing post-transcriptional amplification of, rather than competition with, transcriptional signals. These results substantially revise widely credited models of protein-level regulation, and introduce multiple noise-aware approaches essential for proper analysis of many biological phenomena.

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of Friedreich's Ataxia Mutants Reveals Determinants of Frataxin Binding and Activation of the Fe-S Assembly Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Winn, Andrew M; Barondeau, David P [TAM

    2012-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with the loss of function of the protein frataxin (FXN) that results from low FXN levels due to a GAA triplet repeat expansion or, occasionally, from missense mutations in the FXN gene. Here biochemical and structural properties of FXN variants, including three FRDA missense mutations (N146K, Q148R, and R165C) and three related mutants (N146A, Q148G, and Q153A), were determined in an effort to understand the structural basis for the loss of function. In vitro assays revealed that although the three FRDA missense mutations exhibited similar losses of cysteine desulfurase and Fe-S cluster assembly activities, the causes for these activation defects were distinct. The R165C variant exhibited a kcat/KM higher than that of native FXN but weak binding to the NFS1, ISD11, and ISCU2 (SDU) complex, whereas the Q148R variant exhibited the lowest kcat/KM of the six tested FXN variants and only a modest binding deficiency. The order of the FXN binding affinities for the SDU Fe-S assembly complex was as follows: FXN > Q148R > N146A > Q148G > N146K > Q153A > R165C. Four different classes of FXN variants were identified on the basis of their biochemical properties. Together, these structure-function studies reveal determinants for the binding and allosteric activation of the Fe-S assembly complex and provide insight into how FRDA missense mutations are functionally compromised.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis coupled to X-ray CT reveals sucrose supply and growth velocity as major determinants of potato tuber starch biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the process of potato tuber starch biosynthesis is well understood, mechanisms regulating biosynthesis are still unclear. Transcriptome analysis provides valuable information as to how genes are regulated. Therefore, this work aimed at investigating transcriptional regulation of starch biosynthetic genes in leaves and tubers of potato plants under various conditions. More specifically we looked at gene expression diurnally in leaves and tubers, during tuber induction and in tubers growing at different velocities. To determine velocity of potato tuber growth a new method based on X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT was established. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis between leaves and tubers revealed striking similarities with the same genes being differentially expressed in both tissues. In tubers, oscillation of granule bound starch synthase (GBSS expression was observed which could be linked to sucrose supply from source leaves. X-ray CT was used to determine time-dependent changes in tuber volume and the growth velocity was calculated. Although there is not a linear correlation between growth velocity and expression of starch biosynthetic genes, there are significant differences between growing and non-growing tubers. Co-expression analysis was used to identify transcription factors positively correlating with starch biosynthetic genes possibly regulating starch biosynthesis. Conclusion Most starch biosynthetic enzymes are encoded by gene families. Co-expression analysis revealed that the same members of these gene families are co-regulated in leaves and tubers. This suggests that regulation of transitory and storage starch biosynthesis in leaves and tubers, respectively, is surprisingly similar. X-ray CT can be used to monitor growth and development of belowground organs and allows to link tuber growth to changes in gene expression. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides a useful tool to identify

  15. Comparative phenotypic assessment of cardiac pathology, physiology, and gene expression in C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and B6C3F1/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Scott S; Thomas, Reuben; Shah, Ruchir; Xu, Hong; Vallant, Molly K; Nyska, Abraham; Dunnick, June K

    2010-10-01

    Human cardiomyopathies often lead to heart failure, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Described here is a phenotypic characterization of cardiac function and genome-wide expression from C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and B6C3F1/J male mice. Histopathologic analysis identified a low-grade background cardiomyopathy (murine progressive cardiomyopathy) in eight of nine male C3H/HeJ mice (age nine to ten weeks), but not in male C57BL/6J and in only of ten male B6C3F1/J mice. The C3H/HeJ mouse had an increased heart rate and a shorter RR interval compared to the B6C3F1/J and C57BL/6J mice. Cardiac genomic studies indicated the B6C3F1/J mice exhibited an intermediate gene expression phenotype relative to the 2 parental strains. Disease-centric enrichment analysis indicated a number of cardiomyopathy-associated genes were induced in B6C3F1/J and C3H/HeJ mice, including Myh7, My14, and Lmna and also indicated differential expression of genes associated with metabolic (e.g., Pdk2) and hypoxic stress (e.g. Hif1a). A novel coexpression and integrated pathway network analysis indicated Prkaa2, Pdk2, Rhoj, and Sgcb are likely to play a central role in the pathophysiology of murine progressive cardiomyopathy in C3H/HeJ mice. Our studies indicate that genetically determined baseline differences in cardiac phenotype have the potential to influence the results of cardiotoxicity studies. PMID:21037199

  16. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  17. A gene-rich linkage map in the dioecious species Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit reveals putative X/Y sex-determining chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Geoffrey P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Actinidia (kiwifruit consists of woody, scrambling vines, native to China, and only recently propagated as a commercial crop. All species described are dioecious, but the genetic mechanism for sex-determination is unknown, as is the genetic basis for many of the cluster of characteristics making up the unique fruit. It is, however, an important crop in the New Zealand economy, and a classical breeding program would benefit greatly by knowledge of the trait alleles carried by both female and male parents. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS in seedling populations would also aid the accurate and efficient development of novel fruit types for the market. Results Gene-rich female, male and consensus linkage maps of the diploid species A. chinensis have been constructed with 644 microsatellite markers. The maps consist of twenty-nine linkage groups corresponding to the haploid number n = 29. We found that sex-linked sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers and the 'Flower-sex' phenotype consistently mapped to a single linkage group, in a subtelomeric region, in a section of inconsistent marker order. The region also contained markers of expressed genes, some of unknown function. Recombination, assessed by allelic distribution and marker order stability, was, in the remainder of the linkage group, in accordance with other linkage groups. Fully informative markers to other genes in this linkage group identified the comparative linkage group in the female map, where recombination ratios determining marker order were similar to the autosomes. Conclusion We have created genetic linkage maps that define the 29 linkage groups of the haploid genome, and have revealed the position and extent of the sex-determining locus in A. chinensis. As all Actinidia species are dioecious, we suggest that the sex-determining loci of other Actinidia species will be similar to that region defined in our maps. As the

  18. Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in C5-C6-C7 brachial plexus palsy type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monreal Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic palsy of the brachial plexus represents a major functional handicap. Then, the first goal in the treatment of the flail arm is to restore the elbow flexion by primary direct nerve surgery or secondary reconstructive surgery. There are various methods to restore elbow flexion which are well documented in the medical literature but the most known and used is Steindler flexorplasty. This review is intended to detail the author's experience with Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus palsy C5-C6-C7 where wrist extensors are paralyzed or weakened. Methods We conducted a retrospective follow-up study of 12 patients with absent or extremely weak elbow flexion (motor grade 2 or less, wrist/finger extensor and triceps palsy associated; who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the flail upper limb by tendon transfer (Steindler flexorplasty and wrist arthrodesis to restore elbow flexion. The aetiology of elbow weakness was in all patients brachial plexus palsy (C5-C6-C7 deficit. Data were collected from medical records and from the information obtained during follow-up visits. Age, sex, preoperative strength (rated on a 0 to 5 scale for the flexors of the elbow, wrist flexors, pronator and triceps, previous surgery, length of follow-up, other associated operative procedures, results and complications were recorded. Results The results are the follows: Eleven patients were found to have very good or good function of the transferred muscles. One patient had mild active flexion of the elbow despite the reconstructive procedure. There were no major intraoperative complications. Two patients experienced transient, intermittent nocturnal ulnar paresthesias postoperatively. In both patients these symptoms subsided without further surgery. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with C5-C6-C7 palsy where the wrist and finger extensors are paralyzed or

  19. Mechanisms of carborane 1,6-C2B4H6 high-temperature oxidation in water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity of carborane-4 (1,6-C2B4H6) in water vapor at 930-1750 K and 0.02-3.0 MPa is experimentally studied. It is found that carborane-4 is a highly reactive compound: at P = 0.9 MPa and T > 1200 K its reactivity in water vapor exceeds that of propane in air by a factor of 3 to 7. The ignition delay for carborane-4/water vapor mixture decreases with the increasing pressure at T > 1200 K, but is pressure independent at T < 1000 K. It is shown that the ignition delays computed within the proposed detailed oxidation scheme for carborane-4 describe satisfactorily the experimental data in the entire range of the investigated temperatures and pressures

  20. Magnetic screw rod using dual state 0.6C-13Cr-Fe bulk magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masahiro; Hirao, Noriyoshi; Kimura, Fumio

    2002-05-01

    A magnetic screw rod that can replace a mechanical ball screw has been successfully fabricated. This type of device provides linear motion from a rotating motor. The magnetic screw rod is made from dual state 0.6C-13Cr-Fe bulk magnetic rod stock. The material, originally soft magnetically, can be heat treated to obtain a nonmagnetic region which substitutes for the groove of a conventional magnetic screw rod. This method produces a magnetic screw rod with a smooth, round outer shape and a longer, cleaner operational life. This experiment successfully yielded a 300 mm long, 25 mm diameter magnetic rod with 10 mm pitch, 4 mm width, 4 mm depth spiral nonmagnetic region.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Golgi-Associated Human Nα-Acetyltransferase 60 Reveals the Molecular Determinants for Substrate-Specific Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støve, Svein Isungset; Magin, Robert S; Foyn, Håvard; Haug, Bengt Erik; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    N-Terminal acetylation is a common and important protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Six human NATs (NatA-NatF) contain one catalytic subunit each, Naa10 to Naa60, respectively. In contrast to the ribosome-associated NatA to NatE, NatF/Naa60 specifically associates with Golgi membranes and acetylates transmembrane proteins. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the function of Naa60, we developed an Naa60 bisubstrate CoA-peptide conjugate inhibitor, determined its X-ray structure when bound to CoA and inhibitor, and carried out biochemical experiments. We show that Naa60 adapts an overall fold similar to that of the catalytic subunits of ribosome-associated NATs, but with the addition of two novel elongated loops that play important roles in substrate-specific binding. One of these loops mediates a dimer to monomer transition upon substrate-specific binding. Naa60 employs a catalytic mechanism most similar to Naa50. Collectively, these data reveal the molecular basis for Naa60-specific acetyltransferase activity with implications for its Golgi-specific functions.

  2. The molecular determination of HLA-Cw alleles in the Mandenka (West Africa) reveals a close genetic relationship between Africans and Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Steiner, Q G; Grundschober, C; Tiercy, J M

    2000-10-01

    HLA-Cw alleles were determined by high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) oligotyping in a sample of 165 Mandenka, a population from Eastern Senegal previously analysed for A/B and DRB/DQB polymorphisms. A total of 18 Cw alleles were identified, with Cw*0401/5 and 1601 accounting for a combined frequency of 36%. A comparison of Cw allele frequencies among several populations of different origins, Mandenka, Swiss, English, Ashkenazi Jews from the UK and Japanese, reveals a high genetic heterogeneity among them, but also a much closer relationship between Mandenka, Europeans and Ashkenazi than between any of these populations and Japanese. Cw*0501, Cw*0701 and Cw*1601, among others, appear to be restricted to the European and African populations. Many B-Cw haplotypes exhibit a significant linkage disequilibrium in the Mandenka, among which B*3501-Cw*0401 and B*7801-Cw*1601, formed by the most frequent B and Cw alleles, and B*5201-Cw*1601, B*5702-Cw*18 and B*4410-Cw*0401, not yet observed in other populations. B*3501-Cw*0401 is found with similar frequencies in Europeans. The results possibly support a close historical relationship between Africans and Europeans as compared to East Asiatics. However, the HLA-Cw frequency distributions are characterised by an excess of heterozygotes, indicating that balancing selection may have played a role in the evolution of this polymorphism.

  3. Do vehicular emissions dominate the source of C6-C8 aromatics in the megacity Shanghai of eastern China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Wang; Qian Wang; Jianmin Chen; Changhong Chen; Cheng Huang; Liping Qiao; Shengrong Lou

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to i-pentane,the indicator of vehicular emissions,were employed to apportion the vehicular and non-vehicular contributions to reactive species in urban Shanghai.Two kinds of tunnel experiments,one tunnel with more than 90% light duty gasoline vehicles and the other with more than 60% light duty diesel vehicles,were carried out to study the characteristic ratios of vehicle-related emissions from December 2009 to January 2010.Based on the experiments,the characteristic ratios of C6-C8 aromatics to i-pentane of vehicular emissions were 0.53 ± 0.08 (benzene),0.70 ± 0.12 (toluene),0.41 ± 0.09 (m,p-xylenes),0.16 ± 0.04 (o-xylene),0.023 ± 0.011 (styrene),and 0.15 ± 0.02 (ethylbenzene),respectively.The source apportionment results showed that around 23.3% of C6-C8 aromatics in urban Shanghai were from vehicular emissions,which meant that the non-vehicular emissions had more importance.These findings suggested that emission control of non-vehicular sources,i.e.industrial emissions,should also receive attention in addition to the control of vehicle-related emissions in Shanghai.The chemical removal of VOCs during the transport from emissions to the receptor site had a large impact on the apportionment results.Generally,the overestimation of vehicular contributions would occur when the VOC reaction rate constant with OH radicals (kOH) was larger than that of the vehicular indicator,while for species with smaller kOH than the vehicular indicator,the vehicular contribution would be underestimated by the method of characteristic ratios.

  4. Do vehicular emissions dominate the source of C6-C8 aromatics in the megacity Shanghai of eastern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Wang, Qian; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Qiao, Liping; Lou, Shengrong; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to i-pentane, the indicator of vehicular emissions, were employed to apportion the vehicular and non-vehicular contributions to reactive species in urban Shanghai. Two kinds of tunnel experiments, one tunnel with more than 90% light duty gasoline vehicles and the other with more than 60% light duty diesel vehicles, were carried out to study the characteristic ratios of vehicle-related emissions from December 2009 to January 2010. Based on the experiments, the characteristic ratios of C6-C8 aromatics to i-pentane of vehicular emissions were 0.53 ± 0.08 (benzene), 0.70 ± 0.12 (toluene), 0.41 ± 0.09 (m,p-xylenes), 0.16 ± 0.04 (o-xylene), 0.023 ± 0.011 (styrene), and 0.15 ± 0.02 (ethylbenzene), respectively. The source apportionment results showed that around 23.3% of C6-C8 aromatics in urban Shanghai were from vehicular emissions, which meant that the non-vehicular emissions had more importance. These findings suggested that emission control of non-vehicular sources, i.e. industrial emissions, should also receive attention in addition to the control of vehicle-related emissions in Shanghai. The chemical removal of VOCs during the transport from emissions to the receptor site had a large impact on the apportionment results. Generally, the overestimation of vehicular contributions would occur when the VOC reaction rate constant with OH radicals (kOH) was larger than that of the vehicular indicator, while for species with smaller kOH than the vehicular indicator, the vehicular contribution would be underestimated by the method of characteristic ratios.

  5. EIGEN-6C3 - The latest Combined Global Gravity Field Model including GOCE data up to degree and order 1949 of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerste, C.; Bruinsma, S.; Flechtner, F.; Abrykosov, O.; Dahle, C.; Marty, J.; Lemoine, J.; Biancale, R.; Barthelmes, F.; Neumayer, K.; König, R.

    2013-12-01

    GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse have a long-time close cooperation in the field of global gravity field determination at which the present focus is (1) on GOCE gravity field determination and (2) on computation of high resolution combined gravity field models. Such data products play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to scientific applications, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. Here we present our combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C3 which is the third release of EIGEN-6C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques). The first release of EIGEN-6, published in 2011, was the first global combined gravity field model containing GOCE data. It had been computed from a combination of LAGEOS, GRACE and GOCE data, augmented with the DTU10 surface gravity data and is complete to degree and order 1440 (corresponding to 14 km spatial resolution). The combination of the different data types has been done on the basis of full normal equations up to maximum degree/order 370. The spherical harmonic coefficients of the shorter wavelengths were obtained from a block diagonal normal equation from the terrestrial data only. The new release is complete to degree and order 1949 (corresponding to approx. 10 km spatial resolution) and comprises extended measurement time spans for the LAGEOS/GRACE data, and more than 2 years of reprocessed GOCE data in particular. Our combination of GRACE and GOCE data allows the construction of an accurate satellite-only contribution to the final combined model up to degree and order 260, where the GOCE gradiometer data contribute only for degrees upwards of 100. This is achieved through filtering of the GOCE observation equations, which is necessary because of the degraded gradiometer performance outside the measurement bandwidth. Consequently, surface data normal equations are combined with the satellite

  6. EIGEN-6C2 - A new combined global gravity field model including GOCE data up to degree and order 1949 of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förste, Christoph; Bruinsma, Sean; Flechtner, Frank; Marty, Jean-Charles; Dahle, Christoph; Abrykosov, Oleh; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Neumayer, Hans; Barthelmes, Franz; Biancale, Richard; König, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse have a long-time close cooperation in the field of global gravity field determination at which the present focus is (1) on GOCE gravity field determination and (2) on computation of high resolution combined gravity field models. Such data products play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to scientific applications, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. Here we present our combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C2 which is the second release of EIGEN-6C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques). The initial release of EIGEN-6, published in 2011, was the first global combined gravity field model containing GOCE data. It had been computed from a combination of LAGEOS, GRACE and GOCE data, augmented with the DTU10 surface gravity data and is complete to degree and order 1440 (corresponding to 14 km spatial resolution). The combination of the different data types has been done on the basis of full normal equations up to maximum degree/order 370. The spherical harmonic coefficients of the shorter wavelengths were obtained from a block diagonal normal equation from the terrestrial data only. The new release is now complete to degree and order 1949 (corresponding to approx. 10 km spatial resolution). Furthermore this new model comprises extended measurement time spans for the LAGEOS/GRACE data as well as for the GOCE data. Our combination of GRACE and GOCE data allows the construction of an accurate satellite-only contribution to the final combined model up to degree and order 240, where the GOCE gradiometer data contribute only for degrees upwards of 100. This is achieved through filtering of the GOCE observation equations, which is necessary because of the degraded gradiometer performance outside the measurement bandwidth. The surface data normal equations are combined with satellite normal equations at

  7. Ly6C(hi) Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhle, Luisa; Mattei, Daniele; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Fischer, André; Alutis, Marie; French, Timothy; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Matzinger, Polly; Dunay, Ildiko R; Wolf, Susanne A

    2016-05-31

    Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF) did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6C(hi) monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6C(hi) monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6C(hi) monocytes.

  8. Nasal dosimetry of inspired naphthalene vapor in the male and female B6C3F1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naphthalene vapor is a nasal cytotoxicant in the rat and mouse but is a nasal carcinogen in only the rat. Inhalation dosimetry is a critical aspect of the inhalation toxicology of inspired vapors and may contribute to the species differences in the nasal response. To define the nasal dosimetry of naphthalene in the B6C3F1 male and female mouse, uptake of naphthalene vapor was measured in the surgically isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) at inspiratory flow rates of 25 or 50 ml/min. Uptake was measured at multiple concentrations (0.5, 3, 10, 30 ppm) in controls and mice treated with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 5-phenyl-1-pentyne. In both sexes, URT uptake efficiency was strongly concentration dependent averaging 90% at 0.5 ppm compared to 50% at 30 ppm (25 ml/min flow rate), indicating saturable processes were involved. Both uptake efficiency and the concentration dependence of uptake were significantly diminished by 5-phenyl-1-pentyne indicating inspired naphthalene vapor is extensively metabolized in the mouse nose with saturation of metabolism occurring at the higher concentrations. A hybrid computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for nasal dosimetry. This model accurately predicted the observed URT uptake efficiencies. Overall, the high URT uptake efficiency of naphthalene in the mouse nose indicates the absence of a tumorigenic response is not attributable to low delivered dose rates in this species

  9. Coherent Structure in Solar Wind C$^{6+}$/C$^{4+}$ Ionic Composition Data During the Quiet-Sun Conditions of 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Edmondson, J K; Lepri, S T; Zurbuchen, T H

    2013-01-01

    This analysis offers evidence of characteristic scale sizes in solar wind charge state data measured in-situ for thirteen quiet-sun Carrington rotations in 2008. Using a previously established novel methodology, we analyze the wavelet power spectrum of the charge state ratio C$^{6+}$/C$^{4+}$ measured in-situ by ACE/SWICS for 2-hour and 12-minute cadence. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missing data in the time series (Edmondson et al. 2013), allowing extraction of significant power from the measured data to a resolution of 24 mins. We analyze each wavelet power spectra for transient coherency, and global periodicities resulting from the superposition of repeating coherent structures. From the significant wavelet power spectra, we find evidence for a general upper-limit on individual transient coherency of $\\sim$10 days. We find evidence for a set of global periodicities between 4-5 hours and 35-45 days. We f...

  10. Study of internal permanent magnet rotor made of 0.6C-13Cr-Fe dual state magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masahiro; Masuzawa, Masahiro; Hirao, Noriyoshi; Kimura, Fumio

    2003-05-01

    We have successfully developed an internal permanent magnet (IPM) rotor using dual state bulk magnetic material to increase usable magnetic flux dramatically. The most significant benefit of the IPM rotor is its mechanical reliability, because permanent magnets are inserted in slots of soft magnetic material. On the other hand, there is significant leakage flux between adjoining permanent magnets in the soft magnetic rotor core, reducing the usable magnetic flux flowing into the stator core. To solve this problem, we used a dual state magnetic material, 0.6C-13Cr-Fe alloy. This soft magnetic material could locally be changed into nonmagnetic material by localized heat treatment. By changing the material at leakage flux path into nonmagnetic, we can reduce the leakage flux, while keeping the rotor mechanically sound. By applying the dual state magnetic material to an experimental eight pole IPM rotor, the useful flux flowing in the stator core differs by 8% when compared to an all soft magnetic rotor core.

  11. The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on carriage of and disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Nurith; Benisty, Rachel; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Trefler, Ronit; Dagan, Ron

    2016-05-27

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by PCV13 resulted in a dramatic reduction in carriage and disease rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) serotype 6B (Sp6B) and Sp6A. The structural modifications of the capsule of Sp6A and Sp6B to become Sp6C and Sp6D, respectively, raised a concern that eradication of Sp6A/Sp6B by PCV could be accompanied by an increase in Sp6C/Sp6D. This study examines the dynamics and clonal distribution of Sp6C/Sp6D relative to Sp6A/Sp6B during 1999-2014, pre- and post-PCV implementation. Sp were cultured from Blood/CSF and MEF of children pneumococcal disease, complete elimination of serogroup 6 was found in the PCV era. Similar clonal composition was found for Sp6C and Sp6D pre- and post-PCV. We conclude that Sp6C and Sp6D do not act as replacement serotypes for Sp6A and Sp6B following vaccination with PCV13. The major Sp6C and Sp6D clones present pre-PCV persisted also post-PCV implementation, suggesting that these clones possess an advantage retained post-vaccination. PMID:27113163

  12. Multi-variant pathway association analysis reveals the importance of genetic determinants of estrogen metabolism in breast and endometrial cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ling Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of estrogen exposure in breast and endometrial cancer development and numerous studies of genes in the estrogen metabolic pathway, polymorphisms within the pathway have not been consistently associated with these cancers. We posit that this is due to the complexity of multiple weak genetic effects within the metabolic pathway that can only be effectively detected through multi-variant analysis. We conducted a comprehensive association analysis of the estrogen metabolic pathway by interrogating 239 tagSNPs within 35 genes of the pathway in three tumor samples. The discovery sample consisted of 1,596 breast cancer cases, 719 endometrial cancer cases, and 1,730 controls from Sweden; and the validation sample included 2,245 breast cancer cases and 1,287 controls from Finland. We performed admixture maximum likelihood (AML-based global tests to evaluate the cumulative effect from multiple SNPs within the whole metabolic pathway and three sub-pathways for androgen synthesis, androgen-to-estrogen conversion, and estrogen removal. In the discovery sample, although no single polymorphism was significant after correction for multiple testing, the pathway-based AML global test suggested association with both breast (p(global = 0.034 and endometrial (p(global = 0.052 cancers. Further testing revealed the association to be focused on polymorphisms within the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway, for both breast (p(global = 0.008 and endometrial cancer (p(global = 0.014. The sub-pathway association was validated in the Finnish sample of breast cancer (p(global = 0.015. Further tumor subtype analysis demonstrated that the association of the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway was confined to postmenopausal women with sporadic estrogen receptor positive tumors (p(global = 0.0003. Gene-based AML analysis suggested CYP19A1 and UGT2B4 to be the major players within the sub-pathway. Our study indicates that the composite

  13. Early metabolomics changes in heart and plasma during chronic doxorubicin treatment in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Pence, Lisa; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L; George, Nysia; Cao, Zhijun; Yu, Li-Rong; Fuscoe, James C; Beger, Richard D; Desai, Varsha G

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify molecular markers of early stages of cardiotoxicity induced by a potent chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Male B6C3F1 mice were dosed with 3 mg kg(-1) DOX or saline via tail vein weekly for 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 weeks (cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18 or 24 mg kg(-1) , respectively) and euthanized a week after the last dose. Mass spectrometry-based and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry-based metabolic profiling were employed to identify initial biomarkers of cardiotoxicity before myocardial injury and cardiac pathology, which were not noted until after the 18 and 24 mg kg(-1) cumulative doses, respectively. After a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) , 18 amino acids and four biogenic amines (acetylornithine, kynurenine, putrescine and serotonin) were significantly increased in cardiac tissue; 16 amino acids and two biogenic amines (acetylornithine and hydroxyproline) were significantly altered in plasma. In addition, 16 acylcarnitines were significantly increased in plasma and five were significantly decreased in cardiac tissue compared to saline-treated controls. Plasma lactate and succinate, involved in the Krebs cycle, were significantly altered after a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) . A few metabolites remained altered at higher cumulative DOX doses, which could partly indicate a transition from injury processes at 2 weeks to repair processes with additional injury happening concurrently before myocardial injury at 8 weeks. These altered metabolic profiles in mouse heart and plasma during the initial stages of injury progression due to DOX treatment may suggest these metabolites as candidate early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Toxicity of divinylbenzene-55 for B6C3F1 mice in a two-week inhalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Mahler, J F; Wilson, R E; Moorman, M P; Price, H C; O'connor, R W

    1997-10-01

    Divinylbenzene (DVB) is a crosslinking monomer used primarily for copolymerization with styrene to produce ion-exchange resins. The toxicity of inhaled DVB was investigated because of the potential for worker exposure and the structural similarity of DVB to styrene, a potential carcinogen. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, or 75 ppm DVB for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 2 weeks. Six mice/sex/dose group were killed after 3, 5, and 10 exposures and six mice/sex in the 75 ppm group were killed 7 days after 10 exposures. The most severe effects occurred in the nasal cavity and liver, with less severe effects occurring in the kidneys. In the nasal cavity olfactory epithelium acute necrosis and inflammation were present at early time points followed by regeneration, architectural reorganization, and focal respiratory metaplasia by 7 days after the last exposure. Olfactory epithelial changes were concentration-dependent with extensive involvement at 75 ppm and peripheral sparing at 25 ppm. There was also necrosis and regeneration of olfactory-associated Bowman's glands as well as the lateral nasal (Steno's) glands. Hepatocellular centrilobular (CL) necrosis was observed only in the 75 ppm dose group and was similar to that caused by styrene. A time-dependent progression was observed, characterized by CL degeneration after 1 exposure, necrosis after 3 and 5 exposures, and chronic inflammation with CL karyomegaly after 10 exposures and 7 days after the 10th exposure. Hepatic GSH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In the kidneys, transient tubular damage was observed in some male mice exposed to 75 ppm, and appeared to be a response to DVB-induced tubular epithelial injury.

  15. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  16. Effect of atomic sites on electronic and mechanical properties of (Fe,Mo){sub 6}C carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Z.Q., E-mail: zqlv@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, S.H. [College of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, W.T., E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The phase stability of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C-II (Mo at the 48f site) is higher than other phases in the present work. The formation enthalpies of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C-II and Fe{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}C are −0.095 and −0.053 eV/atom, respectively. The 16d and 32e sites are comfortable for Fe atoms, and the Mo atoms tend to be at the 48f sites. The electronic characteristics of metal atoms are sensitive to the local short-range order in these crystals. Moreover, the nonmetal C atom is with negative charges (obtaining electrons), and this electronegative phenomenon is also present in some metal atoms (Fe or Mo) in M{sub 6}C. The hardness of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C (13.6 GPa) is the highest in these phases, and the hardness of Fe{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}C is 11.7 GPa. The θ{sub D} of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C-I (Fe at the 48f site) is 397 K, and that of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C-II abruptly changes to 657 K when Mo in the 48f site. - Highlights: • The electronic characteristics of metal atoms are sensitive to the local short-range order in the crystal. • Besides C atom with negative charges, partial metal atoms exist the electronegative phenomenon. • The hardness of Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C (13.6 GPa) is the highest and Fe{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}C (11.7 GPa) is the second hardest.

  17. Evaluation of gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 by means of various functions of gravity potential, and by GNSS/levelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kostelecký

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 (Förste et al., 2014 is the latest combined global gravity field model of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse. EIGEN-6C4 has been generated including the satellite gravity gradiometry data of the entire GOCE mission (November 2009 till October 2013 and is of maximum spherical degree and order 2190. In this study EIGEN-6C4 has been compared with EGM2008 to its maximum degree and order via gravity disturbances and Tzz part of the Marussi tensor of the second derivatives of the disturbing potential. The emphasis is put on such areas where GOCE data (complete set of gradiometry measurements after reductions in EIGEN-6C4 obviously contributes to an improvement of the gravity field description. GNSS/levelling geoid heights are independent data source for the evaluation of gravity field models. Therefore, we use the GNSS/levelling data sets over the territories of Europe, Czech Republic and Slovakia for the evaluation of EIGEN-6C4 w.r.t. EGM2008.

  18. ALTERATION IN CONTRACTILE RESPONSE TO NORADRENALINE,5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE,SARAFOTOXIN 6c,AND ANGIOTENSINⅡIN RAT MESENTERIC ARTERY DURING ORGAN CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Yongxiao(曹永孝); He Langchong(贺浪冲); Xu Cangbao(徐仓宝); EDVINSSON Lars

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the vasoconstrictive effects of 9 mediators on fresh and incubated mesenteric arteries of rats. Methods The superior mesenteric artery of rat was removed and the endothelium was denuded. The vessels were cut into 1 mm long cylindrical segments and subjected to organ culture for 24 hours. Fresh or incubated segments were immersed into tissue baths and the concentration-response curves were obtained by cumulative administration of the vasoconstrictors. Results In fresh mesenteric artery, endothelin-1 (ET-1), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), and angiotensinⅡ (AngⅡ) induced potent and sustained constrictions in a concentration-dependent manner. The contraction induced by sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) was weak, while bradykinin (BK), des-Arg-bradykinin (DA-BK), and human urotensinⅡ (hUT-II) showed no detectable contraction. The concentraion-response curves in order of slopes was ET-1, NA, 5-HT, 5-CT, and AngⅡ. The order of the maximum contractions was ET-1>NA=5-HT=5-CT>AngⅡ>S6c. After organ culture, the concentration-response curves induced by S6c, NA, and 5-HT were significantly increased, while that induced by AngⅡ was decreased as comparing to fresh arteries. BK contracted the artery only weakly. Conclusion Organ culture changed the phenotypes towards an increased efficacy of NA, 5-HT, S6c, and a reduced efficacy of AngⅡ, which is in accordance with the results of pharmacological characterization in some human vascular disease.

  19. Subchronic toxicity of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D L; Morrissey, R L; Blakemore, W; Crowell, J; Siitonen, P; Felton, P; Allen, R; Cronin, G

    1996-02-01

    Triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (trien-2HCl; CAS No. 38260-01-04), a chelating agent used to treat Wilson's disease patients who are intolerant of the drug of choice, was tested for subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Mice and rats received trien-2HCl in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 120, 600, or 3000 ppm for up to 92 days. Twenty mice and 18 rats of each sex were assigned to each dose group fed either a cereal-based (NIH-31) or a purified (AIN-76A) diet, both containing nutritionally adequate levels of copper. An additional control group of rats and mice received a Cu-deficient AIN-76A diet. This low copper diet resulted in Cu-deficiency symptoms, such as anemia, liver periportal cytomegaly, pancreatic atrophy and multifocal necrosis, spleen hematopoietic cell proliferation, and increased heart weight, together with undetectable levels of plasma copper in rats but not in mice. Trien-2HCl lowered plasma copper levels some-what (at 600 and 3000 ppm) in rats fed the AIN-76A diet, but did not induce the usual signs of copper deficiency. Trien-2HCl caused an increased frequency of uterine dilatation at 3000 ppm in rats fed AIN-76A diet that was not noted in females fed the Cu-deficient diet. Trien-2HCl toxicity occurred only in mice in the highest dose group fed an AIN-76A diet. Increased frequencies of inflammation of the lung interstitium and liver periportal fatty infiltration were seen in both sexes, and hematopoietic cell proliferation was seen in the spleen of males. Kidney and body weights were reduced in males as was the incidence of renal cytoplasmic vacuolization. There were no signs of copper deficiency in mice exposed to trien-2HCl. The only effect of trien-2HCl in animals fed the NIH-31 diet was a reduced liver copper level in both rat sexes, noted at 3000 ppm.

  20. CCL2, but not its receptor, is essential to restrict immune privileged central nervous system-invasion of Japanese encephalitis virus via regulating accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a re-emerging zoonotic flavivirus that poses an increasing threat to global health and welfare due to rapid changes in climate and demography. Although the CCR2-CCL2 axis plays an important role in trafficking CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes to regulate immunopathological diseases, little is known about their role in monocyte trafficking during viral encephalitis caused by JEV infection. Here, we explored the role of CCR2 and its ligand CCL2 in JE caused by JEV infection using CCR2- and CCL2-ablated murine models. Somewhat surprisingly, the ablation of CCR2 and CCL2 resulted in starkly contrasting susceptibility to JE. CCR2 ablation induced enhanced resistance to JE, whereas CCL2 ablation highly increased susceptibility to JE. This contrasting regulation of JE progression by CCR2 and CCL2 was coupled to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and Ly-6G(hi) granulocytes. There was also enhanced expression of CC and CXC chemokines in the CNS of CCL2-ablated mice, which appeared to induce CNS infiltration of these cell populations. However, our data revealed that contrasting regulation of JE in CCR2- and CCL2-ablated mice was unlikely to be mediated by innate natural killer and adaptive T-cell responses. Furthermore, CCL2 produced by haematopoietic stem cell-derived leucocytes played a dominant role in CNS accumulation of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in infected bone marrow chimeric models, thereby exacerbating JE progression. Collectively, our data indicate that CCL2 plays an essential role in conferring protection against JE caused by JEV infection. In addition, blockage of CCR2, but not CCL2, will aid in the development of strategies for prophylactics and therapeutics of JE.

  1. Efficient polymer light-emit ting diodes with violet blue emission based on blends of PSiF6-PPP and PSiFC6C6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Renyu; MO Yueqi; PENG Junbiao

    2006-01-01

    Efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with violet blue emission were fabricated using blends of copolymers of paraphenylene-cosilafluorene (PSiF6-PPP) and polymer of poly (9,9'alkyl-3,6-silafluorene) (PSiFC6C6). The performances of the devices are sensitive to the blend ratio.When the mass ratio of PSiF6-PPP to PSiFC6C6 is 1.96% at luminance of 105 cd.m-2, its electroluminescent (EL) spectrum peaks at 398 nm and full width at half maximum is 67 nm. The improvements of the device performances were due to the energy transfer from PSiFC6C6 to PSiF6-PPP and the balanced injection of electrons and holes.

  2. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  3. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  4. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  5. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  6. A different treatment method applied in a case in which osseous torticolis developed due to C6-C7 old fracture dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Taser, Omer; Cakmak, Mehmet; Domanic, Unsal; Karamehmetoglu, M.

    2004-01-01

    A report including a diffrent treatment method about a case who had an old fracture-dislocation at the C6-C7 level has been presented. The late results obtained from this case has been discussed under the light of the literature.

  7. EFFECT OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE ON DNA METHYLATION AND EXPRESSION OF EARLY-INTERMEDIATE PROTOONCOGENES IN THE LIVER OF B6C3F1 MICE. (R825384)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a multimedia environmental pollution that is carcinogenic in mouse liver. The ability of TCE to modulate DNA methylation and the expression of immediate-early protooncogenes was evaluated. Female B6C3F1 mice were administered 1000 mg/kg TCE by gavage 5 ...

  8. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K; Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Christiansen, Michael; Beebe, Elyse; Carter, Darrick; Fox, Christopher B; Howard, Randall F; Reed, Steven G; Sauerwein, Robert; Theisen, Michael

    2016-04-27

    A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment of the sexual-stage protein Pfs48/45-6C genetically fused to GMZ2, an asexual vaccine antigen in advanced clinical development. To select the most suitable vaccine formulation for downstream clinical studies, GMZ2.6C was tested with various immune modulators in different adjuvant formulations (stable emulsions, liposomes, and alum) in C57BL/6 mice. Some, but not all, formulations containing either the synthetic TLR4 agonist GLA or SLA elicited the highest parasite-specific antibody titers, the greatest IFN-γ responses in CD4+ TH1 cells, and the highest percentage of multifunctional CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ and TNF in response to GMZ2.6C. Both of these agonists have good safety records in humans. PMID:26994314

  9. Core phenomenology. TEC report on CRBRP PRA Phase II, Task 6C. Final draft report, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the determination of the risk potential associated with core-damage accident sequences for the CRBRP, a review of the core-damage phenomenology is necessary. How core damage proceeds, its effects on the primary system boundary, and the timing and energetic potential associated with core damage are important to determining the challenge to containment and the ultimate release of fission products to the environment. This chapter addresses the phenomenology related to the core-damage processes and by the use of a core-response event tree, estimates are made of the probability that certain core-response scenarios are followed

  10. MicroRNA transfection and AGO-bound CLIP-seq data sets reveal distinct determinants of miRNA action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J; Jacobsen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Microarray expression analyses following miRNA transfection/inhibition and, more recently, Argonaute cross-linked immunoprecipitation (CLIP)-seq assays have been used to detect miRNA target sites. CLIP and expression approaches measure differing stages of miRNA functioning-initial binding of the mi......RNP complex and subsequent message repression. We use nonparametric predictive models to characterize a large number of known target and flanking features, utilizing miRNA transfection, HITS-CLIP, and PAR-CLIP data. In particular, we utilize the precise spatial information provided by CLIP-seq to analyze...... the predictive effect of target flanking features. We observe distinct target determinants between expression-based and CLIP-based data. Target flanking features such as flanking region conservation are an important AGO-binding determinant-we hypothesize that CLIP experiments have a preference for strongly bound...

  11. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals the E3 SUMO-protein ligase gene SIZ1 as a novel determinant of furfural tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background Furfural is a major growth inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and improving furfural tolerance of microorganisms is critical for rapid and efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we used the RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution (RAGE) method to select for furfural resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified a new determinant of furfural tolerance. Results By using a genome-wide RNAi (RNA-interference) screen in S. cerevisiae for genes in...

  12. Chronic parasitic infection maintains high frequencies of short-lived Ly6C+CD4+ effector T cells that are required for protection against re-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Peters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the ability of long-lived CD8(+ memory T cells to mediate protection against systemic viral infections, the relationship between CD4(+ T cell memory and acquired resistance against infectious pathogens remains poorly defined. This is especially true for T helper 1 (Th1 concomitant immunity, in which protection against reinfection coincides with a persisting primary infection. In these situations, pre-existing effector CD4 T cells generated by ongoing chronic infection, not memory cells, may be essential for protection against reinfection. We present a systematic study of the tissue homing properties, functionality, and life span of subsets of memory and effector CD4 T cells activated in the setting of chronic Leishmania major infection in resistant C57Bl/6 mice. We found that pre-existing, CD44(+CD62L(-T-bet(+Ly6C+ effector (T(EFF cells that are short-lived in the absence of infection and are not derived from memory cells reactivated by secondary challenge, mediate concomitant immunity. Upon adoptive transfer and challenge, non-dividing Ly6C(+ T(EFF cells preferentially homed to the skin, released IFN-γ, and conferred protection as compared to CD44(+CD62L(-Ly6C(- effector memory or CD44(+CD62L(+Ly6C(- central memory cells. During chronic infection, Ly6C(+ T(EFF cells were maintained at high frequencies via reactivation of T(CM and the T(EFF themselves. The lack of effective vaccines for many chronic diseases may be because protection against infectious challenge requires the maintenance of pre-existing T(EFF cells, and is therefore not amenable to conventional, memory inducing, vaccination strategies.

  13. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  14. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  15. Identification of a human ABCC10 orthologue in Catharanthus roseus reveals a U12-type intron determinant for the N-terminal domain feature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taissir El-Guizani; Clotilde Guibert; Saïda Triki; Benoit St-Pierre; Eric Ducos

    2014-04-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are members of a large superfamily of proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to translocate a wide range of substrates across biological membranes. In general, members of C subfamily (ABCC) are structurally characterized by an additional (N-terminal) transmembrane domain (TMD0). Phylogenetic analysis of plant ABCCs separates their protein sequences into three distinct clusters: I and II are plant specific whereas cluster III contains both human and plant ABCCs. Screening of the Plant Medicinal Genomics Resource database allowed us to identify 16 ABCCs partial sequences in Catharanthus roseus; two of which belong to the unique CrABCC1 transcript that we identified in cluster III. Genomic organization of CrABCC1 TMD0 coding sequence displays an AT-AC U12-type intron that is conserved in higher plant orthologues. We showed that CrABCC1, like its human orthologue ABCC10, produces alternative transcripts that encode protein sequences with a truncated form of TMD0 without the first transmembrane span (TM1). Subcellular localization of CrABCC1 TMD0 variants using yellow fluorescent protein fusions reveals that the TM1 is required for a correct routing of the TMD0 to the tonoplast. Finally, the specific repartition of CrABCC1 orthologues in some species suggests that this gene was lost several times during evolution and that its physiological function may, rely on a common feature of multicellular eukaryotes.

  16. Identification of a human ABCC10 orthologue in Catharanthus roseus reveals a U12-type intron determinant for the N-terminal domain feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Guizani, Taissir; Guibert, Clotilde; Triki, Saida; St-Pierre, Benoit; Ducos, Eric

    2014-04-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are members of a large superfamily of proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to translocate a wide range of substrates across biological membranes. In general, members of C subfamily (ABCC) are structurally characterized by an additional (N-terminal) transmembrane domain (TMD0). Phylogenetic analysis of plant ABCCs separates their protein sequences into three distinct clusters: I and II are plant specific whereas cluster III contains both human and plant ABCCs. Screening of the Plant Medicinal Genomics Resource database allowed us to identify 16 ABCCs partial sequences in Catharanthus roseus; two of which belong to the unique CrABCC1 transcript that we identified in cluster III. Genomic organization of CrABCC1 TMD0 coding sequence displays an AT-AC U12-type intron that is conserved in higher plant orthologues. We showed that CrABCC1, like its human orthologue ABCC10, produces alternative transcripts that encode protein sequences with a truncated form of TMD0 without the first transmembrane span (TM1). Subcellular localization of CrABCC1 TMD0 variants using yellow fluorescent protein fusions reveals that the TM1 is required for a correct routing of the TMD0 to the tonoplast. Finally, the specific repartition of CrABCC1 orthologues in some species suggests that this gene was lost several times during evolution and that its physiological function may, rely on a common feature of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24840820

  17. Aspirin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  18. Interrogation of the protein-protein interactions between human BRCA2 BRC repeats and RAD51 reveals atomistic determinants of affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Daniel J; Rajendra, Eeson; Roberts-Thomson, Meredith; Hardwick, Bryn; McKenzie, Grahame J; Payne, Mike C; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 controls the recombinase RAD51 in the reactions that mediate homologous DNA recombination, an essential cellular process required for the error-free repair of DNA double-stranded breaks. The primary mode of interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51 is through the BRC repeats, which are ∼35 residue peptide motifs that interact directly with RAD51 in vitro. Human BRCA2, like its mammalian orthologues, contains 8 BRC repeats whose sequence and spacing are evolutionarily conserved. Despite their sequence conservation, there is evidence that the different human BRC repeats have distinct capacities to bind RAD51. A previously published crystal structure reports the structural basis of the interaction between human BRC4 and the catalytic core domain of RAD51. However, no structural information is available regarding the binding of the remaining seven BRC repeats to RAD51, nor is it known why the BRC repeats show marked variation in binding affinity to RAD51 despite only subtle sequence variation. To address these issues, we have performed fluorescence polarisation assays to indirectly measure relative binding affinity, and applied computational simulations to interrogate the behaviour of the eight human BRC-RAD51 complexes, as well as a suite of BRC cancer-associated mutations. Our computational approaches encompass a range of techniques designed to link sequence variation with binding free energy. They include MM-PBSA and thermodynamic integration, which are based on classical force fields, and a recently developed approach to computing binding free energies from large-scale quantum mechanical first principles calculations with the linear-scaling density functional code onetep. Our findings not only reveal how sequence variation in the BRC repeats directly affects affinity with RAD51 and provide significant new insights into the control of RAD51 by human BRCA2, but also exemplify a palette of computational and experimental tools for the

  19. Analysis of integrated multiple 'omics' datasets reveals the mechanisms of initiation and determination in the formation of tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Li; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Tian, Yunhe; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Xiaoran; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-09-01

    All tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa originate from the expansion of fibrous roots (FRs), but not all FRs can successfully transform into tuberous roots. This study identified differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with the expansion of FRs, by comparing the tuberous root at expansion stages (initiated tuberous root, ITRs) and FRs at the seedling stage (initiated FRs, IFRs). The role of miRNAs in the expansion of FRs was also explored using the sRNA transcriptome and degradome to identify miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed between ITRs and FRs at the mature stage (unexpanded FRs, UFRs, which are unable to expand into ITRs). A total of 6032 genes and 450 proteins were differentially expressed between ITRs and IFRs. Integrated analyses of these data revealed several genes and proteins involved in light signalling, hormone response, and signal transduction that might participate in the induction of tuberous root formation. Several genes related to cell division and cell wall metabolism were involved in initiating the expansion of IFRs. Of 135 miRNAs differentially expressed between ITRs and UFRs, there were 27 miRNAs whose targets were specifically identified in the degradome. Analysis of target genes showed that several miRNAs specifically expressed in UFRs were involved in the degradation of key genes required for the formation of tuberous roots. As far as could be ascertained, this is the first time that the miRNAs that control the transition of FRs to tuberous roots in R. glutinosa have been identified. This comprehensive analysis of 'omics' data sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of tuberous roots formation.

  20. Interrogation of the protein-protein interactions between human BRCA2 BRC repeats and RAD51 reveals atomistic determinants of affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 controls the recombinase RAD51 in the reactions that mediate homologous DNA recombination, an essential cellular process required for the error-free repair of DNA double-stranded breaks. The primary mode of interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51 is through the BRC repeats, which are ∼35 residue peptide motifs that interact directly with RAD51 in vitro. Human BRCA2, like its mammalian orthologues, contains 8 BRC repeats whose sequence and spacing are evolutionarily conserved. Despite their sequence conservation, there is evidence that the different human BRC repeats have distinct capacities to bind RAD51. A previously published crystal structure reports the structural basis of the interaction between human BRC4 and the catalytic core domain of RAD51. However, no structural information is available regarding the binding of the remaining seven BRC repeats to RAD51, nor is it known why the BRC repeats show marked variation in binding affinity to RAD51 despite only subtle sequence variation. To address these issues, we have performed fluorescence polarisation assays to indirectly measure relative binding affinity, and applied computational simulations to interrogate the behaviour of the eight human BRC-RAD51 complexes, as well as a suite of BRC cancer-associated mutations. Our computational approaches encompass a range of techniques designed to link sequence variation with binding free energy. They include MM-PBSA and thermodynamic integration, which are based on classical force fields, and a recently developed approach to computing binding free energies from large-scale quantum mechanical first principles calculations with the linear-scaling density functional code onetep. Our findings not only reveal how sequence variation in the BRC repeats directly affects affinity with RAD51 and provide significant new insights into the control of RAD51 by human BRCA2, but also exemplify a palette of computational and

  1. Determination of plasmid copy number reveals the total plasmid DNA amount is greater than the chromosomal DNA amount in Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zhong

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used bacterial bio-insecticide, and most insecticidal crystal protein-coding genes are located on plasmids. Most strains of B. thuringiensis harbor numerous diverse plasmids, although the plasmid copy numbers (PCNs of all native plasmids in this host and the corresponding total plasmid DNA amount remains unknown. In this study, we determined the PCNs of 11 plasmids (ranging from 2 kb to 416 kb in a sequenced B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain YBT-1520 using real-time qPCR. PCNs were found to range from 1.38 to 172, and were negatively correlated to plasmid size. The amount of total plasmid DNA (∼8.7 Mbp was 1.62-fold greater than the amount of chromosomal DNA (∼5.4 Mbp at the mid-exponential growth stage (OD(600 = 2.0 of the organism. Furthermore, we selected three plasmids with different sizes and replication mechanisms to determine the PCNs over the entire life cycle. We found that the PCNs dynamically shifted at different stages, reaching their maximum during the mid-exponential growth or stationary phases and remaining stable and close to their minimum after the prespore formation stage. The PCN of pBMB2062, which is the smallest plasmid (2062 bp and has the highest PCN of those tested, varied in strain YBT-1520, HD-1, and HD-136 (172, 115, and 94, respectively. These findings provide insight into both the total plasmid DNA amount of B. thuringiensis and the strong ability of the species to harbor plasmids.

  2. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  3. miRNA–target chimeras reveal miRNA 3′-end pairing as a major determinant of Argonaute target specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael J.; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Luna, Joseph M.; Park, Christopher Y.; Fak, John J.; Nishiuchi, Eiko; Rice, Charles M.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which mediate posttranscriptional silencing of target messenger RNAs. Despite their importance in many biological processes, rules governing AGO–miRNA targeting are only partially understood. Here we report a modified AGO HITS-CLIP strategy termed CLEAR (covalent ligation of endogenous Argonaute-bound RNAs)-CLIP, which enriches miRNAs ligated to their endogenous mRNA targets. CLEAR-CLIP mapped ∼130,000 endogenous miRNA–target interactions in mouse brain and ∼40,000 in human hepatoma cells. Motif and structural analysis define expanded pairing rules for over 200 mammalian miRNAs. Most interactions combine seed-based pairing with distinct, miRNA-specific patterns of auxiliary pairing. At some regulatory sites, this specificity confers distinct silencing functions to miRNA family members with shared seed sequences but divergent 3′-ends. This work provides a means for explicit biochemical identification of miRNA sites in vivo, leading to the discovery that miRNA 3′-end pairing is a general determinant of AGO binding specificity. PMID:26602609

  4. A conceptual framework for using DOE 5700.6C and the other DOE orders as an integrated management system; the Fermilab experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, I describe a conceptual framework that uses DOE Order 5700.6C and more than 140 other DOE Orders as an integrated management system -- but I describe it within the context of the broader sociological and cultural issues of doing research at DOE funded facilities. The conceptual framework has two components. The first involves an interpretation of the 10 criteria of DOE 5700.6C that is tailored for a research environment. The second component involves using the 10 criteria as functional categories that orchestrate and integrate the other DOE Orders into a total management system. The Fermilab approach aims at reducing (or eliminating) the redundancy and overlap within the DOE Orders system at the contractor level

  5. A conceptual framework for using DOE 5700.6C and the other DOE orders as an integrated management system; the Fermilab experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1992-06-01

    In this paper, I describe a conceptual framework that uses DOE Order 5700.6C and more than 140 other DOE Orders as an integrated management system -- but I describe it within the context of the broader sociological and cultural issues of doing research at DOE funded facilities. The conceptual framework has two components. The first involves an interpretation of the 10 criteria of DOE 5700.6C that is tailored for a research environment. The second component involves using the 10 criteria as functional categories that orchestrate and integrate the other DOE Orders into a total management system. The Fermilab approach aims at reducing (or eliminating) the redundancy and overlap within the DOE Orders system at the contractor level.

  6. A conceptual framework for using DOE 5700. 6C and the other DOE orders as an integrated management system; the Fermilab experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1992-06-01

    In this paper, I describe a conceptual framework that uses DOE Order 5700.6C and more than 140 other DOE Orders as an integrated management system -- but I describe it within the context of the broader sociological and cultural issues of doing research at DOE funded facilities. The conceptual framework has two components. The first involves an interpretation of the 10 criteria of DOE 5700.6C that is tailored for a research environment. The second component involves using the 10 criteria as functional categories that orchestrate and integrate the other DOE Orders into a total management system. The Fermilab approach aims at reducing (or eliminating) the redundancy and overlap within the DOE Orders system at the contractor level.

  7. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Daniel T.; Keynton, Jennifer L.; Buenavista, Maria T.; Jin, Xingjian; Patel, Saloni H.; Kyosuke, Shinohara; Williams, Debbie J.; Hamada, Hiroshi; Hussain, Rohanah; Nauli, Surya M.; Norris, Dominic P.

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This ‘nodal flow’ is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo. PMID:27272319

  8. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Daniel T; Keynton, Jennifer L; Buenavista, Maria T; Jin, Xingjian; Patel, Saloni H; Kyosuke, Shinohara; Vibert, Jennifer; Williams, Debbie J; Hamada, Hiroshi; Hussain, Rohanah; Nauli, Surya M; Norris, Dominic P

    2016-06-01

    During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This 'nodal flow' is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo. PMID:27272319

  9. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Grimes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During mammalian development, left-right (L-R asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This 'nodal flow' is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo.

  10. Closed-Flow Column Experiments - A Numerical Study on Breakthrough Oscillations Reveals a Decreased Uncertainty in the Inverse Determination of Transport Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The identification of transport parameters by inverse modeling often suffers from large uncertainties due to equifinality or parameter correlation when models are fitted to observations of the solute breakthrough in column outflow experiments. This issue can be approached by increasing the information potential of the observation, e.g. by running multiple experiments at different boundary conditions. A promising complementary approach of designing soil column experiments in order to further increase the obtained information is the closed-flow mode that is characterized by the recirculation of the effluent solution into the solution supply vessel. Depending on the experimental conditions, the solute concentration in the mixing vessel and the effluent follows a damped sinusoidal oscillation. As a result, the closed-flow experiment provides additional observables in the breakthrough curve, which are the initial exponential decrease in concentration in mixing vessel concentration, the oscillation wavelength and the extent of damping, each indicative for corresponding transport parameters. Furthermore, the concentration in the porous medium and the mixing vessel converges to equilibrium due to the closed loop. The evaluation of these emergent features allows intrinsic control over boundary conditions and impacts the uncertainty of parameters in inverse modeling. We present a comprehensive numerical sensitivity analysis to illustrate the potential application of closed-flow experiments. We can show that the sensitivity with respect to the apparent dispersion can be controlled by the experimenter leading to a decrease in parameter uncertainty as compared to classical experiments by an order of magnitude for optimal settings. With these finding we are also able to show a reduction of equifinality found for situations, where rate-limited interactions impede a proper determination of the apparent dispersion and rate coefficients. This renders the closed-flow mode a useful

  11. Investigation of specificity determinants in bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase reveals queuine, the substrate of its eucaryotic counterpart, as inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Biela

    Full Text Available Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt catalyses the exchange of the genetically encoded guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs(His,Tyr,Asp,Asn by the premodified base preQ1, which is further converted to queuine at the tRNA level. As eucaryotes are not able to synthesise queuine de novo but acquire it through their diet, eucaryotic Tgt directly inserts the hypermodified base into the wobble position of the tRNAs mentioned above. Bacterial Tgt is required for the efficient pathogenicity of Shigella sp, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and, hence, it constitutes a putative target for the rational design of anti-Shigellosis compounds. Since mammalian Tgt is known to be indirectly essential to the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine, it is necessary to create substances which only inhibit bacterial but not eucaryotic Tgt. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to study selectivity-determining features within both types of proteins. Homology models of Caenorhabditis elegans Tgt and human Tgt suggest that the replacement of Cys158 and Val233 in bacterial Tgt (Zymomonas mobilis Tgt numbering by valine and accordingly glycine in eucaryotic Tgt largely accounts for the different substrate specificities. In the present study we have created mutated variants of Z. mobilis Tgt in order to investigate the impact of a Cys158Val and a Val233Gly exchange on catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Using enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography, we gained evidence that the Cys158Val mutation reduces the affinity to preQ1 while leaving the affinity to guanine unaffected. The Val233Gly exchange leads to an enlarged substrate binding pocket, that is necessary to accommodate queuine in a conformation compatible with the intermediately covalently bound tRNA molecule. Contrary to our expectations, we found that a priori queuine is recognised by the binding pocket of bacterial Tgt without, however, being used as a substrate.

  12. Genetic manipulation of a transcription-regulating sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals key nucleotides determining its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

    2014-08-01

    The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.

  13. Thalidomide enhances both primary and secondary host resistances to Listeria monocytogenes infection by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide can modulate the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, thalidomide immunomodulation increased primary host resistance to intravenously infected Listeria monocytogenes. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced host resistance to L. monocytogenes by focusing on the neutrophils. Female B6C3F1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with thalidomide (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Exposure to thalidomide increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleens and livers of L. monocytogenes-infected mice when compared to the L. monocytogenes-infected control mice. Additionally, the percentage of neutrophils was also significantly increased after Thd treatment in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. Further studies using antibodies to deplete corresponding cells indicated that thalidomide-mediated increase in primary host resistance (both the moribundity and colony counts in the liver and spleen) to L. monocytogenes infection was due to its effect on neutrophils but not CD8+ T cells or NK cells. Finally, Thd exposure also increased host resistance to secondary host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection, and depletion of neutrophils abolished the protective effect. In conclusion, thalidomide enhanced host resistance to both primary and secondary L. monocytogenes infections by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Amphioxus genes of the proprotein convertase family, including aPC6C, a marker of epithelial fusions during embryology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Bertrand, Alain Camasses, Mathilde Paris, Nicholas D. Holland, Hector Escriva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertases (PCs comprise a family of subtilisin-like endoproteases that activate precursor proteins (including, prohormones, growth factors, and adhesion molecules during their transit through secretory pathways or at the cell surface. To explore the evolution of the PC gene family in chordates, we made a phylogenetic analysis of PC genes found in databases, with special attention to three PC genes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative to the vertebrates. Since some vertebrate PC genes are essential for early development, we investigated the expression pattern of the C isoform of the amphioxus PC6 gene (aPC6C. In amphioxus embryos and larvae, aPC6C is expressed at places where epithelia fuse. Several kinds of fusions occur: ectoderm-to-ectoderm during neurulation; mesoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the preoral ciliated pit; and endoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the mouth, pharyngeal slits, anus, and external opening of the club-shaped gland. Presumably, at all these sites, aPC6C is activating proteins favoring association between previously disjunct cell populations.

  15. Evidence of CCR2-independent transmigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into the brain after permanent cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Broughton, Brad R S; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2016-04-15

    Previously we showed that INCB3344, a CCR2 antagonist, inhibits transmigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into the brain after ischemia-reperfusion. Here we tested the effect of CCR2 inhibition during permanent cerebral ischemia. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (30 or 100mg/kg IP) 1h before middle cerebral artery occlusion and at 2 and 6h after the initiation of ischemia. After 24h, we assessed functional outcome, infarct volume and quantified immune cells in blood and brain. The increase in circulating bone marrow-derived Ly6C(hi) monocytes, but not the infiltration of those cells into the brain, was blocked by the CCR2 antagonist. INCB3344 had no effect on either neurological deficit or infarct volume. Our data confirm that cerebral ischemia triggers a CCR2-dependent increase in circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes, but suggest that in the absence of reperfusion these cells may transmigrate into the ischemic brain in a CCR2-independent manner.

  16. Nido-Carborane building-block reagents. 3. Cyclic and open-chain oligomers incorporating -CB4H6C - units. Crown carboranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open-chain dialkynes EtC≡C(CH2)nC≡CEt (n = 4, 6), the trialkyne HC≡C(CH2)5C≡CH, and the cyclic dialkynes CH2(CH2)4C≡C(CH2)nC≡C (n = 4-6) were treated with B5H9 and (C2H5)3 to give the corresponding nido-carborane oligomers, in which the original -C≡C- units are converted to -CB4H6C- nido-carborane cages. In each case, all available -C≡C- groups were transformed to carborane moieties. No partially converted products (having both carborane and -C≡C- groups in the chain) were found; when the B5H9/-C≡C- ratio employed was 2+ and oxidative fusion, forming products incorporating C4B8 cages. The cyclic bis(carborane) CH2(CH2)4CB4H6C(CH2)5CB4H6C is an air-stable oil that can be deprotonated but does not under metal-promoted oxidative fusion. All products were characterized by 11B and 1H NMR, infrared, visible-uv, and mass spectroscopy, and the 13C NMR spectra of linear bis(carboranes) are reported. 9 references, 7 figures, 4 tables

  17. A preliminary update of the Direct Approach GOCE Processing and a new release of EIGEN-6C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerste, C.; Bruinsma, S. L.; Flechtner, F.; Marty, J.; Lemoine, J. M.; Dahle, C.; Abrikosov, O.; Neumayer, H.; Biancale, R.; Barthelmes, F.; Balmino, G.

    2012-12-01

    GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse have a long-time close cooperation in the field of global gravity field determination at which the present focus is (1) on GOCE gravity field determination and (2) on computation of combined gravity field models. The goal of GOCE is to map the gravity field of the Earth at a spatial resolution of about 100 km (i.e. spherical harmonics to degree and order 200) with an accumulated geoid error of less than 2-3 cm at this scale. We apply the direct numerical approach to compute GOCE gravity fields. This comprises (1) the estimation of the long wavelength gravity field signal from a dynamic orbit computation using precise kinematic orbit positions as observations (pseudo-SST) and (2) the discovery of the short wavelength information by analyzing the satellite gravity gradients (SGG). The 3-axes GOCE-gradiometer provides gravity gradients which are measurable with a high precision only within the measurement bandwidth (mbw) of approximately 0.005 to 0.1 Hz. This requires appropriate filtering of the gravity gradients and the associated observation equations. For this purpose we use an order 12 10-125 mHz band-pass filter. The pseudo-SST and the SGG measurements are processed separately, producing SST and high-resolution SGG normal equations. These matrices are subsequently combined and solved using Cholesky decomposition. Due to the polar gaps in the GOCE data, we apply the spherical cap regularization. In preparation of the fourth gravity field model that will be delivered to the scientific community in February 2013, we have computed a set of new GOCE gravity field models using the reprocessed gravity gradients provided by GOCE-HPF including the test-wise application of different band-pass filters We included the GOCE data in the combination of satellite and ground-based gravity data to obtain high-resolution global gravity field models. The first combined model containing GOCE data is our initial release of EIGEN-6, the latest combined

  18. NTP Toxicity Studies of Cyclohexanone Oxime Administered by Drinking Water to B6C3F1 Mice (CAS No. 100-64-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Cyclohexanone oxime is used primarily as a captive intermediate in the synthesis of caprolactam for the production of polycaprolactam (Nylon-6) fibers and plastics and also in a variety of industrial applications. Cyclohexanone oxime was selected for study because of the potential for human exposure and the interest in oximes as a chemical class. Toxicity studies of cyclohexanone oxime (approximately 99% pure) were carried out in male and female B6C3F1 mice; the compound was administered in drinking water for 2 weeks or 13 weeks. In addition, the genetic toxicity of cyclohexanone oxime was evaluated by determining mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, with and without S9 activation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was also determined. In the 2-week study, groups of five male and five female mice were given drinking water containing 0, 106, 312, 625, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. No deaths occurred, and there was no decrease in weight gain in any group. No gross lesions were observed; there were significant increases in relative spleen weights of males and females in the 2,500 ppm group and increases in the relative liver weight of male mice exposed to 312 ppm or greater. In the 13-week studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were given drinking water containing 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000 or 10,000 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. Deaths occurred in the 10,000 ppm groups and weight gain was depressed in males and females given 10,000 ppm and in females given 5,000 ppm. There were significant increases in relative spleen weight at exposure levels of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm and significant increases in the relative liver weights of males and females that received 10,000 ppm. Microscopically, hematopoietic cell proliferation was observed in the spleen of males and females in

  19. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Furfuryl Alcohol (CAS No. 98-00-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Furfuryl alcohol-based resins are used as binding agents in foundry sand and as corrosion inhibitors in mortar, grout, and cement. Because of their heat resistance, furan resins are used in the manufacture of fiberglass-reinforced plastic equipment. Furfuryl alcohol was selected for evaluation because of the absence of data on its carcinogenic potential and its large production volume, widespread use in manufacturing, and ubiquitous presence in consumer goods. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to furfuryl alcohol (greater than 98% pure) by inhalation for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to concentrations of 0, 16, 31, 63, 125, or 250 ppm furfuryl alcohol by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All male and female rats exposed to 250 ppm died by day 2 of the study, and one male rat exposed to 125 ppm died on day 5. Final mean body weights of male and female rats exposed to 125 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber control groups. Male rats exposed to 31, 63, or 125 ppm and female rats exposed to 125 ppm gained less weight than the chamber control groups. Clinical findings included dyspnea, hypoactivity, and nasal and ocular discharge in males and females exposed to 63, 125, or 250 ppm. All exposed animals developed lesions in the nasal respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, and the severities of these lesions generally increased with increasing exposure concentration. 16-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to concentrations of 0, 16, 31, 63, 125, or 250 ppm furfuryl alcohol by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All male and female mice exposed to 250 ppm died by day 4 of the study, and one female mouse exposed to 125 ppm died on day

  20. Cross-reactions in the HLA system revealed by red blood cells expressing HLA determinants, with particular reference to cross-reaction between HLA-A2 and B17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, R

    1983-01-01

    Sera with cytotoxic and haemagglutinating activity towards HLA-A2/28 were also shown to react with red blood cells (RBC) expressing the HLA-B17 antigen determinant. Absorption procedures with white blood cells (WBC) indicated that this was due to an HLA-A2/B17 cross-reaction. Absorption experiments with some other sera which previously had shown cytotoxic and haemagglutinating activity towards different HLA specificities, revealed broad cross-reaction related to HLA-B locus antigens.

  1. Muramyl dipeptide induces NOD2-dependent Ly6C(high monocyte recruitment to the lungs and protects against influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coulombe

    Full Text Available Bacterial peptidoglycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP and derivatives have long-recognized antiviral properties but their mechanism of action remains unclear. In recent years, the pattern-recognition receptor NOD2 has been shown to mediate innate responses to MDP. Here, we show that MDP treatment of mice infected with Influenza A virus (IAV significantly reduces mortality, viral load and pulmonary inflammation in a NOD2-dependent manner. Importantly, the induction of type I interferon (IFN and CCL2 chemokine was markedly increased in the lungs following MDP treatment and correlated with a NOD2-dependent enhancement in circulating monocytes. Mechanistically, the protective effect of MDP could be explained by the NOD2-dependent transient increase in recruitment of Ly6C(high "inflammatory" monocytes and, to a lesser extent, neutrophils to the lungs. Indeed, impairment in both Ly6C(high monocyte recruitment and survival observed in infected Nod2-/- mice treated with MDP was recapitulated in mice deficient for the chemokine receptor CCR2 required for CCL2-mediated Ly6C(high monocyte migration from the bone marrow into the lungs. MDP-induced pulmonary monocyte recruitment occurred normally in IAV-infected and MDP-treated Ips-1-/- mice. However, IPS-1 was required for improved survival upon MDP treatment. Finally, mycobacterial N-glycolyl MDP was more potent than N-acetyl MDP expressed by most bacteria at reducing viral burden while both forms of MDP restored pulmonary function following IAV challenge. Overall, our work sheds light on the antiviral mechanism of a clinically relevant bacterial-derived compound and identifies the NOD2 pathway as a potential therapeutic target against IAV.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1212, LB4824_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1212, LB4824_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1111, LB4819_V0029

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1111, LB4819_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1511, LB4829_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1511, LB4829_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  6. Immunotoxicological profile of chloramine in female B6C3F1 mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Collins, Bradley J; Luebke, Robert W; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L

    2011-01-01

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain an adequate free-chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloramine in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered via the drinking water. Mice were exposed to chloramine-containing deionized tap water at 2, 10, 20, 100, or 200 ppm for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in drinking water consumption, body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or hematological parameters between the exposed and control animals were noted during the experimental period. There were no changes in the percentages and numbers of total B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages in the spleen. Exposure to chloramine did not affect the IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or anti-SRBC IgM antibody production. Minimal effects, judged to be biologically insignificant, were observed in the mixed-leukocyte response and NK activity. In conclusion, chloramine produced no toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered for 28 days in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2-200 ppm.

  7. Reevaluation and Classification of Duodenal Lesions in B6C3F1 Mice and F344 Rats from 4 Studies of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M; Ward, Jerrold M; Thompson, Chad M

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen-week and 2-year drinking water studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the duodenum of B6C3F1 mice but not F344 rats. In the 2-year study, Cr(VI) exposure was additionally associated with duodenal adenomas and carcinomas in mice only. Subsequent 13-week Cr(VI) studies conducted by another group demonstrated non-neoplastic duodenal lesions in B6C3F1 mice similar to those of the NTP study as well as mild duodenal hyperplasia in F344 rats. Because intestinal lesions in mice are the basis for proposed safety standards for Cr(VI), and the histopathology data are relevant to the mode of action, consistency (an important Hill criterion for causality) was assessed across the aforementioned studies. Two veterinary pathologists applied uniform diagnostic criteria to the duodenal lesions in rats and mice from the 4 repeated-dose studies. Comparable non-neoplastic intestinal lesions were evident in mice and rats from all 4 studies; however, the incidence and severity of intestinal lesions were greater in mice than rats. These findings demonstrate consistency across studies and species and highlight the importance of standardized nomenclature for intestinal pathology. The differences in the severity of non-neoplastic lesions also likely contribute to the differential tumor response.

  8. Salivaricin D, a novel intrinsically trypsin-resistant lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c isolated from a healthy infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  9. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  10. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Two Pentachlorophenol Technical-Grade Mixtures (CAS No. 87-86-5) in B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Toxicology studies of pentachlorophenol, a biocide used primarily as a wood preservative, were conducted by feeding diets containing a technical-grade composite, Dowicide EC-7 (a technical grade formulation), or pure pentachlorophenol to groups of B6C3F1 mice for 30 days. These three grades plus another commercial grade of pentachlorophenol (DP-2) were used in 6-month studies. These studies were followed by 2-year carcinogenicity studies of technical-grade pentachlorophenol and of Dowicide EC-7 in feed. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Thirty-Day and Sixteen-Month Studies: Groups of 19 male mice and 5-15 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 20, 100, 500, 2,500, or 12,500 ppm technical-grade pentachlorophenol, Dowicide EC-7, or pure pentachlorophenol for 30 consecutive days. Necropsies and histopathologic examinations were performed on all animals. Selected organs were weighed. Supplemental analyses included hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, immunology, and hepatic enzyme induction. Compound-related deaths were observed at the highest dose (12,500 ppm) with all three materials and at 2,500 ppm with EC-7 and pure pentachlorophenol (males only). Decreases in body weight gain were also observed in the groups in which deaths occurred. Diffuse centrilobular cytomegaly, karyomegaly, nuclear atypia, degeneration, or necrosis of the liver were compound-related lesions observed in all groups that received pure pentachlorophenol, technical-grade pentachlorophenol, or EC-7 at 500 ppm and above. Serum enzymes associated with liver injury were increased. In the 6-month studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were given diets containing the various grades of pentachlorophenol at the following dietary concentrations: 200, 600, or 1,800 ppm technical-grade pentachlorophenol; 200, 600, or 1,200 ppm DP-2 (not used in the 30-day studies); 200, 600, or 1,200 ppm EC-7; or 200, 500, or 1,500 ppm

  11. Overcoming recruitment barriers revealed high readiness to participate and low dropout rate among people with schizophrenia in a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of a Guided Self-Determination intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Lysaker, Paul H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment is one of the most serious challenges in performing randomized controlled trials. Often clinical trials with participants diagnosed with schizophrenia are terminated prematurely because of recruitment challenges resulting in a considerable waste of resources in the form of...... time, funding, and the participants' efforts. Dropout rates in schizophrenia trials are also high.Recruitment challenges are often due to patients not wanting to participate in research but can also be due to clinicians' concerns regarding individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants in...... research. This paper reports how overcoming recruitment challenges not related to patients revealed high readiness to take part and low dropout rates in a one year long randomized controlled trial testing Guided Self-Determination (GSD) among outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment in Assertive...

  12. Benzene metabolite levels in blood and bone marrow of B6C3F{sub 1} mice after low-level exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Strunk, M.R.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) have explored the species-specific uptake and metabolism of benzene. Results have shown that metabolism is dependent on both dose and route of administration. Of particular interest were shifts in the major metabolic pathways as a function of exposure concentration. In these studies, B6C3F{sub 1} mice were exposed to increasing levels of benzene by either gavage or inhalation. As benzene internal dose increased, the relative amounts of muconic acid and hydroquinone decreased. In contrast, the relative amount of catechol increased with increasing exposure. These results show that the relative levels of toxic metabolites are a function of exposure level. Based on these results and assuming a linear relationship between exposure concentration and levels of bone marrow metabolites, it would be difficult to detect an elevation of any phenolic metabolites above background after occupational exposures to the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm benzene.

  13. Delineation of a 6 cM commonly deleted region in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 6q chromosomal arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, B; Cavé, H; Guidal, C; Dastugue, N; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1997-02-01

    Deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been shown by cytogenetic studies in 4-11% of cases. To characterize further the region of deletion and to precisely establish its frequency, we studied loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 120 children with ALL using polymorphic markers located from the 6q14-15 chromosomal band to the telomere. LOH was detected in eight patients. A single region of LOH, flanked distally by D6S1594 and proximally by D6S301 was detected. These DNA markers are separated by 6 cM and are approximately located at the 6q21-22 band. Our present results delineate a region that is likely to contain a tumor-suppressor gene involved in a subset of childhood ALLs.

  14. An overview of hazard and risk assessment of the OECD high production volume chemical category--long chain alcohols [C(6)-C(22)] (LCOH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Belanger, Scott E; Fisk, Peter R; Schäfers, Christoph; Veenstra, Gauke; Nielsen, Allen M; Kasai, Yutaka; Willing, Andreas; Dyer, Scott D; Stanton, Kathleen; Sedlak, Richard

    2009-05-01

    This review summarizes the findings of the assessment report for the category, long chain alcohols (LCOH) with a carbon chain length range of C(6)-C(22) covering 30 substances, and >1.5million tonnes/year consumed globally. The category was evaluated under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) high production volume chemicals program in 2006. The main findings of the assessment include: (1) no unacceptable human or environmental risks were identified; (2) these materials are rapidly and readily biodegradable; (3) a parabolic relationship was demonstrated between carbon chain length and acute and chronic aquatic toxicity; (4) category-specific (quantitative) structure-activity relationships were developed enabling prediction of properties across the entire category; (5) LCOH occur naturally in the environment in an equilibrium between synthesis and degradation; (6) industry coming together and sharing resources results in minimizing the need for additional animal tests, produces cost savings, and increases scientific quality of the assessment. PMID:19038453

  15. Influence of Al on the fatigue crack growth behavior of Fe–22Mn–(3Al)–0.6C TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qian, Lihe, E-mail: dlhqian@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The influence of Al on fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of the high-Mn austenitic twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated by conducting FCG tests on Fe–22Mn–0Al–0.6C and Fe–22Mn–3Al–0.6C TWIP steels (hereafter, referred to as 0Al and 3Al TWIP steel, respectively). The FCG tests were performed at stress ratio of 0.1 under the control of stress intensity factor range using three-point bending specimens. Excepting that the traditional two-dimensional (2D) observation methods (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes) were used to observe the crack paths, fracture surfaces and microstructure features, a high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography was also applied to observe the three-dimensional (3-D) crack morphology. The results indicate that the FCG resistance of the 0Al TWIP steel is superior to that of 3Al TWIP steel in the near threshold regime. Observed from the 2D crack paths and 3D crack morphologies, it can be found that the crack surface roughness and crack deflection of the 0Al steel are greater than those of 3Al steel. It is suggested that the degree of roughness-induced crack closure decreases with the addition of Al. And the 0Al steel shows much larger plastic zone sizes ahead of the crack tip than the 3Al steel, suggesting that plasticity-induced crack closure may also play an important role in decreasing the FCG rate in the 0Al steel. By excluding the crack closure effects, the 0Al steel still exhibits a higher effective crack growth threshold value than the 3Al steel; this is considered to be due to the higher planarity of slip in the 0Al steel than in the 3Al steel, and the mechanical twins generated in the 0Al steel reduce the stress concentration at crack tip.

  16. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and quantum mechanical studies of 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithiri, S.; Arockia doss, M.; Rajarajan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.; Bharanidharan, S.; Saleem, H.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3t-pentyl2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone (PDPOTSC) were studied. The ground-state molecular geometry was ascertained by using the density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using 6-31++G(d,p) as a basis set. The vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra of PDPOTSC were computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED ⩾ 10%) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) methods PQS program. The electrical dipole moment (μ) and first hyperpolarizability (βo) values have been computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods. The calculated result (βo) shows that the title molecule might have nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. Atomic charges of C, N, S and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated using B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p). The HOMO-LUMO energies were calculated and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis has also been carried out.

  17. Differential induction of Ly6G and Ly6C positive myeloid derived suppressor cells in chronic kidney and liver inflammation and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Höchst

    Full Text Available CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC are known to be very potent suppressors of T cell immunity and can be further stratified into granulocytic MDSC and monocytic MDSC in mice based on expression of Ly6G or Ly6C, respectively. Here, using these markers and functional assays, we aimed to identify whether MDSC are induced during chronic inflammation leading to fibrosis in both kidney and liver and whether additional markers could more specifically identify these MDSC subsets. In an adenine-induced model of kidney inflammation/fibrosis suppressive Ly6Gpos MDSC were induced. The suppressive function within the Ly6G+ MDSC population was exclusively present in IFNγRβ expressing cells. In contrast, in chronic inflammation in the liver induced by bile duct ligation, suppressive capacity was exclusively present in the Ly6Cpos MDSC subset. Gene expression analyses confirmed the differential origins and regulation of those MDSC subsets. Additionally, depletion of MDSC in either kidney or liver fibrosis enhanced fibrosis markers, indicating a protective role for MDSC in organ fibrosis. Thus, our data demonstrate that during liver inflammation and kidney fibrosis MDSC with similar function arise bearing a distinct marker profile and arising from different cell populations.

  18. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  19. CH4、CO2及CH4+C2H6+C3H8在纯水、SDS水溶液和含石英砂体系中水合物相平衡条件的测定%Measurements of Hydrate Equilibrium Conditions for CH4, CO2, and CH4+ C2H6 + C3H8 in Various Systems by Step-heating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立涛; 孙长宇; 陈光进; 聂运强; 孙占松; 刘延涛

    2009-01-01

    Phase equilibrium conditions of gas hydrate in several systems were measured by the step-heating method using the cylindrical transparent sapphire cell device. The experimental data for pure CH4or CO2 + deion-ized water systems showed good agreement with those in the literatures. This kind of method was then applied to CH4/CO2 + sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solution, CH4/CO2+SDS aqueous solution+silica sand, and (CH4+C2H6+C3H8) gas mixture+SDS aqueous solution systems, where SDS was added to increase the hydrate formation rate without evident influence on the equilibrium conditions. The feasibility and reliability of the step-heating method, especially for porous media systems and gas mixtures systems were determined. The experimental data for CO2+silica sand data shows that the equilibrium pressure will change significantly when the particle size of silica sand is less than 96 μm. The formation equilibrium pressure was also measured by the reformation of hydrate.

  20. Immunotoxic effects of sodium tungstate dihydrate on female B6C3F1/N mice when administered in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Rachel P; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A; Herbert, Ron; Moore, Rebecca; Staska, Lauren M; Behl, Mamta; Hooth, Michelle J; Kissling, Grace E; Germolec, Dori R

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of sodium tungstate dihydrate (STD), a drinking water contaminant. Female B6C3F1/N mice received 0-2000 mg STD/L in their drinking water for 28 d, and were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and humoral-mediated, cell-mediated, and innate immunity. Three different parameters of cell-mediated immunity were similarly affected at 1000 mg STD/L. T-cell proliferative responses against allogeneic leukocytes and anti-CD3 were decreased 32%, and 21%, respectively. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was decreased at all effector:target cell ratios examined. At 2000 mg STD/L, the absolute numbers of CD3(+) T-cell progenitor cells in bone marrow were increased 86%, but the alterations in B-lymphocyte and other progenitor cells were not significant. There were no effects on bone marrow DNA synthesis or colony forming capabilities. STD-induced effects on humoral-mediated immunity, innate immunity, and splenocyte sub-populations were limited. Enhanced histopathology did not detect treatment-related lesions in any of the immune tissues. These data suggest exposure to STD in drinking water may adversely affect cell-mediated immunity.

  1. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) and computational studies on 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia doss, M.; Savithiri, S.; Rajarajan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.; Saleem, H.

    2015-09-01

    The structural and spectroscopic studies of 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone (PDPOSC) were made by adopting B3LYP/HF levels theory using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The FT-IR and Raman spectra were recorded in solid phase, the fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. DFT method indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in different solvents in the region of 200-800 nm and the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies were evaluated by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. The hyperconjugative interaction energy (E(2)) and electron densities of donor (i) and acceptor (j) bonds were calculated using NBO analysis. In addition, MEP and atomic charges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were calculated using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level theory. Moreover, thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated by B3LYP/HF, levels using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  3. Immunotoxic effects of sodium tungstate dihydrate on female B6C3F1/N mice when administered in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Rachel P; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A; Herbert, Ron; Moore, Rebecca; Staska, Lauren M; Behl, Mamta; Hooth, Michelle J; Kissling, Grace E; Germolec, Dori R

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of sodium tungstate dihydrate (STD), a drinking water contaminant. Female B6C3F1/N mice received 0-2000 mg STD/L in their drinking water for 28 d, and were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and humoral-mediated, cell-mediated, and innate immunity. Three different parameters of cell-mediated immunity were similarly affected at 1000 mg STD/L. T-cell proliferative responses against allogeneic leukocytes and anti-CD3 were decreased 32%, and 21%, respectively. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was decreased at all effector:target cell ratios examined. At 2000 mg STD/L, the absolute numbers of CD3(+) T-cell progenitor cells in bone marrow were increased 86%, but the alterations in B-lymphocyte and other progenitor cells were not significant. There were no effects on bone marrow DNA synthesis or colony forming capabilities. STD-induced effects on humoral-mediated immunity, innate immunity, and splenocyte sub-populations were limited. Enhanced histopathology did not detect treatment-related lesions in any of the immune tissues. These data suggest exposure to STD in drinking water may adversely affect cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27223060

  4. Efavirenz and Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Relationship with CYP2B6 c.516G→T Genotype and Perturbed Blood-Brain Barrier Due to Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Fisher, Martin; Nelson, Mark; Winston, Alan; Else, Laura; Carr, Daniel F.; Taylor, Steven; Ustianowski, Andrew; Back, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Solomon, Tom; Farrar, Jeremy; Törok, M. Estée; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFZ) has been associated with neuropsychiatric side effects. Recently, the 8-hydroxy-EFZ (8OH-EFZ) metabolite has been shown to be a potent neurotoxin in vitro, inducing neuronal damage at concentrations of 3.3 ng/ml. EFZ induced similar neuronal damage at concentrations of 31.6 ng/ml. We investigated the effect of genotype and blood-brain barrier integrity on EFZ metabolite concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured CSF drug concentrations in subjects from two separate study populations: 47 subjects with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) coinfection in Vietnam receiving 800 mg EFZ with standard antituberculous treatment and 25 subjects from the PARTITION study in the United Kingdom without central nervous system infection receiving 600 mg EFZ. EFZ and metabolite concentrations in CSF and plasma were measured and compared with estimates of effectiveness and neurotoxicity from available published in vitro and in vivo data. The effect of the CYP2B6 c.516G→T genotype (GG genotype, fast EFV metabolizer status; GT genotype, intermediate EFV metabolizer status; TT genotype, slow EFV metabolizer status) was examined. The mean CSF concentrations of EFZ and 8OH-EFZ in the TBM group were 60.3 and 39.3 ng/ml, respectively, and those in the no-TBM group were 15.0 and 5.9 ng/ml, respectively. Plasma EFZ and 8OH-EFZ concentrations were similar between the two groups. CSF EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 76% of samples (GG genotype, 61%; GT genotype, 90%; TT genotype, 100%) in the TBM group and 13% of samples (GG genotype, 0%; GT genotype, 18%; TT genotype, 50%) in the no-TBM group. CSF 8OH-EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 98% of the TBM group and 87% of the no-TBM group; levels were independent of genotype but correlated with the CSF/plasma albumin ratio. Potentially neurotoxic concentrations of 8OH-EFZ are frequently observed in CSF independently of the CYP2B6 genotype, particularly in those

  5. Investigation of the DNA adducts formed in B6C3F1 mice treated with benzene: Implications for molecular dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodell, W.J.; Pathak, D.N.; Levay, G. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in the bone marrow and white blood cells of male B6C3F1 mice treated with benzene using P1-enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabeling. No adducts were detected in the bone marrow of controls or mice treated with various doses of benzene once a day. After twice-daily treatment for 1 to 7 days with benzene, 440 mg/kg, one major (no. 1) and UP to two minor DNA adducts were detected in both the bone marrow and white blood cells. The relative adduct levels in these cells ranged from 0.06 to 1.46 x 10{sup -7}. A significant correlation (r 0.95) between levels of adducts in bone marrow and white blood cells was observed. After a 7-day treatment with benzene, 440 mg/kg twice a day, the number of cells per femur decreased from 1.6 x 10{sup 7} to 0.85 X 10{sup 7}, indicating myelotoxicity. In contrast, administration of benzene once a day produced only a small decrease in bone marrow cellularity. The observed induction of toxicity in bone marrow was paralleled by formation of DNA adducts. In vitro treatment of bone marrow with hydroquinone (HQ) for 24 hr produced the same DNA adducts as found after treatment of mice with benzene, suggesting that HQ is the principal metabolite of benzene leading to DNA adduct formation in vivo. Using {sup 32}P-postlabeling the principal DNA adduct formed in vivo was compared with N{sup 2}-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-deoxyguanosine-3-phosphate. The results of this comparison demonstrates that the DNA adduct formed in vivo co-chromatographs with N{sup 2}-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-deoxyguanosine-3{prime}-phosphate. These studies indicate that metabolic activation of benzene leads to the formation of DNA adducts in bone marrow and white blood cells and suggest that measurement of DNA adducts in white blood cells may be an indicator of biological effect following benzene exposure. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of dietary fish oil on the depletion of carcinogenic PAH-DNA adduct levels in the liver of B6C3F1 mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Zhou

    Full Text Available Many carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and their metabolites can bind covalently to DNA. Carcinogen-DNA adducts may lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually leading to cancer. In this study we report that fish oil (FO blocks the formation of DNA adducts by detoxification of PAHs. B6C3F1 male mice were fed a FO or corn oil (CO diet for 30 days. The animals were then treated with seven carcinogenic PAHs including benzo(apyrene (BaP with one of two doses via a single intraperitoneal injection. Animals were terminated at 1, 3, or 7 d after treatment. The levels of DNA adducts were analyzed by the (32P-postlabeling assay. Our results showed that the levels of total hepatic DNA adducts were significantly decreased in FO groups compared to CO groups with an exception of low PAH dose at 3 d (P = 0.067. Total adduct levels in the high dose PAH groups were 41.36±6.48 (Mean±SEM and 78.72±8.03 in 10(9 nucleotides (P = 0.011, respectively, for the FO and CO groups at 7 d. Animals treated with the low dose (2.5 fold lower PAHs displayed similar trends. Total adduct levels were 12.21±2.33 in the FO group and 24.07±1.99 in the CO group, P = 0.008. BPDE-dG adduct values at 7 d after treatment of high dose PAHs were 32.34±1.94 (CO group and 21.82±3.37 (FO group in 10(9 nucleotides with P value being 0.035. Low dose groups showed similar trends for BPDE-dG adduct in the two diet groups. FO significantly enhanced gene expression of Cyp1a1 in both the high and low dose PAH groups. Gstt1 at low dose of PAHs showed high levels in FO compared to CO groups with P values being 0.014. Histological observations indicated that FO played a hepatoprotective role during the early stages. Our results suggest that FO has a potential to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  7. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Propyl gallate is a white to nearly white odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. Solutions of propyl gallate turn dark in the presence of iron or iron salts. Propyl gallate has been used since 1948 as an antioxidant to stabilize cosmetics, food packaging materials, and foods containing fats. As an additive, it may be found in edible fats, oils, mayonnaise, shortening, baked goods, candy, dried meat, fresh pork sausage, and dried milk, and it is used in hair grooming products, pressure-sensitive adhesives, lubricating oil additives, and transforming oils. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of propyl gallate was conducted by feeding diets containing 6,000 or 12,000 ppm propyl gallate to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 untreated rats and 50 untreated mice of each sex served as controls. Survival of rats and mice was not adversely affected by propyl gallate, but mean body weights of dosed rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. At 104 weeks, mean body weights of low-and high-dose rats were 4% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% and 19% lower than those of the controls for females. Similarly, mean body weights of low-and high-dose mice were 5% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% (both dose groups) lower than those of the controls for females. Thyroid follicular-cell adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male rats with a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive trend, but the incidences in the dosed groups were not statistically significant in direct comparisons with the control groups. Moreover, the incidence of high-dose male rats with follicular-cell tumors (3/50, 6%) was not statistically different from the historical control rate (14/584, 2.4%) for the laboratory that conducted this bioassay. Rare tumors (an astrocytoma or a glioma) were found in the brains of two low-dose female rats. The incidence of all brain tumors in the

  8. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Propyl gallate is a white to nearly white odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. Solutions of propyl gallate turn dark in the presence of iron or iron salts. Propyl gallate has been used since 1948 as an antioxidant to stabilize cosmetics, food packaging materials, and foods containing fats. As an additive, it may be found in edible fats, oils, mayonnaise, shortening, baked goods, candy, dried meat, fresh pork sausage, and dried milk, and it is used in hair grooming products, pressure-sensitive adhesives, lubricating oil additives, and transforming oils. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of propyl gallate was conducted by feeding diets containing 6,000 or 12,000 ppm propyl gallate to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 untreated rats and 50 untreated mice of each sex served as controls. Survival of rats and mice was not adversely affected by propyl gallate, but mean body weights of dosed rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. At 104 weeks, mean body weights of low-and high-dose rats were 4% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% and 19% lower than those of the controls for females. Similarly, mean body weights of low-and high-dose mice were 5% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% (both dose groups) lower than those of the controls for females. Thyroid follicular-cell adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male rats with a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive trend, but the incidences in the dosed groups were not statistically significant in direct comparisons with the control groups. Moreover, the incidence of high-dose male rats with follicular-cell tumors (3/50, 6%) was not statistically different from the historical control rate (14/584, 2.4%) for the laboratory that conducted this bioassay. Rare tumors (an astrocytoma or a glioma) were found in the brains of two low-dose female rats. The incidence of all brain tumors in the

  9. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachloroanisole (CAS No. 1825-21-4) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Pentachloroanisole is a chlorinated aromatic compound which is widely distributed at low levels in the environment and in food products. Formation of pentachloroanisole in the environment may result from the degradation of structurally related, commercially important, ubiquitous chlorinated aromatic compounds such as pentachlorophenol and pentachloronitrobenzene which are known rodent toxins or carcinogens. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering pentachloroanisole (>99% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium strains, mouse lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 16-DAY STUDIES IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats were administered pentachloroanisole in corn oil by gavage once per day, 5 days per week, for 16 days at doses of 0, 100, 125, 150, 175, or 200 mg/kg body weight. Deaths occurred during days 2 and 3 in rats receiving doses of 125 mg/kg or greater; these deaths were considered directly related to pentachloroanisole administration. No biologically significant changes in mean body weight gains or final body weights were noted in the 100 mg/kg groups of rats. Because of the high early mortality rate, valid comparisons of body weight differences in other dose groups could not be made. Inactivity was noted in all dose groups. Rats administered doses of 125 mg/kg or greater also exhibited dyspnea. 16-DAY STUDIES IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female B6C3F1 mice were administered pentachloroanisole in corn oil by gavage once per day, 5 days per week, for 16 days at doses of 0, 100, 175, 250, 325, or 400 mg/kg. Deaths occurred during days 2 and 3 in mice receiving doses of 175 mg/kg or greater; these deaths were considered directly related to chemical administration. No biologically significant changes in mean body weight gains or final body weights

  10. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrafluoroethylene (CAS No. 116-14-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Tetrafluoroethylene is used in the production of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon(R)) and other polymers. Tetrafluoroethylene was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies based on the potential for human exposure to the chemical due to the large production volume and on the lack of adequate data for tetrafluoroethylene in the literature. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetrafluoroethylene (98% to 99% pure) by whole body inhalation exposure for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicity studies were conducted in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 312, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm tetrafluoroethylene by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for a total of 12 exposures during a 16-day period. All rats survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of males and females exposed to 5,000 ppm were significantly less than those of the controls. The mean body weight gain of females exposed to 2,500 ppm was also significantly less than that of the controls. There were no exposure-related clinical findings in male or female rats. There were no significant differences in hematology parameters that were considered to be related to tetrafluoroethylene exposure. Absolute and relative kidney weights of all exposed groups of males were significantly greater than those of the controls, as were those of females in the 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups. The absolute kidney weight of females exposed to 1,250 ppm was also significantly greater than that of the controls. The relative liver weights of all exposed groups of males and the absolute liver weights of males in the 625 and 2,500 ppm groups were significantly greater than those of the controls. Increased incidences of renal tubule degeneration occurred in males and females exposed to 625 ppm or greater; this lesion was

  11. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Coumarin (CAS No. 91-64-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Coumarin is the basic structure of numerous naturally occurring compounds with important and diverse physiological activities. More than a thousand coumarin derivatives have been described, varying from simple coumarins containing alkyl and hydroxyl side chains to complex coumarins with benzoyl, furanoyl, pyranoyl, or alkylphosphorothionyl substituents. Coumarin and 3,4-dihydrocoumarin were nominated by the Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute for study because of the widespread use of coumarin in perfumes, cosmetics, and other products as a fragrance, continued interest in coumarin compounds as flavor-enhancing agents for foods, and the interest in structure-activity relationships of this important group of compounds. Coumarin is believed to be metabolized to a 3,4-epoxide intermediate, which may be responsible for its toxic effects, while 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, which lacks the 3,4-double bond, is not considered likely to form an epoxide intermediate. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering coumarin (97% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 16 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, Drosophila melanogaster, and B6C3F1 mice. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats received coumarin in corn oil by gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg per kg body weight, 5 days a week for a total of 12 doses in a 16-day period. All female rats and four male rats receiving 400 mg/kg died. The mean body weight gains and final mean body weights of surviving dosed male and female rats were similar to those of the controls. There were no clinical signs of organ-specific toxicity, and there was no evidence of impaired blood coagulation from measurements of capillary clotting time or prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time. 16-DAY STUDY IN MICE

  12. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Nitromethane (CAS No. 75-52-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Nitromethane is used as a rocket and engine fuel; as a synthesis intermediate for agricultural fumigants, biocides, and other products; as a solvent; and as an explosive in mining, oil-well drilling, and seismic exploration. It has been detected in air, in surface and drinking water, and in cigarette smoke. Nitromethane was studied because of the potential for widespread human exposure and because it is structurally related to the carcinogens 2-nitropropane and tetranitromethane. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received nitromethane (purity 98% or greater) by inhalation for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to 0, 94, 188, 375, 750, or 1,500 ppm nitromethane by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 16 days. All rats survived until the end of the study. The mean body weight gain of male rats in the 1,500 ppm group was slightly but significantly less than that of the controls; the final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed females were similar to those of the controls. Clinical findings in all male and female rats in the 1,500 ppm groups included increased preening, rapid breathing, hyperactivity early in the study, and hypoactivity and loss of coordination in the hindlimbs near the end of the study. The relative liver weights of all exposed groups of male rats and the absolute and relative liver weights of females exposed to 375 ppm or greater were significantly greater than those of the controls. Minimal to mild degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in the nose of males and females exposed to 375 ppm or greater. Sciatic nerve degeneration was present in all male and female rats exposed to 375 ppm or greater; rats exposed to 750 or 1,500 ppm also had reduced myelin around sciatic axons. 16

  13. X-ray crystallographic characterization of new soluble endohedral fullerenes utilizing the popular C82 bucky cage. Isolation and structural characterization of Sm@C3v(7)-C82, Sm@C(s)(6)-C82, and Sm@C2(5)-C82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Jin, Hongxiao; Wang, Xinqing; Liu, Ziyang; Yu, Meilan; Zhao, Fukun; Mercado, Brandon Q; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L

    2012-08-29

    Three isomers of Sm@C(82) that are soluble in organic solvents were obtained from the carbon soot produced by vaporization of hollow carbon rods doped with Sm(2)O(3)/graphite powder in an electric arc. These isomers were numbered as Sm@C(82)(I), Sm@C(82)(II), and Sm@C(82)(III) in order of their elution times from HPLC chromatography on a Buckyprep column with toluene as the eluent. The identities of isomers, Sm@C(82)(I) as Sm@C(s)(6)-C(82), Sm@C(82)(II) as Sm@C(3v)(7)-C(82), and Sm@C(82)(III) as Sm@C(2)(5)-C(82), were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction on cocrystals formed with Ni(octaethylporphyrin). For endohedral fullerenes like La@C(82), which have three electrons transferred to the cage to produce the M(3+)@(C(82))(3-) electronic distribution, generally only two soluble isomers (e.g., La@C(2v)(9)-C(82) (major) and La@C(s)(6)-C(82) (minor)) are observed. In contrast, with samarium, which generates the M(2+)@(C(82))(2-) electronic distribution, five soluble isomers of Sm@C(82) have been detected, three in this study, the other two in two related prior studies. The structures of the four Sm@C(82) isomers that are currently established are Sm@C(2)(5)-C(82), Sm@C(s)(6)-C(82), Sm@C(3v)(7)-C(82), and Sm@C(2v)(9)-C(82). All of these isomers obey the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) and are sequentially interconvertable through Stone-Wales transformations. PMID:22860880

  14. Cellular basis of the immunohematologic defects observed in short-term semiallogeneic B6C3F1→C3H chimeras: evidence for host-versus-graft reaction initiated by radioresistant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethally irradiated C3Hf mice reconstituted with a relatively low dose (2 x 106) of B6C3F1 bone marrow cells (B6C3F1→C3Hf chimeras) frequently manifest immunohematologic deficiencies during the first month following injection of bone marrow cells. They show slow recovery of antibody-forming potential to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as compared to that observed in syngeneic (C3Hf→C3Hf or B6C3F1→B6C3F1) chimeras. They also show a deficiency of B-cell activity as assessed by antibody response to SRBC following further reconstitution with B6C3F1-derived thymus cells 1 week after injection of bone marrow cells. A significant fraction of B6C3F1→C3Hf chimeras was shown to manifest a sudden loss of cellularity of spleens during the second week following injection of bone marrow cells even though cellularity was restored to the normal level within 1 week. The splenic mononuclear cells recovered from such chimeras almost invariably showed strong cytotoxicity against target cells expressing donor-type specific H-2 antigens (H-2/sup b/) when assesed by 51Cr-release assay in vitro. The effector cells responsible for the observed anti-donor specific cytotoxicity were shown to be residual host-derived T cells. These results indicate strongly that residual host T cells could develop anti-donor specific cytotoxicity even after exposure to a supralethal dose (1050 R) of radiation and that the immunohematologic disturbances observed in shortterm F1 to parent bone marrow chimeras (B6C3F1→C3Hf) were due to host-versus-graft reaction (HVGR) initiated by residual host T cells. The implication of these findings on the radiobiological nature of the residual T cells and the persistence of potentially anti-donor reactive T-cell clones in long-surviving allogeneic bone marrow chimeras was discussed

  15. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Salicylazosulfapyridine (CAS No. 599-79-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Salicylazosulfapyridine is widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It has been beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, and it has been used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of granulomatous colitis. Salicylazosulfapyridine was nominated for toxicity and carcinogenicity testing by the National Cancer Institute on the basis of its widespread use in humans and because it is a representative chemical from a class of aryl sulfonamides. Salicylazosulfapyridine is a suspect carcinogen because reductive cleavage of the azo linkage yields a p-amino aryl sulfonamide (sulfapyridine), and a related p-amino aryl sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole) has been shown to produce thyroid neoplasms in rats. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats and mice were administered salicylazosulfapyridine (96% to 98% pure) in corn oil by gavage for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. The gavage route of administration was selected for these studies because it approximates the typical route of human exposure to the chemical. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in vitro in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in rat and mouse bone marrow and mouse peripheral blood cells. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were administered 0, 675, 1,350, or 2,700 mg salicylazosulfapyridine/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage for 16 days excluding weekends. All rats survived to the end of the study. With the exception of the 675 mg/kg male group, the final mean body weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly lower than those of controls. Mean body weight gains of all dosed groups were less than those of controls. Clinical findings included ruffled fur and distended abdomens in male and female rats receiving 2,700 mg/kg. Hypothyroidism, evidenced by decreased serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations

  16. Protective effects of the fermented milk Kefir on X-ray irradiation-induced intestinal damage in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal damage associated with radiation therapy is currently an inevitable outcome. The protective effect of Kefir was assessed for its usefulness against radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. A Kefir supernatant was diluted by 2- or 10-fold and administered for 1 week prior to 8 Gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy/min, with an additional 15d of administration post-irradiation. The survival rate of control mice with normal drinking water dropped to 70% on days 4 through 9 post-irradiation. On the other hand, 100% of mice in the 10- and 2-fold-diluted Kefir groups survived up to day 9 post-irradiation (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Examinations for crypt regeneration against 8, 10 and 12 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy/min revealed that the crypt number was significantly increased in the mice administered both diluted Kefir solutions (p<0.01 for each). Histological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the diluted Kefir solutions protected the crypts from radiation, and promoted crypt regeneration. In addition, lyophilized Kefir powder was found to significantly recover the testis weights (p<0.05), but had no effects on the body and spleen weights, after 8 Gy irradiation. These findings suggest that Kefir could be a promising candidate as a radiation-protective agent. (author)

  17. Nitrogen incorporation in saturated aliphatic C6-C8 hydrocarbons and ethanol in low-pressure nitrogen plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T; Chen, Lee Chuin; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2016-06-01

    Ion/molecule reactions of saturated hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, n-heptane, n-octane and isooctane) in 28-Torr N2 plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source were investigated using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. It was found that the ions with [M+14](+) were observed as the major ions (M: sample molecule). The exact mass analysis revealed that the ions are nitrogenated molecules, [M+N](+) formed by the reactions of N3 (+) with M. The reaction, N3 (+) + M → [M+N](+) + N2 , were examined by the density functional theory calculations. It was found that N3 (+) abstracts the H atom from hydrocarbon molecules leading to the formation of protonated imines in the forms of R'R″CNH2 (+) (i.e. C-H bond nitrogenation). This result is in accord with the fact that elimination of NH3 is the major channel for MS/MS of [M+N](+) . That is, nitrogen is incorporated in the C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons. No nitrogenation was observed for benzene and acetone, which was ascribed to the formation of stable charge-transfer complexes benzene⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) and acetone⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) revealed by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270868

  18. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of methylphenidate hydrochloride (Cas No. 298-59-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Technical report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride in feed to groups of 70 F344/N rats of each sex at doses of 0, 100, 500, or 1,0000 ppm and to groups of 70 B6C3F1 mice of each sex at doses of 0, 50, 250, or 500 ppm. Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of methylphenidate hydrochloride in male or female F344/N rats receiving 100, 500, or 1,000 ppm. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female B6C3F1 mice, based on the occurrence of hepatocellular neoplasms. Treatment of female rats with methylphenidate hydrochloride was associated with a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas. Administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride to male and female mice resulted in increased incidence of eosinophilic foci in the liver.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal properties of Ca6(C12H14O4)4(CO3)(OH)2(H2O)x – a 3D inorganic hybrid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renie Birkedal; Norby, Poul; Kongshaug, Kjell Ove;

    2012-01-01

    of Ca6(C12H14O4)4(CO3)(OH)2(H2O)14 is tetragonal, space group I41/amd (141) with a = 29.12 Å, c = 15.85 Å, V = 13 440 Å3 and Z = 8. The compound is classified as a 3D inorganic hybrid material with a 3-dimensional inorganic framework consisting of Ca and O, connected to 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate...

  20. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Alessia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2 and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3. The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Results Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase. This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. Conclusions The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  1. Tumor Volume and Metabolism of Prostate Cancer Determined by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3T Without Endorectal Coil Reveal Potential Clinical Implications in the Context of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether a relationship exists between the tumor volume (TV) or relative choline content determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) at 3T and the clinical prognostic parameters for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: A total of 72 men (mean age, 67.8 ± 6.2 years) were stratified as having low-risk (n = 26), intermediate-risk (n = 24), or high-risk (n = 22) PCa. MRSI was performed at 3T using a phased-array coil. Spectra are expressed as the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamines plus creatine/citrate ratios. The mean ratio of the most pathologic voxels and the MRSI-based TV were also determined. Results: The mean values of the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamine plus creatine/citrate ratios were greater for Stage T2b or greater tumors vs. Stage T2a or less tumors: 7.53 ± 13.60 vs. 2.31 ± 5.65 (p = .018), 8.98 ± 14.58 vs. 2.56 ± 5.70 (p = .016), and 10.32 ± 15.47 vs. 3.55 ± 6.16 (p = .014), respectively. The mean MRSI-based TV for Stage T2b or greater and Stage T2a or less tumors was significantly different (2.23 ± 2.62 cm3 vs. 1.26 ± 2.06 cm3, respectively; p = .030). This TV correlated with increased prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.293; p = .012). Patients with high-risk PCa had a larger TV than did the patients with intermediate-risk PCa. A similar result was found for the intermediate-risk group compared with the low-risk group (odds ratio, 1.225; p = .041). Conclusion: Biomarkers expressing the relative choline content and TV were significant parameters for the localization of PCa and could be helpful for determining the prognosis more accurately.

  2. Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios [delta]15 N and [delta]18 O can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Goolsby, Donald A.; Boyer, Laurie L.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate and other nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River basin are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse effect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. Commercial fertilizers are the dominant source of nitrogen input to the Mississippi basin. Other nitrogen sources include animal waste, fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by legumes, precipitation, domestic and industrial effluent, and the soil. The inputs of nitrogen from most of these sources to the Mississippi basin can be estimated and the outputs in surface water can be measured. However, nitrogen from each source is affected differently by physical, chemical, and biological processes that control nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Hence, the relative contributions from the various sources of nitrogen to nitrate load in the Mississippi River are unknown because the different sources may not contribute proportionally to their inputs in the basin. It may be possible to determine the relative contributions of the major sources of nitrate in river water using the stable isotopic ratios d15N and d18O of the nitrate ion. A few researchers have used the d15N and/or d18O isotope ratios to determine sources of nitrate in ground water, headwater catchments, and small rivers, but little is known about the isotopic composition of nitrate in larger rivers. The objective of this study is to measure the isotopic composition of nitrate and suspended organic matter in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, in discharge to the Gulf of Mexico, and in streamflow from smaller watersheds that have distinct sources of nitrogen (row crops, animal wastes, and urban effluents) or are minimally impacted by man (undeveloped). Samples from seven sites on the Mississippi River and its tributaries and from 17 sites in smaller watersheds within the Mississippi River basin will be analyzed for d15N and

  3. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-05-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs.

  4. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  5. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  6. Radiotoxicity of systemically administered [211At]astatide in B6C3F1 and BALB/C (NU/NU) mice: A long-term survival study with histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The present study undertook to establish the dose (LD) of systemically administered (via tail vein) sodium [211At]astatide that would kill 10% (LD10) of exposed animals in two mouse models and to evaluate the resulting histologic lesions. Methods and Materials: Three dose escalation experiments were carried out using groups of 10 3- to 4-week-old, 20 ± 2 g B6C3F1 mice, and one dose escalation experiment was carried out with groups of 10 4- to 6-week-old, 22 ± 2 g BALB/c (nu/nu) mice. All animals were weighed daily and checked twice daily for general health; autopsies were performed within 12 h of death. Results: The LD10 (95% confidence interval) level of free [211At]astatide at 360 days was 15.1 μCi (5.2-19.1 μCi) in B6C3F1 mice and was associated with a 37.8% weight difference from saline controls (p 10 at 360 days was 7.7 μCi (0-14.2 μCi), while a dose of 10 μCi (0.42 μCi g-1) was associated with a 9.44% weight difference vs. saline controls (p 211At]astatide activity levels were associated with severe bone marrow depression, testicular atrophy, focal alopecia, and nuclear atypia of the epidermoid mucosa of the fore-stomach in the B6C3F1 mice; at activity levels approximating LD10 at 360 days, mild changes in the heart, liver, stomach, and spleen were observed. For BALB/c (nu/nu) mice, administration of 10 μCi was associated at autopsy with mild histologic lesions in the heart, stomach, liver, and spleen. Conclusions: These studies provide a basis for the design of further investigations of [211At]-labeled compounds as therapeutic agents.

  7. Solvato-polymorph of [(η6-C6H6)RuCl (L)]PF6 (L = (2,6-dimethyl-phenyl-pyridin-2-yl methylene amine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichumbi, Joel M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Omondi, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    A half-sandwich complex salt of ruthenium containing the Schiff base ligand, 2, 6-dimethyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)aniline has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The complex salt 1, [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(C5H4NCHdbnd N(2,6-(CH3)2C6H3)]PF6 was obtained from the reaction of the ruthenium arene precursor, [(η6- C6H6)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 with the Schiff base in a 1:2 ratio followed by treatment with NH4PF6. Its acetone solvate 2, [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(C5H4NCHdbnd N (2, 6- (CH3)2C6H3)]PF6. (CH3)2CO was obtained by recrystallization of 1 from a solution of hexane and acetone. 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic P21/c and P21/n space groups as blocks and as prisms respectively. The ruthenium centers in 1 and 2 are coordinated to the bidentate Schiff base, to a chloride atom, and to the arene ring to give a pseudo-octahedral geometry around them. The whole arrangement is referred to as the familiar three-legged piano stool in which the Schiff base and the Cl atom serve as the base while the arene ring serve as the apex of the stool. Polymorph 2 has an acetone molecule in the asymmetric unit. Of interest is the similar behavior of the solvate on heating which shows the crystals shuttering at about 531.6 and 523.4 K for 1 and 2 respectively.

  8. Liver tumors induced in B6C3F{sub 1} mice by benz[a]anthracene and two of its halogenated derivatives contain K-RAS oncogene mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, O.; Yi, P.; Zhan, D. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated PAHs are genotoxic environmental contaminants. We previously examined the tumorigenicity of benz[a]anthracene (BA), 7-Cl-BA, and 7-Br-BA in the neonatal mouse tumorigenicity bioassay. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered i.p. injections at a total dose of 400 nmol per mouse on 1, 8, and 15 days after birth. BA, 7-Cl-BA, and 7-Br-BA induced hepatocellular adenoma in 67, 92, and 96% of the mice, respectively, and induced hepatocellular carcinoma in 15, 100 and 83% of the mice, respectively. In the present study, mRNA was isolated from each of the liver tumors induced by the three compounds, reversed-transcribed to cDNA, and portions of the K- and H-ras oncogene coding sequences were amplified and analyzed for DNA sequence alterations. 92% (11/12) of BA-induced, 79% (19/24) of 7-Cl-BA-induced and 86% (19/22) of 7-Br-BA-induced liver tumors had activated ras protooncogenes. In contrast to the general finding of H-ras mutations in B6C3F{sub 1} mouse liver tumors, all the mutations were at the first base of K-ras codon 13, resulting in a pattern of GGC{yields}CGC. No other ras oncogene mutations were detected. Our results clearly demonstrate that these chemicals induce a unique type of ras (K-ras) oncogene activation in the liver tumors of B6C3F{sub 1} mice.

  9. C_(12)C_6C_(12)Br_2/C_(12)E_(10)混合表面活性剂与DNA之间的相互作用%Interaction between Mixed C_(12)C_6C_(12)Br_2/C_(12)E_(10) Surfactant System and DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 曹以诚; 韩玉淳

    2011-01-01

    本文以构建有效的非病毒基因载体为目的,研究了C12C6C12Br2/C12E10混合表面活性剂组成对其与DNA之间相互作用的影响,并对混合表面活性剂与DNA形成的聚集体结构和形貌进行了表征。结果表明,当固定混合表面活性剂的总浓度为1.0 mmol/L时,混合表面活性剂组成的改变会引起混合体系浊度、聚集体表面电荷和聚集体形貌发生变化。当C12E10的摩尔分数(X(C12E10))较低时,混合表面活性剂以带有正电荷并具有两条疏水链的C12C6C12Br2为主,其与DNA分子能发生很强的静电吸引作用和疏水相互作用,使DNA分子发生凝聚;随着X(C12E10)的提高,混合表面活性剂中C12C6C12Br2减少,导致混合表面活性剂与DNA之间的静电吸引作用和疏水相互作用减弱,并由于C12E10头基上EO链的空间位阻作用,使得DNA分子的"球状"凝聚体松散成为较大的"类网状"聚集体,最后呈"无规则自由卷曲"状态。%To develop an effective non-viral gene delivery system,the interaction between the mixed cationic/nonionic surfactant system(C12C6C12Br2/C12E10) and DNA was studied.The effect of the composition of mixed surfactants on the interaction of C12C6C12Br2/C12E10 with DNA was investigated,and the structure and morphology of complex formed by the mixed surfactants and DNA were characterized.The results showed that the properties of C12C6C12Br2/C12E10-DNA complexes including turbidity,surface charge,and morphologies depend on the molar fraction of C12E10(X(C12E10)).At lower X(C12E10),the cationic Gemini surfactant C12C6C12Br2 with bi-charged hydrophilic headgroups and twin hydrophobic chains is the dominant.C12C6C12Br2 can strongly interact with DNA by both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions,thus the DNA molecules are condensed to "globule" structures.As increasing of the X(C12E10),the ratio of C12C6C12Br2 in the mixed surfactant composition is reduced so that

  10. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  11. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Ozone in Combination with 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and Dibutyl Phthalate in B6C3F1 Mice for 16 and 32 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN YOUNG KIM; M YUNG CHO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic potential of ozone alone or in combination with 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyddyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and/or dibutyl phthalate (DBP). Methods Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed,through inhalation,intravenous administration and diet,to 0.5 ppm of ozone,1.0 mg/kg of NNK and 5000 ppm of DBP,individually and in combination for 16 and 32 weeks. Results No treatment-related death was seen,but significant differences in body and organ weights between control and treated mice were observed during the study.No incidence of lung tumor incidence was recorded in mice exposed to either ozone alone or combined treatment.Oviductal carcinomas were observed in female mice exposed to ozone or DBP alone for 16 weeks and ozone in combination with NNK and DBP for 32 weeks. Conclusion Although ozone alone and in conjunction with NNK and/or DBP does not induce lung cancer under our experimental conditions,they induce oviductal carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice.

  12. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  13. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  14. Revealing Cosmic Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amit P S; Keating, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological Birefringence (CB), a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such non-standard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the $B$-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that $EB$ correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The $EB$ based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of $B$-mode...

  15. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  16. Geometric determinants of directional cell motility revealed using microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amy; Chang, Eric; Ho, Chia-Chi; LeDuc, Philip; Jiang, Xingyu; Whitesides, George M; Ingber, Donald E

    2003-03-01

    Mammalian cells redirect their movement in response to changes in the physical properties of their extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesive scaffolds, including changes in available substrate area, shape, or flexibility. Yet, little is known about the cell's ability to discriminate between different types of spatial signals. Here we utilize a soft-lithography-based, microcontact printing technology in combination with automated computerized image analysis to explore the relationship between ECM geometry and directional motility. When fibroblast cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated adhesive islands with the same area (900 micrometers2) but different geometric forms (square, triangle, pentagon, hexagon, trapezoid, various parallelograms) and aspect ratios, cells preferentially extended new lamellipodia from their corners. In addition, by imposing these simple geometric constraints through ECM, cells were directed to deposit new fibronectin fibrils in these same corner regions. These data indicate that mammalian cells can sense edges within ECM patterns that exhibit a wide range of angularity and that they use these spatial cues to guide where they will deposit ECM and extend new motile processes during the process of directional migration. PMID:14674434

  17. Spatial interactions determine temporal feature integration as revealed by unmasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature integration is one of the most fundamental problems in neuroscience. In a recent contribution, we showed that a trailing grating can diminish the masking effects one vernier exerts on another, preceding vernier. Here, we show that this temporal unmasking depends on neural spatial interactions related to the trailing grating. Hence, our paradigm allows us to study the spatio-temporal interactions underlying feature integration.

  18. Kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in gaseous CO, CO2, SiF4, SF6, C4F8, and NH3 from 220 K to 375 K and pressures up to 3.4 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acoustic Greenspan viscometer was used to measure the kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in the gases: CO, CO2, SiF4, SF6, C4F8, and NH3. The measurements cover the temperature range 220 K to 375 K, and pressures up to 3.4 MPa or 80% of the saturation pressure. The viscometer was calibrated at 298.16 K using five reference gases, Ar, He, N2, CH4, and C3H8, for which the viscosity and the speed of sound are known. With this calibration, we estimated the relative standard uncertainty of the kinematic viscosity ur(η/ρ) = 0.006 and the uncertainty of speed of sound ur(c) = 0.0001, except for very low pressures where the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates and quality factor for the Helmholtz mode is ≤20

  19. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  20. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  1. Revealing the Beast Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  2. Crystal growth and characterization of gadolinium tartrate trihydrate: Gd(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6})(C{sub 4}H{sub 5}O{sub 6}).3H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, J and K (India); Ahmad, Farooq [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, J and K (India); Kotru, P.N. [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006 (India)]. E-mail: pn_kotru@yahoo.com

    2006-09-15

    The growth of gadolinium tartrate trihydrate crystals is achieved in silica and agar-agar gels. The crystals are grown by diffusion of gadolinium ions through silica and agar-agar gels impregnated with L-tartaric acid. The type of medium influences the morphology of grown crystals: silica gel yielding single crystals and spherulites whereas agar-agar gel leads to growth of only single crystals. The grown crystals are characterized using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), carbon and hydrogen analysis (CHN), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis. The chemical formula of the grown crystals is suggested to be Gd(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6})(C{sub 4}H{sub 5}O{sub 6}).3H{sub 2}O. The infrared spectrum indicates the presence of tartrate ligands and suggests that one of the tartrate ions is singly ionized. The thermal analysis shows that the material is thermally stable up to about 205 deg. C.

  3. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min-1. Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min-1, the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  4. A New Rerouting Technique for the Extensor Pollicis Longus in Palliative Treatment for Wrist and Finger Extension Paralysis Resulting From Radial Nerve and C5C6C7 Root Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laravine, Jennifer; Cambon-Binder, Adeline; Belkheyar, Zoubir

    2016-03-01

    Wrist and finger extension paralysis is a consequence of an injury to the radial nerve or the C5C6C7 roots. Despite these 2 different levels of lesions, palliative treatment for this type of paralysis depends on the same tendon transfers. A large majority of the patients are able to compensate for a deficiency of the extension of the wrist and fingers. However, a deficiency in the opening of the first web space, which could be responsible for transfers to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), frequently exists. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a new EPL rerouting technique outside of Lister's tubercle. Another aim was to verify whether this technique allows a better opening of the thumb-index pinch in this type of paralysis. In the first part, we performed an anatomic study comparing the EPL rerouting technique and the frequently used technique for wrist and finger extension paralyses. In the second part, we present 2 clinical cases in which this new technique will be practiced. Preliminary results during this study favor the EPL rerouting technique. This is a simple and reproducible technique that allows for good opening of the first web space in the treatment of wrist and finger extension paralysis. PMID:26709570

  5. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  6. Ground-based solar absorption measurements of CH{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C2H2 and HCN in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Anna K.; Warneke, Thorsten; Velasco, Voltaire; Notholt, Justus [Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen (Germany); Schrems, Otto [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The composition of the tropical atmosphere and its change is of significant importance for global climate. Currently large uncertainties in the budgets of many trace gases in the tropics exist, mainly due to a lack of measurements in the tropics. We have performed solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed measurements at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.83 N, 55.17 W) during four consecutive dry seasons, starting in autumn 2004. Currently these are the only remote sensing measurements performed in the inner-tropics over a longer time period. In the case of methane these measurements represent the only tropical ground-based remote sensing data of sufficient precision to validate satellite retrievals of CH4. Here we present first results on methane (CH{sub 4}) and trace gases related to biomass burning. Methane retrievals are compared with model simulations, satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY and in situ data. In addition we investigate the pollution from biomass burning using CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN. Backwardtrajectories and global fire maps were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Correlations between the different gases are analysed and compared to literature data.

  7. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC50 values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC50 values 50 of 47 mg/L SDD.

  8. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  9. Implementation guide for use with suspect/counterfeit items: Requirements of DOE O 440.1, worker protection management; 10 CFR 830.120; and DOE 5700.6C, quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 440.1, Worker Protection Management For DOE Federal and Contractors Employees, [7] sets forth requirements for DOE and its contractors to implement suspect and counterfeit items (S/CI) controls as part of the quality assurance (QA) programs required by 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830.120 [8] or DOE 5700.6C, Quality Assurance [9]. DOE G-830.120, Implementation Guide for Use with 10 CFR Part 830.120, Quality Assurance, [10] provides additional guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes to control S/CIs. DOE O 232.1, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations, [11] specifies requirements for reporting S/CIs under the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS). DOE promulgated the requirements and guidance to control or eliminate the hazards posed by S/CIs, which can lead to unexpected equipment failures and undue risks to the DOE mission, the environment, and personnel. This Guide is a compendium of information contained in the referenced DOE directives and other documents concerning S/CI controls. It incorporates, updates, and supersedes earlier guidance issued in Plan for the Suspect/Counterfeit Products Issue in the Department of Energy, dated October 1993, [4] and in memoranda issued by Defense Programs (DP) [12-16] and other DOE program offices. This guidance was developed to strengthen the procurement process, identify and eliminate S/CIs, and improve the reporting of S/CIs. The information in this Guide, when implemented by DOE and its contractors, will satisfy the S/CI requirements contained in the referenced DOE directives.

  10. Implementation guide for use with suspect/counterfeit items: Requirements of DOE O 440.1, worker protection management; 10 CFR 830.120; and DOE 5700.6C, quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 440.1, Worker Protection Management For DOE Federal and Contractors Employees, [7] sets forth requirements for DOE and its contractors to implement suspect and counterfeit items (S/CI) controls as part of the quality assurance (QA) programs required by 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830.120 [8] or DOE 5700.6C, Quality Assurance [9]. DOE G-830.120, Implementation Guide for Use with 10 CFR Part 830.120, Quality Assurance, [10] provides additional guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes to control S/CIs. DOE O 232.1, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations, [11] specifies requirements for reporting S/CIs under the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS). DOE promulgated the requirements and guidance to control or eliminate the hazards posed by S/CIs, which can lead to unexpected equipment failures and undue risks to the DOE mission, the environment, and personnel. This Guide is a compendium of information contained in the referenced DOE directives and other documents concerning S/CI controls. It incorporates, updates, and supersedes earlier guidance issued in Plan for the Suspect/Counterfeit Products Issue in the Department of Energy, dated October 1993, [4] and in memoranda issued by Defense Programs (DP) [12-16] and other DOE program offices. This guidance was developed to strengthen the procurement process, identify and eliminate S/CIs, and improve the reporting of S/CIs. The information in this Guide, when implemented by DOE and its contractors, will satisfy the S/CI requirements contained in the referenced DOE directives

  11. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Limonene (CAS No. 5989-27-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of d-limonene, a naturally occurring monoterpene found in many volatile oils, especially in citrus oils, were conducted because of its widespread use as a flavor and fragrance additive for food and household cleaning products and its increasing use as an industrial solvent. The d-limonene used in these studies was more than 99% pure and was administered in corn oil by gavage. Short-term studies were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to identify toxic effects and affected sites and to help establish doses for the 2-year studies. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, mouse L5178Y cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The doses selected for the 16-day studies ranged from 413 to 6,600 mg/kg for both rats and mice; deaths and reduction in body weight gain occurred at the two highest doses. No compound-related clinical signs or histopathologic lesions were observed in any of the surviving dose groups. In the 13-week studies, doses of d-limonene ranged from 150 to 2,400 mg/kg for rats and from 125 to 2,000 mg/kg for mice. Deaths occurred in the high dose group of each species and sex. Greater than 10% reductions in body weight gain were observed in the two highest dose groups of male rats and male mice and the high dose female rats. Rough hair coats and decreased activity were observed at the two highest doses in both rats and mice. There were no chemical-related histopathologic lesions in female rats or in mice of either sex. A compound-related increased severity of nephropathy was observed in the kidney of male rats. This lesion was characterized by degeneration of epithelial cells in the convoluted tubules, granular casts in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, and epithelial regeneration. These lesions have been described as reasonably characteristic of the hyaline droplet nephropathy that is associated with an accumulation of liver-generated a2u-globulin in the cytoplasm of tubular

  12. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Lauric Acid Diethanolamine Condensate (CAS NO. 120-40-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Lauric acid diethanolamine condensate is widely used in cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, and related consumer products, to which there is extensive human exposure. Because of the lack of information about potential risks associated with long-term exposure, lauric acid diethanolamine condensate, coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate, and oleic acid diethanolamine condensate were selected as representative of the class of diethanolamides for evaluation of prechronic toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to lauric acid diethanolamine condensate dermally for 14 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were admin istered 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg lauric acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol by dermal application for 14 weeks. All animals survived until study termination. Final mean body weights and body weight gains of males receiving 200 or 400 mg/kg were significantly less than those of the vehicle control group. Irritation of the skin at the site of application was observed in males receiving 100 mg/kg or greater and in females receiving 200 or 400 mg/kg. Kidney weights of females administered 200 or 400 mg/kg were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control group. There were dose-dependent increases in the incidences of nonneoplastic lesions of the skin at the site of application, including epidermal and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, chronic inflammation, parakeratosis, and ulcer. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were admin istered 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg lauric acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol by dermal application for 14 weeks. All animals survived until the end of the study, and final mean body weights and

  13. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya, E-mail: waidyanathas@niehs.nih.gov [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Robinson, Veronica Godfrey [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S. [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C{sub max} and AUC{sub ∞} increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC{sub ∞} for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain

  14. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Riddelliine (CAS No. 23246-96-0) Administered by Gavage to F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Po

    1993-12-01

    Riddelliine is a naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloid, a class of compounds occurring in rangeland plants of the genera Crotalaria, Amsinckia, and Senecio. Two-week and 13-week rodent toxicity studies of riddelliine were conducted because riddelliine can be a contaminant of foodstuffs, such as meat, grains, seeds, milk, herbal tea, and honey. In addition to histopathology, evaluations included clinical pathology and reproductive toxicity. In vitro genetic toxicity studies included assessments of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and of the induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Riddelliine was also evaluated in vivo for the induction of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow and in peripheral blood and for the induction of S-phase synthesis and unscheduled DNA synthesis in the liver of rats and mice. In the 2-week studies, groups of five male and five female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered riddelliine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer by gavage at dose levels of 0, 0. 33, 1.0, 3.3, 10, or 25 mg/kg body weight five times per week, for a total of 12 doses. Four of five male rats in the 25 mg/kg group died or were killed moribund before the end of the study. Mean body weight gains of male rats in the 10 and 25 mg/kg groups were depressed. No deaths or body weight effects were observed in female rats. Male rats had dose-related hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatocytic karyomegaly and cytologic alterations, pulmonary hemorrhage and/or edema, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and pancreatic edema. Female rats exhibited fewer and less severe lesions than identically treated male rats. Heart weights of treated male and female rats were lower than those of the controls. No deaths or effects on body weight were observed in treated mice. Dose-related increases in absolute and relative liver weights and increased incidences of hepatic cytomegaly were the only treatment-related findings

  15. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    implications in Antiquity, Late Antiquity and the Renaissance in eleven cross-disciplinary contributions using both textual and archaeological sources. By exploring the revealing and concealing of knowledge across different social contexts, time frames and geographical locations, the book provides insight...

  16. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  17. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  18. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (CAS No. 96-18-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane is a colorless liquid used as a paint and varnish remover, solvent, and degreasing agent, and as a crosslinking agent in the synthesis of polysulfides and hexafluoropropylene. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane may be found as an impurity in certain nematocides and soil fumigants and as a contaminant of drinking and ground water. Studies on the toxic and carcinogenic effects of 1,2,3-trichloropropane were initiated because of the close structural relationship of this chemical to other short-chain halogenated compounds that were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in experimental animals, and because of the potential for human exposure. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering 1,2,3-trichloropropane (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3FI mice for 17 weeks and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium strains, mouse lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 17-Week Studies: Groups of 20 male and 20 female rats received 1,2,3-trichloropropane in corn oil by gavage at doses of 8, 16, 32, 63, 125, or 250 mg/kg body weight 5 days per week for up to 17 weeks; 30 male and 30 female rats received corn oil alone and served as controls. Animals were evaluated at 8 or 17 weeks. All rats in the 250 mg/kg groups died by week 5. One male and four female rats in the 125 mg/kg groups died during the study. The mean body weight gains and final mean body weights of males receiving 63 mg/kg and of males and females receiving 125 mg/kg were lower than those of the controls. Hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte counts decreased with dose in males and females. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in some female rats receiving 125 mg/kg. Serum pseudocholinesterase activity decreased with dose in females. Increases in kidney and liver weights were related

  19. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of alpha-Methyldopa Sesquihydrate (CAS No. 41372-08-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    a-Methyldopa sesquihydrate is used in the treatment of hypertension; over 20 million prescriptions are written annually for a -methyldopa or a-methyldopa sesquihydrate in the United States. a-Methyldopa sesquihydrate (USP grade, greater than 99% pure) was selected for study because of widespread human exposure and the lack of carcinogenicity studies on this compound. Fourteen-day, 13-week, and 2-year studies were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. The chemical was administered in feed because human exposure is primarily by the oral route. Short-term studies were performed in bacteria and mammalian cells to evaluate the potential for genetic damage. Fourteen-Day and Thirteen-Week Studies: In the 14-day studies, the chemical was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 and 6,250-100,000 ppm. All rats receiving 100,000 ppm and 2/5 female rats receiving 50,000 ppm died. All mice lived until the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of dosed male rats were 14%-43% lower than that of controls, and those of dosed female rats were 9%-24% lower. Feed consumption by dosed male and female rats was reduced. Final mean body weights of dosed mice were generally within 10% of those of controls; feed consumption by dosed groups was lower than that by controls during the first week of the studies. In the 13-week studies, the chemical was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 and 3,100-50,000 ppm. Deaths occurred in 4/10 male rats, 7/10 female rats, and 2/10 female mice at 50,000 ppm and in 1/10 female rats at 25,000 ppm. Final mean body weights of dosed rats were 6%-46% lower than those of controls. Feed consumption by dosed rat groups was lower than that by controls. Final mean body weights of male mice at 25,000 and 50,000 ppm and female mice at 50,000 ppm were reduced 12%-19%. Feed consumption by dosed and control mice was comparable. Rats and mice receiving 25,000 and 50,000 ppm exhibited clinical signs of toxicity including lethargy, hyperexcitability

  20. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (CAS No. 115-96-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRCP), a flame-retardant plasticizer used in plastics, polymeric foams, and synthetic fibers, was studied as part of the National Toxicology Program's class study of trisalkyl phosphate flame retardants. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering TRCP (approximately 98% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 16 days, 16 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were performed in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 16-Day Studies: There were no chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weight, or histopathological lesions in rats receiving 22 to 350 mg/kg TRCP or in mice receiving 44 to 700 mg/kg TRCP for 12 doses over 16 days. Serum cholinesterase activity in female rats receiving 175 or 350 mg/kg TRCP was reduced slightly (80% of control levels), but enzyme activity in dosed male rats and in mice was similar to that in controls. 16-Week Studies: Rats received 22 to 350 mg/kg TRCP for 16 weeks (female) or 18 weeks (male). Several male and female rats in the 175 or 350 mg/kg dose groups died from chemical toxicity. Final mean body weights of female rats receiving 350 mg/kg were 20% greater than those of controls; final mean body weights of the remaining groups of dosed female rats and dosed male rats were similar. Chemical-related neuronal necrosis occurred in the hippocampus and thalamus of female rats and, to a lesser extent, of male rats. Serum cholinesterase activity was reduced in females receiving 175 or 350 mg/kg TRCP. There were no chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weight, or differences in cholinesterase activity in mice receiving 44 to 700 mg/kg TRCP for 16 weeks. Tubule epithelial cells with enlarged nuclei (cytomegaly and karyomegaly) were observed in the kidneys of high-dose (700 mg/kg) male and female mice. 2-Year Studies: The 2-year studies in rats were conducted by administering 0

  1. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (CAS No. 127-18-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is used primarily as a dry cleaning agent, an industrial solvent for fats, oils, tars, rubber, and gums, and a metal degreasing agent. Tetrachloroethylene had antihelminthic uses, particularly for hookworms (1.6-8 g/60 kg), and was formerly used in combination with some grain protectants and fumigants. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of tetrachloroethylene (99.9% pure) were conducted by inhalation exposure of groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. The exposure concentrations used (0, 200, or 400 ppm for rats and 0, 100, or 200 ppm for mice) were selected on the basis of results from 13-week inhalation studies in which groups of 10 rats and 10 mice of each sex were exposed to tetrachloroethylene at 100-1,600 ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week. During the 13-week studies, 1,600 ppm tetrachloroethylene was lethal to 20%-70% of the rats and mice and reduced the final body weights of survivors. In rats, tetrachloroethylene at 200-800 ppm caused minimal to mild hepatic congestion. In dosed male and female mice, minimal to mild hepatic leukocytic infiltration, centrilobular necrosis, bile stasis (400-1,600 ppm), and mitotic alteration (200-1,600 ppm) were produced. Tetrachloroethylene exposure also caused minimal renal tubular cell karyomegaly in mice at concentrations as low as 200 ppm. During the 2-year studies, exposure to tetrachloroethylene did not consistently affect body weight gains in either rats or mice. Exposure at 400 ppm tetrachloroethylene reduced the survival of male rats (control, 23/50; low dose, 20/50; high dose, 12/50). This reduced survival may have been related to an increased incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia. Tetrachloroethylene at both exposure concentrations reduced the survival of male mice (46/50; 25/50; 32/50), whereas exposure at 200 ppm reduced female mouse survival (36/50; 31/50; 19/50). Early deaths in mice may have been related to the

  2. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  3. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Ginkgo biloba extract (CAS No. 90045-36-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Gavage studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been used primarily as a medicinal agent in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Ginkgo biloba extract was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its widespread use as an herbal supplement to promote mental function and the limited availability of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Furthermore, one of the major ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract, quercetin, is a known mutagen. The Ginkgo biloba extract used in the current studies was procured from a supplier known to provide material to United States companies and contained 31.2% flavonol glycosides, 15.4% terpene lactones (6.94% bilo-balide, 3.74% ginkgolide A, 1.62% ginkgolide B, 3.06% ginkgolide C), and 10.45 ppm ginkgolic acid. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered Ginkgo biloba extract in corn oil by gavage for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (clinical pathology study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 23 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all dosed groups were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. Liver weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. The incidences of hepatocyte hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those in the vehicle control groups; there was a dose-related increase in severity of this lesion in males. Hepatocyte fatty change occurred in all dosed males. The incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell

  4. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  5. Massive sphere determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2014-01-01

    An expression for the functional determinant on a sphere for a massive (scalar) field derived by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev using quasinormal modes is shown to exist already in the literature together with the multiplicative anomaly interpretation. The relevant expressions are outlined and several equivalent versions are given. The variation with mass is determined numerically. As an application of the derived formulae, the Hartle--Hawking probability of the Universe (via the dS/CFT correspondance) is recomputed. Agreement is found with Anninos, Denef and Harlow. The calculation is extended to all (odd) dimensions. I also compute the wave function which reveals an interesting feature.

  6. The Deceptively Simple Thermolysis of Trivalent Permethyltitanocene Derivatives (η5-C5Me5)2TiR. Formation of a Tetramethylfulvene Titanium Compound (η6-C5Me4CH2)(η5-C5Me5)Ti and RH, Catalyzed by Permethyltitanocene Hydride, (η5-C5Me5)2TiH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinstra, Gerrit A.; Teuben, Jan H.

    1992-01-01

    The complexes Cp*2TiR (Cp* = η5-C5Me5; R = Me, Et, n-Pr, C2H3, CH2CMe3, Ph) undergo thermolysis to yield the fulvene complex Cp*FvTi (Fv = η6-C5Me4CH2) and RH. Kinetic measurements and deuterium labeling studies show that the decomposition is catalyzed by Cp*2TiH, which is formed either by β-hydroge

  7. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  8. Interior Evolution of Ceres Revealed by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Park, Ryan S.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Bland, Michael T.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Jaumann, Ralf; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-11-01

    Dawn's exploration of Ceres has revealed its geophysical characteristics, informing the processes that have shaped it. Dawn has determined the average diameter of Ceres to be 940 km, smaller than the previously estimated 975 km [1]. This implies a density of 2160 kg/m3, indicating that Ceres is less differentiated than predicted [2]. The low-degree gravity field is consistent with the body being in hydrostatic equilibrium and the magnitude of J2 implies some central condensation. Ceres' entire surface is cratered, implying the lack of a thick (10's of km) water ice layer at the surface. Variability in Ceres' crater morphology indicates that the near-surface layer has variable strength and rheology, likely due to heterogeneity in the near-surface mixture of rock, ice and salt. The lack of a number of expected large impact basins on Ceres can be interpreted to be the result of viscous relaxation, resurfacing or a combination of both. These data provide insights into Ceres' thermal evolution and mechanical properties, which appear to be unique to this warm, icy body.[1] Thomas, P. C., et al., Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, 437, 224-226, 2005; [2] McCord et al., Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution, Space Sci Rev DOI 10.1007/s11214-010-9729-9, 2011.

  9. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  10. Determining impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of determining the content of impurities in organic-origin natural fibrous materials, in which a specimen of said material is compacted to a surface density of from 0.05 to 50 g/cm2, whereupon it is exposed to the effect of a soft gamma-radiation, the mass attenuation coefficient (μ) is determined and the percentage content (Csub(A)) of impurities is assessed. The method has applications in the textile industry. (author)

  11. Density,Viscosity,Refractive Index,and Speed of Sound in Binary Mixtures of Pyridine and 1-Alkanols(C6,C7,C8,C10)at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI Anwar; TARIQ Mohd; NABI Firdosa; SHAHJAHAN

    2008-01-01

    The densities(ρ),viscosities(η),refractive indices(nD),and speeds of sound(u),of binary mixtures of pyridine with 1-hexanoi,1-heptanol,1-octanol and 1-decanol,including those of pure liquids,were measured over the entire composition range at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure.From these experimental data,the values of excess molar volumes(VE),deviations in isentropic compressibilities(△ks),viscosities(△η),molar refractions(△Rm),apparent and partial molar volumes(Vφ,2 and V0φ,2 ),apparent and partial molar compressibilities(Kφ,2 and K0φ,2 ),of alkanols in pyridine and their corresponding deviations(△V and △K)were calculated.The variations of these parameters with composition of the mixtures suggest that the strength of interactions in these mixtures follow the order:1-hexanol 1-heptanol 1-octanol 1-decanol.All the excess and deviation functions were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to determine the fitting coefficients and the standard deviations.

  12. POSITIVE MOTIVATION DETERMINANTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Svyatoslav Vasilyevich KOTOV

    2014-01-01

    The paper considered the study of determinants of moti-vation and operation achievement. The paper revealed (with description in details) the following factors: want for competence and self-determination, orientation in purpose of live, values, self-efficacy, resilience, and in-trinsic motivation. The study rationalized psychology regularities in the above determinants and the part they played in shaping resilience, personal mental wellbeing and further reinforcement of achievement motivation...

  13. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  14. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  15. Radioactivity reveals how crisps mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the ''fluids'' processed in the food industry have strange flow properties that cannot easily be predicted. This is an important question in industry, since engineers need to know how such systems flow through pipes in production plants or how different components mix together. To counter this lack of knowledge, the fluids are generally processed for longer than necessary, which often proves expensive and may affect the quality of the final product. The University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has developed a powerful technique to study the behaviour of crisps, yoghurt and ice cream - together with many other granular materials and viscous fluids - in a variety of industrial processes. In one case, the group labelled a single crisp using a positron-emitting radioisotope and added it to a rotating drum full of crisps. By tracking the movement of the labelled crisp, they could determine how uniformly the crisps were exposed to the flavouring that was added in the mixing process. In this article the author describes the research at the university's Positron Imaging Centre. (UK)

  16. CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms in Chinese Healthy and Schizophrenia Populations%中国健康人群与精神分裂症患者CYP2D6(C100T)遗传多态性的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 李虓; 王刚; 陈雪彦; 康熙雄

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨中国健康人群与精神分裂症患者细胞色素P450 2D6(CYP2D6)遗传多态性的相关性.方法 应用PCR与DNA测序相结合的方法对88名精神分裂症患者(男40例,女48例;平均年龄40.38±13.45岁)与93名健康志愿者(男40例,女53例,平均年龄43.60±12.05岁)进行了CYP2D6的基因多态性分析,根据CYP2D6(C100T)将精神分裂症患者和健康志愿者基因型分为三组(C/C,C/T,T/T).结果 在CYP2D6(C100T)的基因型和等位基因型检测中,精神分裂症患者和健康志愿者组间的基因型和等位基因没有显著性差异(X2=0.202,P>0.05;X2=0.066,P>0.05).结论 CYP2D6(C100T)可能不是中国精神分裂症患者的一个易感因素.

  17. 利培酮治疗与细胞色素P4502D6/C188T酶基因多态性的关联分析%Genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450-2D6(CYP2D6)locus:screening influence of risperidone on clinical outcomes in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飚; 杨晓敏; 江三多; 钱伊萍; 汪栋祥; 江开达

    2004-01-01

    目的研究利培酮临床效应的个体差异与其代谢酶细胞色素P450 2D6(cytochrome P450 2D6, CYP2D6)酶基因多态性的相关性.方法对88例符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的患者和96例健康对照者作病例-对照分析.精神分裂症患者给予利培酮治疗8周,用阳性和阴性症状量表(positive and negative symptom scale, PANSS)评分评价利培酮疗效.采用聚合酶链反应扩增及限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术对CYP2D6 exon Ⅰ的C188T位点突变进行检测,分析利培酮临床效应与其主要代谢酶CYP2D6/C188T酶基因多态性的相关性. 结果中国上海地区人群的CYP2D6/C188T突变率(弱代谢型)为36.3%,病例组和正常对照组间基因型频率总体分布比较无显著差异(χ2=1.15, df=2, P>0.05),两组间的等位基因频率之间比较也无显著性差异(χ2=0.78, df=1, P>0.05).进行性别及有否家族史分组后分析,亦无差异存在,且CYP2D6/C188T突变与利培酮临床效应之间并无相关性(χ2=1.12, df=2; χ2=0.03, df=1, P>0.05). 结论未发现中国人CYP2D6/C188T多态性与利培酮临床效应的个体差异有相关性.

  18. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  19. Studies of a modular advanced stellarator reactor ASRA6C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is directed towards the clarification of critical issues of advanced modular stellerator reactors exploiting the inherent potential of steady state operation, and is not a point design study of a reactor. Critical technology issues arise from the three-dimensional magnetic field structure. The first wall, blanket and shield are more complex than those of axi-symmetric systems, but this is eased at moderate to large aspect ratio typical of stellarators. Several blanket options have been studied and a thin blanket (21 cm) was the first choice for the design. Superconducting modular coils were investigated with respect to the conductor and mechanical supports. From the analysis of forces and stresses caused by the electromagnetic loads the coils are considered to be feasible, although shear stresses might pose a critical issue. Demountable intermagnetic support elements were designed for use at separation areas between the cryostat modules. A scheme for remote reactor maintenance was also developed. The plasma physics issues of different configurations were studied using extrapolations of transport behaviour and equilibrium from theory and present experiments. These studies indicate that the confinement and equilibrium behaviour is adequate for ignited operation at an average value of 5% beta. Impurities may pose a critical issue. Several impurity control operations were investigated; a pumped limiter configuration utilizing the 'ergodic layer' at the plasma edge was chosen for edge plasma and impurity control. A general conclusion of the study is that the modular stellerator configuration offers interesting prospects regarding the development towards steady-state reactors. (orig.)

  20. Studies of a modular advanced stellarator reactor ASRA6C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is directed towards the clarification of critical issues of advanced modular stellerator reactors exploiting the inherent potential of steady state operation, and is not a point design study of a reactor. Critical technology issues arise from the three-dimensional magnetic field structure. The first wall, blanket and shield are more complex than those of axi-symmetric systems, but this is eased at moderate to large aspect ratio typical of stellerators. Several blanket options have been studied and a thin blanket (21 cm) was the first choice for the design. Superconducting modular coils were investigated with respect to the conductor and mechanical supports. From the analysis of forces and stresses caused by the electromagnetic loads the coils are considered to be feasible, although shear stresses might pose a critical issue. Demountable intermagnetic support elements were designed for use at separation areas between the cryostat modules. A scheme for remote reactor maintenance was also developed. The plasma physics issues of different configurations were studied using extrapolations of transort behaviour and equilibrium from theory and present experiments. These studies indicate that the confinement and equilibrium behaviour is adequate for ignited operation at an average value of 5% beta. Impurities may pose a critical issue. Several impurity control operations were investigated; a pumped limiter configuration utilizing the 'ergodic layer' at the plasma edge was chosen for edge plasma and impurity control. A general conclusion of the study is that the modular stellerator configuration offers interesting prospects regarding the development towards steady-state reactors. (orig.)

  1. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  2. Climate determinism or Geomagnetic determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.; Le Goff, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.

    2006-12-01

    A number of episodes of sharp geomagnetic field variations (in both intensity and direction), lasting on the order of a century, have been identified in archeomagnetic records from Western Eurasia and have been called "archeomagnetic jerks". These seem to correlate well with multi-decadal cooling episodes detected in the North Atlantic Ocean and Western Europe, suggesting a causal link between both phenomena. A possible mechanism could be a geomagnetic modulation of the cosmic ray flux that would control the nucleation rate of clouds. We wish to underline the remarkable coincidence between archeomagnetic jerks, cooling events in Western Europe and drought periods in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the northern hemisphere. The latter two can be interpreted in terms of global teleconnections among regional climates. It has been suggested that these climatic variations had caused major changes in the history of ancient civilizations, such as in Mesopotamia, which were critically dependent on water supply and particularly vulnerable to lower rainfall amounts. This is one of the foundations of "climate determinism". Our studies, which suggest a geomagnetic origin for at least some of the inferred climatic events, lead us to propose the idea of a "geomagnetic determinism" in the history of humanity.

  3. Quantitative determination of four constituents of Tinospora sps. by a reversed-phase HPLC-UV-DAD method. Broad-based studies revealing variation in content of four secondary metabolites in the plant from different eco-geographical regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S M; Manhas, L R; Verma, V; Khajuria, R K

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the separation and quantitation of important markers, such as 20beta-hydroxyecdysone, tinosporaside, cordioside, and columbin, present in three species of Tinospora viz, T. cordifolia, T. malabrica, and T. crispa. A reverse-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV-diode array detection (DAD) method employing gradient elution is thus developed. The marker compounds isolated from 70% ethanolic extract of T. cordfolia by repeated column chromatography are identified on the basis of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass spectral data. The compounds are separated on a RP (RP-18, 5 microm, 250 x 4.6-mm i.d.) column using water-acetonitrile gradient and are detected by the HPLC-UV-DAD method. The calibration curves that result from marker compounds in the concentration range of 100-2000 ng on column exhibit a good correlation (r(2) > or = 0.99978). The method is successfully applied to separate and study the content of four marker compounds in 40 different accessions of three Tinospora species collected from different regions of India. The studies reveal that the maximum amount of the marker compounds is present in Tinospora cordifolia species, especially from accessions collected from higher altitudes of the Jammu province (North India). PMID:16959127

  4. Structure determination from XAFS using high-accuracy measurements of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver, 11 keV-28 keV, and development of an all-energies approach to local dynamical analysis of bond length, revealing variation of effective thermal contributions across the XAFS spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantau, L. J.; Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.; Islam, M. T.; Payne, A. T.; Rae, N. A.; Tran, C. Q.

    2015-07-01

    We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev-28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye-Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye-Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms ({σ\\text{DW}}=0.1413(21) Å), and an uncorrelated bulk value ({σ\\text{DW}}=0.1766(9) Å) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography.

  5. Is Utility Transferable? A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a revealed preference analysis of the transferable utility hypothesis, which is widely used in economic models. First, we establish revealed preference conditions that must be satisfied for observed group behavior to be consistent with Pareto efficiency under transferable utility. Next, w

  6. Studies of the mechanism of the olefin metathesis reaction and the process of active site formation on photoreduced molybdenum-silicate catalysts. 2. Productive and degenerative metathesis of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-C/sub 2/D/sub 4/ and C/sub 3/H/sub 6/-C/sub 3/D/sub 6/ mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elev, I.V.; Shelimov, B.N.; Kazanskii, V.B.

    1987-10-01

    The specific catalytic activity of photoreduced Mo/sup 4 +//SiO/sub 2/ samples has been compared for productive and degenerate metathesis reactions of C/sub 3/H/sub 6/-C/sub 3/D/sub 6/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-C/sub 2/D/sub 4/ mixtures. It has been found, that, under comparable conditions, the rate of degenerate metathesis of ethylene is 4-5 times slower than the rate of productive metathesis of propylene, although the rate of degenerate metathesis of propylene is 5 x 10/sup 3/-10/sup 4/ times greater than its rate of productive metathesis. Based on these results, it is concluded that degenerate metathesis of propylene occurs via the involvement of secondary (ethylidene) carbenes.

  7. POSITIVE MOTIVATION DETERMINANTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Vasilyevich KOTOV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered the study of determinants of moti-vation and operation achievement. The paper revealed (with description in details the following factors: want for competence and self-determination, orientation in purpose of live, values, self-efficacy, resilience, and in-trinsic motivation. The study rationalized psychology regularities in the above determinants and the part they played in shaping resilience, personal mental wellbeing and further reinforcement of achievement motivation where the levels at the value scale of an individual served for the basis, those described in details in this paper. All the above determinants of positive motivation enable the individual to get over inner personal tensions, to become an autotelic free person. This paper reviewed the deter-minants of positive motivation in both Russian and for-eign studies of psychologists.

  8. Revealing advantage in a quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    The assumption of source independence was used to reveal nonlocal (apart from standard Bell-CHSH scenario) nature of correlations generated in entanglement swapping experiments. In this work, we have discussed the various utilities of this assumption to reveal nonlocality (via generation of nonbilocal correlations) and thereby exploiting quantumness under lesser requirements compared to some standard means of doing the same. We have also provided with a set of sufficient criteria, imposed on the states (produced by the sources) under which source independence can reveal nonbilocal nature of correlations in a quantum network.

  9. Saturn's Rings Reveal Unexpected Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2004-01-01

    Safely in orbit around Saturn, NASA's Cassini spacecraft sent back its first close-up images of the massive planet's rings on July 1, revealing an unexpectedly varied terrain featuring surprisingly sharp edges, braids and delicate ridges.

  10. Determinants of Homeownership in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Skak, Morten

    characteristics and restrictions that influence the choice between renting and ownership. Among the determinants investigated is civil and social status of the breadwinner and various household characteristics including income. The empirical results generally suggest that the impact of the determinants......Determinants of the probability of homeownership are analysed using a 20 per cent random sample of Danish homes with data covering characteristics of both the homes and their inhabitants. The sample data are from the beginning of the year 2004 and the analysis is based on a logistic regression....... The paper adds to earlier papers by the same authors where determinants of the homeownership rate were found using (average) data for 270 Danish municipalities. By using data directly related to individual households whose inhabitants have chosen to be or not to be homeowners, the analysis reveals...

  11. 78 FR 17744 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Maya: Hidden Worlds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed,'' imported...

  12. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  13. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  14. Principles of bacterial cell-size determination revealed by cell wall synthesis perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Tropini; Timothy K. Lee; Jen Hsin; Samantha M. Desmarais; Tristan Ursell; Russell D. Monds; Kerwyn Casey Huang

    2014-01-01

    Although bacterial cell morphology is tightly controlled, the principles of size regulation remain elusive. In Escherichia coli, perturbation of cell-wall synthesis often results in similar morphologies, making it difficult to deconvolve the complex genotype-phenotype relationships underlying morphogenesis. Here we modulated cell width through heterologous expression of sequences encoding the essential enzyme PBP2 and through sublethal treatments with drugs that inhibit PBP2 and the MreB cyto...

  15. mRNA profiling reveals determinants of trastuzumab efficiency in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia von der Heyde

    Full Text Available Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed SNPs. These results contribute to a better understanding of trastuzumab action and resistance mechanisms.

  16. Evolutionary genomics reveals conserved structural determinants of signaling and adaptation in microbial chemoreceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Roger P [ORNL; Jouline, Igor B [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    As an important model for transmembrane signaling, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) have been extensively studied by using genetic, biochemical, and structural techniques. However, details of the molecular mechanism of signaling are still not well understood. The availability of genomic information for hundreds of species enables the identification of features in protein sequences that are conserved over long evolutionary distances and thus are critically important for function. We carried out a large-scale comparative genomic analysis of the MCP signaling and adaptation domain family and identified features that appear to be critical for receptor structure and function. Based on domain length and sequence conservation, we identified seven major MCP classes and three distinct structural regions within the cytoplasmic domain: signaling, methylation, and flexible bundle subdomains. The flexible bundle subdomain, not previously recognized in MCPs, is a conserved element that appears to be important for signal transduction. Remarkably, the N- and C-terminal helical arms of the cytoplasmic domain maintain symmetry in length and register despite dramatic variation, from 24 to 64 7-aa heptads in overall domain length. Loss of symmetry is observed in some MCPs, where it is concomitant with specific changes in the sensory module. Each major MCP class has a distinct pattern of predicted methylation sites that is well supported by experimental data. Our findings indicate that signaling and adaptation functions within the MCP cytoplasmic domain are tightly coupled, and that their coevolution has contributed to the significant diversity in chemotaxis mechanisms among different organisms.

  17. Phylogenetic profiles reveal structural/functional determinants of TRPC3 signal-sensing antennae

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Kyung Dae; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Hong, Yoojin; Chang, Gue Su; Kiselyov, Kirill; van Rossum, Damian B.; Patterson, Randen L

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of channel structure/function is incredibly challenging. Developing computational tools that provide these data would enable translational research, accelerating mechanistic experimentation for the bench scientist studying ion channels. Starting with the premise that protein sequence encodes information about structure, function and evolution (SF&E), we developed a unified framework for inferring SF&E from sequence information using a knowledge-based approach. The Gesta...

  18. The photochemical determinants of color vision: revealing how opsins tune their chromophore's absorption wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a variety of important chromophore-dependent biological processes, including microbial light sensing and mammalian color vision, relies on protein modifications that alter the spectral characteristics of a bound chromophore. Three different color opsins share the same chromophore, but have three distinct absorptions that together cover the entire visible spectrum, giving rise to trichromatic vision. The influence of opsins on the absorbance of the chromophore has been studied through methods such as model compounds, opsin mutagenesis, and computational modeling. The recent development of rhodopsin mimic that uses small soluble proteins to recapitulate the binding and wavelength tuning of the native opsins provides a new platform for studying protein-regulated spectral tuning. The ability to achieve far-red shifted absorption in the rhodopsin mimic system was attributed to a combination of the lack of a counteranion proximal to the iminium, and a uniformly neutral electrostatic environment surrounding the chromophore.

  19. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    OpenAIRE

    Rieseberg, Loren H.; Kane, Nolan C.; Brook T. Moyers; Sébastien Renaut; Grassa, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild spe...

  20. Gas Nonideality at One Atmosphere Revealed through Speed of Sound Measurements and Heat Capacity Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Liu, Allen

    2008-01-01

    Using an easy-to-make cylindrical resonator, students can measure the speed of sound in a gas, u, with sufficiently high precision (by locating standing-wave Lissajous patterns on an oscilloscope) to observe real gas properties at one atmosphere and 300 K. For CO[subscript 2] and SF[subscript 6], u is found to be 268.83 and 135.25 m s[superscript…

  1. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles. PMID:26999736

  2. A Day in Our Lives: Students of the Year Reveal Determination, Heart, and Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talahongva, Patty

    2007-01-01

    As the sun rises across Indian Country students attending tribal colleges wake up to another day of classes, kids, work, and culture. Many tribal college students are not fresh out of high school. They have often worked, married, and had children before returning to school. A big factor in their decisions to attend tribal colleges is maintaining…

  3. Comparative Genomics Reveals Chd1 as a Determinant of Nucleosome Spacing in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda L; Rando, Oliver J

    2015-07-14

    Packaging of genomic DNA into nucleosomes is nearly universally conserved in eukaryotes, and many features of the nucleosome landscape are quite conserved. Nonetheless, quantitative aspects of nucleosome packaging differ between species because, for example, the average length of linker DNA between nucleosomes can differ significantly even between closely related species. We recently showed that the difference in nucleosome spacing between two Hemiascomycete species-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis-is established by trans-acting factors rather than being encoded in cis in the DNA sequence. Here, we generated several S. cerevisiae strains in which endogenous copies of candidate nucleosome spacing factors are deleted and replaced with the orthologous factors from K. lactis. We find no change in nucleosome spacing in such strains in which H1 or Isw1 complexes are swapped. In contrast, the K. lactis gene encoding the ATP-dependent remodeler Chd1 was found to direct longer internucleosomal spacing in S. cerevisiae, establishing that this remodeler is partially responsible for the relatively long internucleosomal spacing observed in K. lactis. By analyzing several chimeric proteins, we find that sequence differences that contribute to the spacing activity of this remodeler are dispersed throughout the coding sequence, but that the strongest spacing effect is linked to the understudied N-terminal end of Chd1. Taken together, our data find a role for sequence evolution of a chromatin remodeler in establishing quantitative aspects of the chromatin landscape in a species-specific manner.

  4. Revealing and Characterizing Dark Excitons Through Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan O; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Dark excitons are of fundamental importance in a broad range of contexts, but are difficult to study using conventional optical spectroscopy due to their weak interaction with light. We show how coherent multidimensional spectroscopy can reveal and characterize dark states. Using this approach, we identify different types of dark excitons in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and determine details regarding lifetimes, homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths, broadening mechanisms and coupling strengths. The observations of coherent coupling between bright and dark excitons hint at a role for a multi-step process by which excitons in the barrier can relax into the quantum wells.

  5. Data mining of VDJ genes reveals interesting clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajani R; Gupta, Vinay K

    2006-01-01

    Hypervariability of the complementary determining regions in characteristic structure of Immunoglobulins and the distinct, cell-specific expressions of the genes coding for this important class of proteins pose intriguing problems in experimental and computational/informatics research requiring a special approach different from those for the other proteins. We present here an Average Linkage Hierarchical Clustering of the Homosapien VDJ genes and the Immunoglobulin polypeptides generated by them using special kind of data structures and correlation matrices in place of the microarray data. The results reveal interesting clues on the heterogeneity of exon - intron locations in these gene-families and its possible role in hypervariability of the Immunoglobulins. PMID:16842114

  6. Indentation Tests Reveal Geometry-Regulated Stiffening of Nanotube Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Yang, Yang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Asif, Syed; Penev, Evgeni S; Yakobson, Boris I; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-01-13

    Here we report a unique method to locally determine the mechanical response of individual covalent junctions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in various configurations such as "X", "Y", and "Λ"-like. The setup is based on in situ indentation using a picoindenter integrated within a scanning electron microscope. This allows for precise mapping between junction geometry and mechanical behavior and uncovers geometry-regulated junction stiffening. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the dominant contribution to the nanoindentation response is due to the CNT walls stretching at the junction. Targeted synthesis of desired junction geometries can therefore provide a "structural alphabet" for construction of macroscopic CNT networks with tunable mechanical response. PMID:26618517

  7. Kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in gaseous CO, CO{sub 2}, SiF{sub 4}, SF{sub 6}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, and NH{sub 3} from 220 K to 375 K and pressures up to 3.4 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada-Alexanders, Andres F. [Fluid Metrology Group, Process Measurement Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8360 (United States)], E-mail: afea@xanum.uam.mx; Hurly, John J. [Fluid Metrology Group, Process Measurement Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8360 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    An acoustic Greenspan viscometer was used to measure the kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in the gases: CO, CO{sub 2}, SiF{sub 4}, SF{sub 6}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, and NH{sub 3}. The measurements cover the temperature range 220 K to 375 K, and pressures up to 3.4 MPa or 80% of the saturation pressure. The viscometer was calibrated at 298.16 K using five reference gases, Ar, He, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, for which the viscosity and the speed of sound are known. With this calibration, we estimated the relative standard uncertainty of the kinematic viscosity u{sub r}({eta}/{rho}) = 0.006 and the uncertainty of speed of sound u{sub r}(c) = 0.0001, except for very low pressures where the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates and quality factor for the Helmholtz mode is {<=}20.

  8. Cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibn Elhadj, Zied; Boukhris, Marouane; Kammoun, Ikram; Halima, Afef Ben; Addad, Faouzi; Kachboura, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a human parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus Granulosus. The liver and the lungs are the most common locations. Cardiac involvement is rare and accounts for 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease. We report an unusual presentation of cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a history of cerebral hydatid cyst.

  9. Consumer choice and revealed bounded rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We study two boundedly rational procedures in consumer behavior. We show that these procedures can be detected by conditions on observable demand data of the same type as standard revealed preference axioms. This provides the basis for a non-parametric analysis of boundedly rational consumer behavior mirroring the classical one for utility maximization.

  10. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  11. Real-time imaging reveals the dynamics of leukocyte behaviour during experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saparna Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During experimental cerebral malaria (ECM mice develop a lethal neuropathological syndrome associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and intravascular leukocyte sequestration. The precise spatio-temporal context in which the intravascular immune response unfolds is incompletely understood. We developed a 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM-based brain-imaging model to monitor the real-time behaviour of leukocytes directly within the brain vasculature during ECM. Ly6C(hi monocytes, but not neutrophils, started to accumulate in the blood vessels of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA-infected MacGreen mice, in which myeloid cells express GFP, one to two days prior to the onset of the neurological signs (NS. A decrease in the rolling speed of monocytes, a measure of endothelial cell activation, was associated with progressive worsening of clinical symptoms. Adoptive transfer experiments with defined immune cell subsets in recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-deficient mice showed that these changes were mediated by Plasmodium-specific CD8(+ T lymphocytes. A critical number of CD8(+ T effectors was required to induce disease and monocyte adherence to the vasculature. Depletion of monocytes at the onset of disease symptoms resulted in decreased lymphocyte accumulation, suggesting reciprocal effects of monocytes and T cells on their recruitment within the brain. Together, our studies define the real-time kinetics of leukocyte behaviour in the central nervous system during ECM, and reveal a significant role for Plasmodium-specific CD8(+ T lymphocytes in regulating vascular pathology in this disease.

  12. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  13. Revealing the Anatomy of Vote Trading

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Omar A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in the form of vote trading, also known as logrolling, is central for law-making processes, shaping the development of democratic societies. Empirical evidence of logrolling is scarce and limited to highly specific situations because existing methods are not easily applicable to broader contexts. We have developed a general and scalable methodology for revealing a network of vote traders, allowing us to measure logrolling on a large scale. Analysis on more than 9 million votes spanning 40 years in the U.S. Congress reveals a higher logrolling prevalence in the Senate and an overall decreasing trend over recent congresses, coincidental with high levels of political polarization. Our method is applicable in multiple contexts, shedding light on many aspects of logrolling and opening new doors in the study of hidden cooperation.

  14. Driven Rydberg atoms reveal quartic level repulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom subject simultaneously to uniform static electric field and two microwave fields with commensurate frequencies is considered in the range of small fields amplitudes. In the certain range of the parameters of the system the classical secular motion of the electronic ellipse reveals chaotic behavior. Quantum mechanically, when the fine structure of the atom is taken into account, the energy level statistics obey predictions appropriate for the s...

  15. Driven Rydberg atoms reveal quartic level repulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Sacha, K; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom subject simultaneously to uniform static electric field and two microwave fields with commensurate frequencies is considered in the range of small fields amplitudes. In the certain range of the parameters of the system the classical secular motion of the electronic ellipse reveals chaotic behavior. Quantum mechanically, when the fine structure of the atom is taken into account, the energy level statistics obey predictions appropriate for the symplectic Gaussian random matrix ensemble.

  16. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  17. Putative bioactive motif of tritrpticin revealed by an antibody with biological receptor-like properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Sharma

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides represent one of the most promising future strategies for combating infections and microbial drug resistance. Tritrpticin is a 13mer tryptophan-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity whose application in antimicrobial therapy has been hampered by ambiguity about its biological target and consequently the molecular interactions necessary for its antimicrobial activity. The present study provides clues about the mechanism of action of tritripticin by using a unique monoclonal antibody (mAb as a 'physiological' structural scaffold. A pool of mAbs were generated against tritrpticin and based on its high affinity and ability to bind tritrpticin analogs, mAb 6C6D7 was selected and characterized further. In a screening of phage displayed random peptides, this antibody was able to identify a novel antimicrobial peptide with low sequence homology to tritrpticin, suggesting that the mAb possessed the physico-chemical characteristics mimicking the natural receptor. Subsequently, thermodynamics and molecular modeling identified a core group of hydrophobic residues in tritrpticin arranged in a distorted's' shaped conformation as critical for antibody binding. Comparison of the mAb induced conformation with the micelle bound structure of tritrpticin reveals how a common motif may be able to interact with multiple classes of biomolecules thus extending the target range of this innate immune peptide. Based on the concurrence between thermodynamic and structural data our results reveal a template that can be used to design novel antimicrobial pharmacophores while simultaneously demonstrating at a more fundamental level the potential of mAbs to act as receptor surrogates.

  18. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard-Verger, A.; Descloux, E.; Ponard, D.; Deroux, A.; Fantin, B.; Fieschi, C.; John, M.; Bouldouyre, A.; Karkowsi, L.; Moulis, G.; Auvinet, H.; Valla, F.; Lechiche, C.; Davido, B.; Martinot, M.; Biron, C.; Lucht, F.; Asseray, N.; Froissart, A.; Buzelé, R.; Perlat, A.; Boutboul, D.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Isnard, S.; Bienvenu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies. A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis. Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15–67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1–10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35

  19. Revealing digital documents. Concealed structures in data

    CERN Document Server

    Voß, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This short paper gives an introduction to a research project to analyze how digital documents are structured and described. Using a phenomenological approach, this research will reveal common patterns that are used in data, independent from the particular technology in which the data is available. The ability to identify these patterns, on different levels of description, is important for several applications in digital libraries. A better understanding of data structuring will not only help to better capture singular characteristics of data by metadata, but will also recover intended structures of digital objects, beyond long term preservation.

  20. Health inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie;

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas...

  1. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  2. Narratives and Emotions: Revealing and Concealing Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Marander-Eklund

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available My paper deals with laughter as an expression of emotions in stories.I study laughter both as a communicative factor in fieldwork and as a stylistic device in narratives. When is laughter used as an effect in storytelling and what does this laughter mean? Is laughter always an expression of humour and comics? What else can it be an expression of? The stories that I use for analysing laughter are personal experience stories of giving birth. In these stories women use laughter in many ways, both in contact with me as an interviewer, together with me, and as a way of marking the meaning of the story. The women often laugh when they talk about corporeality, pain and difficulties during labour, but also when they perform a self-presentation with elements that “almost” happened during birth. What do they reveal or conceal with laughter in narratives and what can the laughter reveal about the point of their narration?

  3. North Korea's nuclear power programme revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of the nuclear programme in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) was revealed in May 1992: reports on the country's facilities were handed to the International Atomic Energy Agency and an Agency group visited Korea on a ''familiarisation visit''. DPRK's nuclear programme had been the subject of speculation for some time. While the country had signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty and two facilities were already under IAEA safeguards - a research reactor and a critical facility, both at the Institute of Nuclear Physics - there were a number of indicators that DPRK was pursuing a nuclear programme aimed at military use. The new openness was prompted by a number of factors including discussions on closer relations with South Korea. DPRK signed a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement on 30 January 1992. On the familiarisation visit by the IAEA director general in May the DPRK revealed nuclear facilities in operation or under construction at five sites. At Pakchon and Pyongsan: each site housed a uranium mine and uranium-ore concentration plant. At Pyongyang: the two facilities already under safeguards at the Institute of Nuclear Physics; and a sub critical facility at Kim Il Sung university. At Nyongbyon: a fuel fabrication plant; an 5MWe experimental power reactor, in operation; a 50MWe prototype power reactor under construction; and a facility ultimately intended as a reprocessing plant, but described by North Korea, because of its unfinished state, as a laboratory. At Taechon: a 200MWe power reactor under construction. (author)

  4. External quality measurements reveal internal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Costa, J.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2003-01-01

    With the present developments in CA technology it becomes possible to fine tune the storage conditions to the specific needs of the product. This generates the need to know the exact quality conditions of the product before storage starts. By measuring the initial quality we can determine these cond

  5. Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Eeckhout, K.; Bos, A.J.J.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent luminescence or afterglow is caused by a gradual release of charge carriers from trapping centers. The energy needed to release these charge carriers is determined by the trap depths. Knowledge of these trap depths is therefore crucial in the understanding of the persistent luminescence m

  6. Means of determining extrusion temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert E.; Canonico, Domenic A.

    1977-01-01

    In an extrusion process comprising the steps of fabricating a metal billet, heating said billet for a predetermined time and at a selected temperature to increase its plasticity and then forcing said heated billet through a small orifice to produce a desired extruded object, the improvement comprising the steps of randomly inserting a plurality of small metallic thermal tabs at different cross sectional depths in said billet as a part of said fabricating step, and examining said extruded object at each thermal tab location for determining the crystal structure at each extruded thermal tab thus revealing the maximum temperature reached during extrusion in each respective tab location section of the extruded object, whereby the thermal profile of said extruded object during extrusion may be determined.

  7. Interior Evolution of Ceres and Vesta Revealed by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Bland, M. T.; Castillo, J. C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ermakov, A.; Jaumann, R.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marchi, S.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Nathues, A.; Park, R. S.; Prettyman, T. H.; Toplis, M. J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Dawn's exploration of Vesta and Ceres has revealed their geophysical characteristics, informing the processes that shaped the bodies. Dawn has determined the average diameter of Ceres to be 940 km, smaller than the previously estimated 975 km [1]. This implies a density of 2160 kg/m3, indicating that Ceres is less differentiated than predicted [2]. Ceres' entire surface is cratered, implying the lack of a thick (10's of km) water ice layer at the surface. Variability in Ceres' crater morphology indicates that the near-surface layer has variable strength and rheology, likely due to heterogeneity in the near-surface mixture of rock, ice and salt. These observations may indicate that Ceres lost a significant amount of an original surface ice layer due to impact erosion. The lack of large impact basins on Ceres can be interpreted to be the result of viscous relaxation. These data provide insights into Ceres' thermal evolution and mechanical properties, which appear to be unique to this warm, icy body. In contrast to Ceres, Vesta formed very early and hot, resulting in a fully differentiated body. Dawn's exploration revealed geophysical and geochemical evidence for an iron-rich core and basaltic crust. However, unlike the pre-Dawn paradigm of Vesta's evolution, Dawn found that the crust and mantle of Vesta are less distinct than predicted by classical differentiation models. [1] Thomas, P. C., et al., Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, 437, 224-226, 2005; [2] McCord et al., Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution, Space Sci Rev
DOI 10.1007/s11214-010-9729-9, 2011.

  8. Metabolomics reveals metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, J.K.; Willing, B.; Lucio, M.; Fekete, A.; Dicksved, J.; Halfvarson, J.; Tysk, C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2009-06-01

    The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

  9. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  10. Stochastic heart-rate model can reveal pathologic cardiac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusela, Tom

    2004-03-01

    A simple one-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic difference equation can simulate the heart-rate fluctuations in a time scale from minutes to hours. The model consists of a deterministic nonlinear part and a stochastic part typical of Gaussian noise, and both parts can be directly determined from measured heart-rate data. Data from healthy subjects typically exhibit the deterministic part with two or more stable fixed points. Studies of 15 congestive heart-failure subjects reveal that the deterministic part of pathologic heart dynamics has no clear stable fixed points. Direct simulations of the stochastic model for normal and pathologic cases can produce statistical parameters similar to those of real subjects. Results directly indicate that pathologic situations simplify the heart-rate control system.

  11. Anticipatory eye fixations reveal tool knowledge for tool interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Anna; Barabas, Marissa; Himmelbach, Marc; Butz, Martin V

    2016-08-01

    Action-oriented eye-tracking studies have shown that eye fixations reveal much about current behavioral intentions. The eyes typically fixate those positions of a tool or an object where the fingers will be placed next, or those positions in a scene, where obstacles need to be avoided to successfully reach or transport a tool or object. Here, we asked to what extent eye fixations can also reveal active cognitive inference processes, which are expected to integrate bottom-up visual information with internal knowledge for planning suitable object interactions task-dependently. In accordance to the available literature, we expected that task-relevant knowledge will include sensorimotor, semantic, and mechanical aspects. To investigate if and in which way this internal knowledge influences eye fixation behavior while planning an object interaction, we presented pictures of familiar and unfamiliar tools and instructed participants to either pantomime 'lifting' or 'using' the respective tool. When confronted with unfamiliar tools, participants fixated the tool's effector part closer and longer in comparison with familiar tools. This difference was particularly prominent during 'using' trials when compared with 'lifting' trials. We suggest that this difference indicates that the brain actively extracts mechanical information about the unknown tool in order to infer its appropriate usage. Moreover, the successive fixations over a trial indicate that a dynamic, task-oriented, active cognitive process unfolds, which integrates available tool knowledge with visually gathered information to plan and determine the currently intended tool interaction. PMID:27068808

  12. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  13. Chemotaxis: new role for Ras revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianshe Yan; Dale Hereld; Tian Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ A recent study of chemotaxis revealed a new role for the proto-oncogene Ras in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum.Chemotaxis,the directional movement of cells toward chemokines and other chemoattractants,plays critical roles in diverse physiological processes,such as mobilization of immune cells to fight invading microorganisms,targeting of metastatic cancer cells to specific tissues,and guidance of sperm cells to ova during fertilization.This work,published in the July 26 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology,was conducted in Dr.Devreotes' lab at John Hopkins University and Dr.Parent's lab at National Cancer Institute.This research team demonstrated that RasC functions as an upstream regulator of TORC2 and thereby governs the effects of TORC2-PKB signaling on the cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  14. Can Clustering in Genotype Space Reveal "Niches"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rafael; Ostling, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Community ecology lacks the success enjoyed by population genetics to quantify the relative roles played by deterministic and stochastic processes. It has been proposed that clustered patterns of abundance in genotype space provide evidence of selection in microbial communities, since no such clustering would arise in the absence of selection. We critique this test for its unrealistic null hypothesis. We show mathematically and with simulations that point mutations alone lead to clustering in genotype space by causing correlations between abundances of similar genotypes. We also show potential deviations from the mutation-only pattern caused by immigration from a source pool. Clustered patterns in genotype space may still be revealing of selection if analyzed quantitatively but only if neutral and selective regimes can be distinguished once mutation and immigration are included in the null model.

  15. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  16. [Pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shizuka; Katori, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Nitahara, Keiichi; Higa, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography. A 39-year-old obese woman (height 153 cm, weight 70 kg) with fractures of the radius, ulna, clavicle, and femur in a traffic accident, was scheduled for osteosynthesis. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. The Spo2 decreased from 99% to 94% during the surgery. Bilateral chest sounds were symmetrical. The Spo2 increased to 100% after discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Pneumothorax was not evident on a postoperative chest X-ray, but computed tomography of the chest demonstrated right-sided pneumothorax. An ECG electrode had overlapped the fractured rib on the preoperative chest X-ray.

  17. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K

    2014-01-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the $n$-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a phylogenetic tree across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study a multitude of additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  18. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  19. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Steele, A.; Fries, M.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  20. Fluorine for Hydrogen Exchange in the Hydrofluorobenzene Derivatives C6HxF(6-x), where x = 2, 3, 4 and 5 by Monomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH; The Solid State Isomerization of [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2Ce(2,3,4,5-C6HF4) to [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2Ce(2,3,4,6-C6HF4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Richard; Werkema, Evan L.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2008-04-21

    The reaction between monomeric bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)cerium hydride, Cp'2CeH, and several hydrofluorobenzene derivatives is described. The aryl derivatives that are the primary products, Cp'2Ce(C6H5-xFx) where x = 1,2,3,4, are thermally stable enough to be isolated in only two cases, since all of them decompose at different rates to Cp'2CeF and a fluorobenzyne; the latter is trapped by either solvent when C6D6 is used or by a Cp'H ring when C6D12 is the solvent. The trapped products are identified by GCMS analysis after hydrolysis. The aryl derivatives are generated cleanly by reaction of the metallacycle, Cp'((Me3C)2C5H2C(Me2)CH2)Ce, with a hydrofluorobenzene and the resulting arylcerium products, in each case, are identified by their 1H and 19F NMR spectra at 20oC. The stereochemical principle that evolves from these studies is that the thermodynamic isomer is the one in which the CeC bond is flanked by two ortho-CF bonds. This orientation is suggested to arise from the negative charge that is localized on the ipso-carbon atom due to Co(delta+)-Fo(delta-) polarization. The preferred regioisomer is determined by thermodynamic rather than kinetic effects; this is illustrated by the quantitative, irreversible solid-state conversion at 25oC over two months of Cp'2Ce(2,3,4,5-C6HF4) to Cp'2Ce(2,3,4,6-C6HF4), an isomerization that involves a CeC(ipso) for C(ortho)F site exchange.

  1. External quality measurements reveal internal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, R.E.; Costa, J. M.; Kooten, van, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the present developments in CA technology it becomes possible to fine tune the storage conditions to the specific needs of the product. This generates the need to know the exact quality conditions of the product before storage starts. By measuring the initial quality we can determine these conditions optimally. At present the most likely candidates to assess the initial quality with fast and non-destructive measurements are colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, and maybe NIR spectroscopy. Tw...

  2. Patterns of forest vegetation responses to edge effect as revealed by a continuous approach

    OpenAIRE

    Deconchat, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Context: Understanding the variability of vegetation distribution and its determinants is a central issue for addressing the effects of edges on ecological processes. Recent studies have revealed inconsistencies in the patterns of responses to edge effects that raise important questions about their determinants. We investigated the edge effect response patterns by adapting a recently proposed continuous approach to the case of small forest fragments in southwestern France. Methods: We surveye...

  3. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  4. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. PMID:20875475

  5. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  6. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  7. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp. and mapping of sex-determining loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex-determining

  8. Genomics Reveals the Worldwide Distribution of Multidrug-Resistant Serotype 6E Pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, Andries J; Bray, James E; Roalfe, Lucy; White, Rebecca; Zancolli, Marta; Quirk, Sigríður J; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Bentley, Stephen D; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G; Goldblatt, David; Brueggemann, Angela B

    2015-07-01

    The pneumococcus is a leading pathogen infecting children and adults. Safe, effective vaccines exist, and they work by inducing antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule (unique for each serotype) that surrounds the cell; however, current vaccines are limited by the fact that only a few of the nearly 100 antigenically distinct serotypes are included in the formulations. Within the serotypes, serogroup 6 pneumococci are a frequent cause of serious disease and common colonizers of the nasopharynx in children. Serotype 6E was first reported in 2004 but was thought to be rare; however, we and others have detected serotype 6E among recent pneumococcal collections. Therefore, we analyzed a diverse data set of ∼1,000 serogroup 6 genomes, assessed the prevalence and distribution of serotype 6E, analyzed the genetic diversity among serogroup 6 pneumococci, and investigated whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-induced serotype 6A and 6B antibodies mediate the killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We found that 43% of all genomes were of serotype 6E, and they were recovered worldwide from healthy children and patients of all ages with pneumococcal disease. Four genetic lineages, three of which were multidrug resistant, described ∼90% of the serotype 6E pneumococci. Serological assays demonstrated that vaccine-induced serotype 6B antibodies were able to elicit killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We also revealed three major genetic clusters of serotype 6A capsular sequences, discovered a new hybrid 6C/6E serotype, and identified 44 examples of serotype switching. Therefore, while vaccines appear to offer protection against serotype 6E, genetic variants may reduce vaccine efficacy in the longer term because of the emergence of serotypes that can evade vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:25972423

  9. The Streptococcus milleri population of a cystic fibrosis clinic reveals patient specificity and intraspecies diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Christopher D; Sibley, Kristen A; Leong, Tara A; Grinwis, Margot E; Parkins, Michael D; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2010-07-01

    The genetic relatedness of Streptococcus milleri group isolates from the airways of cystic fibrosis patients was determined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study reveals no evidence for patient-to-patient transmission in our patient population; however, within individual patients, complex inter- and intraspecies diversity and dynamics can be observed.

  10. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  11. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang Chia; Chen, Chia Hsiang; Gau, Vincent; Zhang, Donna D; Liao, Joseph C; Wang, Fei-Yue; Wong, Pak Kin

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO) scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future. PMID:21124958

  12. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  13. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sgr. The radio observations revealed the presence of a jet escaping from the system at mind-boggling speeds. Only three other galactic X-ray stellar systems have been found to eject material at such speeds. They have been dubbed "microquasars" because, on a smaller scale, they resemble quasars, which lie at the hearts of distant galaxies and also spew out high-velocity jets of particles. In galaxy-core quasars, the black holes are millions of times more massive than the Sun; in the more nearby microquasars the black holes are roughly three to twenty times more massive than the Sun. The extremely high velocity of the jets suggests that their origin lies close to the event horizon of a black hole. Microquasar activity is thought to arise when the black hole in the binary system draws material away from its companion star. The material surrounding the black hole forms a rapidly spinning disk called an accretion disk. This disk is heated by friction to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-rays. As spiralling gas moves into the gravity well of the black hole, it moves faster and faster. Magnetic fields in the disk are believed to expel the charged subatomic particles at speeds close to that of light. As the charged particles interact with the magnetic fields, they emit radio waves. If some of the material escapes by being magnetically expelled into space, the matter may continue moving at the tremendous speed it had attained near the black hole. After their ejection, the jets of particles expand and cool, fading from astronomers' view. V4641 Sgr excites astronomers because it is close and because it acted so differently from other microquasars. In other microquasars, outbursts have dimmed more slowly over weeks or months rather than hours. "There's something fundamentally different about this one; it's more extreme than any other example," Hjellming said. "And because this system happens to be so close to us, `it is very likely that there are more objects like V4641

  14. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  15. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye-Jeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Darren R. [New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Kyu [Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Do [Department of Biochemistry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Teraoka, Hiroki [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Park, Hae-Chul [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Hyon E., E-mail: hyonchoy@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Boo Ahn, E-mail: bashin@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok-Yong, E-mail: zebrafish@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. •Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for TCDD. •The retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, pancreas, cloaca and pectoral fin bud are novel targets in zebrafish for TCDD. •Our findings will further understanding of human health risks by TCDD. -- Abstract: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  16. Antibody protection reveals extended epitopes on the human TSH receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Latif

    Full Text Available Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD. However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity.

  17. Antibody protection reveals extended epitopes on the human TSH receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Teixeira, Avelino; Michalek, Krzysztof; Ali, M Rejwan; Schlesinger, Max; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Morshed, Syed A; Davies, Terry F

    2012-01-01

    Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD). However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity. PMID:22957097

  18. Revealing remodeler function: Varied and unique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlund, Allen

    Chromatin remodelers perform a necessary and required function for the successful expression of our genetic code. By modifying, shifting, or ejecting nucleosomes from the chromatin structure they allow access to the underlying DNA to the rest of the cell's machinery. This research has focused on two major remodeler motors from major families of chromatin remodelers: the trimeric motor domain of RSC and the motor domain of the ISWI family, ISWI. Using primarily stopped-flow spectrofluorometry, I have categorized the time-dependent motions of these motor domains along their preferred substrate, double-stranded DNA. Combined with collected ATP utilization data, I present the subsequent analysis and associated conclusions that stem from the underlying assumptions and models. Interestingly, there is little in common between the investigated proteins aside from their favored medium. While RSC exhibits modest translocation characteristics and highly effective motion with the ability for large molecular forces, ISWI is not only structurally different but highly inefficient in its motion leading to difficulties in determining its specific translocation mechanics. While chromatin remodeling is a ubiquitous facet of eukaryotic life, there remains much to be understood about their general mechanisms.

  19. Spitzer reveals what's behind Orion's Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; O'Dell, C R; McNabb, Ian A; Colgan, Sean W J; Zhuge, Scott Y; Ferland, Gary J; Hidalgo, Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 11 regions SE of the Bright Bar in the Orion Nebula, along a radial from the exciting star theta1OriC, extending from 2.6 to 12.1'. Our Cycle 5 programme obtained deep spectra with matching IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) aperture grid patterns. Most previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the ISM particularly for elemental abundances. Spitzer observations provide a unique perspective on the Ne and S abundances by virtue of observing the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) in Orion and H II regions in general. The Ne/H abundance ratio is especially well determined, with a value of (1.01+/-0.08)E-4. We obtained corresponding new ground-based spectra at CTIO. These optical data are used to estimate the electron temperature, electron density, optical extinction, and the S+/S++ ratio at each of our Spitzer positions. That permits an adjustment for the total gas-phase S abundan...

  20. A systems biology approach reveals common metastatic pathways in osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Ricardo J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The survival rate of patients with metastatic disease remains very dismal. Nevertheless, metastasis is a complex process and a single-level analysis is not likely to identify its key biological determinants. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to identify common metastatic pathways that are jointly supported by both mRNA and protein expression data in two distinct human metastatic OS models. Results mRNA expression microarray and N-linked glycoproteomic analyses were performed on two commonly used isogenic pairs of human metastatic OS cell lines, namely HOS/143B and SaOS-2/LM7. Pathway analysis of the differentially regulated genes and glycoproteins separately revealed pathways associated to metastasis including cell cycle regulation, immune response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition. However, no common significant pathway was found at both genomic and proteomic levels between the two metastatic models, suggesting a very different biological nature of the cell lines. To address this issue, we used a topological significance analysis based on a “shortest-path” algorithm to identify topological nodes, which uncovered additional biological information with respect to the genomic and glycoproteomic profiles but remained hidden from the direct analyses. Pathway analysis of the significant topological nodes revealed a striking concordance between the models and identified significant common pathways, including “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT”, “Cytoskeleton remodeling/Cytoskeleton remodeling”, and “Cell adhesion/Chemokines and adhesion”. Of these, the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” was the top ranked common pathway from the topological analysis of the genomic and proteomic profiles in the two metastatic models. The up-regulation of proteins in the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” pathway in the Sa

  1. Mechanism of intermediate filament recognition by plakin repeat domains revealed by envoplakin targeting of vimentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogl, Claudia; Mohammed, Fiyaz; Al-Jassar, Caezar; Jeeves, Mark; Knowles, Timothy J.; Rodriguez-Zamora, Penelope; White, Scott A.; Odintsova, Elena; Overduin, Michael; Chidgey, Martyn

    2016-03-01

    Plakin proteins form critical connections between cell junctions and the cytoskeleton; their disruption within epithelial and cardiac muscle cells cause skin-blistering diseases and cardiomyopathies. Envoplakin has a single plakin repeat domain (PRD) which recognizes intermediate filaments through an unresolved mechanism. Herein we report the crystal structure of envoplakin's complete PRD fold, revealing binding determinants within its electropositive binding groove. Four of its five internal repeats recognize negatively charged patches within vimentin via five basic determinants that are identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mutations of the Lys1901 or Arg1914 binding determinants delocalize heterodimeric envoplakin from intracellular vimentin and keratin filaments in cultured cells. Recognition of vimentin is abolished when its residues Asp112 or Asp119 are mutated. The latter slot intermediate filament rods into basic PRD domain grooves through electrosteric complementarity in a widely applicable mechanism. Together this reveals how plakin family members form dynamic linkages with cytoskeletal frameworks.

  2. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  3. Crystal structure determination of Efavirenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popeneciu, Horea, E-mail: horea.popeneciu@itim-cj.ro; Dumitru, Ristoiu [College of Environmental Science on Engineering Babes Bolyai University, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Tripon, Carmen, E-mail: horea.popeneciu@itim-cj.ro; Borodi, Gheorghe, E-mail: horea.popeneciu@itim-cj.ro; Pop, Mihaela Maria, E-mail: mihaelapop@teracrystal.com

    2015-12-23

    Needle-shaped single crystals of the title compound, C{sub 14}H{sub 9}ClF{sub 3}NO{sub 2}, were obtained from a co-crystallization experiment of Efavirenz with maleic acid in a (1:1) ratio, using methanol as solvent. Crystal structure determination at room temperature revealed a significant anisotropy of the lattice expansion compared to the previously reported low-temperature structure. In both low- and room temperature structures the cyclopropylethynyl fragment in one of the asymmetric unit molecules is disordered. While at low-temperature only one C atom exhibits positional disorder, at room temperature the disorder is present for two C atoms of the cyclopropane ring.

  4. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Schilling

    Full Text Available Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot to infer rot type (binary and fungal nutritional mode (gradient, respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1 spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias, and 2 brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects. Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot, as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case. These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  5. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links

  6. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zakaria

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1 and Fas Ligand (FasL were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  7. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  8. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  9. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a) Labeling of a food, drug, device, or cosmetic shall be deemed to be misleading if it fails to reveal...

  10. Fundamentals of Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Borys, Michael; Reichmuth, Arthur; Nater, Roland

    2012-01-01

    In this book on Fundamentals of Mass Determination, the definition and dissemination of units of mass is explained, starting with an introduction to metrology and mass determination.   Establishing a mass scale requires corresponding mass standards and mass comparators. The metrological requirements for weighing instruments, weight pieces, and measuring conditions are explained and discussed based on international directives and applicable legal regulations. International directives and institutions are striving towards the worldwide uniform implementation of these requirements. Processes used to determine density and volume are described to the extent that they apply to mass determination. Calculating measurement uncertainty entails taking into consideration the effect of influence variables on mass determination. An overview of this topic is provided to make it easier to determine and specify measurement uncertainty in practice, while additional information in the form of tables, illustrations, and literat...

  11. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  12. A novel assay reveals hygrotactic behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiteng Ji

    Full Text Available Humidity is one of the most important factors that determines the geographical distribution and survival of terrestrial animals. The ability to detect variation in humidity is conserved across many species. Here, we established a novel behavioral assay that revealed the thirsty Drosophila exhibits strong hygrotactic behavior, and it can locate water by detecting humidity gradient. In addition, exposure to high levels of moisture was sufficient to elicit proboscis extension reflex behavior in thirsty flies. Furthermore, we found that the third antennal segment was necessary for hygrotactic behavior in thirsty flies, while arista was required for the avoidance of moist air in hydrated flies. These results indicated that two types of hygroreceptor cells exist in Drosophila: one located in the third antennal segment that mediates hygrotactic behavior in thirst status, and the other located in arista which is responsible for the aversive behavior toward moist air in hydration status. Using a neural silencing screen, we demonstrated that synaptic output from the mushroom body α/β surface and posterior neurons was required for both hygrotactic behavior and moisture-aversive behavior.

  13. Revealing the dynamics of Class 0 protostellar discs with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Walch, S; Banerjee, R

    2016-01-01

    We present synthetic ALMA observations of Keplerian, protostellar discs in the Class 0 stage studying the emission of molecular tracers like $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O, HCO$^+$, H$^{13}$CO$^+$, N$_2$H$^+$, and H$_2$CO. We model the emission of discs around low- and intermediate-mass protostars. We show that under optimal observing conditions ALMA is able to detect the discs already in the earliest stage of protostellar evolution, although the emission is often concentrated to the innermost 50 AU. Therefore, a resolution of a few 0.1" might be too low to detect Keplerian discs around Class 0 objects. We also demonstrate that under optimal conditions Keplerian rotation signatures are recognisable and protostellar masses can be determined with high fidelity for edge-on discs. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to reveal Keplerian rotation even for strongly inclined discs and that ALMA should be able to detect possible signs of fragmentation in face-on discs. In order to give some guidance for future ALMA observa...

  14. Revealing accretion onto black holes through X-ray reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D.; Fender, R.; Ponti, G.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Coriat, M.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ RXTE observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. Using results from archival and AO-12 observations of GX 339-4 with XMM-Newton we reveal the dynamics driving this evolution and the nature of accretion onto black holes in outburst.

  15. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals sexual dimorphism in the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex can be determined by the shape of their distal femur. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to sexual dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions; these analyses identified trends in bone shape in sex-based subgroups. Sex-related differences in shape were statistically significant. The subject's sex was correctly assigned in 77.3% of cases using geometric morphometric analysis. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur is feasible and has revealed sexual dimorphism differences in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and be used to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. PMID:26743712

  16. Revealing hidden regularities with a general approach to fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz [Chemin du Solarium, CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, B. P. 120, Gradignan (France)

    2015-12-15

    Selected aspects of a general approach to nuclear fission are described with the focus on the possible benefit of meeting the increasing need of nuclear data for the existing and future emerging nuclear applications. The most prominent features of this approach are the evolution of quantum-mechanical wave functions in systems with complex shape, memory effects in the dynamics of stochastic processes, the influence of the Second Law of thermodynamics on the evolution of open systems in terms of statistical mechanics, and the topological properties of a continuous function in multi-dimensional space. It is demonstrated that this approach allows reproducing the measured fission barriers and the observed properties of the fission fragments and prompt neutrons. Our approach is based on sound physical concepts, as demonstrated by the fact that practically all the parameters have a physical meaning, and reveals a high degree of regularity in the fission observables. Therefore, we expect a good predictive power within the region extending from Po isotopes to Sg isotopes where the model parameters have been adjusted. Our approach can be extended to other regions provided that there is enough empirical information available that allows determining appropriate values of the model parameters. Possibilities for combining this general approach with microscopic models are suggested. These are supposed to enhance the predictive power of the general approach and to help improving or adjusting the microscopic models. This could be a way to overcome the present difficulties for producing evaluations with the required accuracy. (orig.)

  17. The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Thomas; Dolocan, Andrei; Martin, Peter; Purnell, Mark A; Vinther, Jakob; Gabbott, Sarah E

    2016-04-28

    Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata. PMID:27074512

  18. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  19. Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Mark A.; Blackwell, Shelley M.; Case, James F.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Herren, Christen M.; Orrico, Cristina M.; Terrill, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Ecosystem function will in large part be determined by functional groups present in biological communities. The simplest distinction with respect to functional groups of an ecosystem is the differentiation between primary and secondary producers. A challenge thus far has been to examine these groups simultaneously with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution for observations to be relevant to the scales of change in coastal oceans. This study takes advantage of general differences in the bioluminescence flash kinetics between planktonic dinoflagellates and zooplankton to measure relative abundances of the two groups within the same-time space volume. This novel approach for distinguishing these general classifications using a single sensor is validated using fluorescence data and exclusion experiments. The approach is then applied to data collected from an autonomous underwater vehicle surveying >500 km in Monterey Bay and San Luis Obispo Bay, CA during the summers of 2002-2004. The approach also reveals that identifying trophic interaction between the two planktonic communities may also be possible.

  20. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  1. What Facial Appearance Reveals Over Time: When Perceived Expressions in Neutral Faces Reveal Stable Emotion Dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Reginald B; Garrido, Carlos O; Albohn, Daniel N; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    It might seem a reasonable assumption that when we are not actively using our faces to express ourselves (i.e., when we display nonexpressive, or neutral faces), those around us will not be able to read our emotions. Herein, using a variety of expression-related ratings, we examined whether age-related changes in the face can accurately reveal one's innermost affective dispositions. In each study, we found that expressive ratings of neutral facial displays predicted self-reported positive/negative dispositional affect, but only for elderly women, and only for positive affect. These findings meaningfully replicate and extend earlier work examining age-related emotion cues in the face of elderly women (Malatesta et al., 1987a). We discuss these findings in light of evidence that women are expected to, and do, smile more than men, and that the quality of their smiles predicts their life satisfaction. Although ratings of old male faces did not significantly predict self-reported affective dispositions, the trend was similar to that found for old female faces. A plausible explanation for this gender difference is that in the process of attenuating emotional expressions over their lifetimes, old men reveal less evidence of their total emotional experiences in their faces than do old women. PMID:27445944

  2. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebnik Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv strain 1111 (ATCC 35937, X. perforans (Xp strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg strain 101 (ATCC 19865. The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the

  3. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  4. Cosmic Lens Reveals Distant Galactic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    , that the galaxy has merged with another. "This whole picture, of massive galaxies and supermassive black holes assembling themselves through major galaxy mergers so early in the Universe, is a new paradigm in galaxy formation. This gravitationally lensed system allows us to see this process in unprecedented detail," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In 2003, astronomers studied PSS J2322+1944, finding the Einstein Ring by observing radio waves emitted by molecules of Carbon Monoxide (CO). When astronomers see large amounts of CO gas in a galaxy, they conclude that there also is a large amount of molecular Hydrogen present, and thus a large reservoir of fuel for star formation. In the latest study, scientists painstakingly produced a physical model of the lensing intermediate galaxy. By knowing the mass, structure and orientation of this galaxy, they could then deduce the details of how it bends the light and radio waves from the more-distant galaxy. This allowed them to reconstruct a picture of the distant object. By doing this with multiple VLA images made at different radio frequencies, they were able to measure the motions of the gas in the distant galaxy. "The lensing galaxy was, in effect, part of our telescope. By projecting backward through the lens, we determined the structure and dynamics of the galaxy behind it," said Fabian Walter of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany. PSS J2322+1944 was first discovered by George Djorgovski of Caltech, using the digitized Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Later radio and optical studies showed that it had a huge reservoir of dust and molecular gas, and indicated gravitational lensing. Gravitational lenses were predicted, based on Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, in 1919. Einstein himself showed in 1936 that a perfectly-aligned gravitational lens would produce a circular image, but felt that the chances of actually observing such an object were nearly zero. The first

  5. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  6. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  7. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    -supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...... and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  8. Determinants of Stock Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.; Biggyan Raj Subedi

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the stock market performance in Nepal using monthly data for the period of mid-August 2000 to mid-July 2014. The impact of major changes in politics and Nepal Rastra Bank’s policy on lending against share collateral has also been assessed. Empirical results obtained from OLS estimations of behavioural equations reveal that the performance of stock market is found to respond positively to inflation and broad money growth, and negatively to in...

  9. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  10. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2 birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (81 loci measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements.

  11. Compatibility Determination : Recreational Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is determined in this document that recreational fishing of bass and brim on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is consistent with Refuge Objectives. The...

  12. Sex determination in salmonids

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Ayaka; Guyomard, René; Jouanno, Elodie; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Members of the salmonid family are present worldwide and many of them are species of major importance for aquaculture, wild stock fisheries or recreational sport fisheries. Sex determination has been well studied in this fish family, because of the importance of a better sex control in aquaculture and also because salmonids can be excellent research models. All salmonid species in which sex determination has been studied in details thus far belong to the Salmoninae subfamily (mainly salmons, ...

  13. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Инга Викторовна Лебедева

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs). The value orientati...

  14. Revealing the crust of western Romania using CCP tehniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, D.; Stuart, G.; Grecu, B.

    2012-04-01

    weight is determined from a 2-D Gaussian function whose one standard deviation width is chosen appropriately by the array aperture and/or Fresnel zone at the imaging target (Eagar et al., 2011). Our results reveal an average crustal thickness of 28-30 km beneath the Romanian sector of the Panonian Basin and a thicker crust for stations within the Southern Carpathian Orogen (~35km). For two stations located in the Apuseni Mountains the Moho discontinuity is replaced by a transition zone extended between 36 and 40 km depth. The H-k stacking solutions reveal significant variations in crustal thickness across the study region. Both H-k and GCCP stacking show general agreement in the pattern of Moho topography. Discrepancies between the two results are mostly linear shifts and both exhibit the same broad-scale patterns. Poisson's ratios across the region vary strongly and regional patterns do not directly correlate with variations in Moho depth.

  15. Genetic diversity of Albanian goat breeds revealed by mtDNA sequence variation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anila; Biçoku, Ylli; Dobi, Petrit

    2014-01-01

    Albanian farmers have a long tradition in goat farming. Recently, several studies were carried out to determine genetic diversity of local goat populations, using molecular markers such as SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms), microsatellites and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). In the present study 77 mtDNA D-loop sequences from six different goat breeds were analysed. The results revealed 67 different haplotypes, with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.864 to 1 and nucleotide...

  16. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  17. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  18. Burkitt Lymphoma Presented as Acute Lower Back Pain and Revealed by 18F-NaF PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenlu; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Cai, Liang

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old man with acute lower back pain for 7 days underwent F-NaF PET/CT to determine the cause of his symptoms. The PET images revealed irregularly increased F activity in the L1 vertebral body without definite sclerotic changes on CT. However, the corresponding CT images revealed an adjacent paravertebral mass extending into the vertebral foramen without elevated activity on PET. A diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma was made after pathological examination. PMID:26825214

  19. HEU age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of 231Pa since there is negligible quantity of 230Th due to very low atom concentrations of 234U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples

  20. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. Results: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  1. Uranium determination in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used for the spectrometric uranium determination with 2-(2-thiolase)-5-diethylaminophenol was modified for its application in the zirconium samples analysis with an uranium content of the 0.1% order. The samples, previously dissolved in nitric acid, were submitted to a separative stage of liquid-liquid extraction, with a trioctylphosphine (TOPO) oxide diluted in cyclohexane. A sodium fluoride aqueous solution was necessary to be aggregated in the spectrometric determination so as to complex the zirconium vestiges, which could be present, originated by the Zr/U high relation of the initial sample. Under the established working conditions, different spectrometric assays, dyes absorption spectra and its uranium complex, complex stability, PH influence determination of the dyes-uranium relation, calculation of the complex's apparent formation constant and its molar absorption, were performed. (Author)

  2. Sex determination in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W

  3. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179Au(nn') 179Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  4. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  5. METHODOLOGY FOR FROST-RESISTANCE DETERMINING OF GRAPE VARIETIES (BASED ON EXAMPLE OF STAGE AND CHARACTER OF DAMAGING WINTER BUDS IN GRAPE BUSHES IN JANUARY 2015 IN ZAO “POBEDA” IN TEMRIUK DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Matuzok N. V.; Troshin L. P.; Kulyko I. A.; Druzhkova K. N.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, at the Vineyard and ZAO "Pobeda" in Temryuk District of the Krasnodar region, the thermometer dropped to minus 21,6 C, which resulted in significant damage to the central wintering buds. The article presents a method of determining the degree of damage of wintering buds. Based on the results of inspection of variety by sections divided into 3 groups. Group 1: saved between 40 and 72% central. This group includes the following 7 varieties : Pervenets Magaracha (uch. 64) Gibern...

  6. Determination of Offgassed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials Combustion Research Facility begins the Determination of Offgassed Products Test to determine the identity and quantity of volatile offgassed products from materials and assembled articles. Materials are measured, weighed, and loaded into a clean toxicity chamber (pictured). The chamber is purged with high-purity air and loaded into an oven where it will be held at 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. At the end of the 72-hour period, the chamber is removed and allowed to cool to room temperature. Gas samples are taken from the chamber and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. From this, the quantity of the material that may be used safely in habitable areas of spacecraft is determined. This test also determines whether a flight hardware item may be flown safely in a crew compartment. Everything going into space with the astronauts is tested prior to flight to ensure the health and safety of the crew members.

  7. Determinants of Disciplinary Discontent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Lowell L.; Kelly-Wilson, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Data from the 1984 Carnegie survey of faculty at U.S. universities show substantial disciplinary variation in pessimism that one's field is stagnant. Field-level variations in both anomie and consensus exert strong effects on average levels of scholarly pessimism within fields and are stronger determinants of scholarly pessimism than individual…

  8. Ultrasonic Determination Of Recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1988-01-01

    State of recrystallization identified. Measurement of ultrasonic attenuation shows promise as means of detecting recrystallization in metal. Technique applicable to real-time acoustic monitoring of thermomechanical treatments. Starting with work-hardened material, one ultrasonically determines effect of annealing, using correlation between ultrasonic attenuation and temperature.

  9. Colorimetric Determination of Hydroxylurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYu; ZHUZhao-wu

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is able to form colored complex with amminoprusside (TPF) which has strong absorption at 500 nm suitable for the colorimetric determination of hydroxyurea. Present paper studies the effects of temperature, quantity of buffer solution, quantity of TPF used and so on, on the complex absorption.

  10. Imaginary mass lune determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2014-01-01

    Functional determinants for a scalar field with negative mass squared are numerically evaluated on an orbifolded three-sphere, in particular on a lune and on a regular 4--polytope fundamental domain. Graphs are provided of the logdets and some Hartle-Hawking probabilities, on the basis of the dS/CFT correspondence.

  11. Oxisterol determination in selected coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, E; Lercker, G; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of green-coffee processing techniques, such as decaffeination and roasting, is always to maintain a very high level of quality in taste and flavor, the beverage's most important characteristics to consumers. Oxidative alterations of coffee lipids, which can occur in roasting, exert a very marked influence on these quality traits. Determining the extent of oxidation thus can provide an indication of the product's potential shelf-life and reveal traces of any newly-formed oxidative products that might prove nutritionally unsafe. Yet, while much attention has recently been focused on certain by-products induced by cholesterol oxidation and their proven toxicity as risk factors in atherosclerosis and cancer, oxidated phytosterols have largely gone unnoticed, being considered along with beta-sitosterol as not very dangerous in that neither is absorbed by the intestinal tract. The present study investigates the substances derived from phytosterol oxidation (oxisterols) in samples of regular and decaffeinated commercial coffees. The findings show that oxisterols were absent in some samples and that the traces of oxidate phytosterols detected in others were well below the threshold considered as toxicologically active. PMID:8367891

  12. Oxisterol determination in selected coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, E; Lercker, G; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of green-coffee processing techniques, such as decaffeination and roasting, is always to maintain a very high level of quality in taste and flavor, the beverage's most important characteristics to consumers. Oxidative alterations of coffee lipids, which can occur in roasting, exert a very marked influence on these quality traits. Determining the extent of oxidation thus can provide an indication of the product's potential shelf-life and reveal traces of any newly-formed oxidative products that might prove nutritionally unsafe. Yet, while much attention has recently been focused on certain by-products induced by cholesterol oxidation and their proven toxicity as risk factors in atherosclerosis and cancer, oxidated phytosterols have largely gone unnoticed, being considered along with beta-sitosterol as not very dangerous in that neither is absorbed by the intestinal tract. The present study investigates the substances derived from phytosterol oxidation (oxisterols) in samples of regular and decaffeinated commercial coffees. The findings show that oxisterols were absent in some samples and that the traces of oxidate phytosterols detected in others were well below the threshold considered as toxicologically active.

  13. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed

  14. Two-dimensional proteome reference map of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81 reveals several symbiotic determinants and strong resemblance with agrobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Batista, Jesiane Stefania da Silva; Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; de Souza Andrade, Diva; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitoria; Hungria, Mariangela

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 is used in commercial inoculants for common-bean crops in Brazil because of its high efficiency in nitrogen fixation and, as in other strains belonging to this species, its tolerance of environmental stresses, representing a useful biological alternative to chemical nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, a proteomic reference map of PRF 81 was obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. In total, 115 spots representing 109 different proteins were successfully identified, contributing to a better understanding of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and supporting, at proteomics level, a strong resemblance with agrobacteria.

  15. Functional analysis of (4S)-limonene synthase mutants reveals determinants of catalytic outcome in a model monoterpene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, Narayanan; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney B; Lange, B Markus

    2015-03-17

    Crystal structural data for (4S)-limonene synthase [(4S)-LS] of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were used to infer which amino acid residues are in close proximity to the substrate and carbocation intermediates of the enzymatic reaction. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of 48 amino acids combined with enzyme fidelity analysis [percentage of (-)-limonene produced] indicated which residues are most likely to constitute the active site. Mutation of residues W324 and H579 caused a significant drop in enzyme activity and formation of products (myrcene, linalool, and terpineol) characteristic of a premature termination of the reaction. A double mutant (W324A/H579A) had no detectable enzyme activity, indicating that either substrate binding or the terminating reaction was impaired. Exchanges to other aromatic residues (W324H, W324F, W324Y, H579F, H579Y, and H579W) resulted in enzyme catalysts with significantly reduced activity. Sequence comparisons across the angiosperm lineage provided evidence that W324 is a conserved residue, whereas the position equivalent to H579 is occupied by aromatic residues (H, F, or Y). These results are consistent with a critical role of W324 and H579 in the stabilization of carbocation intermediates. The potential of these residues to serve as the catalytic base facilitating the terminal deprotonation reaction is discussed. PMID:25733883

  16. Determination of synthetic lethal interactions in KRAS oncogene-dependent cancer cells reveals novel therapeutic targeting strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Steckel; Julian Downward; David C Hancock; Miriam Molina-Arcas; Britta Weigelt; Michaela Marani; Patricia H Warne; Hanna Kuznetsov; Gavin Kelly; Becky Saunders; Michael Howell

    2012-01-01

    Oneogenic mutations in RAS genes are very common in human cancer,resulting in cells with well-characterized selective advantages,but also less well-understood vulnerabilities.We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function screen to identify genes that are required by KRAS-transformed colon cancer cells,but not by derivatives lacking this oncogene.Top-scoring genes were then tested in a larger panel of KRAS mutant and wild-type cancer cells.Cancer cells expressing oncogenic KRAS were found to be highly dependent on the transcription factor GATA2 and the DNA replication initiation regulator CDC6.Extending this analysis using a collection of drugs with known targets,we found that cancer cells with mutant KRAS showed selective addiction to proteasome function,as well as synthetic lethality with topoisomerase inhibition.Combination targeting of these functions caused improved killing of KRAS mutant cells relative to wild-type cells.These observations suggest novel targets and new ways of combining existing therapies for optimal effect in RAS mutant cancers,which are traditionally seen as being highly refractory to therapy.

  17. NOX4 activity is determined by mRNA levels and reveals a unique pattern of ROS generation

    OpenAIRE

    Serrander, Lena; Cartier, Laetitia; Bedard, Karen; Banfi, Botond; Lardy, Bernard; Plastre, Olivier; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Fórró, Laszló; Schlegel, Werner; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Abstract NOX4 is an enigmatic member of the NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases. NOX4 has a wide tissue distribution, but the physiological function and activation mechanisms are largely unknown, and its pharmacology poorly understood. We have generated cell lines expressing NOX4 upon tetracycline induction. Tetracycline induced a rapid increase in NOX4 mRNA (1h) followed closely (2h) by a release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Upon tetracycline withdrawal, NOX4 mRNA lev...

  18. A new approach for determining phase response curves reveals that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Phoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells display complex intrinsic dynamics. They fire spontaneously, exhibit bistability, and via mutual network interactions are involved in the generation of high frequency oscillations and travelling waves of activity. To probe the dynamical properties of Purkinje cells we measured their phase response curves (PRCs. PRCs quantify the change in spike phase caused by a stimulus as a function of its temporal position within the interspike interval, and are widely used to predict neuronal responses to more complex stimulus patterns. Significant variability in the interspike interval during spontaneous firing can lead to PRCs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, requiring averaging over thousands of trials. We show using electrophysiological experiments and simulations that the PRC calculated in the traditional way by sampling the interspike interval with brief current pulses is biased. We introduce a corrected approach for calculating PRCs which eliminates this bias. Using our new approach, we show that Purkinje cell PRCs change qualitatively depending on the firing frequency of the cell. At high firing rates, Purkinje cells exhibit single-peaked, or monophasic PRCs. Surprisingly, at low firing rates, Purkinje cell PRCs are largely independent of phase, resembling PRCs of ideal non-leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. These results indicate that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators at low firing rates, and that the integration mode of Purkinje cells depends on their firing rate.

  19. Genome-Wide Mapping of Structural Variations Reveals a Copy Number Variant That Determines Reproductive Morphology in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Linyong; Chen, Huiming; Bu, Fengjiao; Li, Guangcun; Sun, Jinjing; Li, Shuai; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Blakely, Rachel; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run; Luo, Ruibang; Van de Peer, Yves; Jacobsen, Evert; Fei, Zhangjun; Huang, Sanwen

    2015-06-01

    Structural variations (SVs) represent a major source of genetic diversity. However, the functional impact and formation mechanisms of SVs in plant genomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a nucleotide-resolution SV map of cucumber (Cucumis sativas) that comprises 26,788 SVs based on deep resequencing of 115 diverse accessions. The largest proportion of cucumber SVs was formed through nonhomologous end-joining rearrangements, and the occurrence of SVs is closely associated with regions of high nucleotide diversity. These SVs affect the coding regions of 1676 genes, some of which are associated with cucumber domestication. Based on the map, we discovered a copy number variation (CNV) involving four genes that defines the Female (F) locus and gives rise to gynoecious cucumber plants, which bear only female flowers and set fruit at almost every node. The CNV arose from a recent 30.2-kb duplication at a meiotically unstable region, likely via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. The SV set provides a snapshot of structural variations in plants and will serve as an important resource for exploring genes underlying key traits and for facilitating practical breeding in cucumber. PMID:26002866

  20. A global transcriptional analysis of Megalobrama amblycephala revealing the molecular determinants of diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Jiang, Guangzhen; Liu, Wenbin; Dong, Zaijie; Tian, Hongyan; Li, Xiangfei

    2015-10-10

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), a prevalent species in China's intensive polyculture systems, is highly susceptible to hepatic steatosis, resulting in considerable losses to the fish farming industry. Due to a lack of genomic resources, the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism in M. amblycephala are poorly understood. Here, a hepatic cDNA library was generated from equal amounts of mRNAs isolated from M. amblycephala fed normal-fat and high-fat diets. Sequencing of this library using the Illumina/Solexa platform produced approximately 51.87 million clean reads, which were assembled into 48,439 unigenes with an average length of 596 bp and an N50 value of 800 bp. These unigenes were searched against the nucleotide (NT), non-redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases using the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithms (E-value ≤ 10(-5)). A total of 8602 unigenes and 22,155 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 259 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 22,072 unigenes were grouped into 62 sub-categories belonging to three main Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Using a digital gene expression analysis and the M. amblycephala transcriptome as a reference, 477 genes (134 up-regulated and 343 down-regulated) were identified as differentially expressed in fish fed a high-fat diet versus a normal-fat diet. KEGG and GO functional enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed unigenes were performed and 12 candidate genes related to lipid metabolism were identified. This study provides a global survey of hepatic transcriptome profiles and identifies candidate genes that may be related to lipid metabolism in M. amblycephala. These findings will facilitate further investigations of the mechanisms underlying hepatic steatosis in M. amblycephala. PMID:26074088

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local genomic admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To un...

  2. Comparative genomic sequence variation of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most abundant parasites world-wide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. We undertook...

  3. Significance of serum leptin,interleukin-6,C-reactive protein level in patients with fatty liver%脂肪肝患者血清瘦素、白介素-6、C反应蛋白水平测定及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新春; 石光英; 范晓棠; 哈丽达; 罗超; 何方平

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察脂肪肝患者血清瘦素、白介素-6和高敏C反应蛋白水平,并探讨其与肥胖、糖脂代谢的关系以及瘦素、白介素-6和高敏C反应蛋白在脂肪性肝病发病机制中的作用.方法 选取2009年10月~2010年6月于新疆医科大学附属第一医院肝病科住院治疗的脂肪性肝病患者80例,同时选取健康对照者40例作为对照组,测定全部入选者的血清瘦素、白介素-6和高敏C反应蛋白水平,并分析上述三指标之间及其与体重指数、空腹血糖、三酰甘油、总胆固醇和血脂的相关性.结果 脂肪性肝病患者血清瘦素、白介素-6和高敏C反应蛋白水平均明显高于健康对照者组;瘦素、高敏C反应蛋白和白细胞介素-6三者之间呈正相关性,三因子与三酰甘油关系密切;经多元逐步回归分析,血清三酰甘油、总胆固醇及体重指数是脂肪肝发生的独立危险因素.结论 脂肪性肝病患者存在瘦素抵抗,炎性因子白介素6及高敏C反应蛋白可能参与脂肪肝的发病机制.%[ Objective ] To study the role of leptin, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C reactive protein in fatty liver disease and the association of them with obesity, metabolism of glucose, lipid. [ Methods ] Eighty fatty liver disease subjects and forty healthy subjects as controls were recruited. The height and weight were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Fasting blood glucose, plasma lipid, leptin, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C reactive protein were determined. [Results] The concentration of leptin, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C reactive protein in patients with fatty liver were significantly higher than those of the healthy. Leptin, high sensitivity Creactive protein, interleukin -6 positive correlations among the three closely related factors and triglycerides; multiple stepwise regression analysis, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and body mass index is the fatty liver of independent

  4. What determines BITs?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey H. Bergstrand; Egger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) have proliferated over the past 50 years such that the number of pairs of countries with BITs is roughly as large as the number of country-pairs that belong to bilateral or regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs). The purpose of this study is to provide the first systematic empirical analysis of the economic determinants of BITs and of the likelihood of BITs between pairs of countries using a qualitative choice model, and in a manner consistent with ...

  5. What determines our behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2001-01-01

    In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980) proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question a...

  6. What determines Bitcoin's Value?

    OpenAIRE

    bouoiyour, jamal; Selmi, Refk; Aviral Kumar TIWARI; Olayeni, Olaolu Richard

    2015-01-01

    Despite its great popularity and gradual worldwide acceptance, most people are still confused as to what a Bitcoin actually is. This paper tries to reach clearer knowledge about what determines the Bitcoin’s value. Due to the intrinsic complexity of crypto market, standard approaches often fail to capture the non-stationary and nonlinear properties and properly depict the moving tendencies. This problem can be solved by an objective data analysis method, i.e. Empirical Mode Decomposition. By ...

  7. Uranium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, a procedure has been assessed to determine uranium content of water in normal situations. The method proposed without sample pre-treatment, is simple and rapid. Uranium mass is measured by fluorimetry. For calculation of detection limit (Ld) and quantification level (Lq) we used blank samples and the results were analyzed for different statistical test. The calculation of total propagated uncertainty and sources contribution on real samples are presented. (author)

  8. Determinants of International Competiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as Innovation Matrix. Data is collected from two areas: competitiven...

  9. Determinants of International Competiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix”. Data is collected from two areas:  competiti...

  10. Fiscal determinants of empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment of local governments and citizens is a primary object of decentralization. Using the analytic lens of empowerment, the author explores the nature of decentralized governance and how this type of structure is likely to be more or less empowering. His primary concern is fiscal decentralization, specifically the association between fiscal determinants and the degree of empowerment of both citizens and local governments. The author's main argument is that both the revenue and expendit...

  11. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eTavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 151.5 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi. In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1,800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp. Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94 %. The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7,000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  12. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  13. Chromosomal imbalances revealed in primary rhabdomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-xin; LIU Chun-xia; CHUN Cai-pu; QI Yan; CHANG Bin; LI Xin-xia; CHEN Yun-zhao; NONG Wei-xia; LI Hong-an; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations varied among the throe subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma. We profiled chromosomal imbalances in the different subtypes and investigated the relationships between clinical parameters and genomic aberrations.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate genomic imbalances in 25 cases of primary rhabdomyosarcomas and two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Specimens were reviewed to determine histological type, pathological grading and clinical staging.Results Changes involving one or more regions of the genome were seen in all rhabdomyosarcomal patients. For rhabdomyosarcoma, DNA sequence gains were most frequently (>30%) seen in chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p,2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q; losses from 3p, 11p and 6p. In aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were seen on chromosomes 12q, 2p, 6p, 2q, 4q, 10q and 15q; losses from 3p, 6p, 1q and 5q. For embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were on 7p, 9q, 2p, 18q, 1p and 8q; losses only from 11p. Frequently gained chromosome arms of translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 12q, 2, 6, 10q, 4q and 15q; losses from 3p,6p and 5q. The frequently gained chromosome arms of nontranslocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 2p,9q and 18q, while 11p and 14q were the frequently lost chromosome arms. Gains on chromosome 12q were significantly correlated with translocation type. Gains on chromosome 9q were significantly correlated with clinical staging. Conclusions Gains on chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p, 2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q and losses on chromosomes 3p, 11p and 6p may be related to rhabdomyosarcomal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, gains on chromosome 12q may be correlated with translocation and gains on chromosome 9q with the early stages of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  14. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  15. Gender determination using cheiloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Padmavathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although lip prints have been used as an evidence for human identification in forensic science, there exists a doubt about its role in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed for documenting common patterns, as well as their variation in the study population, with objective of evaluating uniqueness of the lip print pattern among the study population, as well as to evaluate the possibility of gender determination. Study Design: Two hundred and thirty five lip prints were collected from volunteers among out patients of Darshan Dental College and Hospital, as well as community dental care camps of rural areas around Udaipur. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with transparent overlay and transferred on to a bond paper. It was then photographed using a Canon EOS 55OD 16 mega pixel digital camera. Software Picasa 3.6 and Microsoft Picture Manager were used to digitally enhance the quality and magnify the image bearing the groove pattern. Lip prints were later analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability (P value was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. Dots, reticular and complex patterns were significant in gender determination.

  16. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  17. Revealing ecological networks using Bayesian network inference algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milns, Isobel; Beale, Colin M; Smith, V Anne

    2010-07-01

    Understanding functional relationships within ecological networks can help reveal keys to ecosystem stability or fragility. Revealing these relationships is complicated by the difficulties of isolating variables or performing experimental manipulations within a natural ecosystem, and thus inferences are often made by matching models to observational data. Such models, however, require assumptions-or detailed measurements-of parameters such as birth and death rate, encounter frequency, territorial exclusion, and predation success. Here, we evaluate the use of a Bayesian network inference algorithm, which can reveal ecological networks based upon species and habitat abundance alone. We test the algorithm's performance and applicability on observational data of avian communities and habitat in the Peak District National Park, United Kingdom. The resulting networks correctly reveal known relationships among habitat types and known interspecific relationships. In addition, the networks produced novel insights into ecosystem structure and identified key species with high connectivity. Thus, Bayesian networks show potential for becoming a valuable tool in ecosystem analysis. PMID:20715607

  18. [An original revealing mode of sarcoidosis: Sweet's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricha, Myriem; Sqalli, Fatimazzahra; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis which usually presents as an idiopathic disorder. The combination of Sweet's syndrome and sarcoidosis is rare. We report the clinical case of a Sweet's syndrome revealing sarcoidosis. PMID:27279949

  19. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Samia, Younes; Yosra, Cherif; Foued, Bellazreg; Mouna, Aissi; Olfa, Berriche; Jihed, Souissi; Hammadi, Braham; Mahbouba, Frih-Ayed; Amel, Letaief; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic disorder, peripheral neuropathy, disturbed behavior, acanthocytosis and the atrophy of caudate nuclei was suggestive of a diagnosis of ChAc. To our knowledge no similar cases...

  20. The Microbiome of Brazilian Mangrove Sediments as Revealed by Metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Dini Andreote; Diego Javier Jiménez; Diego Chaves; Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias; Danice Mazzer Luvizotto; Francisco Dini-Andreote; Cristiane Cipola Fasanella; Maryeimy Varon Lopez; Sandra Baena; Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani; Itamar Soares de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed high...

  1. The first-mover disadvantage: the folly of revealing compatible preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschelder, David D; Swaab, Roderick I; Trötschel, Roman; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    The current research establishes a first-mover disadvantage in negotiation. We propose that making the first offer in a negotiation will backfire when the sender reveals private information that an astute recipient can leverage to his or her advantage. In two experiments, we manipulated whether the first offer was purely distributive or revealed that the sender's preferences were compatible with the recipient's preferences (i.e., the negotiators wanted the same outcome on an issue). When first offers contained only distributive issues, the classic first-mover advantage occurred, and first offers predicted final prices. However, a first-mover disadvantage emerged when senders opened with offers that revealed compatible preferences. These effects were moderated by negotiators' social value orientation: Proself negotiators were more likely to take advantage of compatible information than were prosocial negotiators. Overall, the key factor that determined whether the first-mover advantage or disadvantage emerged was whether the offer revealed compatible preferences. These results demonstrate that first offers not only provide numerical value but also convey qualitative information.

  2. Curvature and shape determination of growing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes, determined by the stress-bearing cell wall. Though many molecular details about the cell wall are known, our understanding of how a particular shape is produced during cell growth is at its infancy. Experiments on curved Escherichia coli grown in microtraps, and on naturally curved Caulobacter crescentus, reveal different modes of growth: one preserving arc length and the other preserving radius of curvature. We present a simple model for curved cell growth that relates these two growth modes to distinct but related growth rules—“hooplike growth” and “self-similar growth”—and discuss the implications for microscopic growth mechanisms.

  3. Wage determinants in Spain (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aixalá

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence about the nominal wage determinants in Spain during the period 1980-2000. We estimate a wage equation, using time series analysis applying an error correction mechanism. Our aim is to analyse the extent to which the evolution of wages is influenced by the unemployment, prices and productivity. The results reveal that the unemployment rate has no effect on the evolution of nominal wages. The variable that explains the evolution of nominal wages in the long term is prices, showing slightly inflationary behaviour. In the short term, wages are explained by their past values, reflecting a nominal inertia.

  4. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ezetimibe

    OpenAIRE

    P. Baby Sudha Lakshmi; Ramchandran, D.; Rambabu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, sensitive, selective and accurate spectro-photometric methods (Method A and Method B) for the determination of eztimibe in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) have been described. Method A and B are based on the redox/complex formation reaction of drug with 1,10-phenanthroline and hexacyano-ferrate(III) in presence of ferric chloride to form coloured chromogens exhibiting λmax at 510 and 740 nm respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been val...

  5. Mass determination of neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  6. Determination of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis of synthetic water samples by 28 laboratories for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, zinc, arsenic, selenium and mercury. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. With one exception, where inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used, all the determinations were carried out by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. In general, the results compared favourably with those from similar overseas comparison studies

  7. Determination of nonaxisymmetric equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Princeton Equilibrium Code is modified to determine the equilibrium surfaces for a large aspect ratio toroidal system with helical magnetic fields. The code may easily be made to include any variety of modes. Verification of the code is made by comparison with an analytic solution for l = 3. Previously observed shifting of the magnetic axis with increasing pressure or with a changed externally applied vertical field is obtained. The case l = 0, a bumpy torus, gives convergence only for the lenient convergence tolerance of epsilon/sub b/ = 1.0 x 10-2

  8. Determination of CTX equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method by which we determine the magnetic field equilibrium for CTX in a nonperturbing manner is presented. Measurements of flux conserver image currents are combined with calculations from a numerical model of the equilibrium. Results give equilibria which differ significantly from the minimum energy state, but the equilibria data are well-described by a model where j/B has a linear dependence on the poloidal flux function. The observation of non-disruptive rotating internal kink distortions (with toroidal mode numbers n = 1, 2 and 3) within the equilibria and theoretical MHD thresholds for the onset of these modes corroborate the inferred equilibria

  9. Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Velmurugan, G.V.; Ragendran, C.; Yabsley, M.J.; Thomas, N.J.; Beckmen, K.B.; Sinnett, D.; Ruid, D.; Hart, J.; Fair, P.A.; McFee, W.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Ferreira, L.R.; Choudhary, S.; Faria, E.B.; Zhou, H.; Felix, T.A.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study wild animals, from the USA were examined for T. gondii infection. Tissues of naturally exposed animals were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable parasites. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 31 animals including, to our knowledge for the first time, from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), five gray wolves (Canis lupus), a woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and five Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). Additionally, 66 T. gondii isolates obtained previously, but not genetically characterised, were revived in mice. Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from these 97 samples (31+66) was characterised using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). A total of 95 isolates were successfully genotyped. In addition to clonal Types II, and III, 12 different genotypes were found. These genotype data were combined with 74 T. gondii isolates previously characterised from wildlife from North America and a composite data set of 169 isolates comprised 22 genotypes, including clonal Types II, III and 20 atypical genotypes. Phylogenetic network analysis showed limited diversity with dominance of a recently designated fourth clonal type (Type 12) in North America, followed by the Type II and III lineages. These three major lineages together accounted for 85% of strains in North America. The Type 12 lineage includes previously identified Type A and X strains from sea otters. This study revealed that the Type 12 lineage accounts for 46.7% (79/169) of isolates and is dominant in wildlife of North America. No clonal Type I strain was identified among these wildlife isolates. These results suggest that T. gondii strains in wildlife from North America have limited diversity, with the occurrence of only a few major clonal types.

  10. Bacterial populations on brewery filling hall surfaces as revealed by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, Outi; Raulio, Mari; Maukonen, Johanna; Vehviläinen, Anna-Kaisa; Storgårds, Erna

    2016-01-01

    Due to the presence of moisture and nutrients, brewery filling line surfaces are susceptible to unwanted microbial attachment. Knowledge of the attaching microbes will aid in designing hygienic control of the process. In this study the bacterial diversity present on brewery filling line surfaces was revealed by next generation sequencing. The two filling lines studied maintained their characteristic bacterial community throughout three sampling times (13-163 days). On the glass bottle line, γ-proteobacteria dominated (35-82% of all OTUs), whereas on the canning line α-, β- and γ-proteobacteria and actinobacteria were most common. The most frequently detected genera were Acinetobacter, Propinobacterium and Pseudomonas. The halophilic genus Halomonas was commonly detected, which might be due to its tolerance to alkaline foam cleaners. This study has revealed a detailed overall picture of the bacterial groups present on filling line surfaces. Further effort should be given to determine the efficacy of washing procedures on different bacterial groups. PMID:27064426

  11. Cheiloscopy for sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of an individual is a pre-requisite for certification of death and for personal, social and legal reasons. The study of lip-prints (cheiloscopy was thought of as a method of identification of a person. It is safe to assume that cheiloscopy, in its present stage of development, has become a means of criminalistic identification dealing with lip-prints. Objective: The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 140 subjects, which included 70 males and 70 females, in the age group of 0-70 years. After applying lip stick evenly, the lip-print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by researcher number 1. The lip-print was then analyzed and interpreted by researcher number 2 to determine the sex of individuals. Results: We found that 67 of the actual 70 lip-prints of females were correctly identified and 65 of the 70 males were correctly diagnosed as males. Type C (47.14% was the most commonly occurring trend in females whereas Type B (70% was the most commonly occurring trend in males. Conclusion: Along with other traditional methods, cheiloscopy can also serve as very important tool in the identification of a person based on the characteristic arrangement of lines appearing on the red part of the lips.

  12. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  13. Determination of elements in citrus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many agricultural stations and farms most of the problems encountered generally reduce to questions of diminished yield. This may be due to a number of factors, including soil exhaustion and the application of fertilizers of unsuitable formula. The chemical impoverishment of the soil is due to the leaching-out phenomenon, i- e. the washing out of bases, and to the ''exportation'' of fertilizer elements in the form of crops in years when nothing has been returned to the soil. These losses have a particularly adverse effect if the parent rock does not contain sufficient mineral reserves to compensate for them by a slow alteration process. Such impoverishment is revealed by soil and foliar analyses. The authors have attempted to determine the content in citrus plants of the following elements: Mn, P, Cu, Cl and K (the latter on three samples only). After collection, the samples are treated by Bransolten's method (Rapport de Recherche TRICO № 15/1968), dried for at least 12 hours at 105°C, followed by pulverization of the leaves, after which the determination is carried out. The determination of Mn and Cl is very simple, as is that of Cu. The latter is determined by activation with slow neutrons in order to avoid Zn formation. The phosphorus content is determined by measuring the beta-radiation emitted by the radioactive elements. In this case particular precautions must be taken to ensure that the same layer is used for the samples and the standards, since beta-radiation is absorbed by these layers. For the K and Na determinations thermal neutrons are used for activation and a Ge(Li) detector for measurement of the gamma-spectra. Because of the high resolution of the detector, the two elements can be determined without separation. (author)

  14. Social Determinants of Immigrant Women’s Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Delara

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a population movement with enormous challenges for immigrant women that influence their mental health. Mental health is a social issue and its determinants need to be recognized for health policy making. This paper reviews and consolidates findings from the existing literature on social determinants of immigrant women’s mental health within a socioecological framework. Findings of this review revealed that mental health of immigrant women is an outcome of several interacting dete...

  15. ON THE AXIOMS OF REVEALED PREFERENCE IN FUZZY CONSUMER THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina GEORGESCU

    2004-01-01

    The revealed preference is a central subject in classical consumer theory. Authors like Samuelson, Arrow, Richter, Sen, Uzawa and others have proposed an axiomatic setting of revealed preference theory. Consequently revealed preference axioms WARP and SARP and congruence axioms WCA and SCA have been considered. An important theorem of Sen establishes the equivalence between these axioms provided thefamily of budgets includes all non-empty finite sets of bundles. Fuzzy consumer theory (=fuzzy choice functions) is a topic that appears in a lot of papers.Particularly, Banerjee studies in fuzzy context axioms of revealed preference and congruence extending some results of Arrow and Sen. In this paper we modify the Banerjee definition of a fuzzy choice function (=fuzzy consumer)and we study some fuzzy versions of the axioms of revealed preference and congruence. Banerjee fuzzifies only the range of a consumer; we use a fuzzification of both the domain and the range of a consumer. The axioms WAFRP, SAFRP, WFCA, SFCA generalize to fuzzy consumer theory the well-known axioms WARP, SARP, WCA, SCA. Our main result establishes some connections between WAFRP, SAFRP, WFCA, SFCA extending a significant part of Sen theorem. Generally, we work in a fuzzy set theory based on a continuous t-norm, but some results are obtained for Godel t-norm and others are obtained for Lukasiewicz t-norm.

  16. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  17. Determinants of International Competiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix”. Data is collected from two areas:  competitiveness and culture. After describing two sets of data, the researcher tests two hypotheses: (1 long-term economic growth is a function of government policies and (2 culture plays an insignificant role in gaining competitiveness and economic growth. In conclusion, the paper makes recommendations as how a country can improve its economic competitiveness.

  18. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  19. FDI DETERMINANTS IN BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Andrei LABES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades the volume of Foreign Direct Investments increased substantially becoming a phenomenon that characterizes the economic environment in the emerging markets. The aim of this working paper is to investigate the Foreign Direct Investments Inflows in the BRICS economies. The research study employs a Panel Data analysis on a sample of 5 countries, the BRICS economies Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa and a time series from 1992-2012. The variables taken in consideration are Trade Openness, GDP per capita, Population, Exchange Rate and Human Capital. Our results indicate that the most significant determinants of FDI Inflows are Trade Openness, GDP per capita and Exchange Rate. The value of this work is that it investigates the factors that contribute to the increase of FDI inflows towards the most important emerging economies in the world.

  20. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102...... to provide a magnetic field (B) across at least part of the curved potential distribution in the plasma surrounding the electrode (102). An ion impact detector (108) is configured to detect impacts of ions arriving at the electrode (102), the detecting comprising detecting of locations of the impacts......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  1. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network......The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  2. Mass determination of nutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a time-energy correlation method (called the correlation mass method) to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. They apply this method to the Kamiokande II (KII) and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven (IMB) observations of neutrino bursts attributed to Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). They obtain a neutrino rest mass of 3.6 eV. A further analysis, using Monte Carlo simulations that allow the energy of each event in the KII data set to vary with a Gaussian distribution that has the experimentally quoted mean and deviation, yields a further estimate for the neutrino rest mass of 2.8+2.- 1.4 eV. The analysis also suggests that the KII data describe an initial neutrino pulse of less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least ten seconds

  3. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  4. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  5. Listed waste determination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P ampersand Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application

  6. Permanent draft genomes of the two Rhodopirellula europaea strains 6C and SH398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Richter, Michael; Klindworth, Anna; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Frank, Carsten S; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Harder, Jens

    2014-02-01

    The genomes of two Rhodopirellula europaea strains were sequenced as permanent drafts to study the genomic diversity within this genus, especially in comparison with the closed genome of the type strain Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T). The isolates are part of a larger study to infer the biogeography of Rhodopirellula species in European marine waters, as well as to amend the genus description of R. baltica. This genomics resource article is the second of a series of five publications describing a total of eight new permanent daft genomes of Rhodopirellula species. PMID:24286834

  7. Method for making Mo sub 4 S sub 4 L sub 6 (C-2386)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, C.L.; Farina, S.A.; Stiefel, E.I.; Greaney, M.A.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a method for preparing a compound of the formula Mo{sub 4}S{sub 4}L{sub 6} wherein L is a 1,1-dithioacid. It comprises contacting a Mo(III) halide and a salt of a 1,1-dithioacid in an organic solvent at temperatures in the range of from about 25{degrees} C to 250{degrees} C for a time sufficient to form the Mo{sub 4}S{sub 4}L{sub 6} compound, the salt of the 1,1-dithioacid being selected from alkali, ,alkaline earth, ammonium and organoammonium salts of 1,1-dithioacids, the 1,1-dithioacid being selected from the group consisting of dithiocarbamates, thioxanthates, xanthates, dithiophosphates, dithiophosphinates and mixtures thereof; and the organic solvent selected from the group consisting of alcohols, nitriles, toluene, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and mixtures thereof.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AR5A-1EN6C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce>KGLKK----GTTLQ >H ---- > ATOM...D> A 1AR5A KNMAPKGSAPERPT ...tryIDChain> LVLKG--DKLAV >EEEE -- EEEE...ence>LVWDPLGKRINT >EEEE EEEEe> AT...>H > ATOM 632 CA LYS A 80 40.102 17.348 55.570 1.00 13

  9. Impurity sublattice localization in ZnO revealed by li marker diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarov, A.Yu.; Knutsen, K.E.; Neuvonen, P.T.;

    2013-01-01

    Sublattice localization of impurities in compound semiconductors, e.g., ZnO, determines their electronic and optical action. Despite that the impurity position may be envisaged based on charge considerations, the actual localization is often unknown, limiting our understanding of the incorporation...... and possible doping mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that the preferential sublattice occupation for a number of impurities in ZnO can be revealed by monitoring Li diffusion. In particular, using ion implantation, the impurity incorporation into the Zn sublattice (holds for, B, Mg, P, Ag, Cd, and Sb...

  10. Prey-capture success revealed by echolocation signals in pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pygmaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Futtrup, Vibeke; Tougaard, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Three Pipistrellus pygmaeus bats were trained to capture prey on the wing while flying in the laboratory. The bats' capture behaviour and capture success were determined and correlated with acoustic analyses of post-buzz echolocation signals. Three acoustic parameters revealed capture success......: in case of success, post-buzz pauses (pbP) were longer, interpulse intervals (IPI) of the post-buzz signals were longer and, most notably, the spectra of the echolocation signals showed a number of notches that were absent after unsuccessful attempts. If the bats touched the prey without seizing it, pb...

  11. [Ovarian torsion revealing an ovarian cavernous hemangioma in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'pemba Loufoua-Lemay, A-B; Peko, J-F; Mbongo, J-A; Mokoko, J-C; Nzingoula, S

    2003-11-01

    The authors report one case of cavernous hemangioma of the left ovary, which was revealed by ovarian torsion. Such benign tumors of the blood vessels are rare in ovaries during childhood. This hemangioma was observed in a 13-year-old patient, who presented with abdominal and pelvic pain and vomiting. The pelvic mass was noted and sonography revealed a cystic tumor. An annexectomia was realized. Histology showed narcotized ovary cells, with an increased number of vascular channels composed of thin walled vessels, whose wall consisted of an endothelium. This aspect evoked a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. PMID:14613693

  12. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden (malgo.vidal@pal.uu.se) Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  13. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  14. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC MODEL OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myskin Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals psycholinguistic aspects of professional socialization of identity in the modern market conditions. The relevance of this study is determined by the growth of professional speech works, regulatory and guide professional activities and professional communication of the modern expert. Professional self-determination of linguistic identity is characterized as a result of the orientation of a person in the world of labour represented by professional texts. From the psycholinguistic viewpoint, the orientation of linguistic identity is based on language and speech types of relationships between a specialist and the environment. In order to develop a more comprehensive picture of psycholinguistic aspects of language socialization of the personality in the labour world the article described the psycholinguistic model of professional self-determination of linguistic identity, including linguistic, stylistic and interiorization stages that reveal patterns of perception and reproduction of professional texts by a person. The author characterizes the categories which create the mentioned model. Professional self-determination of linguistic identity is revealed through the image of professional world, generated in the process of professional texts perception. Professional texts are characterized as totality of social developed ways of handling items of work and techniques of professional communication expressed in speech. The style of professional speech work is expressed by means of stylistic elements unity, selection principles and combination of professional speech forms. "The image of the author" in professional texts is revealed in its connection with the characters-professionals, relevant speech tools and techniques in different situations.

  15. Determination of range parameters of observation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareła, J.; Kastek, M.; Firmanty, K.; Trzaskawka, P.; Dulski, R.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Range parameters of observation devices can be determined on the basis of numerical simulations (NVTherm) or on the basis of measured characteristics. Those measurements can be conducted in both laboratory and field conditions. It is, however, difficult to carry on reliable field measurements of range parameters because they are strongly depended on atmospheric conditions. Thus the laboratory measurements are more favorable option. Analysis of literature and catalogue specifications reveal, that range parameters are given mainly on the basis of Johnson criteria or TTP model. The Johnson criteria has been used since the 50s and most of catalogue range specifications are determined according to it. There are also NATO standards, which describe the measurement procedures and methodology required to define the detection, recognition and identification ranges for standard NATO targets. For the determination of range parameters the following device characteristics must be known: minimal resolvable temperature for thermal imaging devices and minimal resolvable contrast for VIS devices. The TTP model offers a new approach to the determination of range characteristics of observation devices. It has been developed by U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate since the year 2000. It was created because the modified Johnson criteria did not yield reliable results in case of modern systems with digital image processing. In order to determine the range parameters using TTP model, the modulation transfer function MTF, presample MTF function, and 3D noise of a tested system must be known as well as its basic design data as optical magnification and display type. The paper describes the measurement stand, measurement methodology and the procedure for the determination of range parameters. The results for thermal and VIS cameras are also presented, and they are analyzed and compared with the results obtained from current methods, including the measurement

  16. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  17. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  18. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  19. Determination of high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of an X-ray image is influenced by the radiation parameters (kV value, filtration) because of their impact on contrast and contrast resolution. Deviations from the nominal high voltage of an X-ray tube may lead to unnecessary exposure of the patient and complicate the comparability of X-ray images, which is why there is interest in an easy to handle, non-invasive method of determining the high voltage of an X-ray tube. For the purposes of constancy, several non-invasive high-voltage test tools have been developed, some of which work on the principle of modified film cassettes with two different intensifying screens or different optical extenuations, while others use a ''two filter method'' with photodiodes (electronic kV meters). The accuracy, reproducibility and practicality of two test cassettes and five electronic kV meters have been investigated and their usefulness with respect to national regulations and physicians' demands is discussed. (author)

  20. Titrimetric determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titration of ruthenium(4) hydrochloric-acid solutions with Mohr's salt, hydroquinone, and thiourea has been studied with the use of biampero- and potentiometric indication of the titration end point (t.e.p.) Potentiometric and amperometric indication of the t.e.p. is applicable when Ru(4) concentration is from 20 to 6000 mkg in 20 ml of the titrated solution; biamperometric indication can be used at a concentration of 5-1000 mkg in the same volume. It has been established that titration of Ru(4) (in the form of the Na2RuCl6 solution) with Mohr's salt is not hindered by the presence of 1000-fold excess of alkaline and alkali-earth metals, Al, Ti(4), Mn(2), Cr(3), Fe(3), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge(4), As, Se, Mo(6), Cd, In, and Te; 100-fold excess of Rh, Pd, W, Bi, and Sn; 10-fold excess of Ag, Au, Pt, Hg, Os. Along with Ru(4) titrated are Ir(4), Te(3), V(5), and Ce(4). Selectivity of hydroquinone and thiourea is lower. Titrimetric procedure of determining ruthenium has been tested for ruthenium alloy containing cobalt tungsten. It cannot be recommended for analysis of the samples which dissolve in aqua regia

  1. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  2. Nilaja Sun's "No Child"...: Revealing Teaching and Learning through Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Nilaja Sun's one-woman play, "No Child" . . ., that applies the Studio Habits of Mind framework to reveal essential features of great teaching artistry and great teaching. The play conveys much about twenty-first century schools and the policies that control them; about respect, equity, justice, and the lack of…

  3. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models (bulge

  4. Goodness-of-Fit for Revealed Preference Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Hal R. Varian

    1994-01-01

    I describe a goodness-of-fit measure for revealed preference tests. This index can be used to measure the degree to which an economic agent violates the model of utility maximization. I calculate the violation indices for a 38 consumers and find that the observed choice behavior is very close to optimizing behavior.

  5. Hospital study reveals strategies for improving media relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P E; Embrey-Wahl, L

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide study revealed that hospital administrators feel inadequate when dealing with the media, and also think the media does not understand the hospital business. Many strategies are available to counter these problems, including some that emphasize issues related to bed size. PMID:3583722

  6. When Values and Behaviors Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students' Experiences Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly; Harper, Kim; Ball, Kellie; Liang, David

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study reveals the discomfort seven immigrant bachelor of social work students reported experiencing when the behaviors expected of them as Canadian social workers conflicted with their fundamental family values. Behaviorally, participants had assimilated to Canadian and to social work cultures; however, the values they held from…

  7. UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2005-01-01

    This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...

  8. [Ulcerated duodenitis revealing Henoch-Schönlein purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marting, A; Defrance, P; Wain, E; Van Severen, M; Deflandre, J

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and duodenal ulcers can meet many etiologies. We report the case of a young adult with an ulcerated duodenitis revealing Henoch-Schönlein purpura. The abdominal symptoms preceded the emergence of the classical cutaneous signs of the disease. PMID:26376566

  9. Determination of grave disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, D E; Jorstad, V; Loren, J D; Wirrer, B

    1976-01-01

    There is a historical dilemma concerning the civil rights of psychiatric patients who are believed to need a protected status because of incompetency. California's Lanterman-Petris-Short Act provides a mechanism for putting the patient under the care of a conservator if the patient is unable to provide for his own personal needs of food, clothing, and shelter. If successful, this legislation will likely be the model for the country. Fifty-one patients for whom the clinical staff desired to initiate conservatorship proceedings were given a test consisting of behavioral tasks specifically designed to be appropriate to the legal definition of grave disability. The natural groupings were: chronic organic brain syndrome, chronic schizophrenia, and other. We found that the grave disability of the organic brain syndrome patients was fairly predictable from their mental status examination, while the grave disability of the chronic schizophrenic patients was unpredictable from their mental status examination and required the application of the behavioral test for an appropriate determination of their ability to perform the functions specified in the law: The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act to provide for personal needs of food, clothing, and shelter. When the method or the proceedings were applied to patients of other diagnostic categories, they were found to be inappropriate. At this writing, our method of evaluation is being recognized and requested by public and legal agencies in our area. It has been used as evidence in court. The procedure is clear, relevant, and easily taught to new workers. The results, given in plain English and in essay form, are readily understood by physician, social worker, judge, and jury alike. We began our study with vexation, ambiguous criteria, and a chronic medical and legal problem; we conclude with a practical and relevant answer.

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglong Yu; Dong Zhu; Chaoying Ma; Hui Cao; Yaping Wang; Yanhao Xu; Wenying Zhang; Yueming Yan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20) during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA) was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further informa-tion about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  11. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. PMID:27129758

  12. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  13. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  15. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r(2)≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism.

  16. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r2≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism.

  17. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem. PMID:26824176

  18. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Juliana; Padial, André A

    2015-09-01

    One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability. PMID:26221987

  19. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Semo

    Full Text Available Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT, melanopsin knockout (Opn4(-/- and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/- Gnat1(-/- Cnga3(-/-. Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.

  20. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions. PMID:26386518

  1. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions.

  2. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  3. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  4. Identification of the Major Sex-Determining Region of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén; Millán, Adrián; Fernández, Carlos; Vilas, Román; Viñas, Ana; Sánchez, Laura; Felip, Alicia; Piferrer, Francesc; Ferreiro, Isabel; Cabaleiro, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in fish is a labile character in evolutionary terms. The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. This group is an interesting model for studying the evolution of the SD region and the gonadal differentiation pathway. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish of great commercial value, where a strong sexual dimorphism exists for growth rate. Following a QTL and marker association approach in five families and a natural population, we identified the main SD region of turbot at the proximal end of linkage group (LG) 5, close to the SmaUSC-E30 marker. The refined map of this region suggested that this marker would be 2.6 cM and 1.4 Mb from the putative SD gene. This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. Comparative genomics of LG5 marker sequences against five model species showed no similarity of this chromosome to the sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and fugu, but suggested a similarity to a sex-associated QTL from Oreochromis spp. The segregation analysis of the closest markers to the SD region demonstrated a ZW/ZZ model of sex determination in turbot. A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. PMID:19786621

  5. Identification of the major sex-determining region of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén; Millán, Adrián; Fernández, Carlos; Vilas, Román; Viñas, Ana; Sánchez, Laura; Felip, Alicia; Piferrer, Francesc; Ferreiro, Isabel; Cabaleiro, Santiago

    2009-12-01

    Sex determination in fish is a labile character in evolutionary terms. The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. This group is an interesting model for studying the evolution of the SD region and the gonadal differentiation pathway. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish of great commercial value, where a strong sexual dimorphism exists for growth rate. Following a QTL and marker association approach in five families and a natural population, we identified the main SD region of turbot at the proximal end of linkage group (LG) 5, close to the SmaUSC-E30 marker. The refined map of this region suggested that this marker would be 2.6 cM and 1.4 Mb from the putative SD gene. This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. Comparative genomics of LG5 marker sequences against five model species showed no similarity of this chromosome to the sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and fugu, but suggested a similarity to a sex-associated QTL from Oreochromis spp. The segregation analysis of the closest markers to the SD region demonstrated a ZW/ZZ model of sex determination in turbot. A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. PMID:19786621

  6. Determination and Correlation of Solubilities of Four Novel Benzothiazolium Ionic Liquids with 6PF- in Six Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志坚; 王小敏; 姚田; 宋航; 姚舜

    2014-01-01

    Four novel benzothiazolium ionic liquids with 6PF- ([C1Bth][PF6], [C4Bth][PF6], [C5Bth][PF6] and [C6Bth][PF6]) were synthesized, and the rang of their melting points were determined between 358.35 K-424.05 K. The relationship of their melting points and the length of the straight alkyl chain on cation reflected‘S’ type ten-dency. Then, the solubilities of the four ionic liquids in six lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol) were measured in the temperature rang of 253.15-383.15 K at at-mospheric pressure with static analytical method, respectively. It was found that [C6Bth][PF6] in all investigated ionic liquids had the largest solubility in six alcohols and the solubility of [C4Bth][PF6] in methanol was very sensi-tive for temperature in 313.15-333.15 K, which was so-called “temperature-sensitivity”. This feature is of great significance to their application of catalyzing reaction or extraction process, and makes the recovery and reuse of ionic liquids (ILs) become easier. Moreover, the experimental solubility data were correlated with the modified Apelblat equation andλh equation, respectively. It was found that the result of correlation using two divided tem-perature ranges was better than that of using the whole temperature range.

  7. A New Generalized Cassini Determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Martinjak, Ivica; Urbiha, Igor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend a notion of Cassini determinant to recently introduced hyperfibonacci sequences. We find $Q$-matrix for the $r$-th generation hyperfibonacci numbers and prove an explicit expression of the Cassini determinant for these sequences.

  8. Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Adults Revealed by Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarguine, Hanane; Hocar, Ouafa; Oussmane, Samia; Mouafik, Sara Batoul; Hamdaoui, Abderrachid; Hafiane, Hanan; Belbaraka, Rhizlane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with no remarkable medical or family history presented with papules and vesicles on an erythematous background involving the neck, sacrum, and folds (postauricular, axillary, inguinal, and under the breasts) (Figure 1). During the previous year, she was treated with local and systemic antifungals without improvement. Her history included a secondary amenorrhea, polydipsia, and polyuria (6 L/d) that started 2 years prior. Physical examination revealed chronic bilateral purulent otorrhea with thick eardrums. Histologic examination of skin biopsy revealed a highly suggestive appearance of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with immunohistochemistry (anti-PS100 and anti-CD1a), which were positive (Figure 2A and 2B). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a thickening of the pituitary stalk in relation to a location histiocytic (Figure 3). Bone gaps were objectified on two radiographic tibial diaphyseal. Results from computed tomography (CT) scan showed a magma coelio mesenteric, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:27319965

  9. Stable Chromosome Condensation Revealed by Chromosome Conformation Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagen, Kyle P; Hartl, Tom A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2015-11-01

    Chemical cross-linking and DNA sequencing have revealed regions of intra-chromosomal interaction, referred to as topologically associating domains (TADs), interspersed with regions of little or no interaction, in interphase nuclei. We find that TADs and the regions between them correspond with the bands and interbands of polytene chromosomes of Drosophila. We further establish the conservation of TADs between polytene and diploid cells of Drosophila. From direct measurements on light micrographs of polytene chromosomes, we then deduce the states of chromatin folding in the diploid cell nucleus. Two states of folding, fully extended fibers containing regulatory regions and promoters, and fibers condensed up to 10-fold containing coding regions of active genes, constitute the euchromatin of the nuclear interior. Chromatin fibers condensed up to 30-fold, containing coding regions of inactive genes, represent the heterochromatin of the nuclear periphery. A convergence of molecular analysis with direct observation thus reveals the architecture of interphase chromosomes. PMID:26544940

  10. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  11. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil.

  12. Systematic toxicological analysis revealing a rare case of captan ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottzein, Anne K; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-07-01

    This article presents a case of suicide by intoxication with various pharmaceuticals, particularly anticonvulsants, combined with the fungicide captan. A cause of death could not be ascertained at autopsy. However, systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including a screening via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for (semi) volatile organic compounds revealed results suggesting a possible cause of death. The effects of captan on the human organism, its metabolism, and distribution will be discussed. Macroscopically, the cause of death was unascertained. STA revealed clonazepam, citalopram, and its metabolites, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, lacosamide, clonazepam, captan, and its metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). For the first time, it was detected in human viscera. A quantification of THPI was performed to obtain distribution in the organs. The significance of a complete STA must be emphasized. The presence of THPI would have been missed without previous detection of captan. Consequently, this fatality would not have been investigated satisfactorily.

  13. [Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealing Behcet's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddouche, Ali; Ouaziz, Hicham; Zougaghi, Sinane; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Dergamoun, Hamza; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis (DDPVT)is a rare and little known urologic emergency. It requires an early etiological and symptomatic approach to preserve erectile function and prevent recurrences. This study reports a case of dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealed by spontaneous priapism that didn't resolve adequately and confirmed by penile Doppler ultrasound. After management of priapism and DDPVT, the etiological investigation revealed Behcet's disease whose diagnosis was based on the association of a major criteria, such as oral aphthous ulcers with 3 minor criteria such as: genital aphthous ulcers, ocular involvement, and a positive skin pathergy test within 24h. The patient underwent etiological treatment with good clinical evolution and preservation of erectile function. PMID:27583081

  14. Intracranial hemorrhage revealing pseudohypoparathyroidism as a cause of fahr syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Abhijit; Kar, Giridhari

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT(4), low FT(3), and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  15. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  16. PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF HARMONY AND DISHARMONY INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS SUBJECTS EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhnovskiy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The article based on our empirical study revealed partner zooming in and out personality characteristics of the educational process subjects, the expression of which is the determinant of harmony-disharmony between them.

  17. Science as a determinant of economic development in innovative transformations of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyina H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the transformation of innovation in technisation of science as a determinant of social development. The transition from the synthetic development of science, education and innovation to their integrative interaction.

  18. Science as a determinant of economic development in innovative transformations of society

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyina H.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reveals the transformation of innovation in technisation of science as a determinant of social development. The transition from the synthetic development of science, education and innovation to their integrative interaction.

  19. Star trackers for attitude determination

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tr...

  20. Epithelial structure revealed by chemical dissection and unembedded electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, E G; Capco, D G; Krochmalnic, G; Penman, S

    1984-01-01

    Cytoskeletal structures obtained after extraction of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell monolayers with Triton X-100 were examined in transmission electron micrographs of cell whole mounts and unembedded thick sections. The cytoskeleton, an ordered structure consisting of a peripheral plasma lamina, a complex network of filaments, and chromatin-containing nuclei, was revealed after extraction of intact cells with a nearly physiological buffer containing Triton X-100. The cytoskeleton w...

  1. Monofractal nature of air temperature signals reveals their climate variability

    CERN Document Server

    Deliège, Adrien

    2014-01-01

    We use the discrete "wavelet transform microscope" to show that the surface air temperature signals of weather stations selected in Europe are monofractal. This study reveals that the information obtained in this way are richer than previous works studying long range correlations in meteorological stations. The approach presented here allows to bind the H\\"older exponents with the climate variability. We also establish that such a link does not exist with methods previously carried out.

  2. Stated and revealed heterogeneous risk preferences in educational choice

    OpenAIRE

    Frank M. Fossen; Glocker, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Stated survey measures of risk preferences are increasingly being used in the literature, and they have been compared to revealed risk aversion primarily by means of experiments such as lottery choice tasks. In this paper, we investigate educational choice, which involves the comparison of risky future income paths and therefore depends on risk and time preferences. In contrast to experimental settings, educational choice is one of the most important economic decisions taken by individuals, a...

  3. Using metabarcoding to reveal and quantify plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Burrus, Monique; Holota, Hélène; Khimoun, Aurélie; Mariette, Jérome; Pellizzari, Charlène; Iribar, Amaia; Etienne, Roselyne; Taberlet, Pierre; Vidal, Marie; Winterton, Peter; Zinger, Lucie; Andalo, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Given the ongoing decline of both pollinators and plants, it is crucial to implement effective methods to describe complex pollination networks across time and space in a comprehensive and high-throughput way. Here we tested if metabarcoding may circumvent the limits of conventional methodologies in detecting and quantifying plant-pollinator interactions. Metabarcoding experiments on pollen DNA mixtures described a positive relationship between the amounts of DNA from focal species and the number of trnL and ITS1 sequences yielded. The study of pollen loads of insects captured in plant communities revealed that as compared to the observation of visits, metabarcoding revealed 2.5 times more plant species involved in plant-pollinator interactions. We further observed a tight positive relationship between the pollen-carrying capacities of insect taxa and the number of trnL and ITS1 sequences. The number of visits received per plant species also positively correlated to the number of their ITS1 and trnL sequences in insect pollen loads. By revealing interactions hard to observe otherwise, metabarcoding significantly enlarges the spatiotemporal observation window of pollination interactions. By providing new qualitative and quantitative information, metabarcoding holds great promise for investigating diverse facets of interactions and will provide a new perception of pollination networks as a whole. PMID:27255732

  4. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition

  5. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  6. Determination of Young's modulus by nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Dejun; Chung; Wo; Ong; LIU; Jianmin; HE; Jiawen

    2004-01-01

    A methodology for determining Young's modulus of materials by non-ideally sharp indentation has been developed. According to the principle of the same area-to-depth ratio, a non-ideally pyramidal indenter like a Berkovich one can be approximated by a non-ideally conical indenter with a spherical cap at the tip. By applying dimensional and finite element analysis to the non-ideally conical indentation, a set of approximate one-to-one relationships between the ratio of nominal hardness/reduced Young's modulus and the ratio of elastic work/total work, which correspond to different tip bluntness, have been revealed. The nominal hardness is defined as the maximum indentation load divided by the cross-section area of the conical indenter specified at the maximum indentation depth. As a consequence, Young's modulus can be determined from a nanoindentation test only using the maximum indentation load and depth, and the work done during loading and unloading processes. The new method for determining Young's modulus is referred to as "pure energy method". The validity of the method was examined by performing indentation tests on five materials. The experimental results and the standard reference values are in good agreement, indicating that the proposed pure energy method is a promising substitution for the most widely used analysis models at present.

  7. Alkenone Paleotemperature Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    of lipid analyses of Deep Sea Drilling Project sediments revealed that most sediments of Pleistocene through mid-Eocene age appeared to contain measurable quantities of alkenones and alkenoates ( Marlowe et al., 1984a, 1990; Brassell, 1993). Brassell et al. (1986a) provided the seminal study linking alkenone unsaturation to paleotemperature fluctuations in the Late Pleistocene. After noting that modern surface sediments differed in their unsaturation ratios depending on latitude, Brassell et al. (1986a, b) reconstructed alkenone unsaturation in conjunction with benthic and planktonic foraminiferal δ18O over the last 8×105 yr in a core from the subtropical North Atlantic. The unsaturation index declined during glacial periods, suggesting cooler surface ocean temperatures during ice age conditions. The authors further demonstrated that the alkenone index gave a continuous paleoclimatic curve, even in intervals barren of foraminifera due to dissolution. Prahl and Wakeham (1987) and Prahl et al. (1988) proposed the first quantitative calibration of alkenone unsaturation to growth temperature. Unsaturation parameters measured on a strain of E.huxleyi grown in the laboratory at known temperatures were compared to the unsaturation index on particulate material collected from the near-surface ocean in the northeast Pacific. Prahl and Wakeham (1987) showed that the laboratory calibration appeared to apply well to the field observations of unsaturation and the water temperature in which the alkenones apparently were synthesized. The calibration of alkenone unsaturation to temperatures expanded with the first systematic study of core-top sediments by Sikes et al. (1991). That study produced two important results: (i) the unsaturation index in recent sediments followed a relation to overlying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) very similar to the Prahl et al. (1988) calibration, and (ii) there appeared to be no ill effects on the unsaturation index over the time of core storage

  8. Origin of Enigmatic Galactic-center Filaments Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    were oriented perpendicular to the plane of the Galaxy, which would have aligned them with the Galaxy’s own magnetic field. "The problem with this hypothesis is that more recent images have revealed a population of weaker filaments oriented randomly in relation to the plane of the Galaxy," said Yusef-Zadeh. "This makes it difficult to explain the origin of the filaments by an organized Galactic magnetic field." In March and June of 2004, a team of astronomers using the GBT made images of the Galactic center at various wavelengths. The purpose of these surveys was to help identify radio features produced by hot gas (thermal emission) and those produced in magnetic fields (non-thermal emission). In general, thermal features radiate more strongly at shorter wavelengths and non-thermal at longer wavelengths. By comparing the GBT images with earlier VLA data taken of the same region, Yusef-Zadeh determined that a number of the non-thermal filaments seemed to connect to concentrated areas of thermal emission, which identify pockets of star formation. Galatic Center Combined radio image from the Very Large Array and Green Bank Telescope. The linear filaments near the top are some of the nonthermal radio filaments (NRFs) studied by the researchers. Other features, such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and the area surrounding our Galaxy's supermassive black hole (Sgr A) are shown. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Yusef-Zadeh, et.al. (Click on Image for Larger Version) "What this showed us is that two seemingly disparate processes, thermal and non-thermal radio emission, can be created by the very same phenomenon," said Yusef-Zadeh. "In this case, that phenomenon is pockets of starburst activity." Yusef-Zadeh notes that the exact mechanism for how the areas of starburst generate the magnetic fields is still being investigated. "There are many ideas about the mechanism that generates these filaments," added Yusef-Zadeh, "but one possibility is that they are produced by the collision of winds

  9. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Inga Viktorovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs. The value orientation, influencing the direction of human activity, determines a person's behavior and is a personality determinant in the manifestations of assertive behavior and assertiveness. Therefore, the significant psychological factors that contribute to the development of assertiveness are high motivation to success, positive attitudes, and such values as compassion, tolerance, mutual understanding, sympathy, concern that oppose to violence, domination, suppression and submission. The article also presents the results of an empirical study of motivational and value-semantic characteristics of the individual.

  10. The structure of BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus reveals a superfamily of bacterial periplasmic proteins with possible inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the BVU2987 gene product from B. vulgatus (UniProt A6L4L1) reveals that members of the new Pfam family PF11396 (domain of unknown function; DUF2874) are similar to β-lactamase inhibitor protein and YpmB. Proteins that contain the DUF2874 domain constitute a new Pfam family PF11396. Members of this family have predominantly been identified in microbes found in the human gut and oral cavity. The crystal structure of one member of this family, BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus, has been determined, revealing a β-lactamase inhibitor protein-like structure with a tandem repeat of domains. Sequence analysis and structural comparisons reveal that BVU2987 and other DUF2874 proteins are related to β-lactamase inhibitor protein, PepSY and SmpA-OmlA proteins and hence are likely to function as inhibitory proteins

  11. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail: r.colomaribera@utwente.nl; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  12. Crystal Structures of IAPP Amyloidogenic Segments Reveal a Novel Packing Motif of Out-of-Register Beta Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriaga, Angela B; Sangwan, Smriti; Macdonald, Ramsay; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David

    2016-07-01

    Structural studies of amyloidogenic segments by X-ray crystallography have revealed a novel packing motif, consisting of out-of-register β sheets, which may constitute one of the toxic species in aggregation related diseases. Here we sought to determine the presence of such a motif in islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), whose amyloidogenic properties are associated with type 2 diabetes. We determined four new crystal structures of segments within IAPP, all forming steric zippers. Most interestingly, one of the segments in the fibril core of IAPP forms an out-of-register steric zipper. Analysis of this structure reveals several commonalities with previously solved out-of-register fibrils. Our results provide additional evidence of out-of-register β sheets as a common structural motif in amyloid aggregates. PMID:26629790

  13. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  14. Lithuania: Fertility decline and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1990s, Lithuania has been undergoing significant transformations in family life and has experienced a precipitous decline in fertility. The determinants of the changes are diverse in character and are associated with socioeconomic transformations, economic difficulties faced by the post-Soviet society, inadequate social and family policies and changing value orientations and life styles. This article traces the fertility trends in Lithuania from the period and cohort perspective, providing adjusted TFR estimates that reveal the significance of the tempo effect on the recent decline in fertility. Furthermore, the main factors leading to the recently observed changes in family and fertility are identified and analysed. Finally, the characteristic features and necessary improvements of current Lithuanian family policy and its possible effects on individual behaviour and fertility trends are discussed.

  15. The Determinants of Rural Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak-Abasi A. Etim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the population of Nigeria is rural and agriculture isthe mainstay of the impoverished people’s livelihood. Thispaper estimated the determinants of rural poverty in Nigeria usingthe Tobit regression model. Through the multistage samplingtechnique, primary data were obtained from 150 rural farminghouseholds using a questionnaire. The Result of Tobit regressionanalysis shows that increase in farm income, farm size and amountof agricultural loan led to a decrease in the level of poverty by0.9953, 0.1220 and 0.4016 x 10-6 respectively. Membership ofthe cooperative by household heads, ownership of certain assets,access to extension services, and modern farming inputs, increasein educational attainment and male heads of households decreasedthe likelihood of being poor. Findings also reveal that except foraccess to loan that is elastic, the responsiveness of the probabilityand intensity of poverty to dependency ratio, farming experience,farm size and income are inelastic.

  16. Statistical analysis of protein kinase specificity determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreegipuu, Andres; Blom, Nikolaj; Brunak, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    The site and sequence specificity of protein kinase, as well as the role of the secondary structure and surface accessibility of the phosphorylation sites on substrate proteins, was statistically analyzed. The experimental data were collected from the literature and are available on the World Wide...... Web at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/databases/PhosphoBase/. The set of data involved 1008 phosphorylatable sites in 406 proteins, which were phosphorylated by 58 protein kinases. It was found that there exists almost absolute SER/Thr or Tyr specificity, with rare exceptions. The sequence specificity...... determinants were less strict and were located between positions -4 and +4 relative to the phosphorylation site. Secondary structure and surface accessibility predictions revealed that most of the phosphorylation sites were located on the surface of the target proteins....

  17. Synthesis of the Sterically Related Nickel Gallanediyl Complexes [Ni(CO)3(GaAr′)] (Ar′ = C6H3-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2) and [Ni(CO)3(GaL)] (L = HC[C(CH3)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]2): Thermal Decomposition of [Ni(CO)3(GaAr′)] to give the Cluster [Ni4(CO)7(GaAr′)3

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Oracio; Hoppe, Elke; Power, Philip P.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction of Ni(CO)4 in toluene at room temperature with one equivalent of GaAr′ (Ar′ = C6H3-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2) and GaL (L = HC[C(Me)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]2) formed the mono-substituted Ni(CO)3(GaAr′) (1) and Ni(CO)3(GaL) (3), respectively. Compound 1 decomposed under reduced pressure or upon heating in toluene to give the new cluster species Ni4(CO)7(GaAr′)3 (2). Reaction of 3 with a second equivalent of GaL in toluene at 95 °C afforded the disubstituted complex Ni(CO)2(GaL)2 (4). All the compo...

  18. Transcriptome Reveals Cathepsin K in Periodontal Ligament Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ozaki, N; Tsushima, K; Yamaba, S; Fujihara, C; Awata, T; Sakashita, H; Kajikawa, T; Kitagaki, J; Yamashita, M; Yanagita, M; Murakami, S

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal ligaments (PDLs) play an important role in remodeling the alveolar bond and cementum. Characterization of the periodontal tissue transcriptome remains incomplete, and an improved understanding of PDL features could aid in developing new regenerative therapies. Here, we aimed to generate and analyze a large human PDL transcriptome. We obtained PDLs from orthodontic treatment patients, isolated the RNA, and used a vector-capping method to make a complementary DNA library from >20,000 clones. Our results revealed that 58% of the sequences were full length. Furthermore, our analysis showed that genes expressed at the highest frequencies included those for collagen type I, collagen type III, and proteases. We also found 5 genes whose expressions have not been previously reported in human PDL. To access which of the highly expressed genes might be important for PDL cell differentiation, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure their expression in differentiating cells. Among the genes tested, the cysteine protease cathepsin K had the highest upregulation, so we measured its relative expression in several tissues, as well as in osteoclasts, which are known to express high levels of cathepsin K. Our results revealed that PDL cells express cathepsin K at similar levels as osteoclasts, which are both expressed at higher levels than those of the other tissues tested. We also measured cathepsin K protein expression and enzyme activity during cell differentiation and found that both increased during this process. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that cathepsin K localizes to the interior of lysosomes. Last, we examined the effect of inhibiting cathepsin K during cell differentiation and found that cathepsin K inhibition stimulated calcified nodule formation and increased the levels of collagen type I and osteocalcin gene expression. Based on these results, cathepsin K seems to regulate collagen fiber accumulation during human PDL cell

  19. Global Geometric Morphometric Analyses of the Human Pelvis Reveal Substantial Neutral Population History Effects, Even across Sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Betti; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel; Andrea Manica; Lycett, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent applications of population genetic models to human craniodental traits have revealed a strong neutral component to patterns of global variation. However, little work has been undertaken to determine whether neutral processes might also be influencing the postcranium, perhaps due to substantial evidence for selection and plastic environmental responses in these regions. Recent work has provided evidence for neutral effects in the pelvis, but has been limited in regard to shape data (sma...

  20. Cell-to-Cell Diversity in a Synchronized Chlamydomonas Culture As Revealed by Single-Cell Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Garz, Andreas; Sandmann, Michael; Rading, Michael; Ramm, Sascha; Menzel, Ralf; Steup, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In a synchronized photoautotrophic culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cell size, cell number, and the averaged starch content were determined throughout the light-dark cycle. For single-cell analyses, the relative cellular starch was quantified by measuring the second harmonic generation (SHG). In destained cells, amylopectin essentially represents the only biophotonic structure. As revealed by various validation procedures, SHG signal intensities are a reliable relative measure of the cel...